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Sample records for cadmium chloride administration

  1. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  2. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  3. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  5. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  6. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  7. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  8. Effect of cadmium chloride on sex-steroidogenesis in the pigeon, Columba livia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Mukherji, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of cadmium chloride per 100 g body weight was followed by a significant decrease in the level of progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estriol in the gonadal tissues two days after treatment. In the adrenals cadmium chloride was not so effective as in the gonads. The concentration of sex-steroids and cholesterol returned to normal within ten days after treatment. It is supposed that cadmium chloride temporarily inhibits the 3-..beta..dehydrogenase system.

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E on Electrocardiogram of Rabbits Exposed to Cadmium Chloride

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    Baraa Najim Al-Okaily

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study the effect of cadmium as an oxidant agent on electrocardiogram(ECG component and the possible preventive role of vitamin E on deleterious effects of cadmium in adult male rabbits. Twenty adult male rabbits were divided randomly into 4 equal groups (5 animals /group and treated daily for 84 days. The first group were received ordinary tap water and serve as control (C; the second group (T1 received ad libitum supply of drinking water containing (50ppb cadmium chloride; the third group T2 received (50ppb of cadmium chloride in drinking water, in addition to intubation of vitamin E (40mg/Kg B.W. orally, while the fourth group (T3 were intubated daily with 40mg/Kg B.W of vitamin E. Fasting blood samples were collected at 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 days of the experiment to determine serum calcium concentration . The ECG was also recorded in all groups at the same interval of the experiment. The results revealed that administration of 50 ppb CdCl2 in drinking water (T1 group for 84 days caused a significant decrease(p0.05 differences in this parameter as compared to control and other groups. Analysis of ECG in Cadmium treated group (T1 showed significant (p0.05 differences in ECG waves analysis. In conclusion, Cadmium effect on electrical conduction of heart was represented by abnormality in some of ECG component as well as the protective role of vitamin E as antioxidant in the cardiovascular system was also confirmed.

  10. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  11. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  12. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  13. Interaction of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, Potassium Dichromate and Cadmium Chloride in Artemia franciscana Biotest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beňová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cadmium chloride (at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg l-1 and potassium dichromate (at a concentration of 50 mg l-1 along with the effect of gamma radiation 60Co (at a dose of 10 and 50 Gy on lethality to Artemia franciscana was investigated. Four different interactions were studied, namely, those of potassium dichromate and gamma radiation, cadmium chloride and gamma radiation, and combinations of potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride in interaction with gamma radiation. A significant (α = 0.05 decrease was observed in lethality due to exposure to radiation (10 Gy in comparison with action of only potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride or their combination without exposure to gamma rays. These results support the theory of hormesis.

  14. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Gomes, Joselaine C.S.; Romero, Carmen; Esteso, Miguel A.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd 2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm −3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGH AQUATIC PLANTS FROM ANGARA RIVER

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    Kirichenko K.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the fatty acid content in Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. has been carried out during 24 hours of the treatment with 0,05 M cadmium chloride. Changes in a fatty acids composition in response to toxic influence have been shown. The differences in change dynamics of the fatty acids content under the treatment with cadmium chloride have been detected in investigated species.

  16. Determination of small amounts of zinc in cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Kamburova, M.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction photometric method for determining small amounts of zinc in metallic cadmium with iodonitrotetrazolium chloride was suggested. This method is specific under the stipulated conditions. The mean standard deviation is 1.43%x0.01% zinc can be determined in cadmium. (author)

  17. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

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    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  18. Optical, thermal and magnetic studies of pure and cobalt chloride doped L-alanine cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benila, B.S., E-mail: benjane.benila@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India); Bright, K.C. [Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kollam 691 306 (India); Delphine, S. Mary [Department of Physics, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 004 (India); Shabu, R. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Nagercoil 629 003 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Single crystals of L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC) and cobalt chloride (Co{sup 2+}) doped LACC have been grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations such as powder XRD, SXRD, FTIR, UV–vis, EDAX, TG/DTA, VSM, Dielectric and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) measurements. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. EDAX analysis confirms the presence of Co{sup 2+} ion in the host material. The functional group and optical behavior of the crystals were identified from FTIR and UV-vis spectrum analysis. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss have been studied. The thermal stability of the compound was found out using TGA/DTA analysis. Second Harmonic Generation of the samples was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Magnetic properties of the crystals studied by VSM were also reported. The encouraging results show that the cobalt chloride doped LACC crystals have greater potential applications in optical devices. - Graphical abstract: Fig (a) and (b) shows the transparent, stable single crystals of pure and doped crystals were obtained using slow evaporation technique. The sizes of pure and doped crystals are 20×9×2 mm{sup 3} and 18×15×1 mm{sup 3} respectively. Fig (c) is the Hysteresis loop traced at room temperature for the pure and doped crystals explains the soft ferromagnetic nature of the doped crystal. The provision for changing the value of coercivity can be used for security, switching and sensing applications. - Highlights: • Defect free crystals of pure and Co{sup 2+} ion doped L-alanine cadmium chloride were grown. • The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of pure crystals were enhanced by adding Co{sup 2+} ion. • High optical transmittance was obtained in the entire visible and IR region. • Addition of dopant to the pure crystal altered the coercivity. • Low dielectric

  19. Effects of cadmium chloride on oxygen consumption and gill morphology of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Gupta, Abhik

    2012-11-01

    Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l(-1)) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride after 7,14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr(1) 100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr(1)100 g(-1) of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l(-1) of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

  20. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  1. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  2. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of dithiocarbamates on intestinal absorption and organ distribution of cadmium chloride in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.; Jones, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier publications have demonstrated that diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) antagonizes the acute toxicity of injected CdCl 2 but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered CdCl 2 , most likely due to the high lipophilicity of DDC and the complex formed with the Cd ++ ion. This study demonstrates that the hydrophilic dithiocarbamates dihydroxyethyldithiocarbamate (DHE-DTC) and N-methyl-N-glucamyl dithiocarbamate (NMG-DTC) also enhance the intestinal absorption of orally administered CdCl 2 in mice, although less efficiently than DDC. After oral as well as intraperitoneal administration 15 min. after a single oral dose of CdCl 2 the dithiocarbamates tested enhanced the intestinal cadmium uptake with a relative efficiency, DDC>DHE-DTC>NMG-DTC, which correlated to the lipophilicity of both the dithiocarbamates and the complexes formed with the Cd ++ ion. Intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, compared to the distribution of CdCl 2 administered alone. However, the only noticeable effect of administration of DHE-DTC and NMG-DTC was decreased gastrointestinal deposition of cadmium, irrespective of the administration route of the dithiocarbamates. Earlier studies have demonstrated that DDC and various other dithiocarbamates are capable of mobilizing intracellular cadmium deposits, presumably due to some lipophilicity. This study demonstrates that these dithiocarbamates may also enchance the intestinal absorption of cadmium. (author)

  4. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  5. Endomorphin 1 effectively protects cadmium chloride-induced hepatic damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Pin; Chen Fuxin; Ma Guofen; Feng Yun; Zhao Qianyu; Wang Rui

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of endomorphin 1 (EM1), an endogenous μ-opioid receptor agonist, has been demonstrated by in vivo assays. The present study reports the effect of EM1 on hepatic damage induced by cadmium chloride (Cd(II)) in adult male mouse. Mouse were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) a single dose of Cd(II) (1 mg/kg body weight per day) and the animals were co-administrated with a dose of EM1 (50 μM/kg body weight per day) for 6 days. Since hepatic damage induced by Cd(II) is related to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated. The parameter indicating tissue damage such as liver histopathology was also determined. In addition, the concentrations of Cd and zinc (Zn) in the liver were analyzed. The intoxication of Cd(II) lead to the enhanced production of LPO and PCO, treatment with EM1 can effectively ameliorate the increase of LPO and PCO compared to the Cd(II) group. The increased activities of CAT, SOD and the elevated GSH induced by Cd(II) may relate to an adaptive-response to the oxidative damage, the effect of EM1 can restore the elevated antioxidant defense. Our results suggested that the structure features and the ability of chelating metal of EM1 may play a major role in the antioxidant effect of EM1 in vivo and opioid receptors may be involved in the protection of hepatic damage induced by Cd(II)

  6. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  7. Effect of alkaline earth metal and magnesium cations on cadmium extraction from chloride solutions by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    At 298 K thermodynamic constants of cadmium (2) extraction from chloride solutions of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium by tributyl phosphate are calculated. It is established, that logarithm of the thermodynamic extraction constant is in a linear dependence from the change in the cation hydration enthalpy in agqueous solution. It is shown, that activity coefficient of neutral complex CdVCl 2 differs from one, and it is the higher the more stable the complex is in alkaline earth metal chloride solutions

  8. Comparison of the sensitivity of different toxicological endpoints in Caco-2 cells after cadmium chloride treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boveri, M.; Pazos, P.; Gennari, A.; Casado, J.; Hartung, T.; Prieto, P. [ECVAM, Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy)

    2004-04-01

    The human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 is a widely used in vitro model of the intestinal barrier. Cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) is a highly toxic metal compound, ubiquitous in the biosphere, able to enter the food chain and to reach the intestinal epithelium, causing structural and functional damages. The aim of this work was to characterise cadmium toxicity in Caco-2 cells and, in particular, to compare the sensitivity of different endpoints revealing damage both on the epithelial barrier and at the cellular or molecular level. After 24-h exposure of the cells to CdCl{sub 2}, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage showed cadmium-induced cell toxicity, significant from 25 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} and above, and analysis of different cell death pathways indicated the presence of necrosis after treatment with 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the molecular level, we observed an increase in the protective protein heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), starting at 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the barrier level, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decreased while paracellular permeability (PCP) significantly increased after the treatment, showing an EC{sub 50} of 6 and 16 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, and indicating the loss of barrier integrity. In conclusion, our data reveal that CdCl{sub 2} toxicity in Caco-2 cells can be detected at the barrier level at very low concentrations; also, HSP70 was shown to be a sensitive marker for detecting in vitro cadmium-induced toxicity. (orig.)

  9. Effect of chloride in soil solution on the plant availability of biosolid-borne cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weggler, Karin; McLaughlin, Michael J; Graham, Robin D

    2004-01-01

    Increasing chloride (Cl) concentration in soil solution has been shown to increase cadmium (Cd) concentration in soil solution and Cd uptake by plants, when grown in phosphate fertilizer- or biosolid-amended soils. However, previous experiments did not distinguish between the effect of Cl on biosolid-borne Cd compared with soil-borne Cd inherited from previous fertilizer history. A factorial pot experiment was conducted with biosolid application rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 g biosolids kg(-1) and Cl concentration in soil solution ranging from 1 to 160 mM Cl. The Cd uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Halberd) was measured and major cations and anions in soil solution were determined. Cadmium speciation in soil solution was calculated using GEOCHEM-PC. The Cd concentration in plant shoots and soil solution increased with biosolid application rates up to 40 g kg(-1), but decreased slightly in the 80 g kg(-1) biosolid treatment. Across biosolid application rates, the Cd concentration in soil solution and plant shoots was positively correlated with the Cl concentration in soil solution. This suggests that biosolid-borne Cd is also mobilized by chloride ligands in soil solution. The soil solution CdCl+ activity correlated best with the Cd uptake of plants, although little of the variation in plant Cd concentrations was explained by activity of CdCl+ in higher sludge treatments. It was concluded that chlorocomplexation of Cd increased the phytoavailability of biosolid-borne Cd to a similar degree as soil (fertilizer) Cd. There was a nonlinear increase in plant uptake and solubility of Cd in biosolid-amended soils, with highest plant Cd found at the 40 g kg(-1) rate of biosolid application, and higher rates (80 g kg(-1)) producing lower plant Cd uptake and lower Cd solubility in soil. This is postulated to be a result of Cd retention by CaCO3 formed as a result of the high alkalinity induced by biosolid application.

  10. Structure of cadmium chloride complex with thiosemicarbazide Cd(NH2CSNHNH2)Cl2xH2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.; Chuklanova, E.B.; Murzubraimov, B.; Toktomamatov, A.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction investigation of crystal and molecular structures of cadmium chloride complex with thiosemicarbaride is performed. Crystals are monoclinic with unit cell parameters: a=10.121(2), b=13.927(2), c=6.894(1) A, β=124.13(1) deg, Z=4, Cc sp. gr. The crystal structure consists of [Cd(NH 2 CSNHxNH 2 )Cl 2 ]n polymer chains and crystallization water molecules located between these chains. The cadmium coordination number equals 6, coordination polyhedron - tetragonal bipyramid

  11. Effects of oral, subchronic cadmium administration on fertility prenatal and postnatal progeny development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, B.; Stetkiewicz, I.; Sitarek, K.; Szymczak, W.

    1983-12-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered by gavage to female rats 5 days a week for 5 weeks, then during mating and gestation periods at doses of 0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg Cd/kg/day. Treatment with cadmium neither affected the survival and fertility of females, nor produced overt fetotoxic effects. Fetal cadmium concentration was not related to the level of exposure. Litter size, body weight gain and viability of offspring during 2 months after parturition were similar in all groups. The exploratory locomotor activity of 2-month-old males and females born to rats given 0.4 and 4 mg Cd/kg/day was significantly reduced. The progeny of cadmium-treated females showed decreased performance in the rotarod test. In general, the degree of behavioral impairment was dose-related.

  12. TOXICOPATHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE ON THE ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY ORGAN OF THE AIR-BREATHING CATFISH HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Susithra, N. Jothivel, P. Jayakumar, V. I. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sublethal cadmium chloride (0.3 ppm toxicity induced stress related morphopathological alterations in the accessory respiratory organ of the air-breathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes; Heteropneustidae have been investigated at various intervals of exposure. The histopathological manifestation of the cadmium toxicity includes bulging of the hyperemic secondary lamellae into the lumen of the accessory respiratory organ, necrosis and sloughing of the respiratory epithelium leading to haemorrhage and fusion of SL at various stages of the exposure. Periodic alterations in the densities of epithelial cells and mucous cells along with the development of non-tissue spaces have also been noticed at different exposure periods leading to alterations in the thickness of the respiratory epithelia. The heavy metal salt exposure has affected the mucogenic activity of the respiratory epithelium not only quantitatively but qualitatively also, indicating the probable ameliorative role fish mucus in cadmium toxicity.

  13. Assessment of the in vivo genotoxicity of cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol as coded test chemicals using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assays, we examined cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol under blind conditions as coded chemicals in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after 3 days of administration. Cadmium chloride showed equivocal responses in the liver and stomach, supporting previous reports of its poor mutagenic potential and non-carcinogenic effects in these organs. Treatment with chloroform, which is a non-genotoxic carcinogen, did not induce DNA damage in the liver or stomach. Some histopathological changes, such as necrosis and degeneration, were observed in the liver; however, they did not affect the comet assay results. D,L-Menthol, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, did not induce liver or stomach DNA damage. These results indicate that the comet assay can reflect genotoxic properties under blind conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nucleation and growth phenomena of cadmium at tungsten in basic aluminum chloride/1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.M.; Wilkes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a study to investigate the mechanism of the electrodeposition of cadmium in a basic melt using cyclic voltammetric chronoamperometric and chronopotention metric methods at tungsten electrode. In addition, proton nuclear magnetic resonance data are presented

  15. Mechanism of linear and nonlinear optical properties of bis-thiourea cadmium chloride single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.T.; Luo, S.J.; Yi, L.; Laref, A.

    2013-01-01

    Within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), a calculation of the electronic structure of a semiorganic crystal named bis-thiourea cadmium chloride (BTCC) was performed, then the linear and nonlinear optical responses were obtained over a wide energy range, using a scissor energy of 1.30 eV, and our results are in good agreement with the experiments. The accurate full-potential projected augmented wave (FP-PAW) method was used. The prominent spectrum of the second harmonic generation (SHG) was successfully correlated with the dielectric function in terms of single- and double-photon resonances. Both the virtual electron (VE) and virtual hole (VH) processes make contributions to the SHG of BTCC crystal, and the VH process is enhanced by the Cd-centered tetrahedron. The SHG effect of the semiorganic material is attributed to the charge transfer (CT). The CT model for the semiorganic crystal is named as “M-Π O ⋯X”. “M” is a metal atom providing electrons, “Π O ” is a π-conjugated covalent of an organic molecule, and “X” is a high electronegativity atom. The CT across the BTCC molecule is along a π-electron conjugation covalence bond, and the delocalized electrons of sulfur provide an excellent bridge. The strong “pull” effect for the CT is due to the intramolecular hydrogen bonds provided by the chlorine with the high electron affinity.

  16. Curcumin administration suppress acetylcholinesterase gene expression in cadmium treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Oboh, Ganiyu; Fadaka, Adewale Oluwaseun; Olatunji, Babawale Peter; Akomolafe, Seun

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes have been reported to exert anticholinesterase potential with limited information on how they regulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA gene expression level in cadmium (Cd)-treated rats. Furthermore, in vitro effect of different concentrations of curcumin (1-5μg/mL) on rat cerebral cortex AChE activity was assessed. Animals were divided into six groups (n=6): group 1 serve as control (without Cd) and receive saline/vehicle, group 2 receive saline plus curcumin at 25mg/kg, group 3 receive saline plus curcumin 50mg/kg, group 4 receive Cd plus vehicle, group 5 receive Cd plus curcumin at 25mg/kg and group 6 receive Cd plus curcumin at 50mg/kg. Rats received Cd (2.5mg/kg) and curcumin (25 and 50mg/kg, respectively) by oral gavage for 7days. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and AChE expression was carried out by a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We observed that acute administration of Cd increased acetylcholinesterase activity and in addition caused a significant (Pcurcumin inhibited AChE activity and alters AChE mRNA levels when compared to Cd-treated group. In addition, curcumin inhibits rat cerebral cortex AChE activity in vitro. In conclusion, curcumin exhibit anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and suppressed AChE mRNA gene expression level in Cd exposed rats, thus providing some biochemical and molecular evidence on the therapeutic effect of this turmeric-derived compound in treating neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  18. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  19. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μg L −1 of CdCl 2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μg L −1 as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μg L −1 , which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  20. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  1. Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jiao; Hu, Peng-jie; Zhao, Jie; Dong, Chang-xun

    2015-04-01

    Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44% of Cd and 23% of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32% by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal-chloride and metal-citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal-chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe-Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

  2. Effects of Spirulina platensis on DNA damage and chromosomal aberration against cadmium chloride-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-04-01

    Todays, bioactive compounds extracted from Spirulina platensis have been intensively studied for their therapeutical values. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of S. platensis extract on DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by cadmium in rats. Four groups of male albino rats (n = 7 rats) were used. The first group served as a control group and received distilled water. The second group was exposed intraperitoneally to cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) (3.5 mg/kg body weight dissolved in 2 ml distilled water). The third group included the rats that were orally treated with S. platensis extract (1 g/kg dissolved in 5 ml distilled water, every other day for 30 days). The fourth group included the rats that were intraperitoneally and orally exposed to cadmium chloride and S. platensis, respectively. The experiment in all groups was extended for 60 days. The results of cadmium-mediated toxicity revealed significant genetic effects (DNA fragmentation, deletion or disappearance of some base pairs of DNA, and appearance of few base pairs according to ISSR-PCR analysis). Moreover, chromosomes showed structural aberrations such as reduction of chromosomal number, chromosomal ring, chromatid deletions, chromosomal fragmentations, and dicentric chromosomes. Surprisingly, S. platensis extract plus CdCl 2 -treated group showed less genetic effects compared with CdCl 2 alone. Further, S. platensis extract upon CdCl 2 toxicity was associated with less chromosomal aberration number and nearly normal appearance of DNA fragments as indicated by the bone marrow and ISSR-PCR analysis, respectively. In conclusion, the present novel study showed that co-treatment with S. platensis extract could reduce the genotoxic effects of CdCl 2 in rats.

  3. Potentiometric study of cadmium (2) complexing with chloride-ions in aqueous solutions of Mg(ClO/sub 4/, Cl)/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokuev, V A; Belousov, E A

    1985-05-01

    By the method of potentiometric titration using cadmium amalgam electrode at ionic forces 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.5; 6.0; 7.5 and 9.0 of (Mg(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ general constants of cadmium chloride compleses stability are determined. By the Vasiliev extrapolation equation thermodynamic constants of CdClsub(n)sup(2-n) ion formation, where n=1-3 are evaluated.

  4. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  5. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  6. Low Doses of Cadmium Chloride and Methallothionein-1-Bound Cadmium Display Different Accumulation Kinetics and Induce Different Genes in Cells of the Human Nephron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Cucu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the renal tubular handling of inorganic cadmium (Cd2+ by exposing primary human tubular cell cultures to physiologically relevant doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2. Furthermore, the cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was compared to that of metallothionein-1-bound Cd (Cd7MT-1. Finally, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the accumulation of Cd (both Cd2+ and Cd7MT-1 in renal cells on the expression of genes relevant to nephrotoxic processes. Methods: Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. mRNA expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results: Cd2+ accumulated into human tubular cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Furthermore, cellular accumulation of Cd2+ was different from the cellular accumulation of Cd7MT-1, indicative for different uptake routes. Finally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding the anti-oxidative proteins metallothionein-1 (MT-1 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 as well as the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax were upregulated by CdCl2 and not by Cd7MT1. Conclusion: In the presence of physiologically relevant Cd concentrations, tubular accumulation of the element in its inorganic form is different from that of Cd7MT-1. Furthermore, the tubular accumulation of inorganic Cd induces mRNA expression of genes of which the protein products may play a role in Cd-associated renal toxicity.

  7. The assessment of maize plants (Zea mays L.) adaptation to the cadmium chloride influence using the radiocapacity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pchelovs'ka, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The radiocapacity factor concentration dependence and dependencies under adaptive and stress influences to plants was obtained. The dependence of adaptation on the time interval between the test and adapting concentrations of cadmium chloride was revealed. And the effect of sensibilization on the growth and absorbing characteristics of plants of salt CdCl 2 when the test concentration 25 μM/L entered at 4 hours after adaptive concentrations (1μM/L and 25μM/L) application was observed. It is shown that the radiocapacity factor is adequate, sensitive and efficient indicator manifesting the response of plants to stress influence in the conditions of adaptive schemes of influence using

  8. EPR of Cu(II) in sarcosine cadmium chloride: probe into dopant site - symmetry and copper-sarcosine interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pathinettam-Padiyan, D; Murugesan, R

    2000-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cu(II) doped sarcosine cadmium chloride single crystals have been investigated at room temperature. Experimental results reveal that the Cu(II) ion enters the lattice interstitially. The observed superhyperfine lines indicate the superposition of two sets of quintet structure with interaction of nitrogen atoms and the two isotopes of copper. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated by Schonland method and the electric field symmetry around the copper ion is rhombic. An admixture of d sub z sup 2 orbital with the d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 ground state is observed. Evaluation of MO coefficients reveals that the in-plane interaction between copper and nitrogen is strong in this lattice.

  9. Growth, optical, electrical and photoconductivity studies of a novel nonlinear optical single crystal: Mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. M. Ravi; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.; Anbarasi, A.

    2015-02-01

    SCN- ligand based organometallic non-linear optical mercury cadmium chloride thiocyanate (MCCTC) crystals are grown from water plus methanol mixed solvent by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which reveals that the MCCTC belongs to rhombohedral system with R3c space group. MCCTC exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 17 times more than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss measurements of the sample have been carried out for different frequencies (100 Hz to 5 MHz) and, temperatures (308 to 388 K) and the results are discussed. Photoconductivity study confirms that the title compound possesses negative photoconducting nature. The surface morphology of MCCTC was also investigated

  10. The effect of different acute concentrations of cadmium chloride on the frequency of micronuclei in AO rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bubujuk Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is highly toxic heavy metal which may cause severe biological effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, an evaluation of the acute Cd ability to trigger micronuclei (MNi formation was carried out on 3-monthold male and female Albino Oxford (AO rats using micronucleus (MN test. Experimental animals were treated intraperitoneally with three different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg CdCl2 per kg of body weight. Control animals received equal volume of sterile phosphate buffered saline. The results showed that 2 mg CdCl2 per kg b.w. concentration caused a highly statistically significant (P < 0.001 increase in MNi formation in the bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs, exerting a clear-cut concentration-dependent effect. Lower concentrations of CdCl2 used (0.5 and 1 mg/kg b.w. also caused MNi formation, but with lower statistical significance. Sex differences in MNi production in bone marrow PCEs after acute exposure to different experimental concentrations of CdCl2 were not observed in our study. Our results indicate the ability of CdCl2 to exerts genotoxic effects in bone marrow of AO rats, and complement previous data on the genotoxicity of this important environmental contaminant, burdening the body from different sources - major being industrial exposure, food and cigarette smoking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  11. Interaction of co-insult treatments wth cadmium chloride and gamma irradiation on lethality and blood indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to gain insight into sensitivities of vital organs systems after treatments with cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), gamma ( 60 Co) radiation, and combined CdCl 2 -gamma radiation; (2) to determine physiological and cellular/molecular changes after these same treatments; and (3) to develop a summary of biochemical/hematological indicators for each insult individually, as well as for the co-insult treatment. Three lethality studies, Acute CdCl 2 , Chronic CdCl 2 , and Acute Radiation, wwere used to determine sublethal doses for the fourth study (Co-insult), which utilized various combinations of CdCl 2 and gamma radiation and from which the hematological and biochemical data were derived. Radiation groups exhibited statistically significant decreases in the total number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and polyneutrophils. Significant increases were seen in serum iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase, and triglycerides. Cadmium groups had increased total numbers of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT). Decreases were seen in lymphocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total red blood cell counts, and total protein. When co-insult treatments were used, significant decreases were seen in the total number of leukocytes, polyneutrophils, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, total red blood cells, and serum iron

  12. Role of L-carnitine in Ameliorating the Cadmium Chloride and/or Irradiation-Induced Testicular Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress in chronic administration of CdCl2 and/or irradiation toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with L-carnitine was investigated. Adult male rats were administered with CdCl2 (3 mg/kg S.C. three times a week for three weeks) and /or irradiated at (2 Gy) dose level of gamma radiation. CdCl2 administration and/or irradiation induced cellular damage was indicated by significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LDH-X), glutathione level (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (GSH-PX) as well as significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) in testicular tissues. Administration of L-carnitine (200 mg/kg I.P.) 1 hr before CdCl2 and/or irradiation, ameliorated the decrease in LDH-X, GSH and GSH-PX and the increase in MDA induced by CdCl2 and/or irradiation indicating the prophylactic action of L-carnitine on CdCl2 and /or irradiation toxicity. Various studies have indicated that cadmium is a potent heavy metal carcinogen in experimental animals (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al..,1988) and is possibly carcinogenic in human populations exposed either occupationally or environmentally (Bako et al., 1982). Target sites for cadmium carcinogenesis in rodents have been shown to include testes after parenteral exposure (Poirier et al., 1983 and Waalkes et al., 1988) and lung after chronic inhalation (Takenaka et al., 1983)

  13. Effect of quercetin on cadmium chloride-induced impairments in sexual behaviour and steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujah, G A; Nna, V U; Agah, M I; Omue, L O; Leku, C B; Osim, E E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in male rats, mainly through oxidative stress. This study examined its effect on sexual behaviour, as one of the mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction, as well as the possible ameliorative effect of quercetin (QE) on same. Thirty male Wistar rats (10 weeks old), weighing 270-300 g, were used for this study. They were either orally administered 2% DMSO, CdCl 2 (5 mg/kg b.w.), QE (20 mg/kg b.w.) or CdCl 2 +QE, once daily for 4 weeks, before sexual behavioural studies. The 5th group received CdCl 2 for 4 weeks and allowed 4-week recovery period, before sexual behavioural test. Rats were sacrificed after sexual behavioural studies. The blood, testis and penis were collected for biochemical assays. Cadmium increased mount, intromission and ejaculatory latencies, but reduced their frequencies, compared to control. Serum nitric oxide increased, while penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced in the CdCl 2 -exposed rats, compared to control. CdCl 2 increased testicular cholesterol, but reduced 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD activities, and testosterone concentration. QE better attenuated these negative changes compared to withdrawal of CdCl 2 treatment. In conclusion, CdCl 2 suppressed steroidogenesis, penile erection and sexual behaviour, with poor reversal following withdrawal, while QE attenuated these effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Extraction and separation of zinc and cadmium chlorides by TOPO from mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Mousa, S.; Altakrory, A.; Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Alian, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of water-miscible alcohols and acetone on the extraction and separation of Cd and Zn chlorides by TOPO was systematically investigated. The maximum extraction of Zn chloride with 0.1 M TOPO decreases in the order: acetone> methanol> ethanol> 2-propanol> 2-butanol. For alcohols, the sequence of decreasing extractability is thus parallel to the order of their dielectric constants. This can be explained by the increase of HCl extraction by TOPO in the same direction. The presence of additives in the polar phase prevents the formation of a bulky white precipitate encountered during extraction of Zn Cl 2 from pure aqueous solutions. A decrease of Cd chloride extraction was generally noticed in presence of additives; this is more noticeable for the longer chain alcohols. The highest separation factor (E) for Zn Cl 2 and Cd Cl 2 in 0.4 M HCl is obtained from 30% methanol (13.8 compared to about 3.8 in absence of methanol) and from 10-20% acetone where it reaches 30

  15. The protective effect of omega-3 oil against the hepatotoxicity of cadmium chloride in adult and weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Treefa F.; Aziz, Falah M.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of omega-3 oil against the toxic effect of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on the liver of male, dams and weanling rats from the histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical points of view. Thirty adult male and thirty adult female rats (dams) were used in the present work, divided randomly into five groups, six rats for each group and ten weanling male rats were chosen from each dam group. First group was considered as control group and given only standard diet and drinking water, second group was given (40 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The third group was given (60 mg/ L) of CdCl2 in drinking water. The fourth group was given (40 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet) and the fifth group was given (60 mg/L) of CdCl2 in drinking water plus omega-3 oil (4 gm/ kg diet). All the above groups were left for 30 days for males and 42 days for the females) i.e. at the 21th day of the weanling rats birth). Both doses of CdCl2 have caused a lot of histological and ultrastructural alterations in the liver including high degeneration of hepatocytes. Electron microscope images showed thickening of mitochondrial membrane, variation in the size and shape of the mitochondria of the above cells and deposition of Cd particles in the lining of blood sinusoids. The hepatocytes of the weanling rats showed more ultrastructural changes especially the accumulation of lipid droplets. The immunohistochemical images of the mother liver showed a positive P53 reaction in the cells of the liver of CdCl2 treated rats especially those around the portal area. These reactions disappeared in the omega-3 plus CdCl2 groups. The present results suggested a protective role of omega-3 against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Effects of cadmium chloride as inhibitor on stability and kinetics of immobilized Lactoperoxidase(LPO on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles versus free LPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Babadaie Samani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Enzyme immobilization via nanoparticles is perfectly compatible against the other chemical or biological approximate to improve enzyme functions and stability. In this study lactoperoxidase was immobilized onto silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles to improve enzyme properties in the presence of cadmium chloride as an inhibitor. Materials and Methods:  The process consists of the following steps: (1 preparing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method, (2 coating NP with silica (SiO2 by sol–gel reaction, (3 characterizations of NPs were examined by FT-IR, XRD, AGFM and TEM. (4 Immobilization of LPO on the magnetite NPs, (5 Study kinetic and stability of both free and immobilized LPO in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Results:  The size of the Fe3O4 and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were about 9 nm and 12 nm, respectively. The results showed that the highest immobilization yield, nearly 90 %, was attained at 240 to 300 µg of LPO at 15h. It was found that the concentration of cadmium chloride directly affects the LPO activity and changes the kinetic parameters of it. Also, the results showed that immobilized LPO has better tolerance than the free LPO, so that after immobilization, Vmax of immobilized LPO was increased and Km of immobilized LPO was decreased. Conclusion: The results demonstrating that the effect of immobilized lactoperoxidase on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles increases the stability of the LPO in the presence of cadmium chloride as inhibitor. Michaelis–Menten parameters (Km and Vmax also revealed the considerable improvement of immobilized.

  17. Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasa, Kimmo [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: kimmo.rasa@helsinki.fi; Peltovuori, Tommi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hartikainen, Helinae [Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-01

    Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg{sup -1}. After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments.

  18. Effect of ascorbic acid on thyroid functions and some biochemical activities in rats treated with cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Osman, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the role of oral administration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in rats at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight in reducing disturbances caused by cadmium at a dose level of 1.2 mg CdCl 2 /Kg body weight (1/4 LD 50 ). Cadmium treatment induced thyroid dysfunction and disturbance in blood count and some elements in sera of male rats. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group (I) of rats served as normal control, the second group (II) was treated with CdCl 2 , the third group (III) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by 2 weeks rehabilitation and the fourth one (IV) was treated with CdCl 2 followed by ascorbic acid treatment. Serum total T3, total T4, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and hematocrit value, blood indices as well as white blood cell count, total serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were evaluated in all rats.The results revealed that treatment with cadmium in groups II and III led to significant decreases in T3 and T4 levels and most of blood count parameters.In rats treated with ascorbic acid, a non-significant improvement in serum T3 level was obtained, whereas, serum T4 level was significantly increased and its level was reached around corresponding control value. Also, ascorbic acid treatment led to significant increases in Hb, RBCs, Hct, MCV, MCH and MCHC values, which were comparable to those obtained in control, whereas WBCs count was slightly improved in group (IV) in comparison with both groups treated with Cd but it was highly significantly decreased in both groups treated with Cd as compared to control. Serum total calcium and alkaline phosphatase activity were non-significantly decreased, whereas inorganic phosphorus concentrations was significantly decreased in groups III and IV as compared to control

  19. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  20. Cobalt chloride administration in athletes: a new perspective in blood doping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Franchini, M; Guidi, G C

    2005-11-01

    Blood doping is an illegal and unfair way of enhancing athletic performance by increasing the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Currently used methods usually involve stimulation of erythropoiesis. Gene therapy targeting the hypoxia inducible factor pathway may be an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping techniques. Hypoxia activates a large number of genes with essential roles in cell and tissue adaptation to low oxygen. Cobalt chloride is a well established chemical inducer of hypoxia-like responses such as erythropoiesis. Cobalt supplementation is not banned and therefore would not be detected by current anti-doping testing. Although there is as yet no direct or anecdotal evidence of cobalt chloride administration to athletes, its use should be warned against as being not only unfair but potentially dangerous.

  1. Optimisation of pH of cadmium chloride post-growth-treatment in processing CDS/CDTE based thin film solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I

    2017-01-01

    The role of Chlorine-based activation in the production of high quality CdS/CdTe photovoltaic have been well discussed and explored with an overlook of the effect of Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) post-growth treatment acidity on the property of the fabricated devices. This work focuses on the optimisation of CdCl2 post-growth treatment pH as it affects both the material and fabricated device properties of all-electrodeposited multilayer glass/FTO/n-CdS/n-CdTe/p-CdTe configuration. CdCl2 treatments...

  2. Cadmium distribution and selected tissue histology in rats following administration of cadmium chloride and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundomal, Y.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were injected IP with CdCl 2 or distilled water, and/or given a total-body irradiation. Three lethality studies, acute Cd, chronic Cd, and acute radiation, were performed to determine the sublethal doses for the co-insult study. Lethal doses (LD 50 ) were obtained by probit analysis. Cd concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of variance was used to test the data. LD/sub 50(30)/ values obtained for respective male and female rats were: 5.99 and 7.13 mg/kg of body wt for acute Cd; 4.25 and 5.99 mg/kg of body wt for chronic Cd; and 733 and 729 R for acute radiation. On days 1, 7 and 21 post-irradiation, rats given Cd singly or in combination with radiation showed a high accumulation and retention of metal in the liver and kidney. Then followed in order of decreasing Cd concentrations were: spleen, intestine, stomach, heart, testis, lung, blood cells, brain, and muscle. High Cd concentrations in the liver and kidney persisted over a 21-day observation period; the concentrations in the other tissues decreased, some to control values. Radiation was not an antagonist on Cd concentrations or retentions in these tissues except the heart, in which radiation contributed to the clearance of Cd. Radiation did not act as a synergistic agent on Cd concentrations or retentions in any of the tissues analyzed. Radiation singly had no morphological or physiological effects on the parameters of this study. Based on the high Cd concentrations in these tissues, histological examinations of the liver and kidney sections were made. In the high co-insult groups slight abnormalities, such as pyknotic nuclei in the liver and cellular disorganization and larger lumens in the kidney were observed

  3. Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects in spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demenesku, Jelena; Mirkov, Ivana; Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of cadmium on splenic T and innate immune cells in rats is explored. • Differential effects of 1 mg/kg on T cell and innate immune activities were shown. • Lower Cd dose (0.5 mg/kg) cause less pronounced immunosuppressive effects. • Proinflammatory effects on innate immune activities were seen at that dose. • Presented data depict complexity of immunomodulatory potential of this metal. - Abstract: Conflicting data (both suppression and augmentation as well as lack of the effect) exist in respect to cadmium (Cd) and splenic T cell-based immune cell activity. Spleen is also the site of innate immune responses but impact of Cd on this type of immunity has been less explored. In the present study the effects of acute Cd administration on basic aspects of both T cell-based and innate immune spleen cell activity were examined in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg of Cd/kg resulted in decrease in concanavalin A (ConA) induced proliferation which seems to be more related to altered spleen cells responsiveness to IL-2 than to apoptosis. Differential effects on proinflammatory T cell derived cytokines were observed (decreases of IFN-γ gene expression and ConA-stimulated production, but increases in IL-17 mRNA levels with no effect on concentrations of protein product). Reduction of IFN-γ production seemed not to rely on IL-4 and IL-10, but at least partly on nitric oxide (NO). Increased activity relevant for innate immunity (granulocyte and CD11b + cell accumulation in the spleen, inducible nitric oxide synthase/iNOS expression and NO production by spleen cells) was observed, but there was a decrease in respiratory burst (dihydrorhodamine/DHR oxidation and nitroblue tetrazolium/NBT reduction). Increases of TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression and IL-1β protein product were noted as well. Administration of 0.5 mg Cd/kg resulted in less pronounced (ConA-induced proliferation) or lack of the effect (IFN-γ production) on spleen T cell

  4. Sorption of amiodarone to polyvinyl chloride infusion bags and administration sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, S J; Myers, V A; Bengtson, K D; Ueda, C T

    1985-12-01

    The loss of amiodarone from i.v. admixtures to flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) infusion bags and i.v. administration sets was studied. Admixtures containing amiodarone hydrochloride 600 micrograms/mL and either 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stored at room temperature in glass bottles (both with and without contact of the drug solution with the rubber bottle closure), in flexible PVC bags, or in rigid PVC bottles. After 120 hours, the contents of each flexible PVC bag were emptied and replaced by methanol, which was allowed to remain in the bag for an additional 120 hours and was then analyzed for amiodarone content. To determine availability of amiodarone after infusion through a 1.8-m PVC i.v. administration set, solutions stored in glass containers were run through the set at 0.5 mL/min for 90 minutes. Samples of drug solutions were collected at appropriate intervals and analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Admixtures containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection were not stable; visual incompatibility was evident after 24 hours of storage in glass bottles, and no further testing was performed. In admixtures containing 5% dextrose injection that were stored in 50-mL flexible PVC bags, 60% of the initial amiodarone concentration remained after 120 hours; approximately half of the lost drug was recovered with the methanol. In effluent collected from the PVC administration set, 82% of the initial amiodarone concentration remained. Amiodarone concentrations did not decrease appreciably, after storage in glass or rigid PVC bottles, indicating that drug loss was probably affected by the plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and relation with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride in the rat ventral prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riánsares Arriazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a phospholipid growth factor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, cancer invasion, and survival. This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of LPA-1, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers in preneoplastic lesions induced with cadmium chloride in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd in drinking water during 24 months: percentages of cells immunoreactive to LPA-1 (LILPA1, PCNA (LIPCNA, MCM7 (LIMCM7, ubiquitin (LIUBI, apoptotic cells (LIAPO, and p53 (LIp53; volume fraction of Bcl-2 (VFBcl-2; and length of microvessels per unit of volume (LVMV/mm3. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The LILPA1 in dysplastic lesions and normal epithelium of Cd-treated rats was significantly higher than those in the control group. Markers of proliferation were significantly increased in dysplastic lesions, whereas some apoptotic markers were significantly decreased. No significant differences between groups were found in VFBcl-2. Dysplastic lesions showed a significant increase of LIp53. The length of microvessels per unit of volume was elevated in dysplastic acini. Statistically significant correlations were found only between LILPA1 and LIUBI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPA-1 might be implicated in dysplastic lesions induced by cadmium chloride development. More studies are needed to confirm its potential contribution to the disease.

  6. Evolution of different morphologies of CdS nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of bis(thiourea)cadmium chloride in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Rama; Jeevanandam, P.

    2015-01-01

    CdS nanoparticles with different morphologies have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of bis(thiourea)cadmium chloride in different solvents without the use of any ligand/surfactant. CdS nanoparticles with pyramid, sponge-like and hexagonal disc-like morphologies were obtained in diphenyl ether (DPE), 1-octadecene (ODE) and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. In addition, CdS nanoparticles with unique morphologies were obtained when the decomposition of the complex was carried out in mixed solvents (DPE–EG and ODE–EG). Extensive characterization of the CdS nanoparticles was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and detailed mechanism of the formation of CdS nanoparticles with different morphologies in various solvents has been proposed

  7. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  8. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  9. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  10. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jingjing; Hu, Jia; Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli; Yin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl_2) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd"2"+ and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd"2"+ and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  11. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jingjing [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Hu, Jia [School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Huancai [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+} and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd{sup 2+} and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic studies of cadmium (II) chloride complex with 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudani, S. [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ferretti, V. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Structural Diffractometry, via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Jelsch, C. [CRM2, CNRS, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France); Lefebvre, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface (LCOMS), Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nasr, C. Ben, E-mail: cherif_bennasr@yahoo.fr [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel cadmium (II) 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine complex, Cd{sub 4}Cl{sub 10}(C{sub 6}H{sub 14}NO){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, have been reported. The atomic arrangement can be described as built up by an anionic framework, formed by edge sharing CdCl{sub 6} and CdCl{sub 5}O octahedral linear chains spreading along the a-axis. These chains are interconnected by water molecules via O–H⋯Cl and O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to (011) plane. The organic cations are inserted between layers through C–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Investigation of intermolecular interactions and crystal packing via Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that the H{sub C}⋯Cl and H{sub C}⋯H{sub C} intermolecular interactions are the most abundant contacts of the organic cation in the crystal packing. The statistical analysis of crystal contacts reveals the driving forces in the packing formation. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and of the IR bands.

  13. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  14. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  16. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  17. New noninvasive method for evaluating portal systemic circulation by Tl-201 chloride per-rectal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Aburano, Tamio; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-12-01

    A new method for evaluating portal systemic circulation by /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration was developed and performed in 65 patients with various liver diseases and in 13 control subjects. In normal control, the liver was visualized on the 0 - 5 minutes' image after /sup 201/Tl administration, while the heart, spleen and lungs were not clearly visualized even on the 20 - 25 minutes' image. In patients with portal hypertension, the liver was not clearly visualized, while activities of other organs, especially the heart became great. As the index of estimating the degrees of portal-to-systemic shunt the heart/liver uptake ratio at 20 min. after administration (H/L ratio) was employed. The H/L ratio in liver cirrhosis was significantly higher than those in normal and chronic hepatitis. The patients with esophageal varices showed a significant higher mean H/L ratio compared to that in cirrhotic patients without esophageal varices. There was also a significant difference in H/L ratio between esophageal varices stages. Since there were many other patients with hepatocellular damage who had high H/L ratios similar to those in liver cirrhosis, the effect that hepatocellular damage has on the liver uptake of /sup 201/Tl is also considered. Our present data suggest that this noninvasive method seems to be useful to evaluate the degrees of portal-to-systemic shunt.

  18. Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio by Vitamin C and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet, vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium(II by TIOACl (tri-iso-octylammonium chloride ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACl impregnated carbon nanotubes system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of cadmium(II by the ionic liquid (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl in Exxsol D100 from hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic. The numerical analysis of metal distribution data suggests the formation of R3NH+CdCl3− and (R3NH+2CdCl42− species in the organic phase. The results obtained for cadmium(II distribution have been implemented in an impregnated multi-walled carbon nanotubes system. The influence of aqueous solution stirring speed (250–2000 min−1, adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.2 g and temperature (20 °C–60 °C on cadmium adsorption have been investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio HCl, por el líquido iónico (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl disuelto en Exxsol D100. La reacción de extracción tiene un carácter exotérmico. El análisis numérico de la distribución del metal sugiere la formación de las especies R3NH+CdCl3− y (R3NH+2CdCl42− en la fase orgánica. Estos resultados se han implementado en un sistema que utiliza nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple impregnados con este líquido iónico. Se han investigado diversas variables experimentales: velocidad de agitación de la disolución acuosa (250–2000 min−1, adición del adsorbente (0,05–0,2 g y temperatura (20–60 °C.

  20. Crystal structures and DFT calculations of mixed chloride-azide zinc(II) and chloride-isocyanate cadmium(II) complexes with the condensation product of 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde and Girard's T reagent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Katarina; Pevec, Andrej; Grubišić, Sonja; Turel, Iztok; Čobeljić, Božidar; Milenković, Milica R.; Keškić, Tanja; Radanović, Dušanka

    2018-06-01

    The mixed chloride-azide [ZnL(N3)1.65Cl0.35] (1) and chloride-isocyanate [CdL(NCO)1.64Cl0.36] (2) complexes with the condensation product of 2-quinolinecarboxaldehyde and trimethylammonium acetohydrazide chloride (Girard's T reagent) (HLCl) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. In complexes 1 and 2, Zn1 and Cd1 ions, respectively, are five-coordinated in a distorted square based pyramidal geometry with NNO set of donor atoms of deprotonated hydrazone ligand and two monodentate ligands N3- and/or N3- and Cl- in the case of 1 and OCN- and/or OCN- and Cl- in the case of 2. The structural parameters of 1 and 2 have been discussed in relation to those of previously reported M(II) complexes with the same hydrazone ligand. Density functional theory calculations have been employed to study the interaction between the Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions and ligands. High affinity of ligands towards the Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions are predicted for both complexes.

  1. Effect of the cadmium chloride treatment on RF sputtered Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te films for application in multijunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimpi, Tushar M., E-mail: mechanical.tushar@gmail.com; Kephart, Jason M.; Swanson, Drew E.; Munshi, Amit H.; Sampath, Walajabad S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1320 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Abbas, A.; Walls, John M. [CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Technology), Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    Single phase Cd{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Te (CdZnTe) films of 1 μm thickness were deposited by radio frequency planar magnetron sputter deposition on commercial soda lime glass samples coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide and cadmium sulphide (CdS). The stack was then treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) at different temperatures using a constant treatment time. The effect of the CdCl{sub 2} treatment was studied using optical, materials, and electrical characterization of the samples and compared with the as-deposited CdZnTe film with the same stack configuration. The band gap deduced from Tauc plots on the as-deposited CdZnTe thin film was 1.72 eV. The deposited film had good crystalline quality with a preferred orientation along the {111} plane. After the CdCl{sub 2} treatment, the absorption edge shifted toward longer wavelength region and new peaks corresponding to cadmium telluride (CdTe) emerged in the x-ray diffraction pattern. This suggested loss of zinc after the CdCl{sub 2} treatment. The cross sectional transmission electron microscope images of the sample treated at 400 °C and the energy dispersive elemental maps revealed the absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries of CdZnTe and residual CdTe. The presence of chlorine in the CdTe devices plays a vital role in drastically improving the device performance which was not observed in CdZnTe samples treated with CdCl{sub 2}. The loss of zinc from the surface and incomplete recrystallization of the grains together with the presence of high densities of stacking faults were observed. The surface images using scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the grains changed from small spherical shape to large grains formed due to the fusion of small grains with distinct grain boundaries visible at the higher CdCl{sub 2} treatment temperatures. The absence of chlorine along the grain boundaries, incomplete recrystallization and distinct grain boundaries is understood to cause the poor

  2. Comparative study of natural antioxidants - curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin - in cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, Vladislav; Kotyzova, Dana; Koutensky, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative effect of curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin pre-treatment on cadmium-induced oxidative damage and cadmium distribution in an experimental model in mice. Male CD mice were treated once daily for 3 days with curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w., p.o.), resveratrol (20 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) or melatonin (12 mg/kg, p.o.), dispersed in 0.5% methylcellulose. One hour after the last dose of antioxidants cadmium chloride was administered (7 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) to pre-treated animals and control animals receiving methylcellulose. At 24th h after Cd administration the lipid peroxidation (LP - expressed as malondialdehyde production), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated in liver homogenates. Cadmium concentration was measured in the liver, kidneys, testes and brain by AAS. Cadmium chloride administration to mice induced hepatic lipid peroxidation (to 133%, p < 0.001), decreased GSH content (to 65%, p < 0.001) and inhibited catalase (to 68%, p < 0.001) and GPx activity (to 60%, p < 0.001) in the liver. Curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin oral pre-treatment completely prevented the Cd-induced lipid peroxidation and Cd-induced inhibition of GPx hepatic activity. Resveratrol was effective against Cd-induced inhibition of catalase activity (p < 0.001). The decrease in hepatic GSH level was not prevented by curcumin, resveratrol or melatonin pre-treatment. In mice treated with antioxidants alone the level of LP, GSH, GPx or CAT was not different from control levels. The pre-treatment with antioxidants did not affect cadmium distribution in the tissues of Cd-intoxicated mice. The results demonstrate that curcumin, resveratrol and melatonin pre-treatment effectively protect against cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation and ameliorate the adverse effect of cadmium on antioxidant status without any reduction in tissue Cd burden

  3. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  4. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  5. Cadmium chloride, benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 at Covance laboratories, Harrogate UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul; Whitwell, James; Jeffrey, Laura; Young, Jamie; Smith, Katie; Kirkland, David

    2010-10-29

    The following genotoxic chemicals were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Cadmium chloride (an inorganic carcinogen), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation) and cyclophosphamide (an alkylating agent requiring metabolic activation) were treated with and without cytokinesis block (by addition of cytochalasin B). This work formed part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the in vitro micronucleus test. The toxicity measures used, capable of detecting both cytostasis and cell death, were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index or cytokinesis blocked proliferation index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested gave significant increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcomes from this series of tests support the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in the in vitro micronucleus assay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Tatsunori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+ are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+. To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short, tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia.

  7. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  8. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  9. Stability evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cadmium chloride and subsequently infected by bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Xingping; Wang, Lan, E-mail: lanwang@sxu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuobing, E-mail: zbzhang@sxu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Cd exposure affects the stability of reference genes for real-time PCR in zebrafish. • Reference genes present different stability in the five tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, gills and intestine) of zebrafish after Cd exposure. • Bacterial infection further affects the stability of reference genes in Cd-treated zebrafish. - Abstract: Environmental and occupational cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a global concern, and the model organism zebrafish is an ideal species to investigate Cd toxicity. Among various detecting techniques, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a sensitive and efficient tool. Stable reference genes are critical for relative qPCR analysis. However, accumulated evidence shows that conventional reference genes can vary significantly under different experimental setups. Here we evaluated the stability of eight candidate reference genes of zebrafish with or without exposure to different concentrations of Cd. The results showed that the best four suitable reference genes in the five selected organs were: (1) spleen: β-actin > gapdh > ef1α > rpl13α; (2) kidney: rplp2 > rpl7 > β-actin > ef1α; (3) liver: rpl7 > rpl13α > β-actin > ef1α; (4) gills: rplp2 > gapdh > rnf7 > ef1α; (5) intestine: ef1α > rnf7 > rplp2 > rpl13α. Moreover, we further assessed the expression stability of the four reference genes for Cd immunotoxicology studies in zebrafish. The expression profiles showed that ef1α in spleen and kidney, rpl13a in liver and rplp2 in intestine were the most suitable reference genes at 12 h and 9 days after the injection with Aeromonas hydrophila following Cd exposure. In gills, the expression of gapdh was more stable than ef1α after 9 days of bacteria challenge while ef1α showed a higher stability than gapdh at 12 h after bacteria injection. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that different tissues of zebrafish have different suitable reference genes after Cd exposure and the subsequently pathogenic insults for q

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Pollen Grains and Soya Lecithin on Cadmium-induced Biochemical and Structural disorders in the Ovary of Female Rats during Estrus Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S. Z.; Ramadan, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at assessing the role of pollen grains with soya lecithin on cadmium-induced damage. Cadmium chloride was administered to female albino rats (0.5 mg/kg b. wt, i.p.) during 6 weeks. Pollen grains (54 mg/kg b.wt), and soya lecithin (18 mg/kg b.wt), were given, via gavages, 7 days before cadmium administration, and during cadmium treatment. The results demonstrate that cadmium exposure induces different distortions in ovarian tissues, fibrotic follicular cortex, appearance of atretic follicles, partial oocytes degeneration and significant decreases in the number of primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles associated with significant increase in MDA levels , significant decreases in GSH content, GSH-Px, SOD and Cat activities. Significant increases in total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and significant decreases in polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were recorded. Significant decreases in plasma calcium, progesterone, estradiol and HDL-C and significant increases in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C levels were recorded. Administration of pollen grains with soya lecithin has significantly improved the antioxidant status and fatty acids levels associated with regeneration of ovarian tissues. Significant amelioration in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and hormones levels were also recorded. It is concluded that pollen grains with soya lecithin may protect the ovary during estrus cycle from cadmium-induced toxicity. Key words: pollen, soya lecithin, cadmium, oxidative stress, ovary, fatty acids, follicle numbers

  11. Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehao Liu

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the heavy metals, is an important environmental pollutant and a potent toxicant to organism. It poses a severe threat to the growth of the organism, and also has been recognized as a human carcinogen. However, the toxicity of cadmium and its influences on microbiota in mammal's intestine are still unclear. In our experiment, the changes of intestinal microbiota in two groups of mice were investigated, which were supplied with 20 and 100 mg kg(-1 cadmium chloride respectively for 3 weeks. The control group was treated with water free from cadmium chloride only. This study demonstrated that Cd accumulated in some tissues of mice after Cd administration and the gut barrier was impaired. Cd exposure also significantly elevated the colonic level of TNF-α. On the other hand, Cd-treatment could slow down the growth of gut microbiota and reduced the abundance of total intestinal bacteria of the mice. Among them, the growth of Bacteroidetes was significantly suppressed while Firmicutes growth was not. The probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were notably inhibited. We also observed that the copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were lower in Cd-treated groups than control. As a result, the levels of short-chain fatty acids in colonic decreased significantly. In summary, this study provides valuable insight into the effects of Cd intake on mice gut microbiota.

  12. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace analysis of icariin in human serum with dansyl chloride derivatization after oral administration of Epimedium decoction by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinhan; Yip, See Chung; Thamarai, Sennappan Kanagamani; Zhang, Jie; Lee, Hian Kee; Yong, E L

    2007-12-15

    Epimedium herbs are a type of complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with high estrogenic bioactivity. The Epimedium herbal decoction mixture contains many compounds including icariin that can exert potent effects on numerous physiological processes related to human health. An ultrasensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed to determine trace levels of icariin in human serum with dansyl chloride derivatization after oral administration of the Epimedium herbal decoctions. The dansyl-icariin showed an intense protonated molecular ion at m/z 910. The collision-induced dissociation of this ion formed a distinctive product at m/z 764, corresponding to a characteristic removal of a rhamnose sugar moiety of icariin. The selected reaction monitoring, based on the m/z 910-->764 transition, was highly specific and ultrasenstive for icariin in human serum samples. The lower limit of quantitation was 10 pg/mL icariin spiked into blank serum. The ranges of coefficients of variation for interday assays and intraday assays were 0-15.0% and 1.1-17.5%, respectively, for a wide linear range from 10 pg/mL to 4 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to measure trace levels of icariin in a human serum after oral administration of Epimedium decoction within 48 h for the first time.

  14. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  15. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  17. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  18. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  19. Effect of Low Dose Lead (Pb) Administration on Tail Immersion Test and Formalin-induced Pain in Wistar Rats: Possible Modulatory Role of Cobalt (II) Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A H; Suleiman, I; Muhammed, H

    2017-03-06

    Lead (Pb) is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level. In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes (weight 150g to 200g) were used. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 5) and administered Pb (5mg/kg), Pb (5mg/kg) + CoCl2 (50mg/kg) and CoCl2 (50mg/kg) orally for twenty-eight days. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control. In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. This work suggested that exposure to 5mg/kg Pb for twenty-eight days do not significantly impair reaction time in tail immersion test and pain score in formalin induced pain in Wistar rats. Also, administration of 50mg/kg CoCl2 do not improve performance of the animals in the experiments.

  20. Ameliorative Effect of Arctium lappa Against Cadmium Genotoxicity and Histopathology in Kidney of Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman Al-Gebaly, Asma

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Least Significant Difference (LSD) test to determine the difference among means using the JMP version 12. Results revealed that cadmium induced a significant disorganization (pArctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed a slightly less hypercellularity of glomerulus and reduction in the cell tail (59 μm). Furthermore, histological sections of kidney of rats pre-treated with 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., showed high improvement of renal tubules and glomerulus with a prominent urinary space beside tail length of cells was recorded as 39 μm which was lower in comparison to other groups. Moreover, cadmium induced cellular destruction of the kidney was resumed with the pre-treatment of the secondary metabolites as an antioxidant compounds that produced from plant extracts. Arctium lappa leaf extract was efficient at both applied doses while 200 mg Arctium lappa kg-1 b.wt., had the most ameliorative effect.

  1. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Zamorani, E.; Serrini, G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 50 0 C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  2. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Diab, Marwa M S; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced hepatorenal toxicity in Wistar rats. Herein, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (6.5 mg/kg bwt/day) was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, and methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh) was pre-administered to a group of Cd-treated rats by an oral administration at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg bwt for 5 days. The findings revealed that CdCl2 injection induced significant decreases in kidney weight and kidney index. Cadmium intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased in the serum. The pre-administration of MEPh alleviated hepatorenal toxicity in Cd-treated rats. Physalis was noted to play a good hepatorenal protective role, reducing lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and enhancing enzymatic activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule, glutathione, in hepatic and renal tissues of Cd-treated rats. Moreover, physalis treatment was able to reverse the histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues and also increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney of rats. Overall, the results showed that MEPh can induce antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and also exerts beneficial effects for the treatment of Cd-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  14. Cadmium Alters the Concentration of Fatty Acids in THP-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Łukomska, Agnieszka; Drozd, Arleta; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid composition of human immune cells influences their function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of known toxicant and immunomodulator, cadmium, at low concentrations on levels of selected fatty acids (FAs) in THP-1 macrophages. The differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages was achieved by administration of phorbol myristate acetate. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl 2 . Fatty acids were extracted from samples according to the Folch method. The fatty acid levels were determined using gas chromatography. The following fatty acids were analyzed: long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic acid and stearic acid, very long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLSFA) arachidic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and vaccenic acid, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Treatment of macrophages with very low concentrations of cadmium (5-200 nM) resulted in significant reduction in the levels of arachidic, palmitoleic, oleic, vaccenic, and linoleic acids and significant increase in arachidonic acid levels (following exposure to 5 nM Cd), without significant reduction of palmitic and stearic acid levels. Treatment of macrophages with the highest tested cadmium concentration (2 μM) produced significant reduction in the levels of all examined FAs: SFAs, VLSFA, MUFAs, and PUFAs. In conclusion, cadmium at tested concentrations caused significant alterations in THP-1 macrophage fatty acid levels, disrupting their composition, which might dysregulate fatty acid/lipid metabolism thus affecting macrophage behavior and inflammatory state.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  16. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  17. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ta; Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Fu-An; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd 2+ levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC 50 ) of CdCl 2 were 0.414 μM (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 μM) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 μM (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 μM) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  18. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  19. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  20. Haematological indices in Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe isolate infected Nigerian donkeys (Equus asinus treated with homidium and isometamidium chloride of ciprofloxacin in broiler chickens after single intravenous and intraingluvial administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queen Nneka Oparah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intramuscular administration of Homidium chloride (Novidium® and Isometamidium chloride (Sécuridium® in Nigerian donkeys (Equus asinus experimentally infected with T. b. brucei (Federe isolate was investigated. Changes in haematological and serum biochemical indices were evaluated using clinical haematology and biochemistry methods. Red blood cell (RBC count for the negative control group was significantly higher than for the positive control, Novidium® and Sécuridium®-treatment groups. Haemoglobin (Hb concentration significantly reduced in the infected untreated group compared with other groups. Packed cell volume (PCV was significantly different between negative and positive controls, and also between the infected untreated and treatment groups. There was significant reduction in platelet counts post-infection and post-treatment. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV increased significantly in the treatment groups while mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC significantly reduced only in the Sécuridium®-treatment group. Lymphocyte count for infected untreated was non-significantly higher than for the uninfected controls, but treatment with both trypanocides recorded further increases, which were higher compared with that of the uninfected group. Post infection and treatment, aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels increased significantly. There were non-significant differences in electrolyte ion concentrations across the groups except for chloride ion which recorded a significant reduction in the Novidium®-treatment group. This experiment revealed that Nigerian donkeys infected with T. brucei brucei (Federe isolate developed symptoms of trypanosomosis; anaemia, lymphocytosis and thrombocytopenia. Treatment with the trypanocides ameliorated effects of the infection, and results suggest that immunosuppression may not be a substantial clinical manifestation of T. brucei brucei (Federe isolate trypanosomosis in Nigerian

  1. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  2. Effects of cadmium on the performance and microbiology of laboratory-scale lagoons treating domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J L; Bohatier, J; Pépin, D

    1999-06-01

    Two experiments were performed to assess the impact of cadmium on the sewage lagoon wastewater treatment process. For each one, three laboratory-scale pilot plants with one tank receiving the same raw effluent were used; one plant served as control and the other two were contaminated once only with cadmium. In the first study, the effects of a shock load of two concentrations of cadmium chloride (60 and 300 micrograms/l) on the plant performance, microbial populations (protists and bacteria) and enzyme activities were determined. Initially, most of the performance parameters were affected concentration-dependently. A reduction in the protist population density and some influence on the total bacterial population were observed, and the potential enzymatic activities were also modified. A second experiment with a lower cadmium concentration (30 micrograms/l), supplied as chloride or sulphate, still perturbed most of the parameters studied, and the effects of the two cadmium salts were identical.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  7. Selenium antagonizes cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleen but not involving Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghao; Li, Xiaojing; Fan, Ruifeng; Cao, Changyu; Yao, Haidong; Xu, Shiwen

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) and is involved in the regulation of genes participated in defending cells against oxidative damage, which have been confirmed in animal models. Selenium (Se), known as an important element in the regulation of antioxidant activity, can antagonize Cadmium (Cd) toxicity in birds. However, the role of Nrf2 in selenium-cadmium interaction has not been reported in birds. To further explore the mechanism of selenium attenuating spleen toxicity induced by cadmium in chickens, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 , 150mg/kg) and sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 , 2mg/kg) were co-administrated or individually administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. The results showed that Cd exposure increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT). Cd exposure increased obviously nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and the expression of Nrf2 downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), reduced the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (keap1), Gpx-1 and thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1). In addition, Cd induced the increase of bak, caspase9, p53, Cyt c mRNA levels, increased bax/bcl-2 ratio, increased caspase3 mRNA and protein levels. Selenium treatment reduced the accumulation of Cd in the spleen, attenuates Cd-induced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, ameliorated Cd-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen. In summary, our results demonstrate that Se ameliorated spleen toxicity induced by cadmium by modulating the antioxidant system, independently of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  9. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  10. [Effects of Total Ginsenosides and Volatile Oil of Acorus tatarinowii Co-Administration on Ability of Learning and Memory and Apoptosis in Alzheimer's Disease Mice Model Induced By D-Galactose and Aluminium Chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Min-zhen; Huang, Li-ping; Fang, Yong-qi

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effects of the co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii on the ability of learning and memory and apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model induced by D-galactose and aluminium chloride. 50 Kunming (KM) mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Aricept group (1 mg/kg), Ding Zhi Wan group (10 g/kg) and co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii group (co-administered group, the doses of volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii and total ginsenosides were 30 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively). In addition to normal group, mice in other groups were given D-galactose 150 mg/ (kg x d), ip, and aluminium chloride 5 mg/kg, ig, once daily for 40 days. At the same time, mice in the treated groups were administrated with the corresponding drug from the 20th day after the modeling, once daily for 40 days. Water maze and avoiding darkness experiments were used to test learning and memory abilities; Aβ1-42 and BCL-2 content in cortex and hippocampus were detected by ELISA; the vitalities of acetyl cholinesterase ( AChE) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) vitalities were detected by a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) method; the content of malondialdehyde ( MDA) in cortex and hippocampus were detected by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method; senile plaque on Aβ1-42 precipitation were observed by immunohistochemistry; brain tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). As compared with model group, in the co-administered group, the time of AD mice swimming, the numbers of blind area and electric shock reduced significantly (P < 0.05), and the latent period was prolonged (P < 0.05); AChE activity and levels of Aβ1-42 and MDA in cortex and hippocampus were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); ChAT and SOD activities as well as BCL-2 content were increased significantly

  11. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  12. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  13. Prevention of hepato-renal toxicity of radiation and cadmium by Aloe vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhati, Sharvan Lal; Ojha, Shikha; Purkharam; Issran, Rakesh; Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention, control and treatment of cancer remain challenge to the medical world. Development of effective and versatile drugs for cancer treatment is an integral part of the ongoing cancer research. The anti stress, hepato-protective, antioxidant and immune modulating properties of Aloe vera make it an ideal drug for developing anti-tumor drugs. Ionizing radiation has always been a part of the human environment. Along with natural radioactive sources present in the earth crust and cosmic radiation, special medical procedures (radiation therapy) also contribute to our continuous exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation damage, is to a large extent, caused by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion (O 2 - ), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), that overwhelm the levels of antioxidants, resulting in oxidative stress and cellular damage. Efficient defense and repair mechanisms exist in living cells to protect against oxidant species. Humans are subjected to exposure of cadmium pollution through contaminated air, water, food, manufactured goods and occupational hazards. Cadmium stimulates free radical production, resulting in oxidative deterioration of lipids, proteins DNA and initiating various pathological conditions in human and animals once observed, Cadmium is rapidly cleared from the blood and concentrates in various tissues mainly in the liver and kidney causing many metabolic and histological changes. So it was of particular interest to investigate whether Aloe vera administration to mice would decrease the toxicity associated with oxidative stress and thereby reducing the damage induced by cadmium and gamma radiation exposure. For this purpose, six to eight weeks old mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and drug treated. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with respective experimental groups. Value of total

  14. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  15. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  16. 2-Aminoanthracene, 5-fluorouracil, colchicine, benzo[a]pyrene, cadmium chloride and cytosine arabinoside tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, James; Fowler, Paul; Allars, Sarah; Jenner, Karen; Lloyd, Melvyn; Wood, Debbie; Smith, Katie; Young, Jamie; Jeffrey, Laura; Kirkland, David

    2010-10-29

    The reference genotoxic agents 2-aminoanthracene (a metabolism dependent weak clastogen), 5-fluorouracil (a nucleoside analogue, characterised by a steep dose response profile), colchicine (an aneugen that inhibits tubulin polymerisation), benzo[a]pyrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon requiring metabolic activation), cadmium chloride (an inorganic carcinogen), and cytosine arabinoside (a nucleoside analogue that inhibits the gap-filling step of excision repair) were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay using the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK. All chemicals were treated in the absence and presence of cytokinesis block (via addition of cytochalasin B) with this work forming part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 on the In vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test (MNvit). The toxicity measures used, detecting a possible combination of both cytostasis and cell death (though not cell death directly), were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested either gave marked positive increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block, or did not induce micronuclei at concentrations giving approximately 50-60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcome from this series of tests supports the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified.

  18. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  19. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  20. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  1. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  2. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  3. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  4. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.

    2011-01-01

    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  5. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.A.; Hayat, S.; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 μM of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 μM of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide

  6. The protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa M S; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F

    2014-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg bwt of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of Physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh 1 h before cadmium for 5 days. Cadmium treatment induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters as indicating by significant (p Physalis has a beneficial effect in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats.

  7. Acute Toxicity of a Heavy Metal Cadmium to an Anuran, the Indian Skipper Frog Rana cyanophlyctis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Kumar Srivastav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis. Methods: For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L. At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h, the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level. Results: The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish. Conclusion: Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.

  8. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  9. The protective role of honey against cytotoxicity of cadmium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KJ

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... of different chromosomes appeared attached this could ... without hook (c) and banana shape (d). ... Afr. J. Biotechnol. Figure 1. Metaphase spread from mouse bone marrow cells showing: (a) normal chromosomes spread, ...

  10. The protective role of honey against cytotoxicity of cadmium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KJ

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... central nervous system and DNA or cancer progression appeared as ... In this study, 30 adult Swiss albino mice (MUS musculus) were used, varying from ..... Effect of the type of nutrition and aflatoxin B1 on the structure of the.

  11. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  12. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    chlorides with 6 M HCl from nitric acid solutions of Ag, Cu and Cd. Then the solution is filtered to remove silver. The filtrate is evaporated almost to dryness and the solid residue is dissolved in 2 M HCl. The solution obtained is passed through an anion-exchange column with DOWEX 1x8. Cadmium is retained on column at this concentration of HCl while Cu is completely eluted with 30 ml of 2 M HCl. Finally cadmium is eluted with 200 ml of 1 N HNO 3 , while the traces of silver remain on the column. Thus a pure solution of cadmium nitrate is obtained that can be evaporated to the desirable volume. Measuring the activity of the initial and obtained quantity of 109 Cd it is found that 80% of the total cadmium is recovered. Second method is based on the selective adsorption of silver on column containing 0.5 g of polyethenemonosulphide (PEMS or trade name TR-1) from nitric acid solutions of Ag, Cu, Zn and Cd. This sorbent has high adsorptive capacity to silver, its adsorptive capacity reaches to 1920 mg/g from 1.5 M nitric acid solutions. After adsorption of silver the solution obtained evaporated to dryness and the solid residue is dissolved in 0.5 M nitric acid containing 0.1 M hydrobromic acid. Then the solution obtained is percolated through the column, containing 5 ml of Dowex1x8 resin. The copper(II) and zinc are completely eluted with 70 ml of 0.5 M HNO 3 + 0.1 M HBr. The cadmium-109 is eluted with 50 ml of 3 M nitric acid. The obtained solution is evaporated to dryness and the dry residue is treated by evaporation with 2 ml of 12 M hydrochloric acid. After treatment the damp residue is dissolved in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. The yield of cadmium-109 is higher than 90% and the radiochemical purity was more than 99.9%. These methods will be used for separation and purification of cadmium-109 to make of sealed sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Science and Technologies Center at Cabinet of Ministers of Republic of Uzbekistan support this work (cont ract no.13

  13. Corrosion of titanium alloys in concentrated chloride solutions at temperature up to 160 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, Yu.S.; Viter, L.I.; Balakin, A.I.; Fokin, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Resistance of VT1-0 titanium and 4200, 4207 titanium alloys to pitting and total corrosion in chlorides of cadmium, potassium, nickel, ammonium, barium, calcium, lithium, magnesium in respect to pH value and temperature (120,140,160 deg C) is determined. The results obtained are presented as nomograms of stability. Possible reasons for corrosion behaviour of titanium in each of the chlorides are discussed

  14. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  15. Introduction to the study of cadmium fixation in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1975-05-01

    Eels weighing an average of about 30 grams were kept without food in fresh-water aquaria containing approximately 10, 30 and 50 p.p.b. of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride. In each case the evolution of the cadmium content in the water was monitored as a function of elapsed time. After dissection, the cadmium concentration in the principal organs of the eels (in p.p.b.) was determined and compared with their live weight. To do so, various methods were used for destruction of biological material and cadmium analysis i.e.: incineration in a 600 deg C furnace, incineration at low temperature in a jet of active oxygen, nitro-sulfuric mineralization followed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis, and nitro-sulfuro-perchloric mineralization followed by inverse anodic redissolution. The results of these analyses raise a number of methodological questions, in that they differ according to the technique being used. The first content data essentially concern the cadmium content of eels (after nitro-sulfuric mineralization) kept in water containing 10 p.p.b. of cadmium: after 44 days the concentrations in the various organs continue to rise. The highest concentration is found in the spleen - heart - air bladder system (15200 ppb compared with 2680 ppb in the control group), followed - in an order which varies over time - by the kidneys, branchiae and liver; the digestive tract seems to concentrate cadmium more slowly [fr

  16. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  17. Impacts of fullerene C60 and virgin olive oil on cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fayza M; Kotb, Ahmed M; Haridy, Mohie A M; Hammad, Seddik

    2018-07-15

    Currently, cadmium is considered to be one of the major environmental pollutants. Environmentally, cadmium is released in various forms e.g. oxide, chloride and sulphide. The aim of the present study was to examine the genotoxic impact of fullerene nanoparticles C 60 (C 60 ) and virgin olive oil (VOO) on cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced genotoxicity in rats. To evaluate these effects on DNA damage and chromosomal frequency, 25 albino rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 served as a control; Group 2 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg); Group 3 animals were treated with C 60 (4mg/kg, orally) every other day for 20days; Group 4 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and an oral dose of C 60 (4mg/kg); and Group 5 received a single intraperitoneal dose of CdCl 2 (3.5mg/kg) and oral doses of VOO every other day for 20 consecutive days. Genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of C 60 and VOO were evaluated in the liver, kidney and bone marrow using molecular and cytogenetic assays. As expected, CdCl 2 and C 60 administration was associated with band number alterations in both liver and kidney; however, C 60 pretreatment recovered to approximately basal number. Surprisingly, C 60 and VOO significantly attenuated the genotoxic effects caused by CdCl 2 in livers and kidneys. In bone marrow, in addition to a reduction in the chromosomal number, several chromosomal aberrations were caused by CdCl 2 . These chromosomal alterations were also reversed by C 60 and VOO. In conclusion, molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that C 60 and VOO exhibit anti-genotoxic agents against CdCl 2 -induced genotoxicity in rats. Further studies are needed to investigate the optimal conditions for potential biomedical applications of these anti-genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  19. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  1. Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong tolerance mechanisms to Cadmium: Subcellular distribution, chemical forms and thiol pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Bosen; Xie Xiangyu; Weiss, Dominik J.; Liu Jingchun; Lu Haoliang; Yan Chongling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium tolerance mechanisms of Kandelia obovata was investigated systematacially. ► Thiol pool can play roles in cadmium detoxification mechanisms. ► Increasing cadmium treatment strength caused proportional increase of cadmium uptake. ► More than half of cadmium was localized in cell walls, and lowest in membranes. ► Sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable fractions were dominant. - Abstract: In order to explore the detoxification mechanisms adopted by mangrove under cadmium (Cd) stress, we investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd, in addition to the change of the thiol pools in Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong, which were cultivated in sandy culture medium treated with sequential Cd solution. We found that Cd addition caused a proportional increase of Cd in the organs of K. obovata. The investigation of subcellular distribution verified that most of the Cd was localized in the cell wall, and the lowest was in the membrane. Results showed sodium chloride and acetic acid extractable Cd fractions were dominant. The contents of non-protein thiol compounds, Glutathione and phytochelatins in K. obovata were enhanced by the increasing strength of Cd treatment. Therefore, K. obovata can be defined as Cd tolerant plant, which base on cell wall compartmentalization, as well as protein and organic acids combination.

  2. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  3. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  4. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  5. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R L [Cadmium Association, London (UK)

    1979-03-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world.

  6. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.

    In short, the main source of

  8. Effect of Calcium chloride and Cadmium chloride on the enthalpy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the effect of two dissolved inorganic salts, CaCl2 and CdCl2 on the enthalpy of mixing of the binary 1,4 dioxane + water system has been investigated at 303.15 K in an isothermal displacement calorimeter with vapour space. A significantly increasing trend in the endothermic excess enthalpy values for ...

  9. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  10. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  11. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  13. Acquired tolerance in cadmium-adapted lung epithelial cells: Roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and basal level of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Andy T.Y.; Zhang Jian; Chiu, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant cells were developed in our laboratory with rat lung epithelial cells (LECs) by stepwise exposure of LECs to cadmium chloride from 1 μM to 20 μM after 20 passages. To investigate the Cd-resistant phenotype in a long-term perspective, cadmium-resistant cells adapted to 20 μM cadmium (Cd R ) were then cultured in the absence of cadmium for various passages [Cd R (-n)]. All these adapted cells were significantly protected from cadmium toxicity as compared to parental cadmium-sensitive LECs (Cd S ). The cadmium-resistant phenotype of adapted cells was relatively stable in the absence of cadmium for as long as 40 passages. Basal mRNA level of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) was dramatically higher in Cd R than in Cd R (-), which may account for the higher Cd-resistance of Cd R than Cd R (-). MT-1 mRNA level decreased drastically in Cd R after cadmium removal, suggesting that the high basal level of MT-1 in Cd R may be only partially responsible for cadmium-resistance. Treatment of cells with high levels of cadmium resulted in decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) in adapted cells than in sensitive cells and this cadmium-induced JNK activity was blocked by JNK inhibitor II, SP600125. Ro318220, a strong activator of JNK, reverted cadmium-sensitive phenotype in adapted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that during cadmium adaptation, cells develop tolerance to cell death, generally due to perturbation of the JNK signaling pathway and the nonresponsiveness of JNK phosphorylation is critical for the Cd-tolerance in these cells

  14. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  15. Megapixel mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays for infrared imaging out to 12 microns, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the fabrication of large format, long wave infrared (LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or MCT) detector arrays where the cutoff wavelength is...

  16. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  17. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivitiy have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80 % range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells.

  18. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [University Mohamed V, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivity have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80% range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells. (authors)

  19. Cadmium: The deformed metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper, which is a somewhat abridged version of the introductory paper of the 2nd International Cadmium Conference in Cannes on February 6 to 8, 1979, outlines the present trends in production, reserves, consumption, world trade, prices, and cost. Due to the lack of statistics on the USSR and other socialist countries, the review is limited to the non-socialist world. (orig./IHOE) [de

  20. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  1. Study on removal of cadmium from wastewater by emulsion liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R.; Kosuge, Hitoshi; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H.; Banihashemi, Hamid R.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of cadmium from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is studied in the present study. A polyamine-type surfactant was used for stabilizing the emulsion phase. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) has been used as a carrier for transferring of cadmium through the membrane. The results show good performance in the separation process. To determine the optimum operation conditions, the effect of several parameters such as surfactant concentration, carrier concentration, pH of external and internal phases, oil to internal phase volume ratio, emulsion to external phase volume ratio, solvent type, solute concentration, presence of iodide and chloride in external phase, and mixing conditions have been investigated.

  2. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  3. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  4. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  5. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  6. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  7. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  8. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  9. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  10. Prophylactic role of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced histological alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Prajapat, T.R.; Ojha, S.; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, K.; Ram, Purkha; Bhartiya, K.M.; Gupta, M.L.; Jangir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure of radiation. Thus, development of novel and effective approaches using non toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for not only in the protection of normal tissue during radio therapy of tumors but also for defence (nuclear wars), nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space flights etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiations in the presence or absence of the Aloe vera. For this purpose 6 to 8 week old male mice were divided into seven groups; group I (sham-irradiated), group II (cadmium chloride), group III (irradiated with 5Gy. Gamma rays), group IV (radiation and cadmium chloride), group V (cadmium chloride and Aloe vera), group VI (radiation and Aloe vera), group VII (radiation, cadmium chloride and Aloe vera). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post treatment intervals. For histopathological studies kidney was taken out and it's pieces were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hours. The tissue was washed in clean water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at 5 μm and stained in Harris haematoxyline and alcoholic eosine. In the present experiment histopathological changes were found in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. Severe changes seen in the renal architecture after exposure of 5 Gy of gamma rays were: blurred renal architecture, intracellular oedema, damaged tubules, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei in the cortical and medullary part. The changes were more marked on day 7, but on day 14 the signs of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better renal architecture was observed. In cadmium chloride treated animals the changes observed were: cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, crenated and pycnotic nuclei. The

  11. Flavocoxid, a Natural Antioxidant, Protects Mouse Kidney from Cadmium-Induced Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Micali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium (Cd, a diffused environmental pollutant, has adverse effects on urinary apparatus. The role of flavocoxid, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant activity, on the morphological and biochemical changes induced in vivo by Cd in mice kidney was evaluated. Methods. C57 BL/6J mice received 0.9% NaCl alone, flavocoxid (20 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, Cd chloride (CdCl2 (2 mg/kg/day i.p. alone, or CdCl2 plus flavocoxid (2 mg/kg/day i.p. plus 20 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days. The kidneys were processed for biochemical, structural, ultrastructural, and morphometric evaluation. Results. Cd treatment alone significantly increased urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; reduced GSH, GR, and GPx; and induced structural and ultrastructural changes in the glomeruli and in the tubular epithelium. After 14 days of treatment, flavocoxid administration reduced urea nitrogen and creatinine, iNOS, MMP-9, and pERK 1/2 expression and protein carbonyl; increased GSH, GR, and GPx; and showed an evident preservation of the glomerular and tubular structure and ultrastructure. Conclusions. A protective role of flavocoxid against Cd-induced oxidative damages in mouse kidney was demonstrated for the first time. Flavocoxid may have a promising antioxidant role against environmental Cd harmful effects on glomerular and tubular lesions.

  12. Effect of nickel chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione concentration in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1989-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of nickel chloride enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation (HLP) in 6-wk-old and 8-12-wk-old male CBA-mice but not in 3-wk-old mice. Nickel chloride administration depleted hepatic GSH in 8-12-wk-old mice but not in the younger age groups. After 300 mumol NiCl2/kg...

  13. Effects of Chemical Applications to Metal Polluted Soils on Cadmium Uptake by Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment using metal polluted soils was conducted to investigate the effects of lime, iron and sulfur on changes in Cd availability and uptake by rice plant. Drainage and irrigation of water were performed to develop redox changes like field cultivation. Iron chloride and sodium sulfate solutions were applied to the pots in the middle of growth period of rice plant. Reactive metal pool in heavily polluted soils was slightly decreased after treatments with lime, iron chloride, sodium sulfate and combination of these chemicals. However, cadmium uptake by rice plant was significantly different across the treatments and the extent of Cd pollution. For highly polluted soils, more Cd reduction was observed in iron chloride treatments. Cd content in polished rice for iron chloride and (iron chloride+organic matter treatments was only 16-23% and 25-37% compared to control and liming, respectively. Treatment of (iron chloride+sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice. For moderately polluted soils, Cd reduction rate was the order of (OM+iron chloride > iron chloride > lime. Other treatments including sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice maximum 3 times than control. It was proposed to determine the optimum application rate of iron for minimizing hazardous effect on rice plant.

  14. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  15. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  16. Effects of cadmium on haemopoiesis in irradiated and non-irradiated mice: 2. Relationship to the number of circulating blood cells and haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.O.; Lenikova, S.; Fedorocko, P.; Brezani, P.; Fedorockova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of administration of cadmium alone in non-irradiated mice as well as the effect of pre-irradiation administration of cadmium on the reparation processes were investigated in mice irradiated with a dose of 7.5 Gy. The pre-irradiation administration of cadmium accelerated the reparation process in the bone marrow and spleen as well as the number of leukocytes and thrombocytes in the peripheral blood. The administration of cadmium alone caused a temporary weight decrease of the thymus and reduced the number of erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and the haemoglobin values in the peripheral blood. The temporary rapid increase in the number of leukocytes on the 21st day after cadmium administration was investigated. 3 figs., 28 refs

  17. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  18. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  19. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  20. Effect of and as probiotic on decreased absorption of cadmium in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a wide-spread heavy metal that causes a wide range of health problems in animals and humans. Many reports showed the biosorption of heavy metals by bacteria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potency of probiotics bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans against cadmium adsorption in rats. Twenty four male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Cadmium treated groups received 1 ml of 100 µg/ml CdCl2 and probiotics groups were administrated 1 ml of (109 CFU/ml of probiotics during 24 days by special gavage needle once daily. Levels of cadmium were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Probiotics B. coagulans and L. plantarum caused 29.8% and 19.3% increasing in removal of cadmium through defecation and decreased 10.9 and 21.5 % of cadmium accumulation in kidney of Wistar rats. The results showed that oral administration of both probiotics offered a significant protective effect against cadmium adsorption in rats.

  1. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinto, Alvine C; Prucha, Melinda S; Colli-Dula, Reyna C; Kroll, Kevin J; Lavelle, Candice M; Barber, David S; Vulpe, Christopher D; Denslow, Nancy D

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level - 2.6μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly increased in the liver including genes encoding for the rate limiting steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the catalytic enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Integration of the transcriptomic data using functional enrichment analyses revealed a number of enriched gene networks associated with previously reported adverse outcomes of cadmium exposure such as liver toxicity and impaired reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissa, Prashant; Purohit, Suresh; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. The concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the effect of cadmium and radiation alone or in combination, on the kidney of Swiss albino mice. In the present investigation, adult male mice were divided into four groups. Group I included Sham irradiated normal mice. Group II was treated with Cadmium Chloride at the dose of 20 ppm while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Animals of Group IV were treated with both Cadmium Chloride and 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. The animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. In Cadmium Chloride treated group the values of total proteins and cholesterol declined up to day-14 thereafter the values increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal. The values of glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-14 then decreased up to day-28 without reaching to the norma. Mice exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays showed increased in the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-24 and declined thereafter up to day-28 . Whereas the value of cholesterol decreased up to day-14 and then increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal level. Combined exposure to Cadmium chloride and radiation registered similar pattern of decrease and increase but the changes were more pronounced in all the

  3. Effects of cadmium on the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) a known environmental contaminant is neurotoxic. Kinetics of cadmium inhibition indicate that the metal may compete with ATP and Na + sites on Na + -K + ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes. Uptake and release processes of catecholamines into the central nervous system are dependent on membrane bound Na + -K + ATPase. It is suggested that the uptake and release processes of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in neurons are energy utilizing and hence are dependent on active ion transport. If the two aforementioned mechanisms are truly interdependent, then any alteration caused by a toxin to either of the above two mechanisms should also cause a parallel change in the other. The purpose of this study was to examine in vitro effects of cadmium chloride on the uptake of DA and NE and the activity of ATPase in the rat brain synaptosome

  4. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  5. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  6. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. On the physicochemical states of cadmium and lead in sea water and sediment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Sakai, Takashi; Inoue, Yoriteru

    1976-01-01

    The existence states of cadmium and lead in sea water taken from Wakasa Bay in Japan were experimentally studied and their transfer to bottom sand layer was tested. Sample water was filtered through a glass wool filter and a 0.45 μ-m membrane filter. Cadmium chloride and lead chloride were fed so that the concentrations of the metals became the environmental standard values (0.01 ppm for cadmium and 0.1 ppm for lead). Cd-115m and lead-210 were added to the sample as tracers. The existence states were measured by dialysis, the filtration with a membrane filter and the adsorption on an ion-exchange resin. As a result, the ionic state of cadmium decreased to 85% and the deposition factor on the membrane filter increased to about 30% when pH is 9.6. The distribution factor of the cation exchange resin was 2 - 5, whereas that of the anion exchange resin was 1000 or more at pH 8,4 or less, but was reduced to 541 at pH 9.6. The ion existence ratio of lead was 80% - 90% at pH 8 or less, and was 10% or less at pH 8.8. The deposition factor of lead was higher than that of cadmium. The distribution factor of lead showed similar tendency to that of cadmium. As a result of measuring the radioactivity adsorbed by the bottom sand in the experimental tank, it was found that the transfer of very small amount of heavy metals to the bottom material depended upon the physicochemical existence states of the metals in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan BK

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure.

  9. Sex differences in shotgun proteome analyses for chronic oral intake of cadmium in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Yamanobe

    Full Text Available Environmental diseases related to cadmium exposure primarily develop owing to industrial wastewater pollution and/or contaminated food. In regions with high cadmium exposure in Japan, cadmium accumulation occurs primarily in the kidneys of individuals who are exposed to the metal. In contrast, in the itai-itai disease outbreak that occurred in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan, cadmium primarily accumulated in the liver. On the other hand, high concentration of cadmium caused renal tubular disorder and osteomalacia (multiple bone fracture, probably resulting from the renal tubular dysfunction and additional pathology. In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic cadmium intake. We administered cadmium-containing drinking water (32 mg/l to female and male mice ad libitum for 11 weeks. Metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that cadmium accumulated in the kidneys (927 x 10 + 185 ng/g in females and 661 x 10 + 101 ng/g in males, liver (397 x 10 + 199 ng/g in females and 238 x 10 + 652 ng/g in males, and thyroid gland (293 + 93.7 ng/g in females and 129 + 72.7 ng/g in males of mice. Female mice showed higher cadmium accumulation in the kidney, liver, and thyroid gland than males did (p = 0.00345, p = 0.00213, and p = 0.0331, respectively. Shotgun proteome analyses after chronic oral administration of cadmium revealed that protein levels of glutathione S-transferase Mu2, Mu4, and Mu7 decreased in the liver, and those of A1 and A2 decreased in the kidneys in both female and male mice.

  10. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  11. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  12. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  13. Protective effects of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pin; Chen, Fu-xin; Wang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Jin, Sai; Ma, Yang-min

    2014-05-01

    The oxidative status and morphological changes of mouse liver exposed to cadmium chloride (Cd(II)) and therapeutic potential of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) extract against Cd(II)-induced hepatic injury were investigated. A variety of parameters were evaluated, including lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO) level, DNA fragment, as well as antioxidative defense system (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH)). Elemental analysis and evaluation of morphological changes and NO levels were also performed. Exposure to Cd(II) led to increased LPO and PCO as well as DNA fragment and a reduction of SOD and CAT activities, however, the content of GSH elevated probably due to biological adaptive-response. In contrast, co-treatment of anthocyanin (Ay) inhibited the increased oxidative parameters as well as restored the activities of antioxidative defense system in a dose-dependent manner. Ay administration regained these morphological changes caused by intoxication of Cd(II) to nearly normal levels. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd(II) in liver may be one of the reasons for Cd(II) toxicity and Ay can chelate with Cd(II) to reduce Cd(II) burden. The influence of Cd(II) on the Zn and Ca levels can also be adjusted by the co-administration of Ay. Exposure to Cd(II) led to an increase of NO and Ay reduced NO contents probably by directly scavenging. Potential mechanisms for the protective effect of Ay have been proposed, including its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect along with the metal-chelating capacity. These results suggest that blueberry extract may be valuable as a therapeutic agent in combating Cd(II)-induced tissue injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventive effects of β-cryptoxanthin against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ran Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available β-cryptoxanthin (CRY, a major carotenoid of potential interest for health, is obtained naturally from orange vegetables and fruits. A few research studies have reported that CRY could decrease oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CRY on acute cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 -induced oxidative damage in rat testes. For this study, 24 rats were divided into four groups, one of which serves as a control group that received intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of corn oil and physiological saline. The other rats were i.p. injected with CRY (10 μg kg−1 every 8 h, beginning 8 h before CdCl 2 (2.0 mg kg−1 treatment. The pathological and TUNEL findings revealed that CRY ameliorated the Cd-induced testicular histological changes and germ cell apoptosis in the rats. Furthermore, the Cd-induced decrease in the testicular testosterone (T level was attenuated after CRY administration (P < 0.05. The administration of CRY significantly reversed the Cd-induced increases in the lipid peroxide (LPO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels (P < 0.01. The testicular antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH were decreased by treatment with Cd alone but were restored by CRY co-treatment. These results demonstrated that the application of CRY can enhance the tolerance of rats to Cd-induced oxidative damage and suggest that it has promised as a pharmacological agent to protect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity.

  15. Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson D

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available David Hutchinson,1,2 Judith Müller,3 Joseph E McCarthy,4 Yurii K Gun’ko,4,5 Navin Kumar Verma,6 Xuezhi Bi,7 Luisana Di Cristo,8 Laura Kickham,8 Dania Movia,8 Adriele Prina-Mello,5,8 Yuri Volkov5,8,9 1Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, Treliske, 2University of Exeter Medical School Cornwall, UK; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4School of Chemistry, 5Advanced Materials for BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 7Bioprocessing Technology Institute, A*STAR Graduate Academy, Singapore; 8Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 9International Laboratory of Magnetically Controlled Nanosystems for Theranostics of Oncological and Cardiovascular Diseases, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 and cadmium oxide (CdO, respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77 and type I (9, 10 were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the

  16. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  18. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  19. BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LIPID METABOLISM IN ANIMALS AFFECTED BY HEAVY METAL SALTS AND TREATED WITH CARNITINE CHLORIDE AND SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Bekus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipid metabolism disorders in the organism affected by environmental pollutants, including poisoning with cadmium and lead salts are of topical matter nowadays. Objective. The study was aimed to examine biochemical features of lipid metabolism in rats subjected to toxic damage by lead and cadmium salts and treated with carnitine chloride and Algigel. Methods. Experiments were carried out on white mature outbred male rats weighing 180-200 g. To cause the toxic damage the animals were administered with aqueous solution of cadmium chloride and lead acetate daily for the period of 30 days using intra-gastric lavage. The indices of lipid metabolism were detected by biochemical methods. Results. In animals treated with cadmium chloride and lead acetate the following changes were observed: HDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased, resulting in 87% of the levels in the intact animals on the third day, 84% on the fifth and 80% on the seventh day. Conversely, concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol significantly increased during the experiment. Respectively, the ratios for HDL-cholesterol are 240%, 352%, and 388%; and for VLDL-cholesterol 108%, 116%, and 132%. Conclusions. Lipids profile of the rats displayed changes in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins of low, high and very low density.

  20. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  1. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  2. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  3. A comparative investigation of DNA strand breaks, sister chromatid exchanges and K-ras gene mutations induced by cadmium salts in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouron, Silvana Andrea; Grillo, Claudia Alejandra; Dulout, Fernando Noel; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal of continuing occupational and environmental concern with a wide variety of adverse effects. Several studies have shown that cadmium produces DNA strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, dysregulation of gene expression resulting in enhanced proliferation, depressed apoptosis and/or altered DNA repair. This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and cadmium sulphate (CdSO 4 ) to induce point mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods. Also their genotoxic effects were analyzed by the comet assay and sister chromatid exchanges test. The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 was used for the experiments. Sister chromatid exchanges assay (SCEs) frequencies were significantly increased in cells exposed to cadmium salts in relation to controls (p < 0.001). Despite the slow increment observed in the three comet parameters considered when cells were treated with cadmium chloride, significant differences between groups were only found in the variable comet moment (CM) (p < 0.005). On the other hand, when cells were exposed to cadmium sulphate, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed highly significant differences between groups for migration, tail moment and comet moment parameters (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, a null or weak point mutation induction in K-ras protooncogene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-low ionic strength-single strand conformation polymorphisms (PCR-LIS-SSCP) and RFLP-enriched PCR methods when cells were treated with cadmium salts. Thus, inorganic cadmium produces genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells, in the absence of significant point mutation of the K-ras gene

  4. The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo ESPANANY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hereby study was based on a factorial experiment conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, at Agriculture College, Shahrekord University, Iran, in 2014. The role of salicylic acid (SA, potassium nitrate (KNO3 and potassium chloride (KCl was evaluated on seed germination of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under different cadmium concentrations. Treatments included four levels of seed priming (no priming, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, salicylic acid and four levels of cadmium concentration (0, 10, 20, 30 mg/L. Cadmium chloride caused a significant inhibition in germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and seedling dry weight. The shoot length was more sensitive to cadmium concentrations than the root length. Primed seeds with SA (100 mg/L proved protection against Cd stress and increased the germination percentage, root elongation, shoot elongation and dry weight of seedlings compared to the control treatment. Seeds treated with SA alleviated the Cd negative effect on germination parameters. In conclusion, using seed priming with salicylic acid can be recommended as a good technique for fenugreek crop on fields exposed to high cadmium toxicity.

  5. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehinto, Alvine C.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S.; Vulpe, Christopher D.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  6. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  7. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  8. Gene networks and toxicity pathways induced by acute cadmium exposure in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehinto, Alvine C., E-mail: alvinam@sccwrp.org [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Prucha, Melinda S. [Department of Human Genetics, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Colli-Dula, Reyna C.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Lavelle, Candice M.; Barber, David S. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vulpe, Christopher D. [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Low-level acute cadmium exposure elicited tissue-specific gene expression changes. • Molecular initiating events included oxidative stress and disruption of DNA repair. • Metallothionein, a marker of metal exposure, was not significantly affected. • We report effects of cadmium on cholesterol metabolism and steroid synthesis. • Diabetic complications and impaired reproduction are potential adverse outcomes. - Abstract: Cadmium is a heavy metal that can accumulate to toxic levels in the environment leading to detrimental effects in animals and humans including kidney, liver and lung injuries. Using a transcriptomics approach, genes and cellular pathways affected by a low dose of cadmium were investigated. Adult largemouth bass were intraperitoneally injected with 20 μg/kg of cadmium chloride (mean exposure level – 2.6 μg of cadmium per fish) and microarray analyses were conducted in the liver and testis 48 h after injection. Transcriptomic profiles identified in response to cadmium exposure were tissue-specific with the most differential expression changes found in the liver tissues, which also contained much higher levels of cadmium than the testis. Acute exposure to a low dose of cadmium induced oxidative stress response and oxidative damage pathways in the liver. The mRNA levels of antioxidants such as catalase increased and numerous transcripts related to DNA damage and DNA repair were significantly altered. Hepatic mRNA levels of metallothionein, a molecular marker of metal exposure, did not increase significantly after 48 h exposure. Carbohydrate metabolic pathways were also disrupted with hepatic transcripts such as UDP-glucose, pyrophosphorylase 2, and sorbitol dehydrogenase highly induced. Both tissues exhibited a disruption of steroid signaling pathways. In the testis, estrogen receptor beta and transcripts linked to cholesterol metabolism were suppressed. On the contrary, genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were highly

  9. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  10. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  11. The Effects of Agaricus blazei Murill Polysaccharides on Cadmium-Induced Apoptosis and the TLR4 Signaling Pathway of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Ge, Ming; Hu, Xuequan; Lv, Ai; Ma, Dexing; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Ruili

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Agaricus blazei Murill polysaccharides (ABP) on cadmium (Cd)-induced apoptosis and the TLR4 signaling pathway of chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Seven-day-old healthy chickens were randomly divided into four groups, and each group contained 20 males. The cadmium-supplemented diet group (Cd group) was fed daily with full feed that contained 140 mg cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )/kg and 0.2 mL saline. The A. blazei Murill polysaccharide diet group (ABP group) was fed daily with full feed with 0.2 mL ABP solution (30 mg/mL) by oral gavage. The cadmium-supplemented plus A. blazei Murill polysaccharide diet group (Cd + ABP group) was fed daily with full feed containing 140 mg CdCl 2 /kg and 0.2 mL ABP solution (30 mg/mL) by gavage. The control group was fed daily with full feed with 0.2 mL saline per day. We measured the apoptosis rate and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of apoptosis genes (caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2), the mRNA levels of TLR4 and TLR4 signaling pathway-related factors (MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3), the TLR4 protein expression, and the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) in chicken PBLs. The results showed that the PBL apoptosis rate was significantly increased, the mRNA levels of caspase-3 and Bax were significantly increased, while that of Bcl-2 was significantly reduced. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased in the Cd group at 20, 40, and 60 days after treatment compared with that in the control group. After treatment with ABP, the above changes were clearly suppressed. At the same time, ABP reduced the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α induced by Cd. We also found that ABP inhibited the TLR4 mRNA level and protein expression and inhibited the mRNA levels of MyD88, TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3. The results demonstrated that Cd could induce apoptosis, activate the TLR4 signaling pathway, and induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in

  12. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  13. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  14. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in...

  15. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate...

  17. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  18. Selenium, cadmium and diazinon insecticide in tissues of rats after peroral exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of selenium (Se, cadmium (Cd and diazinon (DZN in selected tissues of rats after an oral administration in various combinations were analyzed. Male rats were orally dosed with diazinon (40 mg.L-1, diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +selenium (5 mg.L-1, diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +cadmium (30 mg.L-1, and diazinon (40 mg.L-1 +selenium (5 mg.L-1 +cadmium (30 mg.L-1 in drinking water. After 90 days of per oral administration of compounds, the samples of liver, kidney, muscle tissue (m. quadriceps femoris, and adipose tissue were collected. The content of DZN was analyzed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Cd was analyzed using an Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS and Se using a Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HG-AAS methods. Cadmium significantly increased in liver and kidney after DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd administration. Se significantly increased in liver of DZN +Se, DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd exposed rats, in kidney of DZN +Se and DZN +Se +Cd and DZN +Cd, and in muscle of DZN +Se +Cd group. Highest DZN content was found in the adipose tissue in DZN, DZN +Cd and DZN +Se +Cd but not in combined exposure with Se. Anyway, the differences between the control and experimental groups were not significant. The results indicate that cadmium and selenium accumulate mainly in liver, kidney and selenium also in muscle after p.o. administration but diazinon concentrations increases were not signifcant. The co-administration of diazinon, Se and Cd affects the content of these compounds in the organism and the accumulation rate depends on the combination of administered compounds. Diazinon and cadmium could contribute to the selenium redistribution in the organism after the peroral intake.

  19. The determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium and thallium in six NIMROC reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A previously reported procedure has been extended to include the determination of thallium. In samples where thallium occurred in the presence of relatively high concentrations of cadmium, the stripping peak for cadmium was first suppressed with non-ionic surface-active agent, Triton X-100. Cadmium and thallium were determined directly in six NIMROC reference materials without interference from iron(III), in a reducing electrolyte, which is also a complexing agent, consisting of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. Interelement interferences were eliminated by the use of a mercury-film electrode of adequate thickness. The limits of detection for cadmium were 10ng/g and those for thallium 20ng/g

  20. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene......-four percent (n = 23) of the animal isolates and 48% (n = 24) of the human MRSA isolates of CC398 were resistant to zinc chloride and positive for czrC. All 48 MSSA strains from both human and pig origins were found to be susceptible to zinc chloride and negative for czrC. Our findings showed that czr......C is encoding zinc and cadmium resistance in CC398 MRSA isolates, and that it is widespread both in humans and animals. Thus, resistance to heavy metals such as zinc and cadmium may play a role in the coselection of methicillin resistance in S. aureus....

  1. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen chloride derived from radiances measured primarily by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  2. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen chloride derived from radiances measured primarily by the 640 GHz radiometer. The...

  3. Extraction-spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in high-purity substances. 2. Silicon determination in cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudelevich, I G; Shaburova, V P; Shamrina, L V [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (USSR). Inst. Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium extraction by tributyl phosphate and trialkylbenzylammonium chloride (TABAC) depending on acid (HCl, HI), extracting agent concentration, volume of aqueous and organic phases, number of extraction steps is investigated. On the basis of the obtained results the spectrophotometric method for silicon determination in cadmium and CdCl/sub 2/ using malachite green with preliminary extraction of the base by the TABAC from HCl solutions. The method detection limit is 3.9x10/sup -4/ % Si with respect to initial cadmium sample of 100 mg and 7.8x10/sup -5/ % with respect to 0.5 g of CdCl/sub 2/. The relative standard deviation is S/sub r/-0.07-0.13.

  4. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  5. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  6. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  7. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  8. Comparative molecular pathology of cadmium- and all-trans-retinoic acid-induced postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Xiaoyan; Lee, Grace S.; Shimizu, Hirohito; Collins, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induce postaxial forelimb ectrodactyly in C57BL/6N mice when administered during early limb development, and co-administration yields a synergistic response suggesting a common final pathway to the defect. In the current study, forelimb buds from embryos given high maternal teratogenic doses of CdCl 2 or RA, or the combination of both agents at low doses were collected at various time points after treatment on GD 9.5 and examined for cellular apoptosis, proliferation, and patterning genes. Some cellular perturbations detected in the developing limb bud were similar for both teratogens, whereas other alterations were unique to each agent. For example, at 12 and 18 h, CdCl 2 treatment increased apoptotic cells in the mesenchyme underneath the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), whereas RA caused apoptosis in the AER and proximal mesenchyme. Further, the combined low-dose treatment increased cell death synergistically in all three regions. CdCl 2 and the low-dose combined treatment inhibited mesenchymal proliferation at 12 h, which was associated with induction of p21 cip1 and inhibition of phospho-c-Jun. In contrast, RA did not inhibit mesenchymal proliferation and did not induce p21 cip1 expression or change c-Jun phosphorylation. All three treatment groups showed a delay in the patterning of distal chondrogenesis centers as indicated by Sox9 expression. There was also common inhibition in the expression of AER markers, Fgf8 and Fgf4, and the mesenchymal marker Msx1 involved in the maintenance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Collectively, a model is hypothesized where limb patterning can be perturbed by insults to both ectoderm and mesoderm

  9. Protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Purohit, R.K.; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.0 and 4.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the brain of Swiss albino mice. The histopathological changes observed were pycnotic nuclei and crenated cells with condensation of nuclear material resulting into hyperchromatic cells. Hydrocephaly with enlarged lateral ventricles was also noted. Corpus callosum was seen malformed. Thickened meninges and venous congestion were also noticed. In the irradiated brains cytoarchitectonic layers were reduced in depth and showed some degree of intermixing of cells of various laminae. Hematoma was present between the cortex and medulla with numerous pycnotic and necrotic nuclei. Disarray of the cortical tissue with disorientation of cell processes was also evident. Damage in the cortex was noticed in the form of karyolysis, pycnosis and spongy degeneration of the connective tissue with the thickening of meninges. Dilation of blood vessels was also observed at certain places. Quality of these changes remaining the same, but their magnitude increased with dose. With an increase in the dose, time of the onset of recovery is delayed and the time required for complete recovery is longer. After the combined exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride, the histological changes were similar but showed higher magnitude than the individual exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride. The brain of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. (author)

  10. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  12. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  13. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  14. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  15. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients

  16. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M; Tel-Or, E; Fritz, E; Huttermann, A

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  17. Localization and Toxic Effects of Cadmium, Copper, and Uranium in Azolla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Mordechai; Tel-Or, Elisha; Fritz, Eberhardt; Huttermann, Aloys

    1988-01-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:16666274

  18. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  19. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  1. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  4. Atomization of cadmium by FAAS in presence of a complex matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, M; Vanderstappen, R; van Hoeyweghen, P

    1979-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements which is easily determinated in the absence of interfering ions by a flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, because of its low detection limits and good reproducibility of the measurements. In this study some of these interferences are evaluated and a method is described to overcome them by increasing the available carbon during the carbo-reduction having place in the thermal program run. This influence already partially assumed to happen by the furnace is completed by the carbon resulting from the thermal decomposition of the ascorbic acid added to the solutions. Perturbations of the atomization due to the excess of sodium and magnesium chlorides are considerably compensated. These encouraging results led to the realisation of the determination of cadmium in sea water by direct injection.

  5. Crystallinity of the double layer of cadmium arachidate films at the water surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leveiller, F.; Jacquemain, D.; Lahav, M.

    1991-01-01

    A crystalline counterionic layer at the interface between an electrolyte solution and a charged layer of insoluble amphiphilic molecules was observed with grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Uncompressed arachidic films spread over 10(-3) molar cadmium chloride solution (pH 8.......8) spontaneously form crystalline clusters with coherence lengths of approximately 1000 angstroms at 9-degrees-C. Ten distinct diffraction peaks were observed, seven of which were attributed to scattering only from a crystalline Cd2+ layer and the other three to scattering primarily from the arachidate layer....... The reflections from the Cd2+ layer were indexed according to a 2 X 3 supercell of the arachidate lattice with three Cd2+ ions per cadmium unit cell....

  6. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of the sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Holwerda, D.A.; Van der Mast, C.A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular toxicity of cadmium was studied in the gill tissue of the sea mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed to cadmium chloride at 50 or 250 microgram Cd/L for short periods. Then the gills were excised and incubated with 35-S-methionine or cysteine for 4 hr. Uptake of radiolabeled amino acids by the isolated gills was not affected by Cd, whereas the incorporation of label was significantly decreased after Cd exposure. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill proteins. It revealed that the expression of particular proteins was differently altered by Cd. One dimensional gel analysis by 35-S-cysteine labeled gill proteins demonstrated that Cd induced, in a concentration dependent manner, a cysteine-rich protein with a molecular weight of approximately 13 kDa, consisting of two isomers with low isoelectric points

  7. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  8. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Protective role of cabbage extract versus cadmium-induced oxidative renal and thyroid hormones dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M. F. S.; OSMAN, N. N.; DARWISH, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of Cd damage. Cabbage is economically an important cole crop grown and consumed worldwide. It belongs the Cruciferous vegetables (Brassica), which have been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd damage, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of cabbage extract (C.E.) on Cd-induced dysfunction in the kidney of rats. The thyroid hormones values were also determined. Male Wistar rats were provided with cadmium chloride (100 mg/ L water) as the only drinking fluid and/or cabbage extract (C.E.) (5 ml/ kg body weight /day) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of Cd significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine with a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. It also significantly declined the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. Intoxication of Cd to rats reduced serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Reduced glutathione (GSH), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly (p < 0.05) depressed with a concomitant marked enhancement in lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). Co-administration of C.E. along with Cd resulted in a reversal of the Cd-induced biochemical variables in kidney accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a higher levels of renal antioxidant defense system. However, incorporation of C.E. to rats whether applied alone or in combination with Cd did not reveal any change in the thyroid hormones levels, which reflect significant drop in

  10. Effects of calcium and magnesium acetates on tissue distribution of carcinogenic doses of calcium chloride in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium, unlike calcium, prevents cadmium carcinogenesis at the subcutaneous injection site, and that neither magnesium nor calcium has any significant influence on the production of testicular tumors by cadmium in rats. The present investigation attempts to disclose the nature of those different effects by comparing the results of administration of both physiological metals on the uptake and distribution of carcinogenic doses of cadmium in rats. Male Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 109 CdCl 2 (0.02 mmol/kg or 0.04 mmol/kg) and s.c. injections (one daily) of calcium acetate (CaAcet; 0.16 mmol/kg), or magnesium acetate (MgAcet; 4 mmol/kg) or saline on the day before, the day of and the day after the 109 CdCl 2 dosing. The concentration of cadmium in tissues was determined by gamma-counting on the 4th, the 15th and the 45th day after 109 CdCl 2 injection. The concentration of cadmium in tissues on day 4 was ranked as follows: liver > kidney > the injection site skin > pancreas > spleen > heart > lung > distant skin > testes > blood. Administration of CaAcet increased by over 20% and that of MgAcet decreased by over 30% the initial uptake of both cadmium doses at the injection site. The MgAcet may prevent cadmium carcinogenesis by inhiniting the uptake of cadmium by the injection site tissues. In the testis and in all other tissues investigated, except kidney, the effects of the physiological metals were reversed, CaAcet and MgAcet tended to increase the uptake of cadmium. CaAcet exerted no noticeable effects on the uptake of cadmium by the kidney. The observed results of CaAcet and MgAcet administration on the concentration of cadmium in distal tissues seem to depend on the alterations in cadmium uptake at the injection site. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  12. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  14. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  15. Performance of the mesh-type liquid cadmium cathode structure for the electrodeposition of uranium from the molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, H.; Ahn, D.H.; Yoon, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A mesh-type liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) structure has been devised to improve the performance of the electro-winning process for the recovery of actinides in a molten chloride system. For the verification of its performance, electrodeposition experiments of uranium from the molten LiCl-KCl-UCl 3 salt were conducted at 773 K for different current densities using the mesh-type LCC structure. Uranium was successfully collected over 5 wt. % in the LCC without growing uranium dendrites. The mesh-type LCC structure prevented the uncontrolled growth of uranium dendrites into the electrolyte phase above the cadmium surface and caused the LCC deposit to accumulate at the higher in the cadmium phase over uranium solubility in cadmium. After cooling the LCC crucible, its solid deposits were identified as an intermetallic compound UCd 11 by EPMA and XRD analysis. The cathode potential profiles from the electrochemical experiments and the chemical structure of the LCC deposits showed that it could be applied practically to recover the actinides above their solubility in cadmium. (orig.)

  16. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  17. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  18. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  19. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  20. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  1. UHF-plasma torch emission spectrometry for cadmium, lead and zinc by vaporization introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    As the introduction technique of aerosol into the plasma torch, vaporization introduction of metals was studied. An aliquot of metal nitrates was pipetted in a graphite crucible and dried with a vacuum pump. The dried sample was heated in a high-frequency induction furnace under inert gas carrier such as argon or nitrogen (reduction introduction). Chlorination introduction with hydrogen chloride was also studied. High-purity grade of argon, nitrogen and hydrogen chloride was used as carrier. Intensities were based on the peak area of intensity-time curves at 228.8 nm (cadmium), 405.8 nm (lead), and 213.9 nm (zinc). In the reduction introduction, the minimum temperatures to attain a constant peak area, which means a complete vaporization were 700 0 C (cadmium), 1500 0 C (lead), and 1100 0 C (zinc), respectively. In the chlorination, this temperature was 500 0 C (cadmium), 700 0 C (lead), and 300 0 C (zinc) respectively. For two introduction techniques, the latter was more sensitive than the former for cadmium and zinc, while the former was more sensitive for lead. The optimum temperature, detection limits, and the coefficients of variance calculated from the measurements of 1.0 μg of metals were as follows: Cadmium: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 10%. Lead: reduction at 1600 0 C, D.L. 10ng, C.V. 15%. Zinc: chlorination at 850 0 C, D.L. 5ng, C.V. 9%. Linear calibration lines having 45 0 slope at log-log plots, were obtained over the range from 0.05 to 6 μg for cadmium and zinc, 0.06 to 6 μg for lead on the conditions above. These techniques were also applied for analyses of biological materials for three metals without prior separations. Although the sensitivity of the chlorination introduction technique for lead was rather poor compared with that of reduction technique, the chlorination technique was applied to minimize the introduction of coexisting materials such as alkali and alkaline earth metals. The analytical results agreed reasonably with the

  2. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  3. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected......Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...

  4. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  6. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  7. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  9. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  10. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  11. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  12. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  13. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  14. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-01-01

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO 3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  15. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  16. Comparison of radioisotopic studied calcium metabolism in the orally administered and inhaled cadmium rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.J.; Oustrin, J.; Godin, J.; Boudene, C.

    1982-01-01

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in the rat after oral administration of cadmium, 8 mg/kg during 13 weeks, has shown two different effects of this ion: 1) in the intestine, cadmium inhibits the absorption of calcium by active transport; 2) in the deep bone compartment, the decrease of the bone calcium used for the crystallization and slowly exchangeable with the calcium central pool (serum, extracellular and soft tissues calcium) is combined with a reduction of the exchange rates between the two compartments. When administered through a microparticle aerosol inhalation (1 mg/m 3 of air, 30 mn a day, during 12 weeks), cadmium's main target organ is the deep bone compartment. For both modes of administration, the slowing down of osteogenesis is confirmed by a drop in serum alkaline phosphatase after a four weeks period which reflects a decrease of the osteoblastic activity. Therefore it appears that the effects on bones observed during the chronic oral cadmium administration, do not result from a malabsorption of intestine calcium but also from the very action the Cd ++ ion on the bone crystallization process [fr

  17. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  18. Cadmium safety rod thermal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal testing of cadmium safety rods was conducted as part of a program to define the response of Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor core components to a hypothetical LOCA leading to a drained reactor tank. The safety rods are present in the reactor core only during shutdown and are not used as a control mechanism during operation; thus, their response to the conditions predicted for the LOCA is only of interest to the extent that it could impact the progression of the accident. This document provides a description of this testing

  19. Testing Cadmium-Free Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    Secretary of Defense Directive • “Approve the use of alternatives [to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+)] where they can perform adequately for the intended...Effect of corrosion on breakaway torque 12 OPSEC approved for public release Fastener Finish Study FINISH POST-TREATMENT LUBRICANT Cadmium Hexavalent ...Past Testing Electrical Connectors Coatings Al / TCP ZnNi / TCP ZnNi / Non- Chrome Passivation (NCP) Ni-PTFE 1 Ni-PTFE 2 Note: SnZn tested on flat

  20. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  1. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  2. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  3. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  4. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  5. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  6. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  7. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  8. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  9. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  10. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  11. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  12. Acute cadmium intoxication induces alpha-class glutathione S-transferase protein synthesis and enzyme activity in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalino, Elisabetta; Sblano, Cesare; Calzaretti, Giovanna; Landriscina, Clemente

    2006-01-01

    Acute cadmium intoxication affects glutathione S-transferase (GST) in rat liver. It has been found that 24 h after i.p. cadmium administration to rats, at a dose of 2.5 mg CdCl 2 kg -1 body weight, the activity of this enzyme in liver cytosol increased by 40%. A less stimulatory effect persisted till 48 h and thereafter the enzyme activity normalized. Since, GST isoenzymes belong to different classes in mammalian tissues, we used quantitative immunoassays to verify which family of GST isoenzymes is influenced by this intoxication. Only alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) proteins were detected in rat liver cytosol and their level increased by about 25%, 24 h after cadmium treatment. No pi-GST isoforms were found in liver cytosol from either normal or cadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of actinomycin D with cadmium normalized both the protein level and the activity of α-GST, suggesting that some effect occurs on enzyme transcription of these isoenzymes by this metal. On the other hand, it seems unlikely that the stimulatory effect is due to the high level of peroxides caused by lipid peroxidation, since Vitamin E administration strongly reduced the TBARS level, but did not cause any GST activity decrease

  13. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  17. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  19. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  20. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  1. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  2. Distribution and excretion of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to egg and bone in laying female and estrogenized male Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M; Sakuta, M; Okamoto, K; Urakawa, N

    1974-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 115m/cadmium and its transfer to the egg were investigated in laying Japanese quail. Furthermore, the influence of estrogens on the tissue uptake of /sup 115m/cadmium was analyzed in adult male quail. Whole-body sections of a laying quail were prepared. Autoradiograms were made in birds killed 1, 24, 48, 96, 192 and 384 hours after a single injection of /sup 115m/cadmium chloride. During the first 48 hours following the injection, high concentrations of /sup 115m/cadmium were detected in the liver, kidneys, pancreas, proventriculus, uterus and small intestine. In eggs laid, /sup 115m/cadmium was detected only in the yolk. Its amount in the yolk was the highest in the second egg and decreased afterwards in the increasing order of oviposition sequence. The amount of the second egg was 0.21 percent of the given. In the male quail after estrogenization, the concentration of /sup 115m/cadmium increased in the femur and decreased in the liver, whole blood, and blood corpuscle, but was not affected at all in the kidney or blood plasma. These effects were dependent on the dose of estradiol benzoate. The cumulative contents of /sup 115m/cadmium in feces and urine for 192 hours were 28.42 +/- 0.73 (mean +/- standard error) percent of the dose given in laying quail, 25.83 +/- 0.91 percent in untreated males, and 27.81 +/- 0.63 percent in estrogenized males. It appeared that the increased uptake of cadmium in the femur by the estrogenization was roughly parallel with the formation of intramedullary bone. 22 references, 8 figures.

  3. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  4. GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Merged Data for Hydrogen Chloride Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozMmlpHCl) contains zonal means and related...

  5. Effect of two heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, on the organic load removal efficiency in a laboratory UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Luis Eduardo; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in three up flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactors each with 3 L capacity, four hours of hydraulic retention time, (HRT) and volumetric organic load of 4,8 g/L/d. After the initial start phase, which was of 4.000 hours for the three reactors, they were affected in the following way: the first reactor was continuously feed with 5 mg/L of cadmium chloride, the second one was continuously feed with 10 mg/L of nickel chloride and the last one was not affected and served as reference. Efficiency in organic load removal was measured as oxygen chemical demand (OCD), the first reactor changed from 60% in the start phase (phase one) to 18% in the cadmium-affected phase (phase two), efficiency in removal (OCI) in reactor two varied from 60 to 24% and the last one did not change in a noticeable manner. Reactor one accumulated cadmium in the mud, whereas reactor two did not do that with nickel

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Aruna; Latha, M; Velumani, S; Oza, Goldie; Reyes-Figueroa, P; Rohini, M; Becerril-Juarez, I G; Lee, Jae-Hyeong; Yi, Junsin

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation method using cadmium chloride (CdCl2), sodium sulfide (Na2S) and water as a solvent by varying temperatures from 20-80 degrees C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. XRD pattern revealed cubic crystal structure for all the synthesized CdS nanoparticles. Raman spectra showed first and second order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibrational modes of CdS. The size of CdS nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 15-80 nm by FE-SEM analysis, in all cases. The atomic percentage of cadmium and sulfur was confirmed to be 1:1 from EDS analysis. TEM micrograph depicts the spherical shape of the particles and the size is in the range of 15-85 nm while HR-TEM images of CdS nanoparticles exhibit well-resolved lattice fringes of the cubic structure of CdS. The optical properties of CdS were examined by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed variation in absorption band from 460-480 nm. The band gap was calculated from the absorption edge and found to be in the range of 3.2-3.5 eV which is greater than the bulk CdS.

  7. Subsurface cadmium loss from a stony soil-effect of cow urine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colin William; Chrystal, Jane Marie; Monaghan, Ross Martin; Cavanagh, Jo-Anne

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) losses in subsurface flow from stony soils that have received cow urine are potentially important, but poorly understood. This study investigated Cd loss from a soil under a winter dairy-grazed forage crop that was grazed either conventionally (24 h) or with restricted grazing (6 h). This provided an opportunity to test the hypothesis that urine inputs could increase Cd concentrations in drainage. It was thought this would be a result of cow urine either (i) enhancing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations via an increase in soil pH, resulting in the formation of soluble Cd-organic carbon complexes and, or (ii) greater inputs of chloride (Cl) via cow urine, promoting the formation of soluble Cd-Cl complexes. Cadmium concentrations in subsurface flow were generally low, with a spike above the water quality guidelines for a month after the 24-h grazing. Cadmium fluxes were on average 0.30 g Cd ha -1  year -1 (0.27-0.32 g Cd ha -1  year -1 ), in line with previous estimates for agricultural soils. The mean Cd concentration in drainage from the 24-h grazed plots was significantly higher (P soil. Further study is warranted to confirm the mechanisms involved and quantities of Cd lost from other systems.

  8. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non essential heavy metal belonging to group ... Cd from a contaminated environment leads to various pathological ..... interact with genes that are involved in human ..... Tolonen, M. (1990) Vitamins and minerals in Health.

  9. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  10. Expression of Leaf Proteins in Two Cultivars of Bread Wheat under Cadmium and Mercury Stress Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Raeesi Sadati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important source of human food. Cadmium and mercury bind to sulfhydryl groups of structural proteins and enzymes and cause inhibition in activity and decrease in protein production or interfere with the regulation of the enzymes. To study the effect of protein expression under different levels of cadmium and mercury, the experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Experimental factors consisted of two Gonbad and Tajan bread what cultivars, heavy metals in seven levels (four concentrations of mercuric chloride in 5, 10, 15 and 20 µM and cadmium chloride at two concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mM and sampling time after 8 and 16 hours of treatment. The Bradford method was used for quantitative analysis of proteins and 12% SDS-PAGE and two dimensional electrophorese techniques were hired for analysis of their expression. The results showed that under cadmium and mercury stresses, the total protein content increased compared to the control. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins under cadmium stress showed differential expression of the protein spots on the plant leaves, than the control. In general, changes in the expression of proteins under the effect of cadmium stress were divided into two main categories: Spots 9, 10, 13, 14 and 16 belonged to proteins with reduced expression and the spots 1, 2, 8, 19 and 20 belonged to proteins with increased expression, in comparison to non-stressed control. These spots of up regulated proteins were directly related to the defense system against the heavy metal stress.

  11. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  12. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  14. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity testing of heavy metals with the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: high sensitivity to cadmium and arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Bode-Kirchhoff, A.; Madeheim, A.; Wetzel, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Biologie

    1998-07-01

    We present data that the formation of nodules (nodulation) may serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of heavy metals in different binding states. Tests were performed in petri dishes with alfalfa (lucerne) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium meliloti. Cultivation took place in growth cabinets with carefully standardized and documented growth conditions. Data from stressed plants was recorded after 14 days of cultivation on contaminated substrate. A dose responsive decrease in nodulation was found after application of cadmium acetate, cadmium iodide, cadmium chloride, sodium salts of arsenate and arsenite, arsenic pentoxide, and lead nitrate, whereas lead acetate showed no effect up to a concentration of 3 {mu}M. The dose response curves were used to calculate EC10, EC50 and EC90 values. EC50 values for cadmium compounds range from 1.5 to 9.5 {mu}M. Testing different arsenic compounds results in EC50 from 2.6 to 20.1 {mu}M. EC50 of lead nitrate is 2.2 {mu}M. The sensitivity, reproducibility and reliability of this test system is discussed compared to established biotests. (orig./MG)

  16. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  17. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  18. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  19. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  20. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  1. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  2. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  3. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  4. 77 FR 13357 - The Cadmium in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... workers from the adverse health effects that may result from their exposure to cadmium. The major... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the worker who is the subject of the records, the worker's... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2012-0004] The...

  5. Luminescence properties of copper(I), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds with picoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan Grzegorz, E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl; Maroń, Anna

    2017-06-15

    Mononuclear coordination compounds of copper(I) – [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(picoline)(NO{sub 3})], zinc(II) – [ZnCl{sub 2}(picoline){sub 2}] (picoline=3– and 4–methylpyridine) and polymeric cadmium(II) – [CdCl{sub 2}(β-picoline){sub 2}]{sub n} were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed distorted tetrahedral geometry around the central ions of the compounds. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. The emission of copper(I) compounds originated from metal-to-ligand charge transfer state combined with nitrato-to-picoline charge transfer state i.e. ({sup 1}(M+X)LCT). The presence of nitrato ligand in the coordination sphere of copper(I) compounds quenches the emission. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution). - Graphical abstract: Coordination compounds of copper(I), zinc(II) and polymeric cadmium(II) with picoline ligands were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. Emission of copper(I) compounds originated from {sup 1}(M+X)LCT state. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution).

  6. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride monomer derivatives on hepatic DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used extensively in the chemical industry, mainly in the production of polyvinyl chloride. It has recently been found to cause hepatic angiosarcoma. As VCM has also been shown to be mutagenic after metabolic activation the effect of VCM on DNA synthesis was investigated. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to measure the rate of DNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. A possible direct toxic effect of VCM or its metabolites on liver cell metabolism was examined by two unrelated techniques, viz. the measurement of adenine nucleotide concentrations in regenerating livers and the influence on transmembrane potentials in hepatocytes. The distribution of radioactivity in subcellular fractions following [ 14 C]VCM administration suggested microsomal conversion of VCM to an active form which was selectively retained in the nuclear fraction. Measurement of the activities of thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase in regenerating liver indicated that the induction of these enzymes which normally occurs after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by VCM treatment. Three techniques were used to test the hypothesis that the retardation in DNA synthesis was due to DNA damage: the prophage lambda induction test for DNA damage, autoradiographic detection of unscheduled thymidine incorporation into DNA, and detection of DNA strand breaks in alkaline sucrose gradients. All three provided evidence of DNA damage and led to the development of a novel technique to confirm these findings. This involved centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients on intact double-stranded DNA contained in hepatocyte nucleoids and showed conclusively that VCM administration causes DNA strand breaks. Subsequent repair of DNA was also assessed by this technique. The site of the VCM/metabolite: DNA reaction was characterized by DNA thermal denaturation and renaturation studies

  7. Contribution of attendant anions on cadmium toxicity to soil enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Haixia; Kong, Long; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; He, Wenxiang

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and desorption are critical processes to control the mobility and biotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) in soils. It is known that attendant anion species of heavy metals could affect metal adsorption on soils and might further alter their biotoxicity. However, for Cd, the influence of attendant anions on its sorption in soils and subsequent toxicity on soil enzymes are still unknown. In this work, four Cd compounds with different salt anions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Cl - , and Ac - ) were selected to investigate their impact of on the sorption, soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP). Thus, a series of simulated Cd pollution batch experiments including measuring adsorption-desorption behavior of Cd on soils and soil enzyme activities were carried out. Results showed that CdSO 4 exhibited highest sorption capacity among the tested soils except in Hunan soil. The Cd sorption with NO 3 - displayed a similar behavior with Cl - on all tested soils. Compared with soil properties, all four kinds of anions on Cd sorption played a more significant role affecting Cd ecological toxicity to soil DHA and ALP. Cd in acetate or nitrate form appears more sensitive towards DHA than sulphate and chloride, while the later pair is more toxic towards ALP than the former. These results have important implications for evaluation of Cd contamination using soil enzyme as bioindicator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cobalt, nickel and cadmium coordination compounds with phenylacetylhydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machkhoshvili, R.I.; Metreveli, D.P.; Mitaishvili, G.Sh.; Shchelokov, R.N.

    1985-03-01

    In the process of interaction of aqueous-ethanol solutions of chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, thiocyanates of cobalt, nickel, cadmium and phenylacetylhydrazine in neutral or low-acid medium coordination compounds: (M(EAG)/sub 3/)X/sub 2/ (M=Co, Ni; X=Cl, 1/2SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/), Cd(FAG)/sub 2/X/sub 2/ (X = Cl, 1/2SO/sub 4/, NCS), Ni(EAG)/sub 2/(NCS)/sub 2/, where FAG C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 2/xCONHNH/sub 2/, have been synthesized. In the reactions of aqueous-ethanol solutions of (Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 5/Cl)Cl/sub 2/ and phenylacetylhydrazine the complex Co(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/CH/sub 2/CONNH/sub 2/)/sub 3/ is prepared. Certain physicochemical properties and IR absorption spectra of the coordination compounds synthesized are studied.

  9. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  10. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  11. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E and two-electrode (2E systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system.

  12. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  14. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  15. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  16. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  17. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  18. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  19. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  20. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  1. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  2. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  3. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  4. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  5. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  6. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  7. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  8. Thermochemistry of alkali chloride - lanthanoide(III) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Selle, D.

    1979-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the mixtures KCl + GdCl 3 resp. DyCl 3 and of CsCl + PrCl 3 (DyCl 3 , ErCl 3 , and YbCl 3 ) were investigated by differential thermal analysis. In the mixtures of lanthanoide(III) chlorides with CsCl resp. KCl three different stoichiometries of the compounds were found, namely A 3 MCl 6 , A 2 MCl 5 , and AM 2 Cl 7 . Debyeograms of the compounds A 3 MCl 6 and AM 2 Cl 7 reveal, that in the case of the latter type all compounds with the same alkali halide have identical structure, whereas in the A 3 MCl 6 compounds three different types of X-ray patterns were observed. The stabilities of the congruently melting compounds can be estimated by comparing the melting point of the compound with the temperature of an extrapolated eutectic point. (author)

  9. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  10. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  11. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  12. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  13. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  14. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  15. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  16. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  17. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  18. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  19. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  20. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  1. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  2. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  3. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  4. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  5. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  6. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  7. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  8. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  9. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K.; Moroz, Andrei; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn 2+ ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd 2+ intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl 2 diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl 2 intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd 2+ treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl 2 , respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl 2 within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its exposure. - Highlights: • Wistar rats were given

  11. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  12. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's... (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). As a result...

  13. 21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... film. 175.360 Section 175.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... coatings for nylon film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on nylon film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  15. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  16. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  17. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  18. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM MOBILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Cadmium is a toxic metal often found with a strong enrichment factor in coastal sediments. ... into the food chain, which could result in a wide variety of adverse effects in animals and ... Sampling scheme and sample conservation ..... of Cd with Fe and Mn oxides has also been reported in others studies [38, 39].

  19. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  20. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  1. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  2. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  3. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load.

  4. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  5. Effect of irradation on liver and kidney functions in rat subjected to cadmium or mercury ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, F.M.; Maharem, T.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Omeran, M.F.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Male albino rats were orally administered a single dose of cadmium chloride or mercuric acetate 5-days before exposure to whole body gamma irradiation at the dose levels 3 and 6 Gy. The biochemical analyses were carried out 3-days post irradiation. The data revealed that radiation exposure and/or Cd or Hg treatment resulted in significant increase in serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST) while SALP and SCHE showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Gamma irradiation (3 and 6 Gy) induced no changes in serum levels of urea and creatinine while significant increase was observed when the animals were administered Cd or Hg 5-days before gamma-irradiation. Significant decrease in urea and creatinine clearance and TPR could be recorded due to radiation exposure. Level of serum protein was not affected in all animal groups over the experimentation period. 2 tab

  6. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  8. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  9. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  10. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  11. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  12. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Hansen, Jens C.; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  13. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  14. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  15. Protective efficacy of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice; 6-8 weeks old animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 day. After sacrificing the animals, the blood was collected by cardiac puncture in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. The values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin and PCV were found to decrease up to day-14 in non drug treated groups (II,III and IV), thereafter they increased on day-28. Whereas the values decreased upto day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups (V,VI,VlI) thereafter increased tip to day-28. On the other hand, the value of MCV increased upto day- 14 in non-drug treated groups (II, III, IV) and tip to day-7 in drug treated groups (V, VI, VII), thereafter it decreased tip to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The Aloe vera treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was noticed in Aloe vera pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Aloe vera is potent enough to check cadmium and radiation induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. (author)

  16. Natural Attenuation of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Zinc Using Hydrograph Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. E.; Peters, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Strategies for remediating contaminated sites range from complete removal of the contaminated soil to in-situ monitored natural attenuation. The decision to let a property naturally attenuate is partially based on the estimated time it will take to return to ambient conditions. The Lehigh Gap Wildlife Refuge at Palmerton, PA was historically contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc from a zinc smelting operation that ceased emissions twenty-nine years ago. This property provides an opportunity to assess whether the length of time required for the natural attenuation of metals in soil has been achieved using a watershed mass balance approach, focusing particularly on perturbations observed in the concentration-discharge relationships of contaminants compared to the conservative tracers sodium and chloride, and silicon as an indicator of rock-water interactions. Water samples were collected from 3 springs in the Wildlife Refuge for approximately 4 days following the onset of storm events and analyzed for cation and anion concentrations. Preliminary results show that while the concentrations of arsenic and lead were below detection limits, the fluxes of zinc and cadmium increase corresponding with the peak in the hydrograph relative to the fluxes of the tracers, indicating the solutes are being released from adsorption sites located in an unsaturated zone that is temporarily inundated during storm events. In comparison, the flux of the tracers remains constant, indicative of a steady-state leakage of the solutes from their respective reservoirs in the soil. Along with flux, the concentrations of zinc and cadmium also increase following the rise in discharge after storm events, further suggesting that these contaminants are being mobilized out of the soil profile.

  17. Histopathology as biomarkers: in treated mouse brain with radiation, cadmium and therapeutic agents (Aloe Vera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    There are two different types of radiation energetic particles and electromagnetic waves. These two types can penetrate into living tissue or cell and result in transduction of radiation energy to biological materials. The absorbed energy of ionising radiation can break chemical bonds and cause ionization of different molecules including water and different biological essential macromolecules of as DNA, membrane lipids and protein. Many types of DNA lesions are produce in cell by ionizing radiation and chemicals during cancer therapy. Cadmium is known to deplete glutathione and protein bounds sulfhydrl groups which results in enhance production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reactions of these ROS with cellular biomolecules have been shown to lead to lipid per-oxidation. Aloe vera is dietary antioxidant that plays an important role in controlling oxidative stress. For this purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were randomly divided into seven groups. On the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and Aloe treated groups the animals were sacrificed at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain were taken out and weighed to the analytical balance and fixed for 24 hours in alcoholic Bouin's fixative. A pinch of lithium carbonate was added to remove excess picric acid in the fixative. Histological studies were carried out using the standard techniques of haematoxyline and eosin staining. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic changes were observed. These changes were less severe in the Aloe vera treated brain which may be due to the protection provided by drug

  18. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  19. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters.

  20. Low-dose cadmium exposure exacerbates polyhexamethylene guanidine-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeon, Doin; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Han, Jin-Young; Kim, Bumseok; Lee, Kyuhong

    2018-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal present in tobacco smoke, air, food, and water. Inhalation is an important route of Cd exposure, and lungs are one of the main target organs for metal-induced toxicity. Cd inhalation is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary diseases. The present study aimed to assess the effects of repeated exposure to low-dose Cd in a mouse model of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG)-induced lung fibrosis. Mice were grouped into the following groups: vehicle control (VC), PHMG, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), and PHMG + CdCl 2 . Animals in the PHMG group exhibited increased numbers of total cells and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) accompanied by inflammation and fibrosis in lung tissues. These parameters were exacerbated in mice in the PHMG + CdCl 2 group. In contrast, mice in the CdCl 2 group alone displayed only minimal inflammation in pulmonary tissue. Expression of inflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic mediators was significantly elevated in lungs of mice in the PHMG group compared with that VC. Further, expression of these cytokines and mediators was enhanced in pulmonary tissue in mice administered PHMG + CdCl 2 . Data demonstrate that repeated exposure to low-dose Cd may enhance the development of PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Dinuclear Cadmium(II) Complex with Dipodal Ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Jin; Moon, Suk Hee; Byun, Jong Chul; Park, Ki Min

    2010-01-01

    the preparation and structural characterization of the discrete dinuclear cadmium(II) complex with the formula [Cd(μ 2 -Cl) 2 Cl 2 ]· 2 (H 2 O)·0.5(CH 3 OH)·0.5(CH 3 CN) obtained from the reaction of CdCl 2 ·2.5H 2 O and podal ligand with quinoline end-groups has been reported. In two cadmium ions are triply bridged by two chloride and one donor atoms of ligand L and adopt distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometries with seven coordinations. It is notable that example of discrete dinuclear complex which one podal ligand accommodates simultaneously two metal ions is very rare. During the last four decades, the chemistry of macrocyclic and non-cyclic polyethers has attracted an increasing attention because of their selective complexation, cation transport and enzyme chemistry. In the field of coordination chemistry, generally, non-cyclic, crown-type polyether affords the low complexation ability because of its conformational freedom while macrocyclic polyethers such as 18-crown-6 show the excellent complexing ability

  2. Ultrathin nanofibrous films prepared from cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Karan, Santanu; Ichinose, Izumi

    2009-08-04

    We developed a simple fabrication method of ultrathin nanofibrous films from the dispersion of cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants. The nanostrands were prepared in a dilute aqueous solution of cadmium chloride by using 2-aminoethanol. They were highly positively charged and gave bundlelike fibers upon mixing an aqueous solution of anionic surfactant. The nanostrand/surfactant composite fibers were filtered on an inorganic membrane filter. The resultant nanofibrous film was very uniform in the area of a few centimeters square when the thickness was not less than 60 nm. The films obtained with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) had a composition close to the electroneutral complex, [Cd37(OH)68(H2O)n] x 6(STS), as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. They were water-repellent with a contact angle of 117 degrees, and the value slightly decreased with the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants. Ultrathin nanofibrous films were stable enough to be used for ultrafiltration at pressure difference of 90 kPa. We could effectively separate Au nanoparticles of 40 nm at an extremely high filtration rate of 14000 L/(h m2 bar).

  3. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  4. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  5. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  6. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  7. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  8. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  9. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  10. Genetic and Histopathological Responses to Cadmium Toxicity in Rabbit's Kidney and Liver: Protection by Ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiomy, Ahmed A; Mansour, Ahmed A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective effects of ginger (G) on the genetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) and immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the kidney and liver of rabbits. Male rabbits were divided into three groups; each group contains 10 animals: group (C) received basic diet and tap water for 12 weeks, the second group (Cd) received 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water for 12 weeks, group (Cd + G) was given 200 mg/kg b.w CdCl2 in water and 400 mg ginger/kg b.w in food for 12 weeks. Cd administration increased the activity of mRNA expression of the examined apoptotic (Caspase3), proliferation (MKI67), proto-oncogene (C-fos), and antioxidant (GST), while decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl2). Ginger counteracted the effects of Cd in (Cd + G) group and downregulated the previously upregulated genes under Cd administration appeared in (Cd) group. The immunohistochemical expression of Caspase3 and MKI67 in the liver and kidney cells of the (C) group was shown very faint to negative reactions, strong staining in hepatocytes and the tubular epithelium in cadmium-treated group, while slight staining in some hepatocytes and tubular epithelium in co-administration with ginger in (Cd + G) group. In conclusion, ginger administration showed a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.

  11. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  12. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  13. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  14. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  15. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  16. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  18. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  19. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  20. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  1. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, S.; Biswas, A.K.; Singh, A.B.; Ajay; Ahirwar, N.K.; Behera, S.K.; Subba Rao, A.; Naveen Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg -1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg -1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g -1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  2. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  3. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  4. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  5. Cadmium incorporation by the marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus coronatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, L.V.; Baptist, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, after exposure to phytoplankton and cadmium in concentrations like those in temperate, coastal environments, incorporated 109 Cd at higher rates from ambient water than from phytoplankton food. When ambient stable cadmium concentrations were increased from 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , cadmium concentration by phytoplankton cells increased and the rate of cell ingestion by P. coronatus decreased. This inverse relation between the accumulation of cadmium in phytoplankton cells and the animal's ingestion rate resulted in relatively small net increases in the cadmium accumulated from phytoplankton by copepods. Rates of stable cadmium ingestion for P. coronatus ranged from 0.18 to 0.38 ng.mg animal dry wt -1 .h -1 , depending on the initial algal cell density and the ambient cadmium concentration. For cadmium concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , percentage assimilation efficiencies ranged from 13.20 to 68.40. Both rates of cadmium ingestion and assimilation efficiencies were higher than published values for carnivorous zooplankton

  6. Stabilization of cadmium electrode properties when introducing surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, M.E.; Mansurov, F.Kh.; Nikol'skij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of tests of both separate cadmium electrodes and silver-cadmium accumulators, depending on introduction of surfactants (polyethylene oxide - PO - and its derivatives), have been considered. The influence of PO on the course of electrochemical reaction on cadmium is pronounced in facilitation of anodic process. In case of PO introduction in the amount of 1 % instead of sodium lignosulfonate (2 %) into accumulators with silver-cadmium electrodes, the electrode potential is stabilized, while the accumulator capacity increases. The time period of the accumulation maintenance in the charged state increases 2-3 fold (1-1,5 years). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  9. Red coloration by heat treatment of the coprecipitate of cadmium sulfide and mercury(II) sulfide prepared from the nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Fujiya

    1979-01-01

    The effects of starting salts on the color, particle size and crystal structure of mercury-cadmium-sulfide pigments were investigated. The coprecipitate (N-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was prepared by adding sodium sulfide solution to a mixed cadmium-mercury (II) nitrate solution. The coprecipitate (C-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was also prepared from the mixed solution of their chlorides by the same method as described above. The coprecipitated products were heat-treated (calcination or hydrothermal treatment) at 350 0 C for 2 hours and subsequent changes in powder properties of both products were compared from each other. The powder properties of N-S, C-S and their heat-treated products were investigated by spectral reflectance, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and specific surface area measurements. Sample (N-C) obtained by the calcination of N-S was brown, indicating no red coloration, but the calcined product (C-C) of C-S developed a red color. Cl - and hot water were found to be effective for the red color development of the pigment. The effectiveness was confirmed by calcining N-S in the presence of NaCl or by treating it hydrothermally. It was found that halides other than NaCl, (e.g., NH 4 Cl, KCl, KBr and KI), were also effective for the color development of the pigment. The red samples are solid solutions with a basically hexagonal CdS structure, and it appears that CdS takes up HgS without any apparent structural changes. The particle size of the red samples are larger than those of the non red samples. (author)

  10. NADPH oxidase is involved in regulation of gene expression and ROS overproduction in soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium-induced oxidative burst is partially mediated by NADPH oxidase. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase in soybeans’ response to short-term cadmium stress. The application of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, affected expression of two Cd-inducible genes, encoding DOF1 and MYBZ2 transcription factors. This effect was observed after 3 h of treatment. Interestingly, Cd-dependent increases in NADPH oxidase activity occurred only after a period of time ranging from 6 and 24 h of stress. Stimulation of the enzyme correlated in time with a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further analysis revealed that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity during 24 h of Cd stress does not affect Cd uptake, seedling growth, or the level of lipid peroxidation. The role of NADPH oxidase in the response of soybean seedlings to short-term Cd exposure is discussed.

  11. The direct determination, by differential pulse anodic-stripping voltammetry at the thin mercury-film electrode, of cadmium, lead and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of a voltammetric procedure for the direct, simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in three SAROC reference materials (carbonatite, magnesite, and quartz). The electrolyte was a mixture of 1 M ammonium chloride, 0,1 M citric acid, and 0,025 M ascorbic acid. No interferences were encountered from Fe(III), As(III), Sb(V), Tl(I), or In(III) at the concentrations present in the samples. Intermetallic interferences were eliminated by the use of thin mercury-film electrodes not less than 80nm thick. Limits of detection were determined by the degree to which the supporting electrolyte could be purified, and were estimated to be 10ng/g, 250ng/g, and 150ng/g for cadmium, lead, and copper respectively

  12. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  13. Genetic variability and cadmium metabolism and toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rentschler, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure in non-smokers occurs mainly via intake of healthy food like vegetables, cereals, and shellfish. Adverse health effects on kidney and bone at low-level environmental Cd exposure are well-documented in adults. There is considerable inter-individual variation in both metabolism (toxicokinetics) and toxicity (toxicodynamics) of Cd. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this thesis was to identify genetic fact...

  14. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  15. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  16. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  17. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  18. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  19. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  20. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  1. A facile approach to anchor cadmium sulfide nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets as promising electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jia; Li, Jing; Yang, Xuyu [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wang, Xianbao, E-mail: wangxb68@yahoo.com.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Wan, Li; Yang, Yingkui [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A controllable preparation of novel graphene-based inorganic semi-conducting composites has aroused great attention in the optoelectronic device and powerful electronic anode materials. In this article, we demonstrate a simple two-step strategy for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide/reduced graphene oxide (CdS/RGO) nanocomposites, of which the preparing process includes modification of the exfoliated graphene oxide acylated with thionyl chloride, immobilization of the CdS nanoparticles on the graphene oxide (GO) surface by an amide reaction between the amino groups located on the CdS particles and the acyl chloride bound to the GO surface, and reduction by hydrazine and ammonia. Our results showed that the CdS nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of RGO sheets. The CdS/RGO nanocomposites can form a homogeneous and stable solution in dimethylformamide, and CV analysis indicated a remarkable increase for the CdS/RGO modified electrode in the electrochemical current relative to that at a glass carbon electrode. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO nanocomposites were synthesized by a covalent bonding and electrostatic interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO exhibits a homogeneous dispersion in dimethylformamide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS/RGO was used as an anode electrode with good electrochemical activity.

  2. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Tim S; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A; Staessen, Jan A

    2008-12-01

    Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p fashion without threshold.

  3. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  5. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  6. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  7. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  8. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  9. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  10. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl 3 liquid + H 2 O → FeOCl solid + 2 HCl gas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl solid + H 2 O → Fe 2 O 3 solid + 2 HCl gas . The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  11. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  12. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  13. Chemical and physical compatibility of an intravenous solution of epinephrine with calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Phillip A; Teng, Yang; Wu, Lei; Sun, Mary; Yang, Zhen; Chow, Diana S-L

    2014-01-01

    An infusion of epinephrine combined with calcium chloride has been used historically as an intravenous inotropic solution to support critically ill heart failure patients with severe cardiogenic shock. There is no reliable data on the stability of this solution beyond three hours. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical compatibility of epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in a solution for intravenous administration up to 26 hours at room temperature. The chemical stability of epinephrine was monitored by measuring epinephrine concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography. The physical compatibility of the mixture was determined by measuring spectrophotometric absorbance between 400 to 700 nm. Absorbance greater than 0.010 AU was considered an indicator of the presence of precipitation. The results showed epinephrine with calcium chloride was stable together in normal saline up to 26 hours at room temperature, irrespective of exposure to light. The absorbance of epinephrine throughout the study was less than 0.010 AU, indicating no significant precipitation. Conclusions indicate that epinephrine (0.032 mg/mL) combined with calcium chloride (4 mg/mL) in normal saline at room temperature is acceptably stable up to 26 hours for intravenous administration.

  14. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  15. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  16. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient......; the higher the volume of gel solid relative to the space available for it, the lower the chloride migration coefficient, because the pore system becomes more tortuous and the porosity becomes less....

  17. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  18. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  19. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  20. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  1. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  2. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination has an adverse effect on soil productivity and crop production. Phytoremediation is a long term and environmental friendly technology to remediate Cadmium polluted areas. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Hopea adorata for remediation of soils contaminated with Cd.

  3. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  4. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  5. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly

  6. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  7. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  8. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  9. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  10. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  11. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  12. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  13. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  14. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  15. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  16. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  17. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium by basic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, P P; Balog, J S [Uzhgorodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Two variants of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium with basic dyes have been developed. In the first one, cadmium is extracted as the iodide by a tributyl phosphate solution in benzene from aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M KI (pH 6-10). Then the cadmium is transformed into a coloured ion associate by treatment of the extracts with Malachite Green in the presence of iodide ions. In the second case, the extract is equilibrated with an equeous solutions of Rhodamine B in the presence of KBr. In this variant, the cadmium is transformed into an anionic iodide-bromide complex which reacts with Rhodamine B cations to form an ion associate. Procedures have been developed of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in sulphur, indium-gallium and zinc concentrates, Zn-As-Cd-Se and Zn-As-Cd-Te films, Cd-S-In and Ga-Sb-Cd-Te alloys.

  20. Effect of cadmium on lung lysosomal enzymes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.N.; Hollinger, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labilization of lysosomal enzymes is often associated with the general process of inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of the pneumotoxin cadmium on the release and activity of two lung lysosomal enzymes. Incubation of rat lung lysosomes with cadmium resulted in the release of β-glucuronidase but not acid phosphatase. The failure to ''release'' acid phosphatase appears to be the result of a direct inhibitory effect of cadmium on this enzyme. The K I for cadmium was determined to be 26.3 μM. The differential effect of cadmium on these two lysosomal enzymes suggests that caution should be exercised in selecting the appropriate enzyme marker for assessing lysosomal fragility in the presence of this toxicant. Furthermore, the differential basal release rate of the two enzymes from lung lysosomes may reflect the cellular heterogeneity of the lung. (orig.)