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Sample records for cadmium body burden

  1. Body burden of cadmium and its related factors: A large-scale survey in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Shen; Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Hao; Jia, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Jie-Ying; Luo, Hui-Fang; Wang, Zi-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan, E-mail: chen_zhinan56@163.com

    2015-04-01

    A survey of more than 6000 participants from four distinct non-polluted and polluted regions in China was conducted to evaluate the body burden of cadmium (Cd) on the Chinese populations using urinary Cd (UCd) as a biomarker. The findings revealed that the UCd level was 1.24 μg/g creatinine (μg/g cr) for the sample population from non-polluted Shanghai, and the UCd levels exceeded 5 μg/g cr, which is the health-based exposure limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1.1% of people. The mean UCd levels in moderately polluted (Hubei and Liaoning) and highly polluted areas (Guizhou) were 4.69 μg/g cr, 3.62 μg/g cr and 6.08 μg/g cr, respectively, and these levels were 2.9 to 4.9 times the levels observed in Shanghai. Notably, the UCd levels exceeded the recently updated human biomonitoring II values (i.e., intervention or “action level”) in 44.8%–87.9% of people from these areas compared to only 5.1%–21.4% of people in Shanghai. The corresponding prevalence of elevated UCd levels (> WHO threshold, 5 μg/g cr) was also significantly higher (30.7% to 63.8% vs. 1.1%), which indicates that elevated Cd-induced health risks to residents in these areas. Age and region were significant determinants for UCd levels in a population, whereas gender did not significantly influence UCd. - Highlights: • We performed a Cd exposure survey that involved more than 6000 Chinese subjects. • The body burden of Cd in most of subjects of non-polluted Shanghai is relatively safe. • The UCd levels were much higher in the subjects from polluted areas than from Shanghai. • The UCd levels in the population from Guizhou substantially exceeded the safety limit. • Age and region were significant determinants of UCd.

  2. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  3. Body burdens: an integrated approach to health risk assessment

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    Gasper, J. R.; Dauzvardis, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Monitoring, modeling, and laboratory data are being integrated with physiological data in order to assess the impact of the release of environmental contaminants on the human receptor. The methodology described in this paper is intended primarily for use as a screening method to identify relative health risks. Comparison of body burdens and critical organ burdens can identify the relative contribution from different sources of exposure, exposure pathways, and routes of entry. These two burdens may be used in conjunction with monitoring data and environmental modeling techniques to assess the relative risk of effluent releases from natural and industrial sources or from different effluent control technologies or waste disposal methods. The relative impact of different levels of regional economic growth or regulatory plans can also be assessed. Body burdens may also serve to indicate where effluent control efforts will be most successful in reducing impacts on humans. The example projects the relative contributions to body burdens of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury and lead resulting from background air and water quality, effluent releases from a coal-fired steam electric power plant, and from diet.

  4. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

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    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  5. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  6. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

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    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  7. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

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    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  8. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

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    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  9. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  10. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  11. Cadmium

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    Stoeppler, M. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Piscator, M. (Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Hygiene) (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain the 18 papers presented at the workshop. They are dealing with the following themes: Toxicity, carcinogenesis and metabolism of cadmium, epidemiology; environmental occurrence; quantitative analysis and quality assessment. (MG) With 57 figs., 79 tabs.

  12. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  13. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

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    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  14. Body lipids and pesticide burdens of migrant blue-winged teal

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    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Mitchell, C.A.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Blue-winged Teal were collected before and after their migration to wintering grounds in Latin America. Pesticide burdens, body weights, and lipid levels of carcasses were determined. Only DDE and dieldrin were detected in a small proportion of the samples and then at concentrations far below known-effect levels. Residue loads, because of their infrequency, were not significantly correlated with overall body weight and percent lipid. Body weights among most age and sex classes did not differ in either fall or spring, nor did percent lipid in any instance. However, body weights and lipid levels were significantly correlated; as body weight increased so did percent lipid. Thus, the extreme variability in body weight appears to be a function of the amount of fat present and not overall body size, age, or sex.

  15. Bioassay program: determination of I-131 body burden among radiation workers and nuclear medicine laboratory technicians

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    Duran, E.B.; Napenas, D.; San Jose, V.; Juan, N.

    The body burden of I-131 was determined among the radiation workers of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) who are directly involved in I-131 processing and nuclear laboratory technicians of University of Santo Tomas and Veterans Hospital, who handle and dispense I-131 to patients. The routine monitoring was done by urine analysis. The untreated urine samples were counted directly for 4000 seconds using Nal(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to an ND66 microcomputer-based multichannel analyzer. Urine samples of radiation workers of PAEC who are not involved in I-131 processing and non-radiation workers were also assayed for comparison. For radiation workers of PAEC who are directly involved in processing I-131, the estimated body burden of I-131 ranged from <0.055 to 8.53 uCi (282 urine samples). These values were higher than those observed for radiation workers not involved in the handling or processing of I-131 with estimated body burden of I-131 ranging from <0.055 to 0.52 uCi (48 urine samples) or than those observed from non-radiation workers (<0.055 uCi). The maximum permissible burden of I-131 is 0.7 uCi.

  16. Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Exley, Christopher; Korchazhkina, Olga; Job, Deborah; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Crome, Peter

    2006-09-01

    There are unexplained links between human exposure to aluminium and the incidence, progression and aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. The null hypothesis which underlies any link is that there would be no Alzheimer's disease in the effective absence of a body burden of aluminium. To test this the latter would have to be reduced to and retained at a level that was commensurate with an Alzheimer's disease-free population. In the absence of recent human interference in the biogeochemical cycle of aluminium the reaction of silicic acid with aluminium has acted as a geochemical control of the biological availability of aluminium. This same mechanism might now be applied to both the removal of aluminium from the body and the reduced entry of aluminium into the body while ensuring that essential metals, such as iron, are unaffected. Based upon the premise that urinary aluminium is the best non-invasive estimate of body burden of aluminium patients with Alzheimer's disease were asked to drink 1.5 L of a silicic acid-rich mineral water each day for five days and, by comparison of their urinary excretion of aluminium pre-and post this simple procedure, the influence upon their body burden of aluminium was determined. Drinking the mineral water increased significantly (Paluminium (86.0 +/- 24.3 to 62.2 +/- 23.2 nmol/mmol creatinine). The latter was achieved without any significant (P>0.05) influence upon the urinary excretion of iron (20.7 +/- 9.5 to 21.7 +/- 13.8 nmol/mmol creatinine). The reduction in urinary aluminium supported the future longer-term use of silicic acid as non-invasive therapy for reducing the body burden of aluminium in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

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    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  18. Neonatal and maternal body burdens of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in mice: gestational exposure and lactational transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, K.D.; Andrews, J.E.

    1985-04-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a ubiquitous lipophilic pollutant, was readily transferred in the milk of lactating dams to their suckling neonates. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated during gestation, and the body burdens of HCB in the neonates and the dams were determined during lactation. Also, neonates from dams treated with HCB during gestation were cross-fostered at birth to dams treated with corn oil during gestation. The body burdens of HCB were greater in the neonates exposed to HCB by lactational transfer than the neonates exposed only by gestational transfer. In many tissues, the concentration of HCB in the pups from full litter was similar to that in pups from litters reduced to two pups per litter. Lactational transfer of HCB from the dams to the pups was a major route of excretion in that 95% of HCB was depleted during 20 days of lactation. HCB depletion was similar in dams with whole litters, and those with litters reduced to two pups.

  19. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  1. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  2. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-09-01

    Inuit living in the Arctic are exposed to elevated levels of environmental contaminants primarily due to long-range atmospheric transport. Blood sampling and contaminant biomonitoring was conducted as part of the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey in 2007-2008. The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, DDT & DDE, toxaphene, chlordane, PBDEs) were measured for Inuit participants (n=2172) from 36 communities in Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, in Canada. The geometric mean of blood concentrations for Cd, Pb, PCBs, DDE & DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane were higher than those in the Canadian general population. A total of 9% of study participants exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for Pb, 11% of participants exceeded the trigger guideline of 5μgL(-1) for Cd, and 1% exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for PCBs. Also, 3% of women of child-bearing age exceeded blood Pb of 100μgL(-1) while 28% of women of child-bearing age exceeded 5μgL(-1) of PCBs. This work showed that most Inuit Health Survey participants were below blood contaminant guidelines set by Health Canada but that metal and POP body burdens commonly exceed exposures observed in the general population of Canada.

  3. Dioxin body burden in women with long term residency near and away from major chemical industries in Teesside, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Howel, D. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Edwards, R. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Paepke, O. [ergo Forschungs Gesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany); Hermann, T.

    2004-09-15

    Retrospective exposure assessment poses a major challenge for environmental epidemiology studies. Body burden measures may act as markers for long-term exposure if biomarkers can be found with sufficiently long half lives in the human body. Some studies of human exposures have reported data from exposures over several years and before and after sources started production, however none have investigated the usefulness of such approach when exposure is estimated over more than a decade. Whilst for the general population food intake forms the major source of long term dioxin exposures other occupational and environmental sources can contribute to elevated body burdens. The UK has rich data sets for dioxin levels in food, but no body burden data are yet available for a general population sample. We tested the hypothesis that women with long term residence close to an industrial complex have a higher body burden and a distinct pattern of dioxins, furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We estimated exposure by recording residential history and food intakes and compared this information with body burden measurements as proxy for all forms of exposure.

  4. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  5. Food contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Belgium. Effects on the body burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Larebeke, N; Covaci, A; Schepens, P; Hens, L

    2002-11-01

    The core paper of this debate shows that persistent organic pollutant residues of the 12 chemicals targeted for a phase out under the Stockholm Convention are present in almost all categories of food in the US food supply. For dioxins, the study does not use measured data, but is based upon potential dioxin residues in selected food items. Polychlorinated biphenyls are not included in the study. In this paper we discuss selected data of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin concentrations in Belgian food. Some of these exposures are chronic, others are attributable to incidents. Both result in high body burdens in Belgium. The paper also compares the current concentrations in food with the recent standards launched by the EU for dioxins in food, and discusses whether these values adequately protect European citizens.

  6. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  7. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  8. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  9. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-04-01

    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  10. Tracking contributions to human body burden of environmental chemicals by correlating environmental measurements with biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Moo Shin

    Full Text Available The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food, and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data.

  11. High body burdens of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in California women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreas, Myrto; She, Jianwen; Brown, F Reber; Winkler, Jennifer; Windham, Gayle; Rogers, Evan; Zhao, Guomao; Bhatia, Rajiv; Charles, M Judith

    2003-01-01

    Following our first report on elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in California women, we expanded our investigation to include diverse groups of local women. We analyzed additional adipose and serum samples collected in the late 1990s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a breast cancer study and in a reproductive study, respectively. Adipose samples (n = 32) were analyzed by low-resolution mass spectrometry in negative-ion chemical ionization mode, whereas serum samples (n = 50) were analyzed by dual-column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The results confirmed our earlier findings. Concentrations of 2,2,4,4 -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in contemporary California women ranged between 5 and 510 ng/g lipid, with a median (16.5 ng/g lipid) 3-10 times higher than those reported from Europe. In contrast, PBDEs were not measurable in any of 420 archived serum samples collected in the 1960s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a study of child development. BDE-47 concentrations did not increase with age or with concentrations of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-153), suggesting other routes of exposure in addition to diet. Rising body burdens of endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as PBDEs may pose a potential public health threat. PMID:12842770

  12. Effects of aqueous and dietary preexposure and resulting body burden on silver biokinetics in the green mussel Perma viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dalin; Blackmore, Graham; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether preexposure of green mussel Perna viridis to Ag influenced metal uptake kinetics we compared various physiological indicators of metal uptake kinetics between the control mussels and mussels preexposed to Ag in both diet and water at different levels (up to 5 weeks). In all preexposed mussels, the assimilation of Ag increased by 1.1-3.0 times with increasing Ag body concentration (0.651-19.3 microg g(-1)) as compared with the controls (Ag body concentration of 0.311-0.479 microg g(-1)), whereas the efflux rate constants decreased by 45-88%. There was no significant increase in Ag associated with the metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) fraction following exposure of the mussels to Ag through either the dissolved or food phase. The clearance rates were little affected or depressed byAg preexposure, and the relationship between the Ag influx rate from the dissolved phase and the Ag preexposure was somewhat complicated. The influx rate decreased with increasing Ag body burden at <2.5 microg g(-1), above which it increased with increasing Ag body burden. Our results indicate that the mussels may modify physiological processes to ambient chronic Ag exposure, consequently accumulating more Ag. Ag body concentration in these mussels may therefore increase disproportionally in response to increasing Ag concentration in the ambient environments. Ag preexposure and resulting body burden should be considered carefully when interpreting the observed Ag concentration in biomonitoring animals to evaluate the Ag pollution in seawater.

  13. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  15. Radioactive 131Iodine Body Burden and Blood Dose Estimates in Treatment for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by External Probe Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Balushi, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive131 iodine (RAI) body burden is estimated in thyroid cancer patients by a) exposure rate meter and b) external probe counting. A calibration factor of 301 cpm/MBq (d = 16 cm) is used for the probe for estimates of whole body activity. Patients sit in a rotating stool with their center corresponding to the field of view for estimation of whole body RAI. Radioactive counts are obtained for anterio posterior (AP) and postero anterior (PA) geometries. Whole body retention factor is expressed as a ratio against assayed activity administered to the patient on day 1. With exposure rate measurement, for off-thyroxin (hypothyriod) patients, the retention factors were 0.148 ± 0.12 (n = 211) and 0.07 ± 0.08 (n = 68) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. For recombinant TSH (rhTSH) (euthyroid) group, the retention factors were 0.089 ± 0.06 (n = 24) and 0.05 ± 0.05 (n = 19) at 48 h and 72 h, respectively. By probe counting method, the obtained retention factors were 0.081 ± 0.013 (range: 0.071–0.096) (off-thyroxine group) and 0.039 ± 0.03 (range: 0.008–0.089) for the rhTSH group at 48 h. The 72 h retentions in the off thyroxine (hypothyriod) group and the rhTSH (euthyroid) group were 0.048 ± 0.024 (range: 0.016–0.076) and 0.005, respectively. The radioactive body burdens at 48 h were in the range of 290-315 MBq (7.8–8.5 mCi) for the off-thyroxine group and 44–286 MBq (1.2–7.7 mCi) for the rhTSH group. The calculated residence times in whole body were 21.97 ± 3.8 h (range: 17.1–27.1) for off-thyroxine group and 14.28 ± 2.75 h (range: 9.97-19.46) showing high statistical significance (P radioactive iodine. There was no correlation between administered activity and retained body burden at 48 h or 72 h. PMID:27651735

  16. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Jandacek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC. While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants.

  17. Identification of threshold body burdens of metals for the protection of the aquatic ecological status using two benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In this study accumulated concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two benthic invertebrate taxa, Chironomus sp. and Tubificidae are related to ecological responses expressed as changes in macro invertebrate communities. In addition critical body burdens were estimated above which ecological quality was always lower than a certain threshold. Data from existing studies on bioaccumulation of the metals in both taxa were combined with different biological water quality indices. For all metal-endpoint combinations threshold values could be calculated above which ecological quality was always low. Safe threshold body burdens could be estimated for both species for all metals although the data set was more extended for Chrionomus sp. with estimated threshold values being 65, 3.2, 10, 57, 6.5, 73 and 490 μg/g dw for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. This study demonstrated that metal accumulation in resistant species such as chironomids and tubificid worms have the potential to be used as predictors of ecological effects in aquatic ecosystems. However, the estimated threshold values have to be validated and supported by more lines of evidence before they can be used by regulators.

  18. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  19. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  20. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  1. The contribution of protein binding in the liver to the body burden of dibenzo-p-docins and dibenzo-p-furans: Analysis by means of PBPK modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Fiolet DCM; Cuijpers CEJ; LBM

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study "Physiologically Based PharmacoKinetic" (PBPK) modeling was used to estimate the amount of dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in mother's milk. This amount is considered to reflect the total amount of dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans in the body (body burden). In the PB

  2. Lower late-life body-mass index is associated with higher cortical amyloid burden in clinically normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David C.; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower body-mass index (BMI) in late life has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, and weight loss has been associated with more rapid decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. Objective To explore the association between BMI and cortical amyloid burden in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD dementia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were completed using baseline data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, consisting of 280 community-dwelling CN older adults aged 62–90. Assessments included medical histories and physical exam, Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) genotyping. For the primary analysis, a general linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of BMI with PiB retention. Covariates included age, sex, years of education, and APOE4 carrier status. Secondary analyses were performed for BMI subdivisions (normal, overweight, obese), APOE4 carriers, and BMI × APOE4 interaction. Results In the primary analysis, greater PiB retention was associated with lower BMI (β=−0.14, p=0.02). In the secondary analyses, APOE4 carrier status (β=−0.27, p=0.02) and normal BMI (β=−0.25, p=0.01), as opposed to overweight or obese BMI, were associated with greater PiB retention. The BMI × APOE4 interaction was also significant (β=−0.14, p=0.04). Conclusions This finding offers new insight into the role of BMI at the preclinical stage of AD, wherein lower BMI late in life is associated with greater cortical amyloid burden. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism behind this association, especially in those with lower BMI who are APOE4 carriers. PMID:27340843

  3. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  4. The role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orish Ebere Orisakwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are associated with long-term disability and huge social and economic costs. The possible influence of heavy metals exposure on public health remains a matter of concern. A recurring research question that persisted among researchers in neuropsychiatry has been "are psychiatric patients more likely to have a high body burden of lead or other heavy metals?" This is an update account on the role of lead and cadmium in psychiatry. This review, which has employed search words like "lead and cadmium in psychiatry" , "lead and cadmium in schizophrenia", "lead and cadmium in psychosis" in citation indices such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, and Scopus. A total of 415 articles were found; 60 fulfiled the inclusion criteria. Evidence-based information suggests that lead and cadmium may be involved in psychiatry. Should environmental lead and cadmium be implicated in the etiogenesis of psychiatry given the characteristic high environmental pollution in Sub Sahara Africa, it is worthwhile for toxicologists and scientists in Sub-Sahara Africa to investigate if lead and cadmium can become additional biomarkers in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.

  5. Epidemiological aspects of cadmium in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscator, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cadmium is highly toxic to man and it has an extremely long biological half-time. Under long-term low level exposure about one third of the total body burden is in the kidneys. In some European countries and USA mean renal cortical concentrations of cadmium 24-50 ppM wet weight at age 50 have been reported. In three areas in Japan the corresponding concentrations were 60 to 125 ppM wet weight. These normal concentrations have been thought to cause hypertension but so far epidemiological data are not available to support such a hypothesis. Renal tubular dysfunction may begin at a renal cortical concentration of about 200 ppM wet weight. In Japan extensive investigations have been carried out in several areas polluted by cadmium. Available data indicate that the prevalence of proteinuria is higher in the cadmium polluted areas and that the proteinuria is of the tubular type. Studies on dose-response relationships must include accurate and sensitive methods for the detection of low molecular weight proteinuria, which is an early sign in cadmium intoxication. 6 references, 1 table.

  6. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  7. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  8. Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M

    1983-11-01

    Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

  9. Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, I.; Toffoletto, F.; Sesana, G.; Fagioli, M.G.; Micheli, A.; Di Silvestro, P.; Zocchetti, C.; Alessio, L.

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and beta 2-microglobulins (beta 2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). CdB values were significantly higher in the subgroups of subjects with higher current cadmium exposure and in the subgroups of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but the test levels were not influenced by duration of exposure. CdU levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but were less influenced by current exposure or duration of exposure. Considering the entire population, a rather close correlation was observed between CdB and CdU. When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between the two indicators in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. The data confirm that CdU is prevalently influenced by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.

  10. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, Pedro A; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-07-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g(-1) (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River.

  11. Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; De Burbure, Claire; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background exposure levels are still poorly understood. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between these pollutants and diabetes. We report here the results of a population-based study in Belgium on 257 (142 women and 115 men) environmentally exposed subjects, including 10 cases of endometriosis and nine cases of diabetes. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs or dioxins), four coplanar PCBs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] nos 77, 81, 126 and 169) and 12 PCB markers (IUPAC nos 3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, 206 and 209) were quantified in serum fat from fasting blood samples in order to estimate the body burden of these pollutants. Whilst no difference was found between women with endometriosis and their controls, diabetic patients had significantly increased serum levels of dioxins, coplanar PCBs and the 12 PCB markers. After adjustment for age and other covariates, serum total toxic equivalent activity (sum of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) and 12 PCB marker concentrations in diabetics were 62% (p = 0.0005) and 39% (p = 0.0067) higher, respectively, than in controls. The risk of diabetes was significantly increased in subjects in the top decile for adjusted concentrations of dioxins (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-21.7), coplanar PCBs (odds ratio 13.3, 95% CI 3.31-53.2) or 12 PCB markers (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.58-36.3). These findings warrant further studies to assess the significance of the associations between diabetes and environmental exposure to polychlorinated pollutants.

  12. Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windham, Gayle C., E-mail: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov [CA Department of Public Health, DEODC, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg. P, Richmond, CA 94804 (United States); Pinney, Susan M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Sjodin, Andreas [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Lum, Raymond [Impact Assessment Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Biro, Frank M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hiatt, Robert A. [University of California Medical School, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kushi, Lawrence H. [Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had

  13. Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium and lead through food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, C; Slencu, B G; Cuciureanu, Rodica

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium and lead are toxic metals occurring in the environment naturally and from anthropogenic activities and can lead to chemical contamination of products entering in the human food chain. The consumption of polluted food is the main source of lead and cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. Lead is a heavy metal that can affect different organs and systems in humans including the peripheral and central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, muscles, kidneys, and the hemopoetic system. Neurological symptoms can range from fatigue, headache, and lethargy to peripheral neuropathy, severe convulsions, encephalopathy, and even coma. The direct neurotoxic actions of lead include apoptosis, excitotoxicity. Lead has been associated with impaired neurobehavioral functioning in children, decrements in intelligence quotient (IQ) while the critical effect of long-term exposure to cadmium is renal tubular dysfunction, which is irreversible; chronic renal failure is the final and severe endpoint. Cadmium is able to induce bone damage (Itai-ltai). The body burden of cadmium and lead depends mostly on the dietary intake of these elements. This paper aims to present a brief overview of cadmium and lead contents present in foodstuffs from different countries and the estimated dietary intake of cadmium and lead through food consumption. It has been shown that in some countries the concentrations of cadmium and lead contained in foodstuffs are higher than normal therefore the health of the people consuming them is in danger.

  14. Probabilistic intake assessment and body burden estimation of dioxin-like substances in background conditions and during a short food contamination episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, B; De Henauw, S; Dewettinck, K; Talloen, W; Goeyens, L; De Backer, G; Willems, J L

    2002-07-01

    The objective was to perform a dioxin body burden estimate based on a probabilistic intake assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs because of the so-called 1999 'Belgian dioxin incident'. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to combine detailed 7-day food intake data on the individual level from a sample of 14-18-year-old adolescents with 'background' and 'incident-related' food contamination data. In background conditions, 3% of the adolescents had an intake dioxin-like contaminants, while fish constituted the main source at the higher percentiles of intake. During the dioxin incident, the estimated median dioxin intake showed a moderate increase. At the 99th percentile, the highest intake level, and the 95% upper bound uncertainty level, peak body burden-23.73 ng TEQ kg(-1) bw-remained below body burdens that in the experimental animal or in man are accompanied by a population-based observable increase in the incidence of adverse effects. The 1999 Belgian dioxin incident most likely did not affect public health in Belgium in a measurable way, although exceptions remain possible on the individual level.

  15. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption.

  16. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  17. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher's exact test and fixation index (F ST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (F ST frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (F ST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest F ST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (F ST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals.

  18. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed.

  19. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  20. Effect of gut clearance on metal body concentrations in Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, P.T.M.; Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    Gut content can contribute significantly to the metal body burdens in sediment-exposed Hyalella azteca even if it has no direct effect on toxicity. To determine the duration and the effect of gut clearance on total body concentrations, the authors exposed H. azteca for 1 week to a spiked sediment (lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper); a second set of amphipods was kept in cages above the sediment. Following transfer into clean water (25 C) for 96 h, lead and zinc concentrations showed a biphasic decline, with a stronger decrease in the first 4 to 6 h, when gut clearance contributes significantly to metal loss. After 6 h, metal loss was apparently due to excretion from the body. Without gut clearance, the body concentrations of lead and zinc in sediment-exposed amphipods were overestimated by 438 and 44%, respectively. Gut clearance did not have a visible effect on cadmium and copper body burdens because the body and sediment concentrations were similar. After a depuration time of 6 h, direct excretion from the body resulted in a drop of less than 10% in the total body burdens of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper compared to the gut-corrected time-zero body burdens. After 24 h, this loss increased up to 27%. Feeding during the depuration period did not have a significant influence on gut clearance. A model that allows estimation of the influence of gut content on the total body concentration of undepurated invertebrates from the bioconcentration factor is evaluated.

  1. The development of a spatially explicit model to estimate radiocaesium body burdens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) for ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Karen F. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: kfgaines@usd.edu; Boring, C. Shane [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Porter, Dwayne E. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    A spatially explicit model of raccoon (Procyon lotor) distribution for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina was developed using data from a raccoon radio-telemetry study and visualized within a Geographic Information System (GIS). An inductive approach was employed to develop three sub-models using the ecological requirements of raccoons studied in the following habitats: (1) man-made reservoirs (2) bottomland hardwood/riverine systems, and (3) isolated wetland systems. Logistic regression was used to derive probabilistic resource selection functions using habitat compositional data and landscape metrics. The final distribution model provides a spatially explicit probability (likelihood of being in an area) surface for male raccoons. The model is a stand-alone tool consisting of algorithms independent of the specific GIS data layers to which they were derived. The model was then used to predict contaminant burdens in raccoons inhabiting a riverine system contaminated with radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs). The predicted {sup 137}Cs burdens were less than if one would assume homogeneous use of the contaminated areas. This modelling effort provides a template for DOE managed lands and other large government facilities to establish a framework for site-specific ecological assessments that use wildlife species as endpoints.

  2. Plutonium and the risk of cancer. A comparative analysis of Pu-body burdens due to releases from nuclear plants (Chelyabinsk-65, Gomel area) and global fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohryakov, V F; Syslova, C G; Skryabin, A M

    1994-03-01

    Results of the analysis of dynamic body burdens of Pu in adult inhabitants of Chelyabinsk-65 (not occupationally exposed) and different areas of the Gomel region are presented for 1990-1991. The data are based on radiochemical analyses of Pu in human organs and tissues. Comparison with the published data on global Pu and our data for human autopsies (Ufa, Russia) revealed that estimates of Pubody burdens in Chelyabinsk-65 residents were up to 30 times higher than global levels and depended on the period of residence in town. The Pu body contents of Gomel citizens 4-5 years after the Chernobyl accident are on average 3-4 times higher than the global levels. Activity of Pu-238 in various organs constitutes 4.7-26.0% (on the average 13.5 +/- 5.0%) of the total alpha-activity of Pu-238 and Pu-239, 240. The expected number of cancers induced by incorporated plutonium is approximately the same for the two population groups despite their different sizes and does not differ from the global level by more than one order of magnitude.

  3. Metallothionein and bioaccumulation of cadmium in juvenile bluegills exposed to aqueous and sediment-associated cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The author evaluated metallothionein (MT), free (unbound) hepatic cadmium and whole body cadmium as indicators of cadmium exposure in juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in laboratory tests. Two types of cadmium exposure were tested; aqueous and sediment-associated. In the aqueous tests, fish were exposed to cadmium (0.0 to 32.3 [mu]g/L) in an intermittent-flow diluter. In the sediment-associated cadmium test, fish were exposed to resuspended river sidment containing 1.3 to 21.4 [mu]g Cd/g (dry weight) at a nominal total suspended solids concentration of 1,000 mg/L in revolving, circular glass exposure chambers. Total cadmium concentrations were measured in various bluegill liver fractions, whole bluegill, water, and resuspended sediment to assess the partitioning and bioaccumulation of cadmium after the tests. Mean concentrations of MT and free cadmium in bluegill livers and concentrations of cadmium in whole bluegills were positively correlated with aqueous cadmium concentration and were equally suitable as indicators of aqueous cadmium exposure. Sediment-associated cadmium was biologically available, but to a lesser extent than aqueous cadmium. Cadmium concentrations in whole bluegills exposed to resuspended river sediment were 1.5- to 3.5-fold the concentrations in bluegills in sediment-free controls. Free cadmium and MT concentrations in bluegill liver and whole-body cadmium concentrations in bluegills were positively correlated with the cadmium concentrations in filtered water, resuspended sediment, and bulk river sediment; however, whole-body cadmim concentrations were a more sensitive indicator of exposure to sediment-associated cadmium than either free cadmium or MT concentratons in liver.

  4. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  5. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  6. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for cadmium using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis of concentrations in blood, urine, and kidney cortex from living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Martin Niclas; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    The health effects of low-level chronic exposure to cadmium are increasingly recognized. To improve the risk assessment, it is essential to know the relation between cadmium intake, body burden, and biomarker levels of cadmium. We combined a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for cadmium with a data set from healthy kidney donors to re-estimate the model parameters and to test the effects of gender and serum ferritin on systemic uptake. Cadmium levels in whole blood, blood plasma, kidney cortex, and urinary excretion from 82 men and women were used to calculate posterior distributions for model parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis. For never- and ever-smokers combined, the daily systemic uptake was estimated at 0.0063 μg cadmium/kg body weight in men, with 35% increased uptake in women and a daily uptake of 1.2 μg for each pack-year per calendar year of smoking. The rate of urinary excretion from cadmium accumulated in the kidney was estimated at 0.000042 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 45 years in the kidneys. We have provided an improved model of cadmium kinetics. As the new parameter estimates derive from a single study with measurements in several compartments in each individual, these new estimates are likely to be more accurate than the previous ones where the data used originated from unrelated data sets. The estimated urinary excretion of cadmium accumulated in the kidneys was much lower than previous estimates, neglecting this finding may result in a marked under-prediction of the true kidney burden.

  7. The small heat shock protein, HSP30, is associated with aggresome-like inclusion bodies in proteasomal inhibitor-, arsenite-, and cadmium-treated Xenopus kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, treatment of Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells with the proteasomal inhibitor, MG132, or the environmental toxicants, sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride, induced the accumulation of the small heat shock protein, HSP30, in total and in both soluble and insoluble protein fractions. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the presence of relatively large HSP30 structures primarily in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm. All three of the stressors promoted the formation of aggresome-like inclusion bodies as determined by immunocytochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy using a ProteoStat aggresome dye and additional aggresomal markers, namely, anti-γ-tubulin and anti-vimentin antibodies. Further analysis revealed that HSP30 co-localized with these aggresome-like inclusion bodies. In most cells, HSP30 was found to envelope or occur within these structures. Finally, we show that treatment of cells with withaferin A, a steroidal lactone with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and proteasomal inhibitor properties, also induced HSP30 accumulation that co-localized with aggresome-like inclusion bodies. It is possible that proteasomal inhibitor or metal/metalloid-induced formation of aggresome-like inclusion bodies may sequester toxic protein aggregates until they can be degraded. While the role of HSP30 in these aggresome-like structures is not known, it is possible that they may be involved in various aspects of aggresome-like inclusion body formation or transport.

  8. Beta 2-microglobulin levels in serum and urine of cadmium exposed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M; Björck, L; Nordberg, M

    1981-07-01

    Male rabbits were exposed to cadmium during 16 weeks by subcutaneous injections of either 0.25 mg or 0.5 md Cd as cadmium chloride per kg body weight 3 times per week. beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and creatinine in serum, cadmium in blood, as well as total protein, creatinine, beta 2-m and cadmium in urine were determined before exposure and after 3 and 7 weeks of exposure. Measurements were also made at 19 weeks, 3 weeks after the last exposure. During exposure, there was a slight increase in the serum beta 2-m/creatinine ratio among rabbits with the highest exposure, while no effect of the cadmium burden could be observed once exposure had ceased. Urinary excretion of beta 2-m was related to urinary pH, which appeared to be the case also for excretion of total protein. In the high exposure group, a significant increase in urinary beta 2-m excretion, indicative of renal tubular dysfunction was seen after 7 weeks of exposure. This was, however, not related to serum beta 2-m levels. It was concluded that before renal damage has occurred even heavy cadmium exposure has very little influence on serum beta 2-m levels.

  9. Deletion of Phytochelatin Synthase Modulates the Metal Accumulation Pattern of Cadmium Exposed C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona J. Essig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental metal pollution is a growing health risk to flora and fauna. It is therefore important to fully elucidate metal detoxification pathways. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs, plays an important role in cadmium detoxification. The PCS and PCs are however not restricted to plants, but are also present in some lower metazoans. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, contains a fully functional phytochelatin synthase and phytochelatin pathway. By means of a transgenic nematode strain expressing a pcs-1 promoter-tagged GFP (pcs-1::GFP and a pcs-1 specific qPCR assay, further evidence is presented that the expression of the C. elegans phytochelatin synthase gene (pcs-1 is transcriptionally non-responsive to a chronic (48 h insult of high levels of zinc (500 μM or acute (3 h exposures to high levels of cadmium (300 μM. However, the accumulation of cadmium, but not zinc, is dependent on the pcs-1 status of the nematode. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence imaging uncovered that the cadmium body burden increased significantly in the pcs-1(tm1748 knockout allele. Taken together, this suggests that whilst the transcription of pcs-1 may not be mediated by an exposure zinc or cadmium, it is nevertheless an integral part of the cadmium detoxification pathway in C. elegans.

  10. Deletion of Phytochelatin Synthase Modulates the Metal Accumulation Pattern of Cadmium Exposed C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Yona J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental metal pollution is a growing health risk to flora and fauna. It is therefore important to fully elucidate metal detoxification pathways. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays an important role in cadmium detoxification. The PCS and PCs are however not restricted to plants, but are also present in some lower metazoans. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, contains a fully functional phytochelatin synthase and phytochelatin pathway. By means of a transgenic nematode strain expressing a pcs-1 promoter-tagged GFP (pcs-1::GFP) and a pcs-1 specific qPCR assay, further evidence is presented that the expression of the C. elegans phytochelatin synthase gene (pcs-1) is transcriptionally non-responsive to a chronic (48 h) insult of high levels of zinc (500 μM) or acute (3 h) exposures to high levels of cadmium (300 μM). However, the accumulation of cadmium, but not zinc, is dependent on the pcs-1 status of the nematode. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence imaging uncovered that the cadmium body burden increased significantly in the pcs-1(tm1748) knockout allele. Taken together, this suggests that whilst the transcription of pcs-1 may not be mediated by an exposure zinc or cadmium, it is nevertheless an integral part of the cadmium detoxification pathway in C. elegans. PMID:26907254

  11. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels.

  12. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  13. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  14. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  15. Cadmium and children : Exposure and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis whi

  16. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  17. In vivo measurement of cadmium in an occupationally-exposed population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K J; Morgan, W D; Yasumura, S; Vartsky, D; Zanzi, I; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium is recognized as a potentially serious health problem. A number of clinical abnormalities have been observed in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, it is essential that accurate data on body burdens be available in order to formulate dose-response relationships in man. The present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man is described, and recent results from a field study to a cadmium production plant are reported. The cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. These results are compared with the available data in the literature.

  18. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Weir-McCall

    Full Text Available Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA.50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR. The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated.The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045, however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01 with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012, which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45, while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005.ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is

  19. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (pQ-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (pQ-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (pQ may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  20. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie; Pan, Bishu; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2016-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8μg/m(3)), TBBPA (16μg/m(3)) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8h/day and 6days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  1. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  2. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  3. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas.

  4. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  5. Behavioral response in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) offered a choice of uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Primoz; Bozic, Janko; Strus, Jasna

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find out whether Porcellio scaber discriminates against Cd-contaminated food. The foraging behavior in animals offered uncontaminated and Cd-contaminated food simultaneously was quantified for 48-h employing computer-aided video tracking. To see whether the isopods' selection of less contaminated food could diminish the influence Cd on food consumption, growth, metal assimilation, moulting and mortality, Cd-dosed food (20, 45, 200 and 450 mg kg(-1) dry weight) was offered together with untreated food for 3 weeks. Data from the video tracking experiments revealed that animals visited Cd-dosed food as often as untreated food, but spent much less time near Cd-dosed food. Discrimination against Cd-contaminated food increased with previous experience with contaminated food and/or with increased Cd body burden. In 3 weeks exposure uncontaminated food preference rose with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food and reached a maximal preference ratio of 65% (untreated food): 35% (Cd-dosed food). The decreased consumption of Cd-dosed food was compensated by the increased consumption of control food. Cadmium body burden increased with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food consumed, while the influence of Cd on food consumption, growth and moulting was diminished.

  6. Cadmium exposure and the risk of breast cancer in Chaoshan population of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Huang, Yiteng; Zhang, Jingwen; Peng, Yuhui; Lin, Xueqiong; Wu, Kusheng; Huo, Xia

    2015-12-01

    Recently, there is increasing evidence indicating a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between blood cadmium burden and the risk of breast cancer in Chaoshan women with no occupational exposure. Blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were determined in whole blood of 186 breast cancer cases and 139 controls. Basic clinical data and information of age, occupation, blood types, family cancer history, and disease history, as well as other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. BCLs were detected by graphite-furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS). BCLs and proportions of BCLs over 3 μg/L between cases and controls were compared. The relationships between BCLs and breast cancer were explored by comparing BCL differences between/among different characteristics of investigated factors. In addition, BCLs within cases were also compared in relation to the disease clinical stages, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Cerb-B2 expressions. The breast cancer patients had a higher median concentration of blood cadmium (2.28, interquartile range 1.57-3.15 μg/L) than the controls (1.77, 1.34-2.57 μg/L; P = 0.001). The proportion of BCLs over 3 μg/L was 2.35 times higher in the breast cancer cases than that of the controls after adjusting for age. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the human body with age and body mass index (BMI) but not associates with type of job, family history, disease history, and other investigated characters. With the increase of clinical stages and T and M stages, the BCLs in the breast cancer cases also increased. BCLs were positively associated with Cerb-B2 expression (r = 0.152, P = 0.038) but not significantly associated with ER and PR expressions. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in blood of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy

  7. Cadmium and children: exposure and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Zuurbier, Moniek; Naginiene, Rima; van den Hazel, Peter; Stilianakis, Nikolaos; Ronchetti, Roberto; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Cadmium exposure through inhalation is also associated with lung cancer in adulthood. Although transfer to the neonate through the placenta and through breast milk is limited, teratogenic and developmental effects were observed in experimental animals. The database on human studies involving children is limited, yet effects on motoric and perceptual behaviour in children have been associated with elevated in utero cadmium exposure. In school age children urinary cadmium levels were associated with immune suppressive effects. More studies are needed to confirm these results. Experimental data in vitro and in animals refer to effects of cadmium on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis at different levels. This may lead to disorders of the endocrine and/or immune system. Cadmium exposure at early age should be limited as much as possible to prevent direct effects on children and to prevent accumulation of cadmium which may have serious health effects only becoming manifest at older age.

  8. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergauwen, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.vergauwen@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Hagenaars, An, E-mail: an.hagenaars@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny, E-mail: ronny.blust@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Knapen, Dries, E-mail: dries.knapen@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Gamete Research Center (GRC), Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species' specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 Degree-Sign C for one month, were exposed to 5 {mu}M cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 Degree-Sign C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 Degree-Sign C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 Degree-Sign C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we

  9. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  10. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  11. CADMIUM EXPOSURE VIA FOOD CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF INTENSIVE FARMING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raagheni Munisamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is ubiquitous in environment and may enter food chain through intense application of phosphate fertilizers to agricultural crops. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kuala Terla and Blue Valley farming villages, Cameron Highlands to determine cadmium concentration in vegetables and soil and to determine the health risks among respondents. A total of 87 respondents were selected based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. A set of pre-tested questionnaires utilized to obtain socio-demographic information and to predict health risks faced by the respondents based on their vegetable ingestion rate. The Average Daily Dose (ADD and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ were determined in this study. Convenient sampling method was employed to obtain 15 paired soil and vegetable samples. Cadmium concentration in the samples was acid digested prior analysis using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of Cd in vegetable samples were 0.13±0.082 mg kg-1, within the acceptable range specified by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985 (1 mg kg-1. For sol samples, the mean ± standard deviation concentration of Cd was 2.78±2.83 mg kg-1. Eight out of 11 soil samples exceed the permissible limit of Cd outlined by The Dutch Standard (1 mg kg-1. The findings on THQ demonstrated that all respondents are within the acceptable non-carcinogenic health risk (THQ<1. The results also exhibit that there is no correlation between cadmium in soils and vegetables. There are unlikely potential adverse health impacts arising from Cd through vegetables consumption in this study. Respondents are advised to have a medical check-up in order to determine Cd body burden thus eliminating the risks of acquiring cadmium related diseases.

  12. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Santos, M A; Mejía, J J; Batres, L; Yáñez, L; Carrizales, L; Vera, E; del Razo, L M; Cebrián, M E

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosí City, México) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  13. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  14. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  15. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  16. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsson, E; Piscator, M; Nogawa, K

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The corresponding ranges were 97-2577 and 31-1102 microgram/day. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces. Since even among some nonsmokers much higher values for fecal cadmium were recorded, this was interpreted as being the result of ingestion of cadmium from contaminated hands and other body surfaces. Among the smokers, direct oral contact with contaminated cigarettes or pipes is an additional factor; the smokers also inhale cadmium in the tobacco smoke from contaminated cigarettes. Part of that cadmium is transferred to the gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance and also adds to the fecal cadmium.

  17. Cadmium and zinc relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Piscator, M

    1978-08-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in kidney and liver have been measured under different exposure situations in different species including man. The results show that zinc increases almost equimolarly with cadmium in kidney after long-term low-level exposure to cadmium, e.g., in man, horse, pig, and lamb. In contrast, the increase of zinc follows that of cadmium to only a limited extent, e.g., in guinea pig, rabbit, rat, mouse, and chicks. In liver, the cadmium--zinc relationship seems to be reversed in such a way that zinc increases with cadmium more markedly in laboratory animals than in higher mammals. These differences between cadmium and zinc relationships in humans and large farm animals and those in commonly used laboratory animals must be considered carefully before experimental data on cadmium and zinc relationships in laboratory animals can be extrapolated to humans.

  18. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  19. Cadmium Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation by Potentiating the Interaction between ERα and c-Jun

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmental contaminant that enters the body through diet or cigarette smoke. It affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, cadmium has been shown to function as an endocrine disruptor, to stimulate estrogen receptor α (ERα) activity and promote uterine and mammary gland growth in mice. Although cadmium exposure has been associated with the development of breast cancer, the mechanism of action of cadmium remains...

  20. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  1. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  2. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  3. Factors of influence on body lead and cadmium levels in regions of Saxony Anhalt with different pollution levels, with special consideration to heavy metal uptake via household dust; Einflussfaktoren auf die innere Blei- und Cadmiumbelastung in unterschiedlich belasteten Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Schwermetallaufnahme ueber den Hausstaub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.

    2002-07-01

    The present study is based on data from an environmental medicine study aimed at identifying possible health impairments in the population of Hettstedt, a metallurgical industry site, as compared with those of the industrial region of Bitterfeld and Zerbst as control region. The present study was designed as a six-year longitudinal study and based on three regional cross-sectional studies performed in school years 1992/93, 1995/96 and 1998/99. In all three of these surveys the study population was recruited from children just entering school (5 to 7 years), 3rd form (8 to 10 years) and 6th form school children. The study population of the first survey also included women aged 50 to 59. The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of lead and cadmium deposition in households of children from Hettstedt and women from Hettstedt, Bitterfeld and Zerbst. Furthermore, the extent to which body lead and cadmium levels are influenced by the deposition of these heavy metals in household dust and the possibility of a change in children's lead and cadmium body levels between 1992/93 and 1998/99 were explored. Body lead levels were measured in terms of blood lead levels, which reflect the exposure over the past few weeks. The most significant determinants of lead deposition in household dust was the proximity of the home to the metallurgical plants and factors reflecting the deposition of lead-containing dust in the home. Likewise, the main determinants of body lead levels were the proximity of the home to emitters and, in the case of children, the lead content of household dust associated with this and the whirling up of dust by pets. Boys were found to have markedly higher levels than girls. Whereas drinking lead-containing water and being in the garden had no demonstrable effect on body lead levels in children, in women these factors were found to play a significant role, along with smoking and the release of lead from the bones after the menopause. Body lead

  4. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Banjare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic burden worldwide. Pathophysiology and extend of obesity is responsible for ill effects of health. In obesity Low grade Inflammation and antioxidant disproportion plays vital role in development of NCDs. Effective health education, professional counselling from public health authorities, free health care, and social insurance can be effective in controlling growing non communicable disease globally. The present analysis attempts to study association of obesity with different NCDs in terms of prevalence and underlying mechanisms.

  5. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in single zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos - A total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mages, Margarete [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. River Ecology Brueckstr. 3a/39114 Magdeburg/Germany (Germany); University of Lueneburg, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Department Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststrasse 1/21335 Lueneburg/Germany (Germany)], E-mail: margarete.mages@ufz.de; Bandow, Nicole [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. Effect Directed Analysis, Permoser Strasse 15/ 04318 Leipzig/Germany (Germany); Kuester, Eberhard [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoser Strasse 15/ 04318 Leipzig/Germany (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. Effect Directed Analysis, Permoser Strasse 15/ 04318 Leipzig/Germany (Germany); Tuempling, Wolf von [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. River Ecology Brueckstr. 3a/39114 Magdeburg/Germany (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Trace metals such as Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) are known to exhibit adverse effects on many aquatic organisms including early life stages of fish. In contact with contaminated sediment, fish eggs and embryos may be exposed to metals via the water phase as well as via direct contact with contaminated particles. This may result in body burdens that are difficult to predict and may vary according to individual micro scale exposure conditions. The highly sensitive total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) may provide a tool to analyse individual embryos for internal contaminant concentrations and thus helps to develop a better understanding of dose-response relationships. To test this hypothesis, embryos of Danio rerio were exposed to Cd and Zn spiked sediment in different treatments applying an ion exchange resin for modification of bioavailable concentrations. The TXRF analysis indicated individual embryos with dramatically enhanced exposure compared to other individuals despite uniform exposure conditions on a macro scale. Ion exchanger reduced embryo Zn concentrations to values close to control value with a comparably low standard deviation. Cadmium concentrations in embryos were in the range of 4000 to 7000 {mu}g/g with a median of 5740 {mu}g/g. A commercial ion exchanger reduced individual body burdens by a factor 50 to 100. Individual peak body burdens of up to 3160 {mu}g/g were accompanied by reduced weight of the fish eggs due to early death i.e. coagulation. The investigation of exposure and effects on an individual-based scale may significantly help to reduce uncertainty and inconsistencies occurring in conventional analysis of pooled fish embryo samples.

  6. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  7. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  8. Cadmium and zinc relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.; Piscator, M.

    1978-08-01

    Higher mammals, such as homo sapiens, accumulate zinc in kidney cortex almost equimolarly with cadmium. A different pattern seems to be present in liverthere is a limited increase of zinc in two species of large farm animals compared with a marked increase in the laboratory. In large farm animals, an equimolar increase of zinc with cadmium in renal cortex seems to indicate that the form of metallothionein that binds equal amounts of cadmium and zinc in present. Differences in cadmium and zinc relationships in large animals and humans compared with laboratory animals must be carefully considered. (4 graphs, 26 references)

  9. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in ...

  10. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  11. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COOH (H/sub 2/Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COO) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure.

  12. Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance%长期环境镉暴露对机体矿物质元素代谢平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海团; 黄琼; 吕颖坚; 蒋琦; 杨杏芬; 吴永宁; 黄芮; 梁旭霞; 李志学; 王晶; 谭剑斌; 吴仕漩; 王萍; 陈子慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of long⁃term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. Methods To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium⁃free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non⁃occupationally cadmium⁃exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP⁃MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann⁃Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ2 test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. Results The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68)μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36)μg/g · cr (Z=-10.49, P40周岁,在当地连续居住时间超过15年,以当地自产

  13. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  14. Investigation and Analysis on Occupational Disease Harms in a Nickel-Cadmium Battery Factory%某镍镉电池厂职业病危害因素的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文; 卢文婷; 谭健; 聂云峰; 余可平; 高寿泉

    2012-01-01

    Objective Investigation of a nickel-cadmium battery factory occupational risk factors, provide the basis for the prevention and reduction of occupational hazards investigate the effect of cadmium body burden on workers exposed to cadmium, to study the long term damage effect under different cadmium body burdens on workers health and the counterm easures, so as to prevent and reduce the occurrence of occupational disease. Methods According to relevant standards and norms,occupational health survey and occupational health test in public health were conducted on nickel cadmium battery industry in Hunan to fully reflect the existed types, distribution and concentration of occupational hazards, exposure, protective facilities and personal protection. Results The occupational hazards of nickel, cadmium, benzene, xylene, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxideluene and noise existed in this nickel-cadmium battery industry. Except for cadmium and noise, other occupational hazards in the workplace basically met the national occupational health standards. Cadmium dust was seriously beyond standard; the unqualified rate of cadmium in the air of workplace was 77.3%. Conclusions Due to lack of occupational protection facilities, cadmium dust pollution is serious in nickel-cadmium battery industry,the effective control measures should be taken.%目的:调查某镍镉电池厂职业病危害因素,为预防和减少职业病的危害提供依据.方法:参照相关国家标准和规范对某镍镉电池企业进行职业卫生调查和作业场所职业病危害因素检测,较为全面反映镍镉电池企业存在职业病危害因素的种类、分布、浓度、人员接触情况.结果:该镉镍电池企业存在镉、镍、甲苯、二甲苯等职业病危害;镉粉尘超标严重;73.3%监测点空气中镉及其化合物短时间接触浓度超过国家职业卫生标准;个别测定点和作业岗位噪声强度超过85dB(A);NaOH、KOH,苯、二甲苯、溶剂汽

  15. The long-term effect of cadmium exposure through food on the postnatal development of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białońska, Dobrosława; Zakrzewska, Marta; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Konior, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is well known for its toxicity to the animal body. However, its effect on pregnancy and the development of young animals is still not well understood. This study examined such effects, using bank voles captured from the wild to make the results closer to those which could be expected in the natural environment. One group of animals was fed 7 microg g(-1) cadmium in the food, a second 35 microg g(-1), and a third no cadmium, as a control. The concentrations of cadmium in the whole bodies of young bank voles were determined on the 3rd, 5th, or 10th day of life. The cadmium level in the bodies of animals exposed to 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium was significantly higher than in those from either the control group or the group receiving 7 microg g(-1) of cadmium, which did not differ from each other. The cadmium level did not change with animal age in any of the study groups. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe were also determined in the whole body of young animals, as cadmium is known to disturb the metabolism of these essential metals through antagonistic activity. Both Cu and Fe levels were negatively correlated with cadmium concentrations, while a positive correlation was found between zinc and cadmium in the young animal bodies. Also found was higher offspring mortality in the group receiving 35 microg g(-1) of cadmium in food. There was no difference in young animal body weight between the study groups.

  16. The effect of different acute concentrations of cadmium chloride on the frequency of micronuclei in AO rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bubujuk Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is highly toxic heavy metal which may cause severe biological effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, an evaluation of the acute Cd ability to trigger micronuclei (MNi formation was carried out on 3-monthold male and female Albino Oxford (AO rats using micronucleus (MN test. Experimental animals were treated intraperitoneally with three different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg CdCl2 per kg of body weight. Control animals received equal volume of sterile phosphate buffered saline. The results showed that 2 mg CdCl2 per kg b.w. concentration caused a highly statistically significant (P < 0.001 increase in MNi formation in the bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs, exerting a clear-cut concentration-dependent effect. Lower concentrations of CdCl2 used (0.5 and 1 mg/kg b.w. also caused MNi formation, but with lower statistical significance. Sex differences in MNi production in bone marrow PCEs after acute exposure to different experimental concentrations of CdCl2 were not observed in our study. Our results indicate the ability of CdCl2 to exerts genotoxic effects in bone marrow of AO rats, and complement previous data on the genotoxicity of this important environmental contaminant, burdening the body from different sources - major being industrial exposure, food and cigarette smoking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  17. Dietary cadmium exposure and the risk of hormone-related cancers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The toxic metal cadmium has been widely dispersed into the environment mainly through anthropogenic activities. Even in industrially non-polluted areas, farmland and consequently foods are, to a varying degree, contaminated. Food is the main source of exposure besides tobacco smoking. Cadmium accumulates in the body, particularly in the kidney where it may cause renal tubular damage. Recently, cadmium was discovered to possess endocrine disrupting properties, mainly mimicking the in vivo- eff...

  18. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  19. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  20. Changes in Tissue Metals After Cadmium Intoxication and Intervention With Chlorpromazine in Male Rats 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAO-FANG; WANGSHU-YI; 等

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd),one of the most dangerous heavy metals,has a very similar ionic radius to calcium(Ca),The interference of cadmium in calcium homeostasis may play an important role in cadmium toxicity.Recent reports indicate that calmodulin(CaM) inhibitors such as trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine(CPZ) could protect rodents against cadmium toxicity,It was also reported that pretreatment of mice with zine(Zn)could reduce the adverse effects induced by cadmium.The aim of this study is to determine whether Cd changes the balance of other essential metals such as Zn and copper(Cu) in rat tissues,and whether CPZ can reverse these changes which are induced by cadmium intoxication.Adult male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally(ip) with cadmium chloride(CdCl2)(0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg body wight) alone and 0.4mg Cd/kg in association with CPZ(5mg/kg) daily for a week.The control animals were injected with normal saline only.The results showed that the cadmium content in the liver,kidney,and testis increased significantly with a dose-response relationship.Cadmium treatment markedly increased the Zn and Ca content in some of the tissues,Hepatic and renal metallothionein(MT) increased significantly after cadmium intoxication,CPZ treatment,howerver,reduced cadmium content in liver,but not blood and kidney.CPZ seemed to decrease the content of MT in liver and significantly increase the amounts of MT in kidney.These data suggest that the intervention of cadmium with tissue essential metals may play a role in cadium toxicity in rats,and calmodulin inhibitors to some extent can reduce the adverse effect of cadmium by decreasing the cadmium load in tissues and reversing the unbalance of essetial metals.

  1. Worldwide burden of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaikrit Bhutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a pandemic of major public health importance cannot be disputed. While the IDF data does emphasis the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem, it does not place in perspective the ranking of diabetes as compared to other diseases and illnesses. The GBD data highlight this fact in multiple ways. The disease and its complications or comorbid conditions rank high in the list of risk factors, and causes of death. This communication describes the global burden of diabetes especially south-east Asia and the statistical sequelae of the disease.

  2. Global burden of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century.

  3. Cadmium promotes breast cancer cell proliferation by potentiating the interaction between ERalpha and c-Jun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewit, Christina L; Gengler, Bridget; Vegas, Esera; Puckett, Rachel; Louie, Maggie C

    2010-05-01

    Cadmium is an environmental contaminant that enters the body through diet or cigarette smoke. It affects multiple cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, cadmium has been shown to function as an endocrine disruptor, to stimulate estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) activity and promote uterine and mammary gland growth in mice. Although cadmium exposure has been associated with the development of breast cancer, the mechanism of action of cadmium remains unclear. To address this deficit, we examined the effects of cadmium treatment on breast cancer cells. We found that ERalpha is required for both cadmium-induced cell growth and modulation of gene expression. We also determined that ERalpha translocates to the nucleus in response to cadmium exposure. Additionally, we provide evidence that cadmium potentiates the interaction between ERalpha and c-Jun and enhances recruitment of this transcription factor complex to the proximal promoters of cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus increasing their expression. This study provides a mechanistic link between cadmium exposure and ERalpha and demonstrates that cadmium plays an important role in the promotion of breast cancer.

  4. Effects of phytic acid and exercise on some serum analytes in rats orally exposed to diets supplemented with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Tasha; Omoregie, Samson N; Wright, Vincent; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It has been reported to be high in the soil where food crops are grown in some parishes of Jamaica. Surprisingly, no adverse effect of cadmium has been reported among the Jamaican population. However, phytic acid has also been shown to be high in some food crops grown in Jamaica. In this study, we evaluated the effects of phytic acid (1 %) and exercise on the metabolism of cadmium (5 mg cadmium/kg body weight) in rats. Five groups of rats were fed as follows: rats fed control diet, control diet supplemented with cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with phytic acid plus cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with cadmium plus phytic acid, and control diet supplemented with cadmium only. The animals were fed for 4 weeks and then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for some biochemical assays. Percentage weight loss (28.42 %) was greatest in the group that had cadmium supplement only. The group fed control diet supplemented with cadmium only displayed increased liver enzymes and electrolytes except for the significant decrease in bicarbonate compared to other test groups. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were increased in the group fed cadmium supplement only compared to other test groups. Total cholesterol trended downwards in the test groups compared to control. These observations suggest that consumption of diet high in phytic acid with relatively high physical activity may be protective against the adverse effects of cadmium.

  5. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that...

  7. Cadmium - is it hazardous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

  8. Cadmium and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is an established human and animal carcinogen. Most evidence is available for elevated risk for lung cancer after occupational exposure; however, associations between cadmium exposure and tumors at other locations including kidney, breast, and prostate may be relevant as well. Furthermore, enhanced cancer risk may not be restricted to comparatively high occupational exposure, but may also occur via environmental exposure, for example in areas in close proximity to zinc smelters. The underlying mechanisms are still a matter of manifold research activities. While direct interactions with DNA appear to be of minor importance, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been detected in diverse experimental systems, presumably due to an inactivation of detoxifying enzymes. Also, the interference with proteins involved in the cellular response to DNA damage, the deregulation of cell growth as well as resistance to apoptosis appears to be involved in cadmium-induced carcinogenicity. Within this context, cadmium has been shown to disturb nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and mismatch repair. Particularly sensitive targets appear to be proteins with zinc-binding structures, present in DNA repair proteins such as XPA, PARP-1 as well as in the tumor suppressor protein p53. Whether or not these interactions are due to displacement of zinc or due to reactions with thiol groups involved in zinc complexation or in other critical positions under realistic exposure conditions remains to be elucidated. Further potential mechanisms relate to the interference with cellular redox regulation, either by enhanced generation of ROS or by reaction with thiol groups involved in the regulation of signaling pathways. Particularly the combination of these multiple mechanisms may give rise to a high degree of genomic instability evident in cadmium-adapted cells, relevant not only for tumor initiation, but also for later steps in tumor development.

  9. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium in mice during gestation and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Whelton, B.D.; Peterson, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on cadmium retention of continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of cadmium during pregnancy and lactation was studied in mice. Female mice were provided drinking water ad libitum containing /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (0.03 ..mu..Ci /sup 109/Cd/ml, 0.11 ppb total cadmium) throughout either gestation, lactation, or a combined period of pregnancy and lactation. Nonpregnant control mice were exposed to the same cadmium solution for similar time periods. Dams in all three experimental groups retained two to three times cadmium (expressed as percentage of ingested dose) than did nonpregnant controls. The /sup 109/Cd contents of liver, kidney, mammary tissue, and duodenum increased strikingly in all three groups. Increases in kidney and mammary tissue were particularly apparent during lactation, with increases of fivefold for kidney and at least ninefold for mammary tissue, compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. Increases in /sup 109/Cd retention by the duodenum were fivefold during gestation and three- to fourfold during lactation. The kidneys of dams exposed during lactation retained 53% of the whole body /sup 109/Cd, while kidneys of nonpregnant controls retained only 27%. Results indicate that pregnant and lactating mice absorb and subsequently retain substantially more cadmium from their diets than do nonpregnant mice.

  10. Betaine supplementation protects against renal injury induced by cadmium intoxication in rats: role of oxidative stress and caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Hanan; Al Malki, Waleed

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that can induce a broad spectrum of toxicological effects that affect various organs in humans and experimental animals. This study aims to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on cadmium-induced oxidative impairment in rat kidney. The animals were divided into four groups (n=10 per group): control, cadmium, betaine and betaine+cadmium (1) saline control group; (2) cadmium group in which cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was given orally at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for four weeks; (3) betaine group, in which betaine was given to rats at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, orally via gavage for six weeks; (4) cadmium+betaine group in which betaine was given at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, orally via gavage for two weeks prior to cadmium administration and concurrently during cadmium administration for four weeks. Cadmium nephrotoxicity was indicated by elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels. Kidneys from cadmium-treated rats showed an increase in lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) concentration and reductions in total antioxidant status (TAS), reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, superoxide dismutase concentration (SOD) and catalase activity. Caspase-3 activity, a marker of DNA damage was also elevated in renal tissues of cadmium-treated rats. Pre-treatment of rats with betaine substantially attenuated the increase in BUN and serum creatinine levels. Betaine also inhibited the increase in TBARS concentration and reversed the cadmium-induced depletion in total antioxidant status, GSH, GSH-Px, SOD and catalase concentrations in renal tissues. Renal caspase-3 activity was also reduced with betaine supplementation. These data emphasize the importance of oxidative stress and caspase signaling cascade in cadmium nephrotoxicity and suggest that betaine pretreatment reduces severity of cadmium nephrotoxicity

  11. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris intake on cadmium detoxification in rats fed cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) intake would be effective on cadmium (Cd) detoxification in rats fed dietary Cd. Fourteen-week old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 415.0 +/- 1.6 g were randomly divided into two groups and fed slightly modified American Institute of Nutrition-93 Growing (AIN-93G) diet without (n=10) or with (n=40) dietary Cd (200 ppm) for 8 weeks. To confirm alteration by dietary Cd intake, twenty rats fed AIN-93G diet without (n=10) and with (n=10) dietary Cd were sacrificed and compared. Other thirty rats were randomly blocked into three groups and fed slightly modified AIN-93G diets replacing 0 (n=10), 5 (n=10) or 10% (n=10) chlorella of total kg diet for 4 weeks. Daily food intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight (liver, spleen, and kidney), perirenal fat pad and epididymal fat pad weights were measured. To examine Cd detoxification, urinary Cd excretion and metallothonein (MT) concentrations in kidney and intestine were measured. Food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weight and fat pad weights were decreased by dietary Cd intake. Urinary Cd excretion and MT concentrations in kidney and small intestine were increased by dietary Cd. After given Cd containing diet, food intake, calorie intake, body weight change, body weight gain/calorie intake, organ weights and fat pad weights were not influenced by dietary chlorella intake. Renal MT synthesis tended to be higher in a dose-dependent manner, but not significantly. And chlorella intake did not significantly facilitate renal and intestinal MT synthesis and urinary Cd excretion. These findings suggest that, after stopping cadmium supply, chlorella supplementation, regardless of its percentage, might not improve cadmium detoxification from the body in growing rats.

  12. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  13. Effect of herbal preparation on heavy metal (cadmium) induced antioxidant system in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailiah Roopha, P; Padmalatha, C

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium is one of the elements found to damage antioxidant systems in mammals. To ameliorate cadmium toxicity and to prevent oxidative stress, natural products may be useful. In Indian ethnobotanical practice, a mixture of 17 herbal products is used to fortify the reproductive system of women after parturition and to reverse ovarian oxidative stress. Oral administration of this extract to rats exposed to cadmium was useful in reversing oxidative stress. Two different doses of cadmium (50 ppm and 200 ppm) were given to Wistar rats aged 45 and 65 days. An herbal extract derived from 17 plants was administered orally every day at a dose level of 200 mg/kg of body weight to the rats exposed to cadmium. A battery of enzymes involved in antioxidant activity in the ovary, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were measured in the control, cadmium-exposed rats without treatment and in the cadmium-exposed rats treated with herbal extract. The reduction in SOD, catalase, GPx and GST activity after cadmium exposure improved significantly in the rats treated with the herbal extract (p antioxidant enzymes due to cadmium exposure was reversed significantly with herbal extract administration. The synergistic effect of each bioactive compound in different herbal extracts requires further study.

  14. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  15. Renal cadmium overload without nephrotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    A redundant nickel/cadmium battery worker was investigated for non-specific fatigue after completing five years in the industry. Sensitive techniques for in-vivo organ cadmium measurement showed a moderate accumulation in the liver but a very large concentration in the kidneys. Despite this, overall glomerular and tubular function were not impaired. It was concluded that the mechanism of proteinuria observed in some cadmium workers is obscure and not clearly related to the degree of kidney sa...

  16. Plant science: the key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Thomine, S.; Verbruggen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Practically all human populations are environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd), mostly through plant-derived food. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no margin of safety between current Cd exposure levels and the threshold for adverse health effects and, hence, there is

  17. CADMIUM – ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge and industrial uses of Cd are the major source of widespread of this metal at trace levels into the general environment and human foodstuffs. It is well known that high cadmium (Cd exposure causes renal damage, anemia, enteropathy, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, whereas the dose-response relationship at low levels exposure is less established. During the last decade an increasing number of studies have found an adverse health effects due to low environmental exposure to Cd. Many authors try to determine the relationship between Cd intake and Cd toxicity indicators, especially dealing renal tubular damage. The level of b2-microglobulin in urine is regarded as the most sensitive biomarker of renal disfunction due to low environmental Cd concentrations.

  18. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  19. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  20. Caregiver burden in dependent elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency and the associated factors with the presence of care burden imposed by dependent elderly of Buenaventura, Valle; Colombia. Design: A pilot cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: Between March and May of 2006, data were collected on 35 over 60 years old patients who live in the community of Buenaventura, with a score in the Barthel index Results: The mean age and the standard deviation of the patient group was 78.9±10 years. There was a larger proportion of women (68.5%. In the care givers, the regular age and the standard deviation was 49.4±18.8 years, where 91% were women. It was found that for 54.2% of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 40% of them had a minimum burden and the others a greater burden. Bivariate analysis between the care giver’s burden and the number of chronic disease, the score on the minimental test, elderly depression and the family APGAR, resulted in statistic association (p Conclusions: There is an association between aged people, dependent in basic common day activities related with physical aspects, and care giver’s burden. Being the caregivers mostly family members, further studies must be focused on identifying and realizing interventions to prevent or limit the decrease of declining mental health and loss of life quality and the consequent increase of the care giver’s burden.

  1. Is cadmium hazardous to health. Cadmium - ein Gesundheitsrisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study entitled ''Is cadmium hazardous to health'' summarizes the current state of knowledge on and experience with cadmium. The authors have made efforts to take into account the more recent literature relating to cadmium. The data evaluated were, especially, biological, toxicological, and epidemiological ones. A principal object was to try to assess the importance of the presence of cadmium in the environment to man. The interest was focused on the uptake of heavy metals with food, danger thresholds for the cadmium exposure of the population, nature and extent of eventual damage to health including possible carcinogenous effects, and suggestions for further points of main emphasis in research. 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  3. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  4. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  5. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  6. The burden of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair

    2000-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) imposes a severe burden upon patients and their carers. In particular, family carers of AD patients face extreme hardship and distress that represents a major but often hidden burden on healthcare systems. Carers often experience clinically significant alterations in physical and mental health, particularly depression. A number of individual features of the dementia syndrome that are known to be particularly burdensome to carers include the degree of cognitive impairment, amount of help required with activities of daily living, personality changes and the presence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances. The neuropsychiatric features of AD patients can adversely impact the relationship between the patient and caregiver generating feelings of strain, burden and social isolation. Individual characteristics of the caregiver including personality, gender, degree of formal and informal support and physical and mental health, as well as attributional style ('coping style') and expressed emotion (critical or hostile attitudes), also dictate carer burden. As informal caregivers play such a crucial role in the care of AD patients, appropriate management strategies that incorporate interventions which address the specific burdens of the individual caregiver are essential. Reducing the burden of care can be achieved by the combination of a number of individual and general measures, including education, respite and emotion-focused interventions. These measures, accompanied by non-pharmacological strategies, are extremely important in the total care of the AD patient, with the emphasis on maintaining people in the community as long as possible.

  7. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  8. Cadmium carcinogenesis – some key points

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The article presents briefly the main mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis and the most important sites of cancer (lung, breast, prostate, testes, kidney) induced by cadmium. In spite of some evidence showing carcinogenic potential of cadmium, further research is still required to elucidate the relative contributions of various molecular mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis

  9. Cadmium carcinogenesis – some key points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents briefly the main mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis and the most important sites of cancer (lung, breast, prostate, testes, kidney induced by cadmium. In spite of some evidence showing carcinogenic potential of cadmium, further research is still required to elucidate the relative contributions of various molecular mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis

  10. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  11. Urinary Cadmium and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin M; Bonner, Matthew R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Manson, JoAnn E; Meliker, Jaymie R; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that may act as an exogenous estrogenic hormone. Environmental cadmium exposure has been associated with risk of breast cancer in retrospective studies. We prospectively assessed the relationship between cadmium exposure, evaluated by creatinine-normalized urinary cadmium concentration, and invasive breast cancer among 12,701 postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years in a Women's Health Initiative study of bone mineral density. After a median of 13.2 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 508 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,050 comparison women were identified for a case-cohort analysis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with urinary cadmium parameterized either in quartiles (comparing highest quartile with lowest, hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.14; P for trend = 0.20) or as a log-transformed continuous variable (per 2-fold higher urinary cadmium concentration, hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.03). We did not observe an association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer risk in any subgroup examined, including never smokers and women with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) less than 25. Results were consistent in both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposure is associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  12. Protective effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract on cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Olarewaju, Olaide Ibiwumi

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium has been considered a risk factor for humans as it accumulates in body tissues, such as the liver, lungs, kidneys, bones, and reproductive organs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Irvingia gabonensis (IG) against cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. The study was performed on twenty (20) male rats divided into four groups: control group, cadmium group (4 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), cadmium + extract (200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) and cadmium + extract (400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage). Changes in the kidney biochemical markers, namely glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, and creatinine were determined in serum. Histological examinations were monitored. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of kidney antioxidants, while it increased LPO levels. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-administration of IG extract. The malondialdehyde concentration of the rats treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly decreased (prats. Yet the creatinine concentration decreased significantly (prats and these were ameliorated in cadmium treated rats by co-administration of IG extract. IG showed apparent protective and curative effect on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  13. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  14. Blood Translation Elongation Factor-1δ Is a Novel Marker for Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Translation elongation factor-1d (TEF-1δ) has been identified as a novel cadmium-responsive proto-oncogene. However, it is still unclear whether TEF-1δ could be a potential biomarker of cadmium exposure. Rats were treated with CdCl2 at different concentrations (high dose 1.225, mid-dose 0.612 and low dose 0.306 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 14 weeks, and the cadmium levels, weight coefficients, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen ...

  15. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  16. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  17. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people, or is it a prom......With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  18. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    ; there was little or no evidence of increasing or decreasing cost trends. Increased awareness of the detrimental effects of AR and/or AA on patients' HRQL and its considerable cost burden might encourage early diagnosis and treatment, in order to minimize the disease burden and ensure beneficial and cost-effective...... the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease...

  19. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity.

  20. Enrichment of cadmium in biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwenner, C.; Wittig, H.; Glombitza, F.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium ions from an aqueous solution by living, resting, and dead biomasses was investigated. The dependence of the uptaked amounts on pH-value of the medium, temperature and concentration of cadmium ions is demonstrated as well as the rate of uptake. Maximum realisable concentrations were 12 mg/g biomass in living cells and about 20 mg/g biomass in resting or dead cells, respectively.

  1. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  2. Assessment of factors affecting metal burden in the stone loach (Noemacheilus barbatulus L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douben, P.E.T.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with exposure of stone loach ( Noemacheilus barbatulus L.), a fairly common fish in British rivers, to cadmium and lead. The work described in this thesis was performed to assess the relative importance of different routes of entry (water, food and sediment) on the body bur

  3. Cadmium toxicity in perinatal rat hepatocytes: Electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and morphometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, A.; Yoshizuka, M.; Hirano, T.; Ohsato, K.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    Effects of cadmium on the fetal and postnatal rat hepatocytes were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rat dams at 15 and 21 days of pregnancy and at 3 days after delivery received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulfate (1 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. On the day following the last injection, the livers were isolated from the fetal and suckling rats and provided for electron microscopy. The livers from the untreated fetal and newborn rats served as control. Large bile canaliculi, which were formed by five or more hepatocytes, were frequently observed in the cadmium-treated perinatal rat livers. The intercellular space between each adjacent hepatocyte was widened. By X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially detected out from intramitochondrial granules of the cadmium-treated hepatocytes. By morphometric analysis, the increase both in the mitochondria volume and in the number of intramitochondrial granules was evident in the cadmium-treated hepatocytes when compared to those of control. These data suggest the preferential accumulation of cadmium in mitochondria of the hepatocytes interferes with the morphogenesis of the perinatal rat liver.

  4. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  5. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  6. Burden of Osteoporosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abolhassani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. In addition to morbidity, osteoporotic fractures also increase mortality risk in affected patients. Enough evidence is not available to indicate that, like western countries, osteoporosis is a public health problem in Iran. Therefore EMRC planned to estimate the burden of osteoporotic fractures in year 2001 based on existing sources of data. The EMRC study on bone density, the MOH study on unintentional injuries, and international literature on mortality risk following osteoporotic fractures were the main sources of information used for this study. To estimate burden of osteoporotic fractures, the prevalence of osteoporosis, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and the relative risk of mortality following these fractures were approximated. The mean duration of disability following major osteoporotic fractures was estimated through epidemiologic modeling. Assumptions on the disability weights of morbid conditions resulting from osteoporotic fractures were made through comparing these conditions with similar ones in Global Burden of Disease Study. Based on mortality and incidence rates, mean durations of disability, and disability weights; the DALYs indicator was calculated for Spine, Hip, and Forearm fractures. In women hip, spine, and forearm fractures were responsible for 15880, 1269, and 121 mortality- and morbidity-related lost years of life respectively. Similar figures in men were 16495, 2225, and 37 years. Collectively osteoporosis deprived Iranian population from 36026 healthy years of life (18757 in men and 17270 in women in 2001. Higher burden of osteoporosis in men, mainly results from higher risk of mortality following fractures in male sex. The national study on unintentional injuries indicates that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Iranian population is much less than other populations. Higher bone mineral density and other probable differences between Iranians

  7. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clémence Palazzo; Jean-François Ravaud; Agathe Papelard; Philippe Ravaud; Serge Poiraudeau

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the ...

  8. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  9. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  10. Bioremediation of the soils contaminated with cadmium and chromium, by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aseman

    2016-01-01

    Results: There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to the initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. On the other hand, chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Conclusion: said the research indicated that increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended. Although, this method is effective to remove cadmium from the soils having cadmium with concentrations of 0.04 and 0.08 mg/g but it needs further investigation.

  11. Investigating the burden of parasitic zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, it is clear that collectively parasitic zoonoses have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV. In addition many also have a substantial animal health and economic burden.

  12. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  13. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  14. Effects of cadmium on the metabolism of p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, M.

    1979-06-01

    The effects of cadmium on the excretion and metabolism of DDT in rats were investigated. The excretion of DDT after a single parenteral administration was modified by the addition of a small amount of cadmium. The time pattern of DDT retention in the whole body was explained by a three-compartment model. An increased level of lipid content in the liver induced by cadmium was accompanied by a relative increase of DDT residue in the liver. This indicates that the effect of cadmium on the metabolism of DDT is mainly due to the change of lipid content in the liver. Since the effect of the cadmium was long-lasting, a significant elevation in the metabolic rate of DDT and a low level of DDT concentration in adipose tissue was observed after the dose of cadmium.

  15. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  16. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  17. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion....

  18. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following...

  19. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The...

  20. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone.

  1. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  2. Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, I.M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail: insokolo@uncc.edu; Ringwood, A.H. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson, C. [Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Road, Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States)

    2005-09-10

    Cadmium distribution was studied in different subcellular fractions of gill and hepatopancreas tissues of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Oysters were exposed for up to 21 days to low sublethal Cd concentrations (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Gill and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled and divided into organelle fractions and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Organelle content of different fractions was verified by activities of marker enzymes, citrate synthase and acid phosphatase for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. In both tissue types, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium in cytosol reaching 230-350 ng mg{sup -1} protein. Among organelles, mitochondria were the main target for Cd bioaccumulation in gills (250-300 ng mg{sup -1} protein), whereas in hepatopancreas tissues, the highest cadmium accumulation occurred in lysosomes (90-94 ng mg{sup -1} protein). Although 75-83% of total cadmium burden was associated with the cytosol reflecting high volume fraction of this compartment, Cd concentrations in organelle fractions reached levels that could cause dysfunction of mitochondria and lysosomes. Organ- and organelle-specific patterns of cadmium bioaccumulation support our previous in vivo studies, which showed adverse effects of cadmium exposures on mitochondrial oxidation in gills and on the lysosomal system of hepatopancreas. This may have important implications for the development of biomarkers of effect for heavy metals and for understanding the mechanisms of toxic effects of metals.

  3. Effects of environmental levels of cadmium, lead and mercury on human renal function evaluated by structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Gardiner, Lesley; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-07-03

    A relationship between exposure to heavy metals, including lead and cadmium, and renal dysfunction has long been suggested. However, modeling of the potential additive, or synergistic, impact of metals on renal dysfunction has proven to be challenging. In these studies, we used structural equation modeling (SEM), to investigate the relationship between heavy metal burden (serum and urine levels of lead, cadmium and mercury) and renal function using data from the NHANES database. We were able to generate a model with goodness of fit indices consistent with a well-fitting model. This model demonstrated that lead and cadmium had a negative relationship with renal function, while mercury did not contribute to renal dysfunction. Interestingly, a linear relationship between lead and loss of renal function was observed, while the maximal impact of cadmium occurred at or above serum cadmium levels of 0.8 μg/L. The interaction of lead and cadmium in loss of renal function was also observed in the model. These data highlight the use of SEM to model interaction between environmental contaminants and pathophysiology, which has important implications in mechanistic and regulatory toxicology.

  4. Field effects of cadmium contamination in the radiation characteristics of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, B.; Anda, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cadmium is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. Cadmium is a particularly dangerous element, because it dissolves readily, making it easily available to plants. It is thus able to accumulate in various links in the food chain, finally reaching humans, at the end of the chain. Adverse effects on human body was reported in 1858 at first. If it enters the body, damage to health, cause changes and can also cause cancer. Our study was designated to simulate the effects of cadmium on maize in field conditions, during the 2011 growing season. The impact of cadmium on maize was investigated at the Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely. A Swiss-bred maize hybrid, Sperlona (FAO 340), with a short vegetation period, was sown in the experiments at the plant density (70,000 plants per hectare) widely used under Hungarian climatic conditions for growing grain maize. Effects of cadmium on corn life were studied under two water supplies. Evapotranspirometers of the Thornthwaite type were used for the "ad libitum" treatment and the the rainfed variant was sown in field plots. 0,5 M concentration of cadmium was used, which was sprayed weekly. The aim of the investigation was to simulate impact of atmospheric pollution of traffic origin (low and frequent doses in the field). Plant height was registered weekly similarly to leaf area index (LAI). Albedo was measured by pyranometers of the CMA-11 type (Kipp & Zonen, Vaisala). From this the most important radiative properties were calculated, so the net radiation balance, latent heat, sensible heat and the Bowen ratio. The values of LAI for the cadmium contaminated maize were significantly lower compared to the control maize. The net radiation balance was about the same in both treatments. Cadmium causes the latent heat decreased, while the sensible heat increased compared to the control treatment. The Bowen ratio in the polluted crops was higher, than the cadmium-untreated area. The yield of maize

  5. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  6. [Experimental evaluation of combined effects caused by stress and metals (cadmium and aluminium) in reproductivity of male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makutina, V A; Balezin, S L; Slyshkina, T V; Pashnina, I A; Likhacheva, E I

    2014-01-01

    To investigate combined effects of stress and metal (aluminium, cadmium) on reproductivity, male rats twice per week received intraperitoneal injections of aluminium (3.8 mg Al3+ per kg of body weight) or cadmium (0.3 mg Cd2+ per kg of body weight) and were subjected to stress via short-term immobilization during spermatogenic cycle (54 +/- 3 days). Findings are cumulation of both cadmium and aluminium in genitals and brain, increasing under stress. When acting separately to the laboratory animals, the three factors (aluminium/cadmium/stress) increase serum corticosterone level, change testosterone level, increase number of aberrant mitoses of spermatogenic epithelium cells, increased sperm count with fragmented DNA, lower percentage of the impregnated females. If the exposure combined with stress, spermatogenesis disorders are more marked, and preimplantation death rate of intact females' offspirngs becomes statistically significant.

  7. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  8. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  9. Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.

  10. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future.

  11. Non-occupational exposure of Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Ismail, N H; Hashim, J H; Lkeda, M

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood and 24-h total food duplicate samples were obtained from 49 adult Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in July, 1995. Samples of boiled and uncooked (raw) rice were also collected from the subjects. The blood samples, homogenates of each food duplicates and rice samples (both cooked and raw) were digested by heating in the presence of mineral acids, and the digests were subjected to analysis for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) with a system composed of a fully automated liquid sampler, a graphiie furnace atomic absorption spectrometer and a data processor. The geometric mean metal concentrations in blood were 0.71 ng Cd per ml and 45.6 ng Pb per ml, and the dietary metal intakes were 7.31 μg Cd per day and 10.1 μg Pb per day. The metal intake via rice accounted for 53% and 13% of total dietary intake of cadmium and lead, respectively. When the absorption from the air and foods was compared, the cadmium burden came almost exclusively from foods, whereas the lead burden came both from air (44%) and foods (56%).

  12. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  14. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  15. Thyrotoxicity of the Chlorides of Cadmium and Mercury in Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NINAGHOSH; SHELLEYBHATTACHARYA

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury is of immediate environmental concern.The present study was aimed at establishing a direct relationship between heavy metal poisoning and thyroid dysfunction.Cadmium and mercury treatment at LD50 levels resulted in severe thyrotoxicosis in the rabbit.Within 24h of intramuscular administration of cadmium chloride 15 mg·kg-1 body weight(bw)and mercury chloride20mg·kg-1 bw,thyroid peroxidase activity increased significantly over the control with a concomitant rise in the triiodothyronie(T3)titre.On the other hand,there was a remarkable fall in the thyroxine(T4)level,and the T3,T4 ratio was high as compared with the control.Evidence indicates that acute heavy metal lethality will induce immediate hyperthyroidism.It is suggested that T3-toxicosis may be produced by a preferential synthesis of T3 and/or preferential deiodination of T4 to T3.Measurement of T3 and T4 levels may thus e utilized as a reliable indicator of heavy metal lethality.

  16. Formalising arguments about the burden of persuasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.; Sartor, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an argument-based logic for reasoning about allocations of the burden of persuasion. The logic extends the system of Prakken (2001), which in turn modified the system of Prakken & Sartor (1996) with the possibility to distribute the burden of proof over both sides in an argument

  17. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  18. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns...

  19. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  20. Cadmium distribution in sediment and the lugworm Arenicola marina in a low concentration exposure experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Everaarts, J.M.; Devi, K.S.

    was dissected and separated from the body-wall. Water samples (500 mL) taken at the aquarium-outflow were acidified with HCl, dissolved cadmium was complexed with a mixture of 1% ammonium-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbonate (APDC) and 1% diethyl...-distilled water, and stored in teflon tubes, (Danielsson et al. 1978). Cadmium concentrations in the sediment were determined after decomposition of about 500 mg measured to the nearest 0.1 mg with a mixture of 1 mL of aqua regia (1 part HNO 3 + 3 parts HCl) and 5...

  1. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Palazzo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs, these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for analysis. Diagnosis and disabilities were self-reported. We assessed the risk of disability associated with RMDs using odds ratios (ORs and the societal impact of RMDs using the average attributable fraction (AAF. RESULTS: Overall 27.7% (about 17.3 million people (95% CI 26.9-28.4% of the population reported having RMDs. The most prevalent RMDs were low back pain (12.5%, 12.1-13.1 and osteoarthritis (12.3%, 11.8-12.7. People reporting osteoarthritis were more disabled in walking (adjusted OR 1.9, 1.7-2.2 than those without. People reporting inflammatory arthritis were more limited in activities of daily living (from 1.4, 1.2-1.8 for walking to 2.1, 1.5-2.9 for moving around. From a societal perspective, osteoarthritis was the main contributor to activity limitations (AAF 22% for walking difficulties. Changing jobs was mainly attributed to neck pain (AAF 13% and low back pain (11.5%. CONCLUSION: RMDs are highly prevalent and significantly affect activity limitations and participation restrictions. More effort is needed to improve care and research in this field.

  2. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  3. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  4. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  5. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, V. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-reims.fr; Charmantier, G. [Equipe Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese, UMR 5119 Ecolag, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Mons, R. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Geffard, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-toxicologie, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rousselle, P. [Laboratoire Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Ecosystemes, Universite de Metz, Campus Bridoux, Rue du General Delestraint, 57 070 Metz (France); Coquery, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Environnementale, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Garric, J.; Geffard, O. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)

    2008-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50{sub 96h} = 82.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 120h} = 37.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 168h} = 21.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 264h} = 10.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca{sup 2+} concentration, but not on haemolymph Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations, whereas the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms.

  6. Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rodgers

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most analyses of risks to health focus on the total burden of their aggregate effects. The distribution of risk-factor-attributable disease burden, for example by age or exposure level, can inform the selection and targeting of specific interventions and programs, and increase cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For 26 selected risk factors, expert working groups conducted comprehensive reviews of data on risk-factor exposure and hazard for 14 epidemiological subregions of the world, by age and sex. Age-sex-subregion-population attributable fractions were estimated and applied to the mortality and burden of disease estimates from the World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database. Where possible, exposure levels were assessed as continuous measures, or as multiple categories. The proportion of risk-factor-attributable burden in different population subgroups, defined by age, sex, and exposure level, was estimated. For major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, cholesterol, tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, body mass index, and physical inactivity 43%-61% of attributable disease burden occurred between the ages of 15 and 59 y, and 87% of alcohol-attributable burden occurred in this age group. Most of the disease burden for continuous risks occurred in those with only moderately raised levels, not among those with levels above commonly used cut-points, such as those with hypertension or obesity. Of all disease burden attributable to being underweight during childhood, 55% occurred among children 1-3 standard deviations below the reference population median, and the remainder occurred among severely malnourished children, who were three or more standard deviations below median. CONCLUSIONS: Many major global risks are widely spread in a population, rather than restricted to a minority. Population-based strategies that seek to shift the whole distribution of risk factors often have the potential to

  7. Immunoassay for Cadmium Detection and Quantification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG-LIANG LIU; JU-FANG WANG; ZHI-YONG LI; SHI-ZHONG LIANG; XIAO-NING WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect cadmium in environmental and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Methods An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) was developed based on a cadmium-specific monoclonal antibody.IC-ELISA for cadmium in environmental and food samples was evaluated. Results IC-ELISA showed an IC50 of 45.6 μg/L with a detection limit of 1.95 μg/L for cadmium,and showed a mean recovery ranging 97.67%-107.08%.The coefficient of variations for intra- and iuterassay was 3.41%-6.61% and 4.70%-9.21%,respectively.The correlation coefficient between IC-ELISA and GFAAS was 0.998. Conclusion IC-ELISA can detect and quantify cadmium residue in environmental or food samples.

  8. Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nalinda; Peiris-John, Roshini; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Senanayake, Hemantha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-05-01

    Metalloestrogens are inorganic metal ions that bind to and activate oestrogen receptors. They are implicated in the aetiology of oestrogen-dependent diseases such as cancers of the breast and endometrium as well as endometriosis. Cadmium is one of the most studied metalloestrogens. In this review, scientific evidence for the oestrogenic effects of cadmium is critically evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to support cadmium as an aetiological factor of oestrogen-dependent disease in humans. Results of the review indicated that, although the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the oestrogenic properties of cadmium was persuasive, evidence from population-based human studies remains conflicting. Considerable knowledge gaps exist on the potential oestrogenic effect of cadmium in humans. Research that focuses on bridging these knowledge gaps would be useful in preventing and managing oestrogen-dependent disease in humans.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE RAT BRAIN UNDER CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Yu P; Prischepa, I V; Si, U; Nedzvetsky, V S; Kot, Y G; Persky, E E; Ushakova, G A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic effects of low doses of cadmium on the distribution of soluble and filament forms of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and their polypeptide fragments in different parts of the rat brain were investigated. Obtained results showed dose-dependent effect of cadmium on the soluble form of GFAP and more pronounced effect on the filament form and composition of the polypeptide fragments of the protein in the rat brain. Prolonged intoxication by cadmium ions in a dose of 1.0 μg/kg of body weight induced a significant decrease in soluble GFAP and an increase in the filament form in the rat brain, pointing to the development of reactive astrogliosis and the risk of neurodegeneration.

  10. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The ef

  11. Woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a biological indicator of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkin, S.P.; Hardisty, G.N.; Martin, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were determined in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse. Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) and soil and leaf litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution was centered on Avonmouth to the north-west of Bristol, the site of a primary zinc, lead, and cadmium smelting works. Concentrations of all four metals in the hepatopancreas, whole woodlice, soil and leaf litter were above background levels over a large area on all maps which, in the case of cadmium in the hepatopancreas, extended for 25 km to the east of the smelting works. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of each metal in woodlice and soil, and between woodlice and leaf litter, were positive and statistically significant in all cases. At individual sites, however, particularly those associated with disused mining areas, rubbish tips or busy roads, the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in woodlice could not have been predicted accurately from the levels of metals in leaf litter or soil due to the large scatter of data points along the lines of best fit.

  12. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  13. Sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-15

    Overcharge protection, and especially the chargeability of a sealed Ni/Cd battery with high currents is improved by rolling a carbon-containing powdered material into the surface of the negative electrode, which material catalyzes the reduction of oxygen. Wetting of the electrode with a Tylose dispersion prior to application of the powder (by powdering, vibration or in an agitator) improves the adhesion of the powder. The cadmium electrode thus prepared combines in itself the functions of a negative principal electrode and of an auxiliary oxygen electrode.

  14. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd.

  15. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  16. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Mamady Keita; Yao Hongyan; Zhang Xujun; Xiang Huiyun; Tan Hongzhuan; Hu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)...

  17. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational...... with depression and anxiety was highest for patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and leg ulcers. These results identify a major additional burden of skin disease and have important clinical implications....

  18. Application of Optimal Sinter Burden Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The application of the optimal sinter burden design in the sinter shop of No.1 Iron-making Plant in Tangshan Iron & Steel Corp was reported. By using burden calculation and simulating production under different situations, it is demonstrated that the technology can provide the relevant information in product quality and cost etc. for decision-makers. The technology has been used to guide production of the Sinter Shop since 2000, and a remarkable achievement has been obtained.

  19. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  20. Interactions of cadmium and zinc during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorell, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The interactions of cadmium exposure and zinc during pregnancy were investigated by studying rats exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 100 ppm cadmium (as CdCl{sub 2}) in the drinking water from day 6 to day 20 of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, fetuses of rats exposed to 50 and 100 ppm of cadmium were slightly but significantly smaller than those of control animals. Fetal weight was negatively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration and positively correlated with fetal cadmium concentration. Significant fetal cadmium accumulation occurred in both the 50 and 100 ppm cadmium exposure groups; fetal zinc concentrations were decreased. Maternal liver and kidney zinc concentrations were slightly elevated, and the possible role of maternal organ sequestration of available zinc is discussed. The activity of two zinc metalloenzymes, alkaline phosphatase and {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, was decreased in maternal and fetal tissues, providing evidence of an alteration in zinc metabolism. In addition, the placental transport of {sup 65}Zn was characterized in control animals and compared to exposed groups; placental zinc transport was significantly decreased in the 50 and 100 ppm exposure groups.

  1. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  2. [Association between cadmium and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumylaite, Loreta; Bogusevicius, Algirdas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Pranys, Darius; Poskiene, Lina; Kregzdyte, Rima; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Asadauskaite, Rūta

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen, although some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess cadmium concentration in breast tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and benign breast tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The concentration of cadmium was determined in breast tissue samples of 21 breast cancer and 19 benign tumor patients. Two samples of breast tissue from each patient, i.e. tumor and normal tissue close to tumor, were taken for the analysis. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer, Zeeman 3030). RESULTS. In patients with breast cancer, the mean cadmium concentration was 33.1 ng/g (95% CI, 21.9-44.4) in malignant breast tissue and 10.4 ng/g (95% CI, 5.6-15.2) in normal breast tissue (P=0.002). In patients with benign tumor, the corresponding values were 17.5 ng/g (95% CI, 8.4-26.5) and 11.8 ng/g (95% CI, 5.1-18.5) (P=0.3144). There was a statistically significant difference in cadmium concentration between malignant and benign breast tissues (P=0.009). CONCLUSION. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in malignant breast tissue as compared with normal breast tissue of the same women or benign breast tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine the association between cadmium concentration in malignant breast tissue and estrogen receptor level, and smoking.

  3. Validation of the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC, a multidimensional short care burden scale from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiwara Akiko

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We constructed a concise multidimensional care burden scale that reflects circumstances unique to Japan, with a focus on intractable neurological diseases. We surveyed 646 family caregivers of patients with intractable neurological diseases or stroke using 28 preliminary care burden scale items obtained from qualitative research. The results were used to finalize the feeling of care burden scale (BIC: burden index of caregivers, and verify its reliability and validity. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers providing home health care to patients with intractable neurological diseases (PD [Parkinson's disease], SCD [spinocerebellar degeneration], MSA [multiple system atrophy], and ALS [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] or CVA (cerebrovascular accident using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire between November, 2003 and May, 2004. Results Response rates for neurological and CVA caregivers were 50% and 67%, respectively, or 646 in total (PD, 279; SCD, 78; MSA, 39; ALS, 30; and CVA, 220. Item and exploratory factor analyses led to a reduction to 11 items, comprising 10 items from the 5 domains of time-dependent burden, emotional burden, existential burden, physical burden, and service-related burden; and 1 item on total burden. Examination of validity showed a moderate correlation between each domain of the BIC and the SF-8 (Health related quality of life scale, Short Form-8, while the correlation coefficient of the overall BIC and CES-D was 0.62. Correlation between the BIC and ZBI, a preexisting care burden scale, was high (r = 0.84, while that with the time spent on providing care was 0.47. The ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient by test-retest reliability was 0.83, and 0.68 to 0.80 by individual domain. Conclusion These results show that the BIC, a new care burden scale comprising 11 items, is highly reliable and valid.

  4. Biochemical Effects of Cadmium Exposure and the Potential Pharmacologic Significance of Cadmium Mediated Hydrolase Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-18

    increase Cd absorption from the intestines (Larson and Piscator 1971; Itokawa, Abe et al. 197 4; Pond and Walker 1975). Pyridoxine, vitamin B 6 , is...considerations on uptake and retention of cadmium in human kidney cortex. Cadmium in the Environment. L. Friberg, M. Piscator and G. F. Nordberg. Cleveland...Columbia, Missouri, University of Missouri. Larson, S.-E. and M. Piscator (1971). "Effect of cadmium on skeletal tissue in normal and calcium

  5. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd{sup 2+}] ([Cd{sup 2+}]-based-IC{sub 50}, i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  6. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Jiao; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd(2+)] ([Cd(2+)]-based-IC(50), i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  7. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain......Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...

  8. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  9. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  10. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  11. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, E.

    1980-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to cadmium (6 ..mu..g 1sup(-1), 30 days) in flowing seawater, then held for 7 days in aerated 'clean' seawater at either ambient (27 per mill) or low (17 per mill) salinity. Cadmium exposure alone (ambient salinity) induced a general elevation of enzyme activity (heart, antennal gland, and muscle MDH; heart LDH and GPI), despite the probability of some clearance of cadmium from body tissues during the 'clean' seawater holding period. Low-salinity alone (non-exposed lobsters) caused a decrease of enzyme activity (AAT, LDH, GPI, PK) in most tissues examined, except for tail muscle IDH, the activity of which was increased, and MDH, which was significantly elevated above ambient controls in all tissues except heart. Most low-salinity effects were observed in tail muscle, and most cadmium effects, in heart; low-salinity effects outnumbered cadmium stress by nine to four. In heart and tail muscle of cadmium-exposed lobsters held at low salinity, each of the two stresses apparently operated to nullify the other's effects. The most prominent single biochemical response to these sublethal stresses was the elevation of MDH activity. The ratio MDH:LDH gave the clearest indication of overall relative stress.

  12. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia.

  13. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  15. Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Erin M., E-mail: leonarem@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Pierce, Laura M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Gillis, Patricia L. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Wood, Chris M.; O' Donnell, Michael J. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2009-05-05

    Many aquatic insects are very insensitive to cadmium in short-term laboratory studies. LC50 values for larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius are over 25,000 times the Criterion Maximum Concentration in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA (2000)) species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Excretion or sequestration of cadmium may contribute to insensitivity and we have therefore examined cadmium transport by isolated guts and renal tissues of C. riparius larvae. Regional differences of Cd transport along the gut were identified using a Cd{sup 2+}-selective microelectrode in conjunction with the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET). Cd is transported into the anterior midgut (AMG) cells from the lumen and out of the cells into the hemolymph. The transport of Cd from the gut lumen to the hemolymph exposes other tissues such as the nervous system and muscles to Cd. The gut segments which remove Cd from the hemolymph at the highest rate are the posterior midgut (PMG) and the ileum. In addition, assays using an isolated Malpighian (renal) tubule preparation have shown that the Malpighian tubules (MT) both sequester and secrete Cd. For larvae bathed in 10 {mu}mol l{sup -1} Cd, the tubules can secrete the entire hemolymph burden of Cd in {approx}15 h.

  16. Some Aspects of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cell system is termed till today as the most reliable power pack for electronic apparatus specially in low temperature use. This paper brings out the development and production of sealed nickel cadmium cells of pocket plate construction. The author who has gained experience in production of Ni-Cd cells in East Germany discusses also the major problems faced by the battery manufactures of to-day.

  17. Acute and chronic cadmium exposure promotes E-cadherin degradation in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Esmeralda; Louie, Maggie C; Sevigny, Mary B

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is an environmental carcinogen that usually enters the body at minute concentrations through diet or cigarette smoke and bioaccumulates in soft tissues. In past studies, cadmium has been shown to contribute to the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes including increased cell migration and invasion. This study aims to determine if cadmium exposure-both acute and chronic-contributes to breast cancer progression by interfering with the normal functional relationship between E-cadherin and β-catenin. An MCF7 breast cancer cell line (MCF7-Cd) chronically exposed to 10(-7)  M CdCl2 was previously developed and used as a model system to study chronic exposures, whereas parental MCF7 cells exposed to 10(-6)  M CdCl2 for short periods of time were used to study acute exposures. Cadmium exposure of MCF7 cells led to the degradation of the E-cadherin protein via the ubiquitination pathway. This resulted in fewer E-cadherin/β-catenin complexes and the relocation of active β-catenin to the nucleus, where it interacted with transcription factor TCF-4 to modulate gene expression. Interestingly, only cells chronically exposed to cadmium showed a significant decrease in the localization of β-catenin to the plasma membrane and an increased distance between cells. Our data suggest that cadmium exposure promotes breast cancer progression by (1) down-regulating E-cadherin, thus decreasing the number of E-cadherin/β-catenin adhesion complexes, and (2) enhancing the nuclear translocation of β-catenin to increase expression of cancer-promoting proteins (i.e., c-Jun and cyclin D1).

  18. Screening micro-organisms for cadmium absorption from aqueous solution and cadmium absorption properties of Arthrobacter nicotianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko; Umenai, Daishi; Hatano, Tomonobu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    To obtain basic information on how microbial cells absorb cadmium from aqueous solution, we examined cadmium absorption in various micro-organisms. Of 51 micro-organism strains tested, we found that some Gram-positive bacteria, such as, Arthrobacter nicotianae and Bacillus subtilis, and some actinomycetes, such as, Streptomyces flavoviridis and S. levoris were highly capable of absorbing cadmium from an aqueous solution. A. nicotianae absorbed the largest amount of cadmium, over 800 μmol cadmium per gram of dry wt. cells. However, cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae was affected by the solution pH, cadmium concentration, and cell density. The absorption of cadmium was very rapid. Some factors that affected cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae cells were also discussed.

  19. Effects of cadmium on hypoxia-induced expression of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangre, A.J.; Manning, S. [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Brouwer, M., E-mail: marius.brouwer@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Hypoxia and toxic metals are two common stressors found in the estuarine environment. To date little information is available on the combined effects of these stressors on early larval development in fish. We investigated the effect of cadmium and hypoxia exposure alone as well in combination on larval Cyprinodon variegatus. The LC{sub 10} for cadmium was determined to be 0.3 ppm in a 96 h acute exposure. This concentration was used in all studies. Cadmium in larvae increased significantly with exposure time (1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch). The increase was proportional to body weight and not affected by hypoxia. Cadmium responsive genes were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in Cyprinodonvariegatus larvae after exposure to cadmium for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. We obtained over 700 sequences from the cadmium cDNA library. Blast search of ESTs suggested that cadmium modulates multiple physiological processes. Pertinent to this study, cadmium was found to down-regulate both embryonic {alpha} and {beta} globin, which are expressed in erythrocytes generated during the first, or primitive, wave of erythropoiesis in teleosts. Hemoglobin (Hb) and erythropoietin (Epo) (the hormone that promotes red blood cell production) are known hypoxia-inducible genes. To explore the possibility that cadmium might offset the hypoxia-induced expression of Hb and Epo, we investigated the expression of both genes following hypoxia, cadmium and combined exposures for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-hatch. Since Epo had not yet been identified in C. variegatus we first successfully cloned a partial coding sequence of the C. variegatus hormone. Subsequent studies revealed that expression levels of Hb and Epo remained unchanged in the normoxic controls during the time course of the study. Hypoxia increased Epo expression relative to normoxic controls, on days 3, 5 and 7, while cadmium in hypoxia inhibited the increase. Only the changes on days 5 and 7 were statistically significant

  20. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined.

  1. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  2. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  3. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical......Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients? lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness...

  4. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  5. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J.H. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females. The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles.

  6. Burden of Illness in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Hereditary Angioedema Burden of Illness Study in Europe was to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective. Based on open-ended qualitative interviews with 30 patients from Spain, Germany and Denmark, 5 key themes emerged characterizing the impact...

  7. 78 FR 42893 - Statement on Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... serve the credit needs of its customers, i.e., America's farmers, ranchers, aquatic producers and... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Chapter VI RIN 3052-AC88 Statement on Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA,...

  8. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process... businesses and the public. Agencies consider low-cost approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility...-regulatory-system . The Department is committed to maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective...

  9. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  10. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  11. Identification of three relationships linking cadmium accumulation to cadmium tolerance and zinc and citrate accumulation in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrig, Walid; Rouached, Aïda; Shahzad, Zaigham; Abdelly, Chedly; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a plant species that shows high accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. Lettuce is therefore a good model both for identifying determinants controlling cadmium accumulation in plant tissues and for developing breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in edible tissues. In this work, 14-day-old plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for 8 days on media supplemented with cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 microM. Growth, as well as Cd(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), phosphate, malate and citrate root an shoot contents were analyzed. The three lettuce varieties Paris Island Cos, Red Salad Bowl and Kordaat displayed differential abilities to accumulate cadmium in roots and shoots, Paris Island Cos displaying the lowest cadmium content and Kordaat the highest. From the global analysis of the three varieties, three main trends were identified. First, a common negative correlation linked cadmium tissue content and relative dry weight reduction in response to cadmium treatments in the three varieties. Second, increasing cadmium concentration in the culture medium resulted in a parallel increase in zinc tissue content in all lettuce varieties. A common strong positive correlation between cadmium and zinc contents was observed for all varieties. This suggested that systems enabling zinc and cadmium transport were induced by cadmium. Finally, the cadmium treatments had a contrasting effect on anion contents in tissues. Interestingly, citrate content in shoots was correlated with cadmium translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting that citrate might play a role in cadmium transport in the xylem vessels. Altogether, these results shed light on three main strategies developed by lettuce to cope with cadmium, which could help to develop breeding strategies aimed at limiting cadmium accumulation in lettuce.

  12. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  13. In Utero Exposure to Cadmium, Mammary Gland Development, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Our results highlight the fact that endocrine disruptors may stimulate more than one type of steroid receptor, and that this may be dependant...upon dose. Further studies on the combined effects of estrogenic and androgenic stimulation by endocrine disruptors are necessary and will...Because the half-life of cadmium in the mammalian body is >20 years its endocrine -disrupting effects are long-lasting. We hypothesized that in utero

  14. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  15. Impairment of lipid storage by cadmium in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron, Fabien [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)]. E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Bossy, Angelique [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Brethes, Daniel [IBGC, UMR CNRS 5095, Universite Bordeaux 2 and CNRS, 1, rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Elie, Pierre [Cemagref, Unite Ecosystemes Estuariens et Poissons Migrateurs Amphihalins, U.R. EPBX, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France); Massabuau, Jean-Charles [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2007-03-10

    Because European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) fast during their reproductive migration to the Sargasso Sea, the successful completion of their unusual life cycle depends on quantity of lipids stored beforehand. These lipids are mainly accumulated during the growth phase stage of the animals, called yellow eel, as triglycerides in muscle. They are then catabolized to provide sufficient energy to enable migration, gonad maturation and spawning. In the laboratory, we investigated the possible impact of cadmium on the lipid storage efficiency of yellow eels in order to evaluate the possible contribution of this pollutant to the reported decline of European eel populations. Eels were exposed to dissolved cadmium at nominal concentrations of 0 and 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} for 1 month. Cd toxicity was then examined by studying the activity and expression level of several enzymes involved in liver lipolysis and lipogenesis and by determining lipid content in muscle. Contaminated eels showed a lower body weight growth with a lower efficiency of lipid storage compared to controls. Using two complementary approaches, genetic and enzymatic, it was possible to conclude that this impairment is mainly explained by an increased utilisation of triglycerides since cadmium contamination did not trigger a reduced fatty acid synthesis. These observations suggest an increased fat consumption in presence of cadmium, which could compromise successful reproduction.

  16. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  17. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  18. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  19. Caregiver Burden: Looking Beyond the Unidimensional Total Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sabrina; Chong, Mei Sian; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chan, Mark; Chua, Kia Chong; Lim, Wee Shiong

    2015-01-01

    The Zarit Burden Interview allows caregiver burden to be interpreted from a total score. However, recent studies propose a multidimensional Zarit Burden Interview model. This study aims to determine the agreement between unidimensional (UD) and multidimensional (MD) classification of burden, and differences in predictors among identified groups. We studied 165 dyads of dementia patients and primary caregivers. Caregivers were dichotomized into low-burden and high-burden groups based upon: (1) UD score using quartile cutoffs; and (2) MD model via exploratory cluster analysis. We compared UD versus MD 2×2 classification of burden using κ statistics. Caregivers not showing agreement by either definition were classified as "intermediate" burden. We performed binary logistic regression to ascertain differences in predictive factors. The 2 models showed moderate agreement (κ=0.72, P<0.01), yielding 104 low, 20 intermediate (UD "low burden"/MD "high burden"), and 41 high-burden caregivers. Neuropsychiatric symptoms [odds ratio (OR)=1.27, P=0.003], coresidence (OR=6.32, P=0.040), and decreased caregiving hours (OR=0.99, P=0.018) were associated with intermediate burden, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR=1.21, P=0.001) and adult children caregivers (OR=2.80, P=0.055) were associated with high burden. Our results highlight the differences between UD and MD classification of caregiver burden. Future studies should explore the significance of the noncongruent intermediate group and its predictors.

  20. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  1. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) microg/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference=0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend=0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  2. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  3. Relationships of cadmium, mercury, and selenium with nutrient reserves of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Afton, A.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Trace elements may have important effects on body condition of ducks during spring migration, because individuals are experiencing energetically costly events (e.g., migration, nutrient reserve accumulation, pair formation, feather molt, and ovarian follicle development). We examined relationships among hepatic cadmium, mercury, and selenium concentrations (??g/g dry wt) and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during winter and spring migration at four locations within the Mississippi Flyway (LA, IL, and MN, USA, and MB, Canada). Selenium concentrations (range, 3.73-52.29 (??g/g dry wt) were positively correlated with lipid reserves (F1,73 = 22.69, p lipid reserves (F1,73 = 6.92, p = 0.010, type III partial r2 = 0.09). The observed relationship between cadmium and lipid reserves may be cause for concern, because lipid reserves of females declined by 55 g (47%), on average, within the range of observed cadmium concentrations (0.23-7.24 ??g/g dry wt), despite the relatively low cadmium concentrations detected. Mean cadmium concentrations were higher in Minnesota (1.23 ??g/g dry wt) and Manitoba (1.11 ??g/g dry wt) than in Louisiana (0.80 ??g/g dry wt) and Illinois (0.69 ??g/g dry wt). However, mean cadmium concentrations predict lipid reserves of females to be only 11 g lower, on average, in Minnesota than in Illinois. Previous research documented that lipid reserves were 100 g lower in Minnesota than in Illinois; consequently, cadmium is unlikely to be the sole cause for decreases in lipid reserves of females during late-spring migration. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  4. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  5. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  6. Plant science: the key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Stephan; Aarts, Mark G M; Thomine, Sébastien; Verbruggen, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Practically all human populations are environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd), mostly through plant-derived food. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no margin of safety between current Cd exposure levels and the threshold for adverse health effects and, hence, there is an urgent need to lower human Cd intake. Here we review recent studies on rice (Oryza sativa) and Cd-hyperaccumulating plants that have led to important insights into the processes controlling the passage of Cd from the soil to edible plant organs. The emerging molecular understanding of Cd uptake, root retention, root-to-shoot translocation and grain loading will enable the development of low Cd-accumulating crops.

  7. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  8. Opiatergic participation in the thirst-inhibiting effect of acute third ventricle injections of cadmium (Cd2+ and lead (Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of both lead and cadmium prevent the dipsogenic response elicited by dehydration or by central injections of dipsogenic agents such as angiotensin II, carbachol and isoproterenol in rats. We have also shown that the antidipsogenic action of cadmium may be due, at least in part, to activation of thirst-inhibitory central serotonergic pathways. In the present paper we show that in Wistar male rats the antidipsogenic effect of both lead acetate (3.0 nmol/rat and cadmium chloride (3.0 nmol/rat may be partially dependent on the activation of brain opiatergic pathways since central injections of naloxone (82.5 nmol/rat, a non-selective opioid antagonist, blunt the thirst-inhibiting effect of these metals. One hundred and twenty minutes after the second third ventricle injections, dehydrated animals (14 h overnight receiving saline + sodium acetate displayed a high water intake (7.90 ± 0.47 ml/100 g body weight whereas animals receiving saline + lead acetate drank 3.24 ± 0.47 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving naloxone + lead acetate drank 6.94 ± 0.60 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving saline + saline drank 8.16 ± 0.66 ml/100 g body weight whilst animals receiving saline + cadmium chloride drank 1.63 ± 0.37 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving naloxone + cadmium chloride drank 8.01 ± 0.94 ml/100 g body weight. It is suggested that acute third ventricle injections of both lead and cadmium exert their antidipsogenic effect by activating thirst-inhibiting opioid pathways in the brain.

  9. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L

    2013-02-01

    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction.

  10. Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambady Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries. These countries also face a grave burden of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, which develop at a younger age than in Western populations. These disorders are also manifested in childhood. The major causative factors are related to the lifestyle changes occurring due to rapid socioeconomic transition. Asian populations show several differences in genetic factors when compared with the white population, and they also have lower cut points for environmental risk factors. National programmes targeting public awareness, education and improved structural facilities to facilitate healthy lifestyle are the keys to alleviate the economic and health care burden of the obesity-related disorders.

  11. The economic burden of hemodialysis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Adel Al-Shdaifat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis treatment is a costly procedure that requires specific resources. It has a considerable burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare system. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden borne by the Ministry of Health (MOH in Jordan, with a focus on direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted at MOH hospitals in Jordan, from August to November 2010. A total of 138 patients and 49 caregivers were involved in the study. An economic evaluation study was used to analyze the burden of hemodialysis treatment at MOH, Jordan. Direct medical costs were estimated through micro and macro costing from the provider′s perspective. Patients′ and caregivers′ costs were included to calculate direct non-medical costs. Human capital approach was employed to evaluate the productivity loss for indirect cost and premature death and potential year life loss was used to estimate the premature death cost. Results: The total burden of hemodialysis at MOH, Jordan was USD17.70 million per year. Cost per session was $72 and the annual cost per patient was $9976. Direct medical cost was $7.20 million (41% and direct non-medical cost was $2.02 million (11%. On the other hand, indirect cost (productivity loss was $8.48 million (48%. All 722 patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals consumed 2.7% of MOH budget. Conclusions: Costs of treating and managing patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals in Jordan are substantial. Therefore, efforts should be taken to slow down the progress of renal failure to save resources and a comparative study with other modalities, such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, should be considered.

  12. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  13. Administrative burdens and dairy industry competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Meulen, van der, GG George

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the effect of regulatory burdens in the European dairy industry on its competitiveness. A theoretical foundation is provided by transaction cost economics and total quality management insights. The effects of legislation on administrative requirements and competitiveness are supposed to be mediated by impacts on innovativeness, company strategy, food safety system availability, as well as the available information & communication capabilities. We will conne...

  14. Caregiver Burden in Epilepsy: Determinants and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Caregiver burden (CB in epilepsy constitutes an understudied area. Here we attempt to identify the magnitude of this burden, the factors associated with it, and its impact to caregiver quality of life (QOL. Methods. 48 persons with epilepsy (PWE underwent video-EEG monitoring and their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, psychiatric, cognitive, sleep, QOL, and burden information. Results. On regression analysis, higher number of antiepileptic drugs, poorer patient neuropsychological performance, lower patient QOL score, and lower caregiver education level were associated with higher CB. Time allocated to patient care approximated but did not attain statistical significance. A moderate inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL physical component summary score and a stronger inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL mental component summary score were seen. Conclusion. In a selected cohort of PWE undergoing video-EEG monitoring, we identified modest degree of CB, comparable to that reported in the literature for other chronic neurological conditions. It is associated with specific patient and caregiver characteristics and has a negative effect on caregiver QOL.

  15. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  16. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  17. Effect of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on antioxidant status in rat ovarian granulose cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P. [Indian Institute of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore (India); Agarwal, Avnika; Gupta, Sarita [M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Vadodara, Gujarat (India)

    2007-03-15

    The effects of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on granulose cells were studied. Adult female rats were treated i.p. with either lead acetate (LA) or cadmium acetate (CA) both, alone, or in combination at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg body weight on a daily basis for 15 days. Both metals were accumulated in the ovary after metal exposure. Metal exposure caused a decrease in reduced glutathione content along with elevated lipid peroxidation in all groups. Granulose cells of both cadmium as well as combination group demonstrated a maximum increase in lipid peroxides and catalase activity, along with decreased glutathione status and superoxide dismutase activities. Combined treated animals exhibited an intermediate effect in antioxidant status. However, ''in vitro'' exposure showed no significant change in antioxidant enzymes in all metal exposed cells. Data from the present study indicates that lead and cadmium in isolation and in combination cause oxidative stress. Lead and cadmium in combination do not show additive or synergistic effect indicating the competition between them due to similarity in electronic affinities. Present study highlights the effects of toxic metals that disturb membrane integrity of cells via ROS and thereby classifying mechanism for altered receptor binding, steroidogenesis, and hormone production. (orig.)

  18. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  19. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  20. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  1. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  2. Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and the Hepatoprotective Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Jessiaea Nervosa Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama Udu Ibiam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extract against Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Methods: Forty albino rats were randomly assigned into groups A-G with 4 rats in each of the groups A-F. Group A served as control and were given feed only while rats in groups B-F were orally exposed to varying concentrations of cadmium for six weeks. Effects of cadmium were most significant at 12 mg/Kg body weight (BW, and this dose was used for subsequent test involving oral administration of Jussiaea nervosa leaf extracts. In this segment, group G (n= 16 was sub-divided into four: G1-G4, with each sub-group containing four rats. Rats in sub-group G1 were given cadmium and feed only and served as positive control. Rats in sub-groups G2, G3, and G4 were given cadmium and 20, 50 and 100g/kg BW of Jussiaea nervosa extract, respectively, for six weeks. Blood and liver were analysed using standard laboratory techniques and methods. Results: Liver function parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in exposed rats in comparison to the controls, except for total protein and albumin, which were significantly decreased. Histopathological assessment reveals renal pathology in exposed rats in sharp contrast with the controls. Jussiaea nervosa extract however lowered the values of liver function parameters with 100mg/Kg BW dose producing the highest ameliorative effects. Similarly, the serum albumin and total protein significantly (p<0.05 improved with normal liver architecture. Conclusion: The results show the hepatoprotective potentials of Jussiaea nervosa extract against Cd toxicity.

  3. Lead, cadmium and zinc in hair samples: relationship with dietary habits and urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Martín-González, C; Galindo-Martín, L; Aleman-Valls, M R; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Pérez-Hernández, O; Luis, R Hernández

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in order to analyze the relationships between hair zinc, lead, and cadmium with the kind of diet consumed (by recall of the diet consumed the previous 14 days), living area (urban or rural), tobacco smoking, and body mass index (BMI) among 419 individuals of the Canary Archipelago. Median values and interquartile range were 43 μg/g (18.50-132.50) for zinc, 4.09 μg/g (2.19-8.38) for lead, and 0.128 μg/g (0.05-0.30) for cadmium. We observed that hair zinc was markedly elevated among those consuming fish more frequently and, to a lesser amount, among those who consumed meat frequently, among those living in urban areas, and among those with BMI over 25 kg/m(2), keeping a significant relationship with BMI. Hair lead was also higher among fish consumers, showed a trend to higher values among inhabitants of urban areas, and was lower among obese individuals. Hair cadmium was higher among those who consumed less vegetables and fruits. By multivariate analysis, introducing the variables meat, fish, and vegetable consumption, urban/rural; sex; age; and BMI values, we observed that fish consumption (beta = 0.15) was the only variable independently associated to higher zinc levels; fish consumption (beta = 0.15) and meat consumption (beta = 0.17) were related to high cadmium levels, whereas meat consumption was significantly associated to higher hair lead levels (beta = 0.15). Therefore, we conclude that hair zinc, cadmium, and lead seem to depend more heavily on dietary habits than on tobacco consumption or living in rural or urban areas.

  4. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  5. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  6. Cadmium-induced cancers in animals and in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M; Waalkes, Michael P; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and carcinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed.

  7. Study of cadmium electrochemical deposition in sulfate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, T.; Solorza, O.; Sanchez, H.

    2000-03-01

    The cadmium electrochemical deposition process from sulfate medium was studied by means of different electrochemical techniques in both stationary and nonstationary diffusion regimes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reduction of cadmium on solid cadmium electrodes was examined and the kinetic parameters are presented, as well as the diffusion coefficient derived from the different techniques. Temperature has an important effect on the cadmium reduction kinetics, and the activation energy of the process was evaluated. The electrochemical deposition of cadmium is a complex process due to the coexistence of adsorption and nucleation processes; the adsorbed electroactive species appears to be Cd{sup +2}, and a mechanism for cadmium electrodeposition on solid cadmium electrodes is proposed.

  8. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  9. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The...

  10. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  11. Informal Caregiver Burden among Survivors of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Pelt, David C.; Milbrandt, Eric B; Qin, Li; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Rotondi, Armando J.; Schulz, Richard; Chelluri, Lakshmipathi; Angus, Derek C.; Michael R. Pinsky

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Although caregiver burden is well described in chronic illness, few studies have examined burden among caregivers of survivors of critical illness. In existing studies, it is unclear whether the observed burden is a consequence of critical illness or of preexisting patient illness.

  12. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden...

  13. Urinary cadmium and estimated dietary cadmium in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Sabah M; Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin; Meliker, Jaymie R; Li, Wenjun; Luo, Juhua; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal dispersed in the environment as a result of industrial and agricultural applications, has been implicated in several human diseases including renal disease, cancers, and compromised bone health. In the general population, the predominant sources of cadmium exposure are tobacco and diet. Urinary cadmium (uCd) reflects long-term exposure and has been frequently used to assess cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies; estimated dietary intake of cadmium (dCd) has also been used in several studies. The validity of dCd in comparison with uCd is unclear. This study aimed to compare dCd, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, to uCd measured in spot urine samples from 1,002 participants of the Women's Health Initiative. Using linear regression, we found that dCd was not statistically significantly associated with uCd (β=0.006, P-value=0.14). When stratified by smoking status, dCd was not significantly associated with uCd both in never smokers (β=0.006, P-value=0.09) and in ever smokers (β=0.003, P-value=0.67). Our results suggest that because of the lack of association between estimated dCd and measured uCd, dietary estimation of cadmium exposure should be used with caution in epidemiologic studies.

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CADMIUM IN PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction occurred where subsistence rice farmers produced their lifetime dietary rice on Zn-mine waste contaminated soils in Japan and other Asian countries. Research has shown that polished rice Cd is greatly increased while grain Zn is not incre...

  15. Field scale behaviour of cadmium in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhold, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Although total heavy metal contents of soil are often used to express the degree of contamination, they are of little value to judge environmental effects. The main objective of this thesis was to develop and test methodologies with which environmental risks of cadmium pollution of field soils can b

  16. Koper, zink en cadmium in voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In een tabel is aangegeven hoeveel koper, zink en cadmium een rantsoen gemiddeld moet bevatten om de behoefte van melkvee te dekken. Daarbij is uitgegaan van een gemiddelde benutting. De vraag is of er bij een tekort aangevuld moet worden en of er bij een teveel weggelaten moet worden.

  17. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay content).The adsorption ap

  18. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  19. Epidemiology and burden of nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stewart1, BJ Ferguson2, Len Fromer31Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, USA; 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; 3University of California, Los Angeles; David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion, which may be described as fullness, obstruction, reduced airflow, or being “stuffed up,” is a commonly encountered symptom in clinical practice. Systematic study of congestion has largely considered it as a component of a disease state. Conditions associated with congestion include nasal polyposis, obstructive sleep apnea, and anatomic variation; however, most information on the burden of congestion comes from studies of allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, diseases of which congestion is the major symptom. Congestion can be caused by other rhinologic conditions, such as non-allergic rhinitis, viral or bacterial rhinitis, and vasomotor rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects as much as one quarter of the population worldwide and imposes a significant economic burden. Additionally, allergic rhinitis significantly impairs quality of life; congestion causes allergic rhinitis sufferers decreased daytime productivity at work or school and reduces night-time sleep time and quality. Annually, rhinosinusitis affects tens of millions of Americans and leads to approximately $6 billion in overall health care expenditures; it has been found to be one of the most costly physical conditions for US employers. Given the high prevalence and significant social and economic burden of nasal congestion, this symptom should be a key consideration in treating patients with rhinologic disease, and there continues to be a significant unmet medical need for effective treatment options for this condition.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, epidemiology, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  20. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  1. Burden of ketamine cystitis in Chinese society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kit Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine cystitis, also referred to as ketamine-induced uropathy, is a new clinical syndrome affecting primarily young to middle-aged ketamine abusers and has become a global phenomenon since its first reported series in 2007. A spectrum of urological destructions ranging from mild cystitis to severely contracted bladder, ureteric stricture, upper tract damage, and irreversible renal failure has been reported. This review considers the scope and burden of ketamine cystitis in the Chinese population in Asia, stating the current status of management pathway, and reviews our current understanding on the pathophysiology of ketamine-induced uropathy.

  2. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; findings from the global burden of diseases study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hatef

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment.

  3. Lead and cadmium in breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternowsky, H.J.; Wessolowski, R.

    1985-04-01

    Breast milk from 10 women each from the city of Hamburg and from a rural area was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry for contamination with lead and cadmium. Samples were examined at regular intervals for 3 months after birth. On day 5 a diurnal profile was analyzed; on the other days milk was taken before and after the morning feed. For breast milk as the main source of nutrition in infants, this study shows values of 9.1 +- 2.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l for lead in the rural population, with a tendency to decrease towards the end of lactation. Urban mothers had 13.3 +- 5.5 (SD) ..mu..g/l, with a tendency to increase. Mean cadmium content in rural mothers was 17.3 +- 4.9 ..mu..g/l, with much higher values in the colostrum and a decrease after 15 days. Urban mothers had 24.6 +- 7.3 ..mu..g/l, again with high colostrum values and a subsequent decrease. Calculated daily intake according to these values is presented, based on 840 ml breast milk for a 5.5 kg infant per day. Rural infants ingested 0.9-1.3 ..mu..g/kg/day of lead, and in the city 1.5-2.3 ..mu..g/kg/day. Cadmium intake in rural infants amounted from 1.2-1.8 ..mu..g/kg/day; in Hamburg it was 1.6-2.2 ..mu..g/kg/day. Thus the daily ingestion of lead was just below the DPI, cadmium ingestion was higher than the DPI for adults. The rural population had lower values in breast milk for both heavy metals than the urban population, although not statistically significant. Compared to earlier reports there was a slight increase in lead concentration and a more significant increase for cadmium.

  4. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  5. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  6. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  7. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Mortality and economic burden of Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, caused by regular tobacco usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyukhov IP

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ivan P Artyukhov,1 Irina L Arshukova,2 Elena A Dobretsova,2 Andrey V Shulmin2 1Department of Health Care Management, 2Department of Public Health and Health Care, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: This study assesses mortality and economic burden due to the regular tobacco usage among the population of the Krasnoyarsk region of the Russian Federation. This territory was chosen for the analysis because of two factors: high smoking prevalence in the Krasnoyarsk region (46% among the adult population and premature mortality of the working-age population, which leads to a significant burden to the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Data sources: In our work, three main causes of smoking-related deaths were considered: cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and COPD. The working-age population was investigated (20–72 years old. The databases of mortality and population size of the territorial body of state statistics of the Krasnoyarsk region (data for 2013 were used as the information sources. Methods: Joint application of population-attributable risk and disability-adjusted life years method allowed us to estimate medico-demographic and economic burden due to the tobacco-attributable premature mortality in the investigated population. Results: We found that tobacco use-related economic burden is at least equal to 2% of the gross regional product of the Krasnoyarsk region in 2013. Conclusion: An assessment of economic tobacco use-related burden is important for determining the volume of necessary funding for development of smoking prevention programs, proper estimation of tobacco companies’ taxation, and other measures for controlling tobacco use. Smoking cessation is a priority for prevention of the tobacco-related diseases and reduction of their burden on local economy. Keywords: lung cancer, COPD, cardiovascular disease, disability-adjusted life years, population-attributable risk, smoking

  10. Cognitive profile of amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities in cognitively normal older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Younger, Alayna P.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Becker, J. Alex; Buckner, Randy L.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are two common markers of neurodegeneration present in advanced aging. Each represents a potential early indicator of an age-related neurological disorder that impacts cognition. The presence of amyloid is observed in a substantial subset of cognitively normal older adults, but the literature remains equivocal regarding whether amyloid in nondemented populations is deleterious to cognition. Similarly, WMH are detected in many nondemented older adults and there is a body of evidence indicating that WMH are associated with decreased executive function and other cognitive domains. The current study investigated amyloid burden and WMH in clinically normal older adult humans aged 65 to 86 (N=168) and examined each biomarker’s relation with cognitive domains of episodic memory, executive function, and speed of processing. Factors for each domain were derived from a neuropsychological battery on a theoretical basis without reference to the relation between cognition and the biomarkers. Amyloid burden and WMH were not correlated with one another. Age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, while higher estimated verbal intelligence was associated with higher performance in all domains. Hypothesis-driven tests revealed that amyloid burden and WMH had distinct cognitive profiles, with amyloid burden having a specific influence on episodic memory and WMH being primarily associated with executive function but having broad (but lesser) effects on the other domains. These findings suggest that even prior to clinical impairment, amyloid burden and WMH likely represent neuropathological cascades with distinct etiologies and dissociable influences on cognition. PMID:23152607

  11. Chinese Caregiving Burden and the Future Burden of Elder Care in Life-Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Heying Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This article uses the life course perspective to combine micro- and macro-levels of analysis of caregiving burdens experienced by Chinese baby-boom cohort and then explores their elder care prospects. Based on survey interviews during 1997 and 1998 with 110 caregivers providing care to dependent parents or parents-in-law, this study finds that…

  12. Histopathological changes in relation to cadmium concentration in horse kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Jonsson, L.; Piscator, M.; Rahnster, B.

    1981-10-01

    Histopathological changes in kidney cortex, as observed by light microscopy, are related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex from 69 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in kidney ranged from 11 to 186 ..mu..g Cd/g wet wt with an average of 60 ..mu..g Cd/g, which is considerably higher than those normally found in humans. The microscopical changes were rated and related to cadmium concentrations in kidneys by dose-response curves. A relationship existed between frequency of morphological changes and cadmium concentration in the renal cortex. There was no obvious relationship between age and frequency of histopathological changes. This indicates that in horse kidneys morphological changes occur at cadmium concentrations which are lower than the tentative critical level for humans of 200 ..mu..g Cd/g. It is concluded that horses constitute a population at risk for environmental cadmium contamination.

  13. Study on electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-xin; CUI Chong-wei; YU Shui-li; FENG Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    Kaolinite from a lead-zinc mining district, which was spiked with cadmium, has been treated by electrokinetics to investigate effects of treatment time and applied voltage gradient. The results showed that the increased test duration had induced a higher removal rate of cadmium. Being treated for 7 days, cadmium was removed from kaolinite dramatically. It was also found that higher removal rate happened when a higher voltage gradient was applied and cadmium accumulated near the cathode because pH increased. Increase of pH near the cathode caused accumulation of cadmium. Moreover, it was observed that cation exchange membrane which was placed between kaolinite and cathode could make pH lower than the initial value and avoid the higher pH near the cathode. As a result, the high concentration accumulation of cadmium near the cathode was avoided.

  14. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  15. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  16. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women.

  17. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  18. Reviewing disease burden among rural Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanakumar AV

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease burden of rural Indian women is reviewed by utilizing the data from the 'Survey of Causes of Death (rural' annual reports of Registrar General of India supplemented with National family health survey (NFHS-II. The review indicates that bronchitis and asthma are the leading causes while prematurity and heart attacks are second and third respectively. Most of the maternal deaths are concentrated in the age group 20-24 and bleeding is the main cause of maternal death. Tuberculosis of the lungs, malaria and burns are also important causes of death in the early reproductive ages. Rate of suicide, burn, and anaemia diminishes with age. Though nationwide health plans have succeeded in reducing the fatality of women's diseases to a entrain extent, there is however, a great need for improved and effective area-specific health programs to achieve the desired goals.

  19. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    status) and oral health systems. National public health initiatives for the control and prevention of periodontal disease should include oral health promotion and integrated disease-prevention strategies based on common risk-factor approaches. Capacity building of oral health systems must consider......Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...... is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases...

  20. Epidemiology and Burden of Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Pinto Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is an important component of clinical gastroenterology practice worldwide. Based on the definition, either self-reported or using Rome criteria, chronic constipation can affect from 2% to 27% of the population. Constipation is physically and mentally troublesome for many patients, and can significantly interfere with their daily living and well-being. Although only a proportion of patients with constipation seek medical care, most of them use prescribed or over-the-counter medication to improve their condition. The health care costs of constipation are significant as evidenced by the hundreds of million dollars spent yearly on laxatives alone. Because constipation is more common in older patients and life expectancy is increasing, an increase in the prevalence of constipation is expected in the years to come, with the associated impact on quality of life and socioeconomic burden.

  1. β—Correction Spectrophotometric Determination of Cadmium with Cadion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜洪文

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium has been determined by β-correction spectrophotometry with cadion,p-nitrobenzenediazoaminoaz-obenzone,and a non-ionic surfactant,tuiton X-100.The real absorbance of a Cd-cadion chelate in the colored solution can be accurately determined and the complex-ratio of cadion with Cd(II) has been worked out to be 2.Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0-0.20mg/1 cadmium and the detec-tion limit for cadmium is only 0.003mg/1.Satisfactory experimental results are presented with respect to the determination of trace cadmium in wastewaters.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF THIN FILM CADMIUM SULFIDE SOLAR CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLAR CELLS , *CADMIUM COMPOUNDS, FILMS, SULFIDES, VAPOR PLATING, VACUUM APPARATUS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, TITANIUM, COPPER COMPOUNDS, CHLORIDES, INDIUM, MOLYBDENUM, SILICON COMPOUNDS, MONOXIDES, SURFACE PROPERTIES, ENERGY CONVERSION.

  3. Phytosynthesis of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles from Achillea wilhelmsii Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Karimi Andeani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study here deals with the plant synthesis of cadmium oxide nanoparticles using flowers extract of Achillea wilhelmsii as the reducing agent. The photosynthesis is carried out at room temperature in the laboratory ambience. The aqueous cadmium ions when exposed to flower extract were reduced and resulted in their nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Stable cadmium oxide nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 with the plant flower extracts as reducing agent.

  4. The economic burden of depression and the cost-effectiveness of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Philip S; Simon, Gregory; Kessler, Ronald C

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness research has shown that depression is associated with an enormous economic burden, in the order of tens of billions of dollars each year in the US alone. The largest component of this economic burden derives from lost work productivity due to depression. A large body of literature indicates that the causes of the economic burden of depression, including impaired work performance, would respond both to improvement in depressive symptomatology and to standard treatments for depression. Despite this, the economic burden of depression persists, partly because of the widespread underuse and poor quality use of otherwise efficacious and tolerable depression treatments. Recent effectiveness studies conducted in primary care have shown that a variety of models, which enhance care of depression through aggressive outreach and improved quality of treatments, are highly effective in clinical terms and in some cases on work performance outcomes as well. Economic analyses accompanying these effectiveness studies have also shown that these quality improvement interventions are cost efficient. Unfortunately, widespread uptake of these enhanced treatment programmes for depression has not occurred in primary care due to barriers at the level of primary care physicians, healthcare systems, and purchasers of healthcare. Further research is needed to overcome these barriers to providing high-quality care for depression and to ultimately reduce the enormous adverse economic impact of depression disorders.

  5. Relationship between urinary cadmium and mortality in habitants of a cadmium-polluted area: a 22-year follow-up study in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qian; Muneko Nishijo; Hideaki Nakagawa; Yuko Morikawa; Masaru Sakurai; Koshi Nakamura; Teruhiko Kido; Koji Nogawa; DAI Min

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that the exposure to cadmium (Cd) increased mortalities from renal diseases,cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasm,including lung cancer and prostate cancer among inhabitants living in Cd-polluted areas and factory workers.This study aimed to assess the influence of environmental exposure to Cd on long term outcome of inhabitants living in an area polluted by Cd.Methods A 22-year follow-up study was conducted with 3119 inhabitants (1403 men and 1716 women) living in the Cd polluted Kakehashi River basin in Japan.The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the amount of urinary Cd level (<3.0 μg/g creatinine (Cr),3.0-4.9 μg/g Cr,5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr,and ≥10.0 μg/g Cr).Mortality was calculated by the person-years method.Hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (C/) were assessed by the Cox's proportional hazard model.Results Compared with urinary Cd <3.0 μg/g Cr group,the HR of 5.0-9.9 μg/g Cr and >10.0 μg/g Cr groups were significantly increased after adjustment for age in both sexes:1.24 (95% CI 1.01-1.51) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.17-1.90) for men; 1.64 (95% C/ 1.17-2.28) and 1.78 (95% C/ 1.27-2.50) for women.The most frequent cause of death was malignant neoplasm in men and cardiovascular diseases in women.The significant increase in mortality risk for cardiovascular diseases was observed in the subjects with ≥10 μg/g Cr in both sexes:1.79 for men (95% Cl 1.02-3.12) and 2.38 for women (95% CI 1.11-5.07).When the subjects were divided into 2 categories (<20 μg/g Cr and >20 μg/g Cr),the HR of the urinary Cd ≥20 μg/g Cr group for nephritis and nephrosis were 4.82 (95% CI 1.07-21.61) in men and 7.92 (95% Cl 1.77-35.33) in women,respectively.The significant increase was not observed for malignant neoplasm.Conclusion These results suggest a dose-response relationship between Cd body burden and mortality for cardiovascular diseases,cerebrovascular diseases and nephritis

  6. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  7. Ellipsometric Analysis of Cadmium Telluride Films’ Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Evmenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellipsometric analysis of CdTe films grown on Si and CdHgTe substrates at the “hot-wall” epitaxy vacuum setup has been performed. It has been found that ellipsometric data calculation carried out by using a simple one-layer film model leads to radical distortion of optical constants spectra: this fact authenticates the necessity to attract a more complicated model that should include heterogeneity of films. Ellipsometric data calculation within a two-layer film model permitted to conclude that cadmium telluride films have an outer layer that consists of the three-component mixture of CdTe, cavities, and basic matter oxide. Ratio of mixture components depends on the time of deposition, that is, on the film thickness. The inner layer consists of cadmium telluride.

  8. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  9. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments.

  10. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  11. Occupation, cadmium exposure, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghany, N A; Schumacher, M C; Slattery, M L; West, D W; Lee, J S

    1990-03-01

    A population-based case-control study was used to investigate associations between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure, longest industry held, and longest occupation held. The study included 358 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and 679 control men identified from the Utah population. Occupational exposures to cadmium were ascertained from self-reported data, through several a priori suspect industries and occupations, through an occupation-exposure linkage system, and through dietary food frequency questionnaires. Overall, cadmium exposure appeared to result in a small increased relative risk for prostate cancer, most apparent for aggressive tumors (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.0-3.1 for any occupational exposure, high dietary intake, or smoking cigarettes). Cases were more likely to have worked in the following industries: mining, paper and wood, medicine and science, and entertainment and recreation. Among men younger than 67, cases were also more likely to have worked in the food and tobacco industries (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.0-12.8). Cases were less likely to have worked in industries involved with glass, clay and stone, or rubber, plastics, and synthetics. Men employed as janitors and in other building service occupations showed increased relative risk for aggressive tumors (OR = 7.0, CI = 2.5-19.6). Agricultural occupations did not appear to be related to prostate cancer, although an increased relative risk for aggressive tumors was detected among younger men (OR = 2.6, CI = 0.6-12.1).

  12. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  13. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M; Chen, John J; Kovach, John S

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  14. Cadmium and zinc in pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucis, O.J.; Lucis, R.; Shaikh, Z.A.

    1972-07-01

    Radioactive cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) and zinc (/sup 65/Zn) were injected subcutaneously into pregnant rats. More cadmium than zinc was found in the placentae. After birth, newborns showed detectable /sup 109/Cd only in liver, gastrointestinal tract, and in the brain tissue. Zinc 65 was present in all newborns' tissues. During lactation, highest output of /sup 65/Zn was in colostrum and, on subsequent days, /sup 65/Zn in milk declined rapidly. Cadmium 109 in milk was present in low concentration throughout the lactation period. Rats injected with /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn after parturition excreted these isotopes in milk in a similiar pattern. Newborns nursed on radioactive milk showed rapid absorption of /sup 65/Zn, whereas /sup 109/Cd accumulated primarily in the intestinal tract; a lesser quantity of /sup 109/Cd was deposited in the liver. In other organs, only /sup 65/Zn was found. The lactating mammary gland contained more /sup 109/Cd than /sup 65/Zn; after lactation, /sup 65/Zn was depleted, whereas /sup 109/Cd remained in mammary tissue.

  15. Influence of a high level of dietary cadmium on cadmium content in milk, excretion, and cow performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Lampp, B.; Powell, G.W.; Salotti, C.A.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1967-01-01

    Three Holstein cows were each given 3.0 g of cadmium daily (two equal doses) for two weeks by gelatin capsules. There was a sharp drop in concentrate consumption for the first few days of cadmium administration but, by the second week, consumption returned to normal. Milk production declined sharply for several days and then increased appreciably, but to a level still substantially lower than that of controls during the last five days cadmium was given. When cadmium treatments ceased, milk production increased by 50%. Fat content of milk was elevated considerably during the week when production was most reduced. Cows given cadmium lost considerable weight. There were no other clinical manifestations of toxicity. As determined by the chromic oxide indicator method and twice-daily grab samples, fecal excretion of cadmium for the second week averaged 82% of that given. The cadmium level in the urine was below the limits of detectability of the method (0.5 ppm of urine). The cadmium content of the milk was less than 0.1 ppm of the milk, which was the lower reliability limit of the procedure used. On this basis less than 0.22% of the amount administered appeared in the milk. In vitro studies demonstrated that cadmium combines with the casein and whey protein fractions of the milk readily, with the amount combined being linear when levels from 1.0 to 25.0 ppm are added to milk. Smaller amounts were present in the lactose and mineral fractions.

  16. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Fèvre, Eric M; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Willingham, Arve Lee; Stein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Accurate information on the burden of FBDs is needed to inform policy makers and allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention. Consequently, in 2006 the WHO launched an initiative to estimate the global burden of FBDs in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This review gives an update of the progress on evaluating the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases that has been generated by this study. Results to date indicate that parasitic diseases that can be transmitted through food make a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease.

  17. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  18. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  19. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  20. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  1. Burden differentiation of greenhouse gas abatement: Criteria for evaluation and development of burden-sharing rules

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn; RINGIUS, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses nine criteria for evaluation of potential Burden Sharing Rules (BSRs) in climate policy agreements. Three of the criteria reflect fairness principles while six of them are operational requirements. These criteria are useful for identifying potential BSRs that could be promising in future climate policy negotiations. The two sector approaches, Multi-sector Convergence Approach and Triptych, received the highest score according to the criteria presented in this article. T...

  2. N-acetylcysteine prevents cadmium-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MDA-MB468 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, M; Alaie, S H

    2014-05-11

    Cadmium is a heavy metal posing severe risks and destructive effects on human health. Although cadmium was classified as a human carcinogen, it has been also shown to be a cytotoxic agent that induces cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role of N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, on cadmium induced apoptosis in MDA-MB468 cells. The breast cancer cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdCl2 in the presence and absence of NAC and the cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. The microscopic studies of apoptosis were carried out with fluorescent staining. To investigate the induction of apoptosis, cellular DNA was isolated using DNA kit extraction and analyzed electrophoretically. The results showed significant decrease in cellular viability upon 48 hours exposure to CdCl2 in a dose-dependent manner (p cadmium cytotoxicity effects and protected cells from apoptotic death. DNA Hoechst staining showed the apoptotic bodies. The electrophoresis of extracted DNA identified a fragmentation pattern consistent with apoptosis mechanism. The results suggest that cytotoxic effects and induction of apoptosis caused by CdCl2 are mediated, by oxidative stress.

  3. Modeling chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity from periphyton to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-07-01

    A chronic (28-d) Cd saturation bioaccumulation model was developed to quantify the Cd contribution from a natural periphyton diet to Cd in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Bioaccumulation was then linked to chronic toxic effects. Juvenile H. azteca were exposed to treatments of Cd in water (3.13-100 nmol/L nominal) and food (389-26,300 nmol/g ash-free dry mass). Cadmium bioaccumulation, survival, and growth were recorded. Dietary Cd was estimated to contribute 21 to 31, 59 to 94, and 40 to 55% to bioaccumulated Cd in H. azteca exposed to treatments of Cd primarily in water, food, and food + water, respectively. Survival as a function of Cd lethal body concentration (679 nmol/g; 95% confidence limits, 617-747) was the most robust endpoint. Body concentration integrated all exposure routes. Based on the lethal body concentration, dietary Cd was predicted to contribute markedly (26-90%) to Cd in H. azteca. Cadmium concentration and food nutritional quality (biomass, chlorophyll a, total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) had no effect on H. azteca nutritional quality (total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) but did influence H. azteca dry weight. This research highlighted the importance of including a dietary component when modeling chronic effects of Cd and when refining endpoints for use in ecological risk assessment and water quality guidelines.

  4. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium in the frog Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumbourdis, Nikolaos S

    2005-08-01

    Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver and kidneys of the frog Rana ridibunda, which was exposed to 200 ppm aqueous solutions of cadmium for 4, 10 and 30 days, respectively were investigated. In both the liver and kidneys, essential changes appeared after 10 days' exposure, the maximum changes being apparent after 30 days of exposure. In the liver, what was very characteristic was an increase in the area occupied by Kupffer cells, with the area in the animals exposed to cadmium for 30 days being the largest observed. What was also apparent was karyomegaly, polyploidy and infiltration. In addition with regard the kidneys, Hyaline Globules (HG) and apoptotic bodies occurred at a higher rate. At 30 days' exposure, most of the above changes were enhanced. In comparison with 10 days' exposure, fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes, as well as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) reactivity and apoptotic bodies increased lightly in the liver. In the kidneys, the most pronounced changes were the increase in numbers of apoptotic bodies, PCNA reactivity and hyaline globules. It was concluded that the variability in positive reactions for various proteins in the hyaline globules may be an indication that these (and possibly other) proteins are synthesized by tumor cells, but, most probably, that they may represent liver damage, progressive nephropathy, or progressive glomerulonephropathy.

  5. Hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects of Cadmium in the frog Rana ridibunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loumbourdis, Nikolaos S. [University of Thessaloniki (GR). Department of Zoology (Greece)

    2005-08-01

    Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver and kidneys of the frog Rana ridibunda, which was exposed to 200 ppm aqueous solutions of cadmium for 4, 10 and 30 days, respectively were investigated. In both the liver and kidneys, essential changes appeared after 10 days' exposure, the maximum changes being apparent after 30 days of exposure. In the liver, what was very characteristic was an increase in the area occupied by Kupffer cells, with the area in the animals exposed to cadmium for 30 days being the largest observed. What was also apparent was karyomegaly, polyploidy and infiltration. In addition with regard the kidneys, Hyaline Globules (HG) and apoptotic bodies occurred at a higher rate. At 30 days' exposure, most of the above changes were enhanced. In comparison with 10 days' exposure, fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes, as well as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) reactivity and apoptotic bodies increased lightly in the liver. In the kidneys, the most pronounced changes were the increase in numbers of apoptotic bodies, PCNA reactivity and hyaline globules. It was concluded that the variability in positive reactions for various proteins in the hyaline globules may be an indication that these (and possibly other) proteins are synthesized by tumor cells, but, most probably, that they may represent liver damage, progressive nephropathy, or progressive glomerulonephropathy. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis and its contribution to TB burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Guadalupe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (TB treatment have not been included in assessments of TB burden. Therefore, previous global and national TB burden estimates do not reflect the full consequences of surviving TB. We assessed the burden of TB including pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas using Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Methods TB burden was calculated for all culture-confirmed TB patients treated at Tarrant County Public Health between January 2005 and December 2006 using identical methods and life tables as the Global Burden of Disease Study. Years of life-lost were calculated as the difference between life expectancy using standardized life tables and age-at-death from TB. Years lived-with-disability were calculated from age and gender-specific TB disease incidence using published disability weights. Non-fatal health impacts of TB were divided into years lived-with-disability-acute and years lived-with-disability-chronic. Years lived-with-disability-acute was defined as TB burden resulting from illness prior to completion of treatment including the burden from treatment-related side effects. Years lived-with-disability-chronic was defined as TB burden from disability resulting from pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis. Results There were 224 TB cases in the time period, of these 177 were culture confirmed. These 177 subjects lost a total of 1189 DALYs. Of these 1189 DALYs 23% were from years of life-lost, 2% were from years lived-with-disability-acute and 75% were from years lived-with-disability-chronic. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the disease burden from TB is greater than previously estimated. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was responsible for the majority of the burden. These data demonstrate that successful TB control efforts may reduce the health burden more than previously recognized.

  7. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  8. Cadmium in the environment: a toxicological and epidemiological appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friberg, L.; Piscator, M.; Nordberg, G.

    1971-01-01

    This book is a review of the toxicity of cadmium, and has focused on information considered important for understanding the toxic action of cadmium on animals and man. Dose-response relationships are discussed as are effects on specific organ systems and modes of uptake.

  9. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  10. Drikkevands optagelse af cadmium og bly fra armaturer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.

    Notatet omfatter rapporter fra to forsøgsrækker vedr. brugsvands optagelse af bly og cadmium. Den første omhandler brugsvandsarmaturers afgivelse af bly og cadmium til syntetisk brugsvand med en sammensætning svarende til en sur, blød vandtype. Forsøgene omfatter 10 armaturer og armaturdele...

  11. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  12. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  13. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...

  14. Cadmium-induced ectopic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Po Kwok; Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced developmental toxicity was mediated via ectopic occurrence of apoptosis during embryonic development. We employed confocal microscopy to acquire images of whole-mount staining of apoptotic cells in zebrafish embryo exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium from 5 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 28 hpf. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the images was performed and the spatial and temporal distributions of apoptotic cells in the embryos were compared. In cadmium-treated embryos with varying degrees of gross developmental malformations, significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells were detected with this method. In order to detect the precise locations of apoptotic cells, we performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay in sectioned embryos. In the degenerating neural tube of cadmium-treated embryos apoptotic cells were detected, while in the healthy neural tube of the untreated controls no apoptotic cells were found. We then employed flow cytometry to investigate whether cadmium exposure would affect the dynamics of apoptosis or induce any abnormalities in cell-cycle progression. It appeared that cadmium did not induce cell-cycle arrest. The percentages of apoptotic cells did not differ in the two groups at 13, 16 or 19 hpf. At 28 hpf, however, a significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells were found in the cadmium-treated group. Exposure to cadmium, therefore, induced ectopic apoptosis at 28 hpf without affecting the dynamics of apoptosis at earlier developmental stages. (orig.)

  15. Risk of overestimation of urinary cadmium concentrations: interference from molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas A.I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show here that the selection of analytical method is critical when measuring low levels of cadmium in human urine. Cadmium is today usually analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, which has a higher sensitivity than Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. ICP-MS cadmium measurements show interference from tin (114Sn and molybdenum oxides, which can result in an overestimation of cadmium levels. The 114Sn interference is stable and can be mathematically corrected. Molybdenum concentrations in urine are variable and different from individual to individual. We have estimated the degree of error which molybdenum interference introduces in the measurement of cadmium in urine by conventional ICP-MS. 268 urine samples from mothers and their children were measured. Removal of the molybdenum oxide interference (DRC-ICP-MS method reduced urinary cadmium concentrations significantly (47.8%. The urinary molybdenum concentration in children was higher than in their mothers, resulting in greater overestimation. Our results clearly show that the DRC method is essential for reliable measurements of urinary cadmium concentrations, particularly in children. Furthermore, care should be taken when comparing Human Biomonitoring data for cadmium in urine and attention should be paid to which analytical method has been used (e.g. AAS and ICP-Ms, and especially if the measurements have been corrected for molybdenum interference.

  16. The economic burden of sunscreen usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ritika; Leo, Michael S; Ma, Brian; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-06-15

    Excessive sun exposure is known to be the leading cause of skin cancer. The direct cellular damage inflicted by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun results in premature aging, DNA damage, and mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are highly recommended to protect against UV radiation. However, little research has been conducted on the economic burden of sunscreen use. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the annual cost of sunscreen under both ideal and actual use conditions while stratifying for the sun protection factor (SPF) and by the name brand or equivalent store brand sunscreen. Pricing data was collected for sunscreens of SPF 30, 50, 70, and 100. For each type of sunscreen, the size and price of the container were recorded. Our results demonstrated that sunscreen prices increased with SPF but purchasing a generic sunscreen resulted in savings of 40%-50%. Our estimates reveal that sunscreens are affordable with annual expenditures ranging from $30.21 to $61.94, depending on brand, for SPF 50 sunscreens used with minimal application density for the average person.

  17. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  18. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  19. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  20. Tumor burden talks in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. METHODS: Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%. BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm(3 or large (102.4±22.0 mm(3 C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment. RESULTS: The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r (2 = 0.9336 between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only and InNanoX (radionuclide only. Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs.

  1. Biochemical and molecular effects of gestational and lactational coexposure to lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenesis are associated with oxidative stress in F1 generation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prakash; Pandya, Chirayu; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Sarita

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in ovarian steroidogenesis disruption by heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium coexposure, on F1 generation offspring. In this study, adult pregnant female rats were treated subcutaneously (0.05 mg/kg of body weight per day) with sodium acetate (control), lead acetate, and cadmium acetate separately and in combination throughout gestational and lactational period, and all animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by decapitation on postnatal day 56 for various assays. The activities of key steroidogenic enzymes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) decreased in all the metal-treated groups. But the most significant decrease in the activities was observed in the cadmium-treated group, whereas the combined exposure group showed an intermediate effect. Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were also significantly altered in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing maximum reductions as compared with the control group. The inhibitory effects of lead and cadmium on ovarian steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA levels along with CYP11 mRNA levels were also observed. Ovarian cholesterol content measured also showed significant depletion in all the metal-treated groups, with the cadmium-exposed group showing the maximum depletion. The activities of ovarian enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were all significantly diminished along with significant depletion in nonenzymatic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was elevated significantly in all the metal-treated groups. In conclusion, lead and cadmium inhibit ovarian steroidogenesis by downregulating StAR gene expression along with inhibiting activities of steroidogenic enzymes and antioxidant system.

  2. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  3. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  4. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het cadmiumgehalt

  5. SORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS AND CADMIUM SALT AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosolids and Cd salt-amended soils were collected from a long-term field experiment established in 1976. Cadmium sorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd salt, and unamended soils (control). The organic carbon (OC) of soils ...

  6. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium metallothionein in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.In short, the main source of environmental exposure to cadmium for no

  7. Serum beta2-microglobulin in cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1978-09-01

    In cadmium exposed workers with renal tubular dysfunction the determination of beta2m in urine is an important diagnostic test. Cadmium exposure's influence on serum beta2m levels and its relationship to urinary excretion of beta2m were studied in 24 cadmium exposed workers with normal serum creatinine levels (less than 10 mg/l)) and no obvious tubular dysfunction. With increasing blood levels of cadmium beta2m was found to increase in serum. There was no concomitant increase in the urinary excretion of beta2m. Serum beta2m was not dependent on serum creatinine within the range studied. The results suggest that for evaluating renal glomerular function in cadmium exposed workers, it might be better to use the serum creatinine level, creatinine clearance or inulin clearance since beta2m might give some false positive results.

  8. Determination of the cadmium and copper content inherent to metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, B.; Kozar, S.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Zagreb, P.O.B. 1016, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1998-05-01

    The reliability of the voltammetric determination of the cadmium and copper content (at pH 1.0), inherent to metallothionein (MT) isolated from the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis, was investigated. An artifact signal enhancement of copper, caused by the cupric-thionein complex adsorption at the mercury electrode, was established. This artifact was removed by UV-digestion of the sample for 15-20 h prior to analysis. A similar artifact was not detected for cadmium, because at this pH the cadmium-thionein complex has dissociated, and cadmium exists in the ionic form. Therefore, the voltammetric analysis of the cadmium content can be performed directly at pH 1.0, without prior UV-digestion of the sample. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  9. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic cadmium poisoning in a pigment manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P.E.; Donnan, M.B.

    1981-02-01

    When the working environment in a small cadmium-pigment manufacturing plant was investigated, cadmium concentrations in respirable dust were found to be considerably above the hygiene standard recommended by the British Occupational Hygiene Society. Cadmium concentrations in blood and urine of exposed workers, both present and past employees, were determined. The six men who had worked in the production plant for seven years or more all showed signs of renal tubular damage. On the basis of the results of the investigations on individuals in this study, it is suggested that urinary cadmium concentrations should be kept below 15 microgram/day to avoid the possibility of renal damage, and that the insoluble respirable fraction of cadmium dust should not be regarded as merely nuisance dust.

  11. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  12. Cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite as affected by glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; LUO Xiao-san; SUN Rui-juan; CHEN Huai-man

    2004-01-01

    Behaviors of soil heavy metals are often affected by coexisting herbicides due to their physical and chemical interaction. Effect of glyphosate, an herbicide containing -PO32- and -COOH groups, on cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite was studied in detail. The results showed that cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite increased with increasing soil solution pH and cadmium concentration as usual, but decreased with glyphosate, which is due to the formation of a low affinity complex of Cd and glyphosate and decreasing solution pH induced by glyphosate addition. When the equilibrium solution pH was below 6.7, glyphosate has little effect on cadmium adsorption, but when the equilibrium solution pH was above 6.7, glyphosate significantly decreased cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite. In addition, the adding order of Cd and glyphosate also influenced Cd adsorption quantity in montmorillonite.

  13. Characterizing the epidemiological transition in Mexico: national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Stevens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000 and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000; under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus

  14. Reflections on the global burden of disease 2010 estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byass, Peter; de Courten, Maximilian; Graham, Wendy J;

    2013-01-01

    Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.......Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary....

  15. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  16. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  17. Family burden in injecting versus noninjecting opioid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substance-dependent person in the family affects almost all aspects of family life that also impact the lives of the significant others and causes enormous burden. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers of patients with opioid-dependence-injecting drug users (IDU and noninjecting drug users (NIDU. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with ICD-10 diagnosed-opioid-dependent subjects (IDU and NIDU, N = 40 in each group and their family caregivers attending a de-addiction centre at a multispecialty teaching hospital in North India. Family Burden interview schedule was used to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers. Results: The IDU group was characterized by older age, longer duration of substance dependence, greater subjective and objective family burden in all the areas compared to NIDU group, and single status and unemployment were associated with severe objective burden. The family burden was associated neither with age, education, or duration of dependence of the patients, nor with family size, type of caregiver or caregiver′s education in either group. Conclusion: All caregivers reported a moderate or severe burden, which indicates the significance and need for further work in this area.

  18. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Domar, A.D.; Shapiro, D.B.; Wischmann, T.H.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can

  19. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Jacky; Domar, Alice D; Shapiro, Daniel B; Wischmann, Tewes H; Fauser, Bart C J M; Verhaak, Christianne

    2012-04-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can be broadly classified according to whether they originate in the patient, clinic or treatment. Interventions to alleviate these burdens include provision of comprehensive educational material, screening to identify highly distressed patients, provision of tailored coping tools and improvements in the clinic environment and medical interventions. Practical interventions to reduce the different causes of burden in ART exist, but further development and evaluation of the efficacy of these interventions requires more precise definition of terms and theory. In this paper, we propose a general integrated approach to cover different perspectives in dealing with burden in ART clinics. We firstly describe the integrated approach and present common sources of burden. We then describe interventions that could help reduce the burden in ART. Our paper is aimed at fertility clinic staff because of their day-to-day involvement with patients. However, this discussion should also be relevant to companies that develop treatments and to psychosocial experts. Reducing the burden of treatment should lead to improved outcomes, namely better quality of life during treatment and lower discontinuation rates.

  20. Family rituals, financial burden, and mothers' adjustment in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Alderfer, Melissa A; Kazak, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    The financial burden of childhood cancer may contribute to the distress that parents experience during and after treatment. Inconsistent relationships between financial burden and parental psychological distress highlight the need to identify psychosocial factors that may moderate this relationship. In this study, we aimed to determine if family ritual meaning moderates the relationship between financial burden and anxiety and depression symptoms among mothers of children with cancer. Portuguese mothers of children with cancer on-treatment and off-treatment (N = 244) completed measures of financial burden, anxiety and depression symptoms, and family ritual meaning. Moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Family ritual meaning buffered the effect of financial burden on anxiety, but not on depression symptoms. The relationship between financial burden and anxiety symptoms was not significant when mothers endorsed higher levels of family ritual meaning. Although preliminary, the current findings suggest that high levels of perceived family ritual meaning may constitute a protective factor against the effect of financial burden on mothers' anxiety symptoms. Promoting family ritual meaning might be an effective approach to reducing anxiety symptoms of mothers of children with cancer in the context of financial burden. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1977-01-13

    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  2. [Caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injury: caregiver burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paula Cristina; Rabeh, Soraia Assad Nasbine; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher; Haas, Vanderlei José

    2013-06-01

    A sectional study that had as its objectives to assess caregiver burden of for caregivers of individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) and its association with sociodemographic variables (age and sex), health status (self-reported illnesses) and caregiver characteristics (care time in years and daily hours of care). Data were collected by consultation of patient files and individual interviews at home using the instrument, Caregiver Burden Scale (CBScale). The results showed that most burden occurred in the domains: environment, disappointment and general strain. Presenting health problem (for all domains of the CBScale) and spending more hours per day in care (in the domain disappointment) represented the variables associated with burden. Studies of a more confirmatory nature than exploratory between the variables studied can be used to measure the burden obtained in this population of caregivers of individuals with TSCI.

  3. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  4. The burden of insomnia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuo Mishima,1 Marco daCosta DiBonaventura,2 Hillary Gross2 1Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Objectives: Several studies have suggested that patients who experience insomnia report a number of significant impairments. However, despite this literature, fewer studies have focused on the burden of insomnia among patients in Japan. The objective of the current study is to extend this work in Japan to further understand the effect of insomnia on health-related quality of life (hrQOL. Further, another objective is to understand general predictors of hrQOL among patients with insomnia. Methods: Data from the 2012 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual, cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years or older, were used (N=30,000. All National Health and Wellness Survey respondents were categorized based on the incidence of self-reported insomnia diagnosis and prescription medication usage (clinical insomniacs under treatment versus [vs] good sleepers without insomnia or insomnia symptoms. Comparisons among different groups were made using multiple regression models controlling for demographics and health history. Results: Clinical insomniacs (n=1,018; 3.4% reported significantly worse hrQOL compared with good sleepers (n=20,542 (mental component summary: 34.2 vs 48.0; physical component summary: 48.0 vs 52.8; health utilities: 0.61 vs 0.76; all P<0.05. Health behaviors (smoking, exercise, alcohol use and comorbidities were the strongest predictors of health utilities for clinical insomniacs. For all three clinical insomniac subgroups of interest, those with a physical comorbidity but not a psychiatric one, those with a psychiatric comorbidity but not a physical one, and those without either a physical or psychiatric comorbidity, large decrements in health utilities were observed for respondents who did

  5. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  6. Caregivers’ burden in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. Methods We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. Results A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. Conclusion The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions. PMID:25709429

  7. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal exposure to cadmium oxide dust in a battery factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsson, E.; Piscator, M.; Nogawa, K.

    1979-02-01

    The elimination of cadmium in feces was studied in a group of 15 male workers exposed to cadmium oxide dust in a nickel-cadmium battery factory. The elimination of cadmium in feces was on the average 619 and 268 microgram/day in seven smokers and eight nonsmokers, respectively. The cadmium concentrations in blood were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, both before and after one month of vacation. Among the smokers there was a significant decrease in the cadmium concentrations during the vacation period, but not among the nonsmokers. It was estimated that cadmium naturally occurring in food and cigarettes, cadmium excreted from the gastrointestinal tract, and cadmium transported from the lungs by mucocillary clearance to the gastrointestinal tract only could explain up to 100 microgram of the cadmium in the feces.

  8. Development of the Assessment of Burden of COPD tool : an integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, Annerika H. M.; in 't Veen, Johannes C. C. M.; Chavannes, Niels H.; van der Molen, Thys; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.; Kerstjens, Huib A. B.; Salome, Philippe L.; Holverda, Sebastiaan; Dekhuijzen, P. N. Richard; Schuiten, Denise; Asijee, Guus M.; van Schayck, Onno C. P.

    2014-01-01

    In deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate communicatio

  9. Development of the assessment of burden of COPD tool: An integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. Slok (Annerika); J.C.C.M. in 't Veen (Johannes); N.H. Chavannes (Nicolas); T. van der Molen (Thys); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); H.A.M. Kerstjens (Huib); J. Salomé; S. Holverda (Sebastiaan); P.N.R. Dekhuijzen (Richard); D. Schuiten (Denise); G.M. Asijee (Guus); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate

  10. Development of the Assessment of Burden of COPD tool: an integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slok, A.H.; Veen, J.C. In 't; Chavannes, N.H.; Molen, T. van der; Molken, M.P. Rutten-van; Kerstjens, H.A.; Salome, P.L.; Holverda, S.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Schuiten, D.; Asijee, G.M.; Schayck, O.C.P. van

    2014-01-01

    In deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate communicatio

  11. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  12. Cadmium, Mercury and Lead in Hypericum perforatum L. collected in Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild population of Hypericum perforatum growing in Western Serbia was analyzed for the content of important environmental pollutants cadmium, mercury and lead. Metal contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results showed that levels of mercury and lead were under while cadmium concentrations exceeded limits recommended for medicinal plants. High levels of cadmium in investigated plants can be the result of soil enriched with cadmium as well as the ability of Hypericum perforatum to accumulate cadmium.

  13. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: global trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2011-11-24

    Diseases resulting from zoonotic transmission of parasites are common. Humans become infected through food, water, soil and close contact with animals. Most parasitic zoonoses are neglected diseases despite causing a considerable global burden of ill health in humans and having a substantial financial burden on livestock industries. This review aims to bring together the current data available on global burden estimates of parasitic zoonoses and indicate any changes in the trends of these diseases. There is a clear need of such information as interventions to control zoonoses are often in their animal hosts. The costs of such interventions together with animal health issues will drive the cost effectiveness of intervention strategies. What is apparent is that collectively, parasitic zoonoses probably have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV in addition to animal health burden. Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, the major contributors to the global burden of parasitic zoonoses are toxoplasmosis, food borne trematode infections, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis and zoonotic schistosomosis. In addition, diarrhoea resulting from zoonotic protozoa may have a significant impact.

  14. Asymmetries of poverty: why global burden of disease valuations underestimate the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    Full Text Available The disability-adjusted life year (DALY initially appeared attractive as a health metric in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD program, as it purports to be a comprehensive health assessment that encompassed premature mortality, morbidity, impairment, and disability. It was originally thought that the DALY would be useful in policy settings, reflecting normative valuations as a standardized unit of ill health. However, the design of the DALY and its use in policy estimates contain inherent flaws that result in systematic undervaluation of the importance of chronic diseases, such as many of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, in world health. The conceptual design of the DALY comes out of a perspective largely focused on the individual risk rather than the ecology of disease, thus failing to acknowledge the implications of context on the burden of disease for the poor. It is nonrepresentative of the impact of poverty on disability, which results in the significant underestimation of disability weights for chronic diseases such as the NTDs. Finally, the application of the DALY in policy estimates does not account for the nonlinear effects of poverty in the cost-utility analysis of disease control, effectively discounting the utility of comprehensively treating NTDs. The present DALY framework needs to be substantially revised if the GBD is to become a valid and useful system for determining health priorities.

  15. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity.

  16. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  17. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  18. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  19. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  20. Sacroiliac joint pain: burden of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher D

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cher,1 David Polly,2 Sigurd Berven31SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USAObjectives: The sacroiliac joint (SIJ is an important and significant cause of low back pain. We sought to quantify the burden of disease attributable to the SIJ.Methods: The authors compared EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D and Short Form (SF-36-based health state utility values derived from the preoperative evaluation of patients with chronic SIJ pain participating in two prospective clinical trials of minimally invasive SIJ fusion versus patients participating in a nationally representative USA cross-sectional survey (National Health Measurement Study [NHMS]. Comparative analyses controlled for age, sex, and oversampling in NHMS. A utility percentile for each SIJ subject was calculated using NHMS as a reference cohort. Finally, SIJ health state utilities were compared with utilities for common medical conditions that were published in a national utility registry.Results: SIJ patients (number [n]=198 had mean SF-6D and EQ-5D utility scores of 0.51 and 0.44, respectively. Values were significantly depressed (0.28 points for the SF-6D utility score and 0.43 points for EQ-5D; both P<0.0001 compared to NHMS controls. SIJ patients were in the lowest deciles for utility compared to the NHMS controls. The SIJ utility values were worse than those of many common, major medical conditions, and similar to those of other common preoperative orthopedic conditions.Conclusion: Patients with SIJ pain presenting for minimally invasive surgical care have marked impairment in quality of life that is worse than in many chronic health conditions, and this is similar to other orthopedic conditions that are commonly treated surgically. SIJ utility values are in the lowest two deciles when compared to control populations

  1. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alize J Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders were a leading cause of burden in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk factor for suicide and ischemic heart disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Burden was calculated for major depressive disorder (MDD and dysthymia. A systematic review of epidemiological data was conducted. The data were pooled using a Bayesian meta-regression. Disability weights from population survey data quantified the severity of health loss from depressive disorders. These weights were used to calculate years lived with disability (YLDs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. Separate DALYs were estimated for suicide and ischemic heart disease attributable to depressive disorders. Depressive disorders were the second leading cause of YLDs in 2010. MDD accounted for 8.2% (5.9%-10.8% of global YLDs and dysthymia for 1.4% (0.9%-2.0%. Depressive disorders were a leading cause of DALYs even though no mortality was attributed to them as the underlying cause. MDD accounted for 2.5% (1.9%-3.2% of global DALYs and dysthymia for 0.5% (0.3%-0.6%. There was more regional variation in burden for MDD than for dysthymia; with higher estimates in females, and adults of working age. Whilst burden increased by 37.5% between 1990 and 2010, this was due to population growth and ageing. MDD explained 16 million suicide DALYs and almost 4 million ischemic heart disease DALYs. This attributable burden would increase the overall burden of depressive disorders from 3.0% (2.2%-3.8% to 3.8% (3.0%-4.7% of global DALYs. CONCLUSIONS: GBD 2010 identified depressive disorders as a leading cause of burden. MDD was also a contributor of burden allocated to suicide and ischemic heart disease. These findings emphasize the importance of including depressive

  2. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Peters, Sanne AE; Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (Indonesian population. PMID:27021286

  3. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  4. Cadmium in organs and tissues of horses slaughtered in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Cubadda, F; Miniero, R; Parodi, P; Facelli, P

    2000-08-01

    The cadmium content of muscle, liver, kidney and blood samples from 62 horses slaughtered in Italy was investigated. Cadmium was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after wet digestion of the samples. The mean and median contents of all samples were (on a fresh weight basis) 75 and 41 micrograms kg-1 for muscle, 2.46 and 2.10 mg kg-1 for liver, 20.0 and 13.5 mg kg-1 for kidney. The cadmium level in blood samples was always below 6 micrograms l-1. The cadmium concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were found to be related to the life span of the specimens and increased with age. Females exhibited higher levels than males, but this difference was significant only in the case of muscle tissue. The geographical origin was recognized as the main factor influencing the cadmium content of the equine specimens analysed. The differences between horses coming from the three main breeding countries considered in this study (Poland, Lithuania, Hungary) were marked and statistically significant. The average intake of cadmium from equine meat was estimated for the general population and for population groups resident in areas with high consumption of this food item. While the cadmium intake from equine meat for the average consumer accounts for about 1% of the total cadmium intake estimated for Italy, in the latter case the enhanced consumption of equine muscle is often accompanied with the consumption of substantial quantities of equine liver and this may lead to high cadmium intakes.

  5. 镉观察对象尿镉及肾功能损害指标7年跟踪研究%Seven-year follow-up study of urinary cadmium and renal function impairment indicators of cadmium observed object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志东; 王婷; 黄必为; 钟文晖; 侯海华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To follow up the cadmium observed objects after they retired from the work with cadmium exposure, to discuss the relationship between excessive cadmium and renal dysfunction. [Methods] From July 2005 -July 2011, 371 worker retired from work with cadmium in a nickel-cadmium battery factory were followed up for 7 years, the variation of urinary cadmium, urinary β2 MG, retinol binding protein was analyzed. [Results] After the worker retiring from the work with cadmium exposure, the urinary cadmium mean value during 2005-2011 was significantly different from that in 2004 (P 0.05). [Conclusion] Body cadmium loading decreases obviously after cadmium observed objects retire for 7 years, but its level is still over standard. The further damage of the kidney will not be lasted after their retire.%目的 对镉观察对象停止镉作业后进行跟踪调查,探讨镉超标与肾功能损害的关系.方法 自2005年7月-2011年7月,对惠州市某镍镉电池厂371名工人停止镉作业的镉观察对象跟踪观察7年,分析尿镉、尿β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)、尿视黄醇结合蛋白的变化规律.结果 镉观察对象停止镉作业后,2005-2011年尿镉均值与2004年相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).尿β2-MG、尿视黄醇结合蛋白有所下降,但差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 镉观察对象停止镉作业7a后,体内镉负荷明显下降,但仍超标,停止镉作业后一般不会造成肾脏的进一步损害.

  6. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  7. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg (-1) were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg(-1)) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg(-1)) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  8. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...... of foodborne diseases, based on national and international studies. Systematic reviews to support estimates of the incidence and mortality of food-related diseases are being completed. Results will be used to update and refine global burden estimates for relevant food-related hazards, in the context of other...

  9. Tax burden in EU countries – a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the overall tax burden and tax policy of European countries. The theoretical part of the paper explains the term of tax burden and summarizes its measuring possibilities. It especially deals with the tax quota as the most generally applied indicator but some alternative indicators, such as the tax freedom day or tax misery index, are also mentioned. The empirical part of the paper is aimed on the comparison of tax burden of “old” and “new” EU member states following mentioned indicators. Certain tax policy recommendations are formulated on the basis of performed comparison.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE FISCAL BURDEN ON UKRAINE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aleksandrova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article was reviewed reproductive aspect of the relationship between fiscal burden and a penchant for economic development under certain assumptions about the relationship of these variables. The analysis was based on a fairly simple dynamic model in which the share of income that goes to the development of production, relying constant. Computed optimal fiscal burden for the economic development of the country is 19.29% of GDP. The estimation and comparison of the calculations of the tax burden followed its dynamics, by comparative assessment with those of developed countries. The prospects of the proposed approach for predicting the development of national economy were analyzed.

  11. General Medical Burden in Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the LiTMUS Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David E.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Thase, Michael E.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Leon, Andrew C.; Ketter, Terence A.; Friedman, Edward S.; Bowden, Charles L.; Pencina, Michael; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined general medical illnesses and their association with clinical features of bipolar disorder. Methods Data were cross-sectional and derived from the Lithium Treatment – Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), which randomized symptomatic adults (n=264 with available medical comorbidity scores) with bipolar disorder to moderate doses of lithium plus optimized treatment (OPT) or to OPT alone. Clinically significant high and low medical comorbidity burden were defined as a Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score ≥ 4 and < 4, respectively. Results The baseline prevalence of significant medical comorbidity was 53% (n=139). Patients with high medical burden were more likely to present in a major depressive episode (P=.04), meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (P=.02), and experience a greater number of lifetime mood episodes (P=0.02). They were also more likely to be prescribed a greater number of psychotropic medications (P=.002). Sixty-nine percent of the sample was overweight or obese as defined by body mass index (BMI), with African-Americans representing the racial group with the highest proportion of stage II obesity (BMI ≥ 35; 31%, n=14). Conclusions The burden of comorbid medical illnesses was high in this generalizable sample of treatment-seeking patients and appears associated with worsened course of illness and psychotropic medication patterns. (Funded by NIMH Contract N01MH80001; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00667745). PMID:23465084

  12. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  13. Cadmium and zinc concentrations in fetal and maternal rat tissues after parenteral administration of cadmium during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazelhoff Roelfzema, W.; Roelofsen, A.M.; Herber, R.F.M.; Copius Peereboom-Stegeman, J.H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were determined by solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in rat maternal and fetal tissues after exposure to cadmium. Cadmium was administered subcutaneously as CdCl/sub 2/ in saline daily during pregnancy. Two experiments were performed. In expt. I we investigated the tissue concentration at day 19 (gestational age) after addministration of several doses: 0, 1.1, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.8 ..mu..mol Cd/kg/day. In expt. II the course of the Cd and Zn concentrations during pregnancy was investigated by collecting samples at days 14, 16, 18 and 20, after daily injections of 4.4 ..mu..mol Cd/kg. Cadmium concentrations in blood, maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver increased with dose and duration of exposure. Cadmium was heavily accumulated in the liver and transferred to the fetus only in small amounts. The zinc concentration in the maternal liver was positively correlated with the cadmium concentration. In the placenta the zinc concentration was not affected. Zinc in fetal liver was decreased from day 18 onward. Despite relatively high cadmium levels and decreased zinc levels in the fetus, we observed no adverse effects on various reproduction parameters, such as birth weights and obvious malformations.

  14. Bioavailability of cadmium from infant diets in newborn rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, G.; Oskarsson, A. [Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Petersson Grawe, K. [Toxicology Div., National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    Infants are exposed to higher levels of cadmium (Cd) from infant and follow-on formulas than from breast milk. We studied the bioavailability of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} from cows' milk formula, soy formula, wheat/oat/milk formula, wholemeal/milk formula and water in 11-day-old rat pups. The pups received a single oral dose of one diet labelled with {sup 109}Cd, 0.1 or 0.3 mg Cd/kg body weight. After 2 or 24 h or 4, 9 or 12 days the fractional retention of {sup 109}Cd in the whole body, in segments of rinsed small intestine and in tissue was measured in a gamma counter. Pups receiving {sup 109}Cd in water or cows' milk formula had the highest mean whole-body retention. It ranged from 67% of the dose in the water group to 52% in the wholemeal/milk formula group 4 days after dosing. The retention of {sup 109}Cd in the rinsed small intestine was significantly higher in the water group and the cows' milk formula group than in the cereal-based formula groups at 24 h and 4 days after dosing. It was still high in all groups on day 9, ranging from 26 to 11%. Initially most of the {sup 109}Cd was retained in the duodenum but by day 4 it had moved further down into the jejunum. In the liver, the highest and lowest retention on day 4 was 16 permille and 3 permille of the dose in the water group and wholemeal/milk formula group, respectively. In the kidney, {sup 109}Cd was still increasing 12 days after exposure in all groups. Whole-body retention and tissue levels were higher than previously reported in adult animals. The lower bioavailability of {sup 109}Cd from the cereal-based formulas compared to water and cows' milk formula on the longer survival times is most likely explained by Cd binding to dietary fibre and phytic acid in the cereal-based formulas reducing the intestinal binding and decreasing the bioavailability of Cd. The high retention of {sup 109}Cd in the small intestine, leading to a prolonged absorption period, emphasizes the importance of

  15. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Arpadjan, Sonja; Mitewa, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt) is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days); Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II) acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol), and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II) acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks). Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54% and 64%, respectively.

  16. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Juliana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days; Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol, and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks. Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54 % and 64 %, respectively

  17. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  18. Disposal of beryllium and cadmium from research reactors; Entsorgung von Beryllium und Cadmium aus Forschungsreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lierse von Gostomski, C.; Remmert, A.; Stoewer, W. [Inst. fuer Radiochemie, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Bach, F.W.; Wilk, P.; Kutlu, I. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Blenski, H.J.; Berthold, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Nerlich, K.D.; Plank, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Beryllium and cadmium mostly occur in metal form as radioactive special materials during the deconstruction of research reactors. Beryllium is usually used in these reactors as a neutron reflector and moderator, while cadmium is used above all as a neutron absorber. Both metals together have a high chemotoxicity as well as an inventory of radionuclides which has not been more closely characterised up to now. A high tritium content is to be expected, particularly in the case of beryllium; this tritium is due to the reaction of the metal with thermal reactor neutrons in particular. However, other nuclides which may be formed by neutron capture from impurities also contribute to the activity inventory. Up to now there is no qualified process for proper treatment, conditioning and intermediate and final repository in Germany. (orig.)

  19. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  20. Screening of Blood Levels of Mercury, Cadmium, and Copper in Pregnant Women in Dakahlia, Egypt: New Attention to an Old Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawei, Shimaa M; Gouda, Hossam E

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metals toxicity is a prevalent health problem particularly in developing countries. Mercury and cadmium are toxic elements that have no physiologic functions in human body. They should not be present in the human body by any concentration. Copper, on the other hand, is one of the elements that are essential for normal cell functions and a deficiency as well as an excess of which can cause adverse health effects. To test blood levels of mercury, cadmium, and copper in pregnant women in Dakahlia, Egypt. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, blood levels of cadmium, mercury, and copper were measured in 150 pregnant women attending to the antenatal care in Mansoura University Hospital in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. The mean ± SD of blood mercury, cadmium, and copper levels were found to be far from their levels in the population surveys carried in developed countries like United States of America (USA) and Canada. Heavy metal intoxication and accumulation is a major health hazard. Developing countries, including Egypt, still lack many of the regulatory policies and legislations to control sources of pollution exposure. This should be dealt with in order to solve this problem and limit its health consequences.

  1. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  2. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  3. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  4. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  6. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  7. Double burden of malnutrition: A silent driver of double burden of disease in low– and middle–income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kolcˇic´

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Double burden of malnutrition, characterised by undernutrition among poor children and obesity among deprived adults, is a serious global problem and an important promoter of ‘double burden of disease’ which is currently affecting low– and middle–income countries. Possible ways to reduce this burden is through education on the importance of equilibrium between energy intake and expenditure; ensuring conditions for optimal fetal and early child development; and reducing poverty as one of the main drivers of both undernutrition and obesity, through empowering local communities.

  8. Opioid Overdoses Burden U.S. Hospitals: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Burden U.S. Hospitals: Report Admissions due to heroin, painkillers rose 64 percent over decade To use the ... a government report shows. As misuse of prescription painkillers and street opioids climbed nationwide, related hospital stays ...

  9. Depression and caregiver burden among rural elder caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Turner, Winston; Kaye, Lenard W; Ruffin, Leah; Downey, Roberta

    2005-01-01

    Family caregivers of older adults frequently experience feelings of burden and depression though they may not come to the attention to health and service providers until they are at a point of crisis. Through a simple screening tool, the Maine Primary Partners in Caring (MPPC) project identified individuals providing care to older adults through rural primary care practices, in order to provide upstream interventions before caregivers were in crisis. This paper describes a sample (n=62) of rural family caregivers identified through their physicians' offices. High levels of caregiver burden and depression were reported. Family support and knowledge of caregiver tasks predicted decreased caregiver burden and depression, while isolation predicted increased caregiver burden. Implications of these results for gerontological social workers are outlined.

  10. Intrinsic factors, adrenal gland morphology, and disease burden in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Vybiral, Pamela-Rose; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Kotze, Antoinette; Mitchell, Emily P

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden. Adrenal corticomedullary hyperplasia was significantly correlated with left AW and ACMR. Males had significantly higher AWs than females; other parameters showed no difference between the sexes. Disease burden, gastritis, and myocardial fibrosis were moderately correlated with adrenal morphology supporting prior evidence that gastritis and myocardial fibrosis are linked to stress. Glomerulosclerosis was not correlated with adrenal morphology and neither kidney nor liver amyloidosis contributed significantly to variation in AW or ACMR on multivariate analyses. Interstitial nephritis showed much stronger correlations with kidney and liver amyloidosis than gastritis. All three adrenal parameters were correlated with age; age was the only significant variable affecting ACMR on the multivariate analyses; and disease burden as well as systemic amyloidosis and kidney disease (except for fibrosis) showed moderate correlations with age. Age may, therefore, be important in the pathogenesis of disease in captive cheetahs, particularly of amyloidosis and kidney disease. None of the intrinsic measurements or adrenal parameters were sufficiently closely linked to disease to be used as ante-mortem proxies for disease burden or specific diseases. Zoo Biol. 36:40-49, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio-ash; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Pedersen, Anne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter; Christensen, Terkel C.

    2004-07-01

    The potential of using the method electrodialytic remediation for removal of cadmium from bioashes has been investigated. Five different types of fly ash from biomass combustion were included in the study: 1) A straw combustion fly ash from grate-firing at Avedoere power plant. 2) A fly ash from co-firing of wood and fuel oil at Avedoere power plant. 3) A suspended, grain size fractionated straw fly ash, obtained from PSO project FU 2201, fine and coarse size fraction. The ash was originally produced at Avedoere power plant. 4) A straw pellet fly ash from dust-firing at Amager power plant. Thr five ashes were characterised, and a series of preliminary elekctrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted on each ash. In spite a significant differences between the five ashes with respect to parameters such as pH and content of cadmium, all ashes showed promising remediation potential. For all ashes cadmium concentrations below the regulatory limits for recycling were reached in one or more of the preliminary remediation experiements. The best results were obtained with the suspended straw ash from PSO FU 2201, whereas the results with the wood chips ash, due to a high initial pH value, were less sucessful, meaning that the remediation process was progressing more slowly. (BA)

  12. Dementia caregiver burden: reliability of the Brazilian version of the Zarit caregiver burden interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Taub

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to examine the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI. The instrument is a 22-item scale assessing the extent to which caregivers view their responsibilities as having an adverse impact on their social life, health, emotional well-being, and finances. We assessed 50 primary informal caregivers of demented patients coming from 3 different health care centers, using the test-retest method. Analysis of the results showed an intraclass reliability coefficient of 0.88, while Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.77 for the test and 0.80 for the retest items. The Brazilian version of ZBI shows sufficient reliability, comparable to the original version.

  13. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P.K.; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a ...

  14. National Economic Burden Associated with Management of Periodontitis in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Ningseh Mohd Dom; Rasidah Ayob; Khairiyah Abd Muttalib; Syed Mohamed Aljunid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden associated with the management of periodontitis in Malaysia from the societal perspective. Methods. We estimated the economic burden of periodontitis by combining the disease prevalence with its treatment costs. We estimated treatment costs (with 2012 value of Malaysian Ringgit) using the cost-of-illness approach and included both direct and indirect costs. We used the National Oral Health Survey for Adults (2010) data to es...

  15. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  16. 20 CFR 498.215 - The hearing and burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... burden of going forward and the burden of persuasion with respect to affirmative defenses and any... persuasion with respect to all other issues. (c) The burden of persuasion will be judged by a...

  17. Estimating the true global burden of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness.

  18. Quantitative analysis of tumor burden in mouse lung via MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vanessa K; Garbow, Joel R; Krupnick, Alexander S; Engelbach, John A; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Despite recent advances in screening protocols, the majority of patients still present with advanced or disseminated disease. Preclinical rodent models provide a unique opportunity to test novel therapeutic drugs for targeting lung cancer. Respiratory-gated MRI is a key tool for quantitatively measuring lung-tumor burden and monitoring the time-course progression of individual tumors in mouse models of primary and metastatic lung cancer. However, quantitative analysis of lung-tumor burden in mice by MRI presents significant challenges. Herein, a method for measuring tumor burden based upon average lung-image intensity is described and validated. The method requires accurate lung segmentation; its efficiency and throughput would be greatly aided by the ability to automatically segment the lungs. A technique for automated lung segmentation in the presence of varying tumor burden levels is presented. The method includes development of a new, two-dimensional parametric model of the mouse lungs and a multi-faceted cost function to optimally fit the model parameters to each image. Results demonstrate a strong correlation (0.93), comparable with that of fully manual expert segmentation, between the automated method's tumor-burden metric and the tumor burden measured by lung weight.

  19. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  20. Study of thermal effects on nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, R. T.; Webster, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Isothermal continuous flow calorimeter is designed to test a nickel-cadmium battery under numerous orbital conditions. This sensitive calorimeter collects cell data such as oxygen pressure and rate of heat generation, and calculates changes in enthalpy.

  1. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  2. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  3. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  4. Electronic-structure calculations of large cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Johannes [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Joswig, Jan-Ole [Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, we will review our studies of large cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles and present some new results on cadmium telluride systems. All calculations have been performed using density-functional based methods. The studies deal with the structural properties of saturated and unsaturated nanoparticles where the surfactants generally are hydrogen atoms or thiol groups. We have focused on the investigation of the density of states, the Mulliken charges, the eigenvalue spectra, and the spatial distributions of the frontier orbitals. Optical excitation spectra of pure CdS and CdSe/CdS core-shell systems have been calculated using a linear-response formalism. The reviewed studies are compared to the state of the art of modeling large cadmium chalcogenide particles. Optical excitations in large saturated cadmium chalcogenide nanoparticles with several thousand atoms. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Comparative Analysis of Informal Caregiver Burden in Advanced Cancer, Dementia and Acquired Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Richard; Gao, Wei; Jackson, Diana; Pearson, Clare; Murray, Joanna; Higginson, Irene J

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Measurement and improvement of informal caregiver burden are central aims of policy and intervention. Burden itself is a complex construct and total burden can differ by patient diagnosis, although how diagnosis affects different aspects of caregiver subjective burden is unclear.OBJECTIVES: To compare the subjective burden of caregivers across three diagnostic groups using the 22-item Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI).METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of pooled cross-sectional da...

  6. LUMINESCENCE OF CADMIUM SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS IN FLUOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Z. O. Lipatova; E. V. Kolobkova; V. A. Aseev

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are perspective materials in optics, medicine, biology and optoelectronics. Fluorophosphate glasses, doped with cadmium sulfide quantum dots, were examined in the paper. Heat treatment led to the formation of quantum dots with diameters equal to 2.8 nm, 3.0 nm and 3.8 nm. In view of such changes in the quantum dots size the fundamental absorption edge shift and the luminescence band are being displaced to the long wavelengths. Luminescence lifetime has been fou...

  7. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalik R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV), anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM). The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium star...

  8. Investigation of cadmium resistance in an Alcaligenes sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEntee, J.D.; Woodrow, J.R.; Quirk, A.V.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanisms of metal resistance of a cadmium-resistant Alcaligenes sp. were studied. Growth in a defined medium was unaffected by cadmium at concentrations up to 0.1 mM, while at concentrations up to 2.5 mM, growth occurred after an extended lag phase. The increase in length of the lag phase was abolished by repeated subculturing at these higher concentrations. However, subculture in the absence of cadmium reversed the adaptation process. Plasmid DNA was not detected in adapted cells, suggesting that adaptation is not plasmid mediated. Increased sulfide production in response to cadmium was observed, although the levels were too low to account fully for cadmium resistance. Adaptation of cells to cadmium resulted in the appearance of a major new membrane preparation. This protein was induced at cadmium concentrations of 0.1 mM and above, but below this level the protein was absent. The onset of growth at concentrations above 0.1 mM was coincident with the appearance of this protein, which was also induced by zinc (0.4 mM) but not by manganese or nickel. The protein was only solubilized by a sodium dodecyl sulfate-2-mercaptoethanol mixture. Similar solubility properties were shown by a second major membrane protein (molecular weight, 33,000). These two proteins proved to be similar by peptide-mapping experiments and amino acid analysis. The appearance of the 34,500-molecular-weight protein and its possible role in cadmium resistance are discussed.

  9. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  10. Harmful effects of cadmium on olfactory system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondier, Jean-Robert; Michel, Germaine; Propper, Alain; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-10-01

    The inhalation of certain metals can result in olfactory epithelial injury, an altered sense of smell, and direct delivery of the metal from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and other parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine whether mice given an intranasal instillation of cadmium would develop altered olfactory function and to assess whether cadmium may be transported directly from the olfactory epithelium to the central nervous system. To evaluate cadmium's ability to induce anosmia and on the basis of olfactory epithelium sensitivity to metals, the aim of this study was first to study cadmium effects on the olfactory function and secondly to check whether cadmium may be transported from the nasal area to the central nervous system. After an intranasal instillation of a solution containing CdCl2 at 136 mM, we observed in treated mice: (1) a partial destruction of the olfactory epithelium, which is reduced to three or four basal cell layers followed by a progressive regeneration; (2) a loss of odor discrimination with a subsequent recovery; and (3) a cadmium uptake by olfactory bulbs demonstrated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but not by other parts of the central nervous system. Cadmium was delivered to the olfactory bulbs, most likely along the olfactory nerve, thereby bypassing the intact blood-brain barrier. We consider that cadmium can penetrate olfactory epithelium and hence be transported to olfactory bulbs. The olfactory route could therefore be a likely way to reach the brain and should be taken into account for occupational risk assessments for this metal.

  11. Update on Alternatives for Cadmium Coatings on Military Electrical Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    deposi- tion (PVD) process in which a part is placed in a vacuum chamber and glow discharge cleaned. Pure alu- minum is then melted in heated ceramic...alloys, beryllium , magne- sium, and aluminum alloys are gen- erally the most active metals in cor- rosive environments and, therefore, are the only...materials that can pro- vide sacrificial corrosion protection similar to cadmium in this applica- tion. However, beryllium is more hazardous than cadmium

  12. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Characterization of Cadmium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized a new electroluminescence material,Cadmium [(2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole(8-hydoxyquinoline] Cd(HPBq. The absorption spectra of this material show maxima at 378 nm. It may be attributed due to π° – π* transition. The photoluminescence showed peak at 520 nm. TGA data of the material shows stability up to 370 °C .Organic light emitting diode have been fabricated with this material and the fundamental structures of the device is ITO/α-NPD/ Cd(HPBq/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al exhibited a luminescence peak at 550 nm. The maximum luminescence of the device was 295 cd/m2 with current density of 6687 A/m2 at 20 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 1.01 cd/A at 17 V and power efficiency was 1.01 lm/w at 17 V.

  13. Soil Cadmium Regulates Antioxidases in Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Da-lin; ZHANG Shu-pan; CHEN Zheng; QIU Wei-wei

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of soil cadmium(Cd)on antioxidases in sorghum was studied using 3 sorghum species viz.,sweet sorghum[Sorghum bicolor(L.)]Moench.cv.Hunnigreen,sorghum hybrid sudangrass(Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense,cv.Everlush)and sudangrass[Sorghum sudanense(Piper)Stapf cv.Xinjiang].The results showed that low concentrations of Cd2+(≤10 mg kg-1)induced the activities of 4 antioxidases in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum,but high Cd2+concentrations(≥50 mg kg-1)significantly reduced the activities of all the four antioxidases.The glutathione(GSH)contents in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum correlated positively with the Cd2+concentrations.The maximum antioxidase activities were observed at the elongation stage of sorghum during the whole growth period.

  14. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bellad; S C Watawe; A M Shaikh; B K Chougule

    2000-04-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5–/2 Cd Fe2.5–/2O4 ferrites where = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up to = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values of . A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability () is however found to increase continuously with . The increase in is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

  15. Nickel-cadmium cell residual charge analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, W.G.; Leek, R.; Hampson, N.A.; Lovelock, G.R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes a portable unit for measuring the charge remaining in nickel-cadmium secondary cells. Exhaustive frequency response tests have confirmed that cell impedance varies very little with charge state, with the possible exception of that at very low frequencies (< 50 mHz). In the interim before further work in this area is carried out, a microprocessor-based test unit has been built which uses a current pulse discharge method to arrive at a residual charge reading. When the cell is discharged according to a particular regime, the unit produces results accurate to within 10-15% over the entire range of charge. Further development involving the inclusion of cell history parameters promises to make the unit useful for military and other applications.

  16. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  17. Aspects of the biochemical toxicology of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, R.L.; Merali, Z.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium, in addition to producing a variety of toxic manifestations, is known to accumulate in certain ''target'' organs which include liver and kidney where histological and functional damage becomes apparent. The daily intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride for 21 or 45 days stimulated the activities of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase, elevated blood glucose and urea, and lowered hepatic glycogen in rats. Whereas chronic Cd treatment failed to alter adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the activity of basal and fluoride-stimulated forms of hepatic adenylate cyclase (AC) were markedly increased. However, the cAMP binding to hepatic protein kinase was decreased as was the kinase activity ratio. An acute dose of Cd decreased hepatic glycogen content and increased blood glucose, serum urea, and hepatic cAMP. Chronic exposure to Cd induced adrenal hypertrophy and augmented adrenal norepinephrine and epinephrine as well as the activity of adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase. In most cases, the observed metabolic alterations persisted up to 28 days on cessation of Cd administration. Subacute Cd treatment suppressed pancreatic function as evidenced by lowered serum immunoreactive insulin in presence of hyperglycemia, as well as by partial inhibition of phentolamine-stimulated increases in serum IRI. Although chronic Cd treatment failed to alter the concentration of brain stem norepinephrine and cerebrocortical acetylcholine esterase activity, serotonin levels of brain stem were depressed and the concentration of striatal dopamine and cerebrocortical acetylcholine were significantly elevated when compared with the values seen in control nonexposed animals.

  18. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  19. Identification of environmentally derived cesium-137 burdens in a worker population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1990, whole body measurements of a number of workers with little probability of onsite occupational exposure showed positive evidence of {sup 137}Cs. Further investigation revealed that many of these workers supplemented their diet with a significant portion of wild game, mainly deer and elk. To validate the assumption of an environmental source, donated samples of venison and other game were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Results ranged from less than 0.1 to almost 100 Bq kg{sup {minus}l} (0.003 to 2.7 nCi kg{sup {minus}1}) and showed a correlation with the habitat from which the game was taken. Venison samples obtained from the two workers with the highest body burdens showed the highest activity. A questionnaire is now used to identify workers with an elevated potential for environmental-intakes.

  20. Identification of environmentally derived cesium-137 burdens in a worker population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1990, whole body measurements of a number of workers with little probability of onsite occupational exposure showed positive evidence of [sup 137]Cs. Further investigation revealed that many of these workers supplemented their diet with a significant portion of wild game, mainly deer and elk. To validate the assumption of an environmental source, donated samples of venison and other game were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. Results ranged from less than 0.1 to almost 100 Bq kg[sup [minus]l] (0.003 to 2.7 nCi kg[sup [minus]1]) and showed a correlation with the habitat from which the game was taken. Venison samples obtained from the two workers with the highest body burdens showed the highest activity. A questionnaire is now used to identify workers with an elevated potential for environmental-intakes.

  1. Statolith formation in Cnidaria: effects of cadmium on Aurelia statoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Statolith formation in Cnidaria was reviewed with an emphasis on Aurelia statoliths. The review provides information on the chemical composition, mechanisms of initiation of mineralization, and effects of environmental factors on Cnidarian statolith formation. Environmental factors discussed included modified sea water ingredients, X-irradiation, clinostat rotation, and petroleum oil ingredients. A detailed account of the effects of cadmium on mineralization and demineralization of Aurelia statoliths is given. Cadmium at dosages of 2 to 4 micromoles significantly reduces statolith numbers in developing ephyrae. At a dosage of 3 micromoles, cadmium accelerates statolith loss in unfed ephyrae studied at 4 and 8 days following ephyrae release from strobilae. Cadmium, therefore, is shown to reduce statolith numbers in developing ephyrae and to cause greater reduction of statolith numbers in unfed ephyrae after 4 and 8 days than occurred in controls. Supplementation of Cd(2+)-containing artificial sea water (ASW) with calcium (3X and 5X ASW calcium content) results in higher numbers of statoliths at day 4 as compared with cadmium-treated ephyrae. At 8 days only the 5X calcium supplemented ASW is effective in enhancing statolith numbers in Cd(2+)-treated ephyrae. These results suggest that cadmium competes in some manner with calcium at the mineralizing sites of Aurelia.

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  3. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle.

  4. Teratogenicity of cadmium-metallothionein in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, M.; Holt, D.; Brown, N.; Hard, G.C.

    1988-06-01

    A single dose in the range 0.25-1.9 mg metallothionein-bound cadmium (MT-Cd)/kg body weight, when administered parenterally to the rat between day 8 and day 14 of gestation, is teratogenic. In vitro, the development of the isolated rat conceptus is unaffected by the addition of 1.5 ..mu..M MT-Cd to the culture medium whereas the same concentration of ionic Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/) is lethal. At short times after injection of 0.25 mg MT-Cd/kg body weight on gd 12, the maximal foetal and placental contents of Cd are low in comparison with those after a teratogenic dose of CdCl/sub 2/ and are of the same order as those in the embryo and placenta + yolk sac of the rat conceptus, cultured in the presence of the highest no-effect concentration of CdCl/sub 2/. From this evidence, it is concluded that the uptake by the conceptus in vivo of either CdMT, or of Cd liberated therefrom, is unlikely to contribute to the teratogenic response. In the pregnant, as in the non-pregnant rat, the kidney appears to be the only organ that is affected directly by the metalloprotein. All doses in the range 0.25-1.0 mg MT-Cd/kg body weight are nephrotoxic and result in prolonged anorexia in the pregnant animal. While some of the foetal deformities that occur in the CdMT-dosed animal seem to be direct consequences of the renal dysfunction, others apparently are secondary to the maternal anorexia. In rats that are injected i.p on gd 12 with 0.25 mg MT-Cd/kg renal uptake of Cd is slower, but the final concentration is higher than in animals that are given the same dose i.v. At this and the higher dose levels structural and/or functional damage to the kidneys also is greater in i.p.-, than in i.v.-dosed animals. The incidence of foetal malformations, however, is similar in the i.p. and i.v. groups and varies little over the dose range.

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  6. BREATH MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL BODY BURDEN OF JP-8 JET FUEL FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex epidemiological investigation of the effects of acute exposure to JP-8 jet fuel in the U.S. Air Force was performed through the study of about 350 human subjects across six Air Force bases. The focus was on fuels system maintenance personnel as the "exposed"...

  7. Influence of heavy metals body burden on biochemical peculiarities of small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technogenic pollution on the protein and lipid content in small mammals from different ecosystems is observed in the paper. It was defined that its content increased in organs, which take an active part in the metabolic processes.

  8. Total Xenoestrogen Body Burden in Relation to Mammographic Density, a Marker of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    study population. NIH is providing funds to analyze serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium, IGF1, IGFBP3, and retinol . We presented...analysis of serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), retinol , and calcium...parathyroid hormone (PTH) and IGF-1. 3)To determine if the relation between Vitamin D and breast density is modified by blood levels of retinol and/or

  9. Dioxin body burden among blood donors before and after the Belgian dioxin/PCB incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debacker, N.; Sasse, A.; Wouwe, N. Van; Windal, I.; Carbonnelle, S.; Overmeire, I. Van; Sartor, F.; Goeyens, L.; Oyen, H. Van [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Xhrouet, C.; Pauw, E. De [Centre of Analysis of Residues in Traces, Luik (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In spring 1999, Belgium faced a severe food contamination when about 50 kg of PCBs containing 1 g of dioxins were introduced in the food chain. The possible public health impact of this food chain contamination was subject of a debate between different scientists. According to Vrijens et al. and Bernard et al. there was no significant public health impact, whereas van Larebeke et al. presumed the opposite claiming a significant increase of cancer incidence. These risk assessments were based on measurements of dioxins/PCBs in contaminated foods and nutritional habits observed in a selected group of adolescents (14-18 years old) using simulation techniques or on the estimation of the incremental cancer risk associated with the incremental levels of exposure to dioxins/PCBs during the incident. In the meantime, an epidemiological survey has been carried out in order to measure the dioxin levels in plasma samples collected before and after the incident. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary results of this epidemiological survey.

  10. High body burdens of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in California women.

    OpenAIRE

    Petreas, Myrto; She, Jianwen; Brown, F. Reber; Winkler, Jennifer; Windham, Gayle; Rogers, Evan; Zhao, Guomao; Bhatia, Rajiv; Charles, M. Judith

    2003-01-01

    Following our first report on elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in California women, we expanded our investigation to include diverse groups of local women. We analyzed additional adipose and serum samples collected in the late 1990s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a breast cancer study and in a reproductive study, respectively. Adipose samples (n = 32) were analyzed by low-resolution mass spectrometry in negative-ion chemical ionization mode, whe...

  11. The Body Burden of Organic Vapors in Artificial Air Trial Measurements Aboard a Moored Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-19

    of organic vapors from exposure to submarines. Uhei absorpt ion ot organic vap~r)rs ourin11" soy -or joo patrol is analogous S to inna in~j op...L TABLE 4. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPONENTS IDENTIFIED IN BREATH SAMPLE FROM SAILOR ON BOARD USS GATO [SAMPLE FILE SUEAO4.DAT...SAMPLE FROM SAILOR ON BOARD USS GATO [SAMIPLE FILE SUEAO4.DATJ (continued) Spec Relative No. MW Formula 1denti f ication Peak Area (X104) 562 100 CH62

  12. Utilizing In Vitro Derived Metabolic Rate Constants to Inform Pesticide Body Burdens in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 2.4 billion kilograms of pesticides have been used worldwide in preventing diseases, dealing with nuisance animals and aiding in crop management Although pesticides are used to control insects and diseases, exposure to non-target species frequently occurs.Amphibians are impo...

  13. Organohalogen body burdens in a breast cancer case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petreas, M.; She, J.; Visita, P.; Winkler, J. [Hazardous Materials Lab., California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hurley, S.; Smith, D.; Reynolds, P. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Dept. of Health Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Jeffrey, S.; Mahoney, E. [Dept. of Surgery, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Due to their lipophilic properties, dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs) and other organohalogen compounds bioaccumulate in the food chain, with diet accounting for over 90% of non-occupational exposures. To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between dioxins and breast cancer in human populations. Most have examined risks in occupational cohorts or in populations exposed to dioxins from the Seveso accident6-8. Results from these studies have been conflicting and have largely been limited by a lack of individual-level measures of exposure, small numbers of cases, and inability to account for established breast cancer risk factors. Very little is known about the potential health effects of low-level environmental dioxin contamination. We present data on PCDD/PCDFs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in adipose tissues of women participating in a breast cancer case-control study centered in the San Francisco Bay Area. In addition, we examine distributions of these chemicals in breast and abdominal adipose of women undergoing mastectomies with concurrent breast reconstruction. If concentrations were equivalent, use of abdominal adipose would greatly enhance the pool for controls for future epidemiological studies.

  14. Body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls among persons employed in capacitor manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, M.S.; Fischbein, A.; Thornton, J.; Rice, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-02-01

    In an effort to assess exposure among workers engaged in capacitors manufacture, PCB concentration was determined in plasma (290) and adipose tissue (61). In general, males had higher concentrations of PCBs than females. The correlation of plasma concentration (1-546 ppb) of the more highly chlorinated PCBs, which had been used in past, with total duration of employment suggested accumulation over time. The gc-ec pattern of these PCB peaks was, in most cases, characteristic of exposure to a PCB mixture with 54% chlorine. The less highly chlorinated PCBs, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls, were the source of current exposure, and were observed in concentrations of 6-2530 ppb in plasma. Higher exposure occurred among persons with direct contact with PCBs in jobs such as capacitor filling. Adipose tissue concentrations, for both the more highly chlorinated PCBs (1-165 ppm) and lower chlorinated PCBs (0.6-414 ppm), were proportional to those in plasma.

  15. Body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls among persons employed in capacitor manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, M.S.; Fischbein, A.; Thornton, J.; Rice, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-02-01

    In an effort to assess exposure among workers engaged in capacitor manufacture, PCB concentration was determined in plasma and adipose tissue. In general, males had higher concentrations of PCBs than females. The correlation of plasma concentration (1-546 ppb) of the more highly chlorinated PCBs, which had been used in the past, with total duration of employment suggested accumulation over time. The gc-ec pattern of these PCB peaks was, in most cases, characteristic of exposure to a PCB mixture with 54% chlorine. The less highly chlorinated PCBs, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls, were the source of current exposure, and were observed in concentrations of 6 to 2530 ppb in plasma. Higher exposure occurred among persons with direct contact with PCBs, in jobs such as capacitor filling. Adipose tissue concentrations, for both the more highly chlorinated PCBs (1-165 ppm) and lower chlorinated PCBs (0.6-414 ppm), were proportional to those in plasma.

  16. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. Methods: This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. Results: The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16% and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%. Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. Conclusions: The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  17. Estimating the burden of paratyphoid a in Asia and Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Arndt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing availability of typhoid vaccine in many regions, global estimates of mortality attributable to enteric fever appear stable. While both Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi cause enteric fever, limited data exist estimating the burden of S. Paratyphi, particularly in Asia and Africa. We performed a systematic review of both English and Chinese-language databases to estimate the regional burden of paratyphoid within Africa and Asia. Distinct from previous reviews of the topic, we have presented two separate measures of burden; both incidence and proportion of enteric fever attributable to paratyphoid. Included articles reported laboratory-confirmed Salmonella serovar classification, provided clear methods on sampling strategy, defined the age range of participants, and specified the time period of the study. A total of 64 full-text articles satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Paratyphoid A was commonly identified as a cause of enteric fever throughout Asia. The highest incidence estimates in Asia came from China; four studies estimated incidence rates of over 150 cases/100,000 person-years. Paratyphoid A burden estimates from Africa were extremely limited and with the exception of Nigeria, few population or hospital-based studies from Africa reported significant Paratyphoid A burden. While significant gaps exist in the existing population-level estimates of paratyphoid burden in Asia and Africa, available data suggest that paratyphoid A is a significant cause of enteric fever in Asia. The high variability in documented incidence and proportion estimates of paratyphoid suggest considerable geospatial variability in the burden of paratyphoid fever. Additional efforts to monitor enteric fever at the population level will be necessary in order to accurately quantify the public health threat posed by S. Paratyphi A, and to improve the prevention

  18. Parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Patil, Uday; Triebwasser, Joseph; Hoffman, Perry; Weinstein, Zachary A; New, Antonia

    2011-02-01

    To identify aspects of parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), an anonymous internet survey linked to BPD support websites was developed for parents to complete on their BPD offspring and unaffected siblings. The questions cover aspects of the child's life from pregnancy through young adulthood, and query about the impact of the child's BPD on six domains of the parent's life, including physical and emotional health, marriage, job, standard of living, social life, and career trajectory. Additionally, financial burden was assessed with questions pertaining to insurance and out-of pocket costs associated with the BPD disorder. BPD offspring were identified by meeting diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey and having been given a diagnosis of BPD by a professional at some point in their life. We report on 233 female offspring meeting strict criteria for BPD. Parents of daughters with BPD endorsed varying levels of impact on the six domains comprising burden with the largest impact on emotional health which was impacted in over 88% of the respondents. Over 50% of parents endorsed four or greater of the six burden items. Particular aspects of the offspring's BPD symptom profile correlated with intensity of parental burden included including problems in adolescence with acting out behavior (p disorder led to about $50,000 in additional costs. Parents of female offspring with BPD experience burden in multiple domains of their life and many have incurred substantial financial expense. Increasing awareness of co-morbid conditions in the BPD proband that significantly increase parental burden may be indicators for the provision of increased family support.

  19. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  20. Economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia.

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    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in Southeast Asia (SEA. Quantifying this burden is critical to set policy priorities and disease-control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated the economic and disease burden of dengue in 12 countries in SEA: Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East-Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. We obtained reported cases from multiple sources--surveillance data, World Health Organization (WHO, and published studies--and adjusted for underreporting using expansion factors from previous literature. We obtained unit costs per episode through a systematic literature review, and completed missing data using linear regressions. We excluded costs such as prevention and vector control, and long-term sequelae of dengue. Over the decade of 2001-2010, we obtained an annual average of 2.9 million (m dengue episodes and 5,906 deaths. The annual economic burden (with 95% certainty levels was US$950m (US$610m-US$1,384m or about US$1.65 (US$1.06-US$2.41 per capita. The annual number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, based on the original 1994 definition, was 214,000 (120,000-299,000, which is equivalent to 372 (210-520 DALYs per million inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Dengue poses a substantial economic and disease burden in SEA with a DALY burden per million inhabitants in the region. This burden is higher than that of 17 other conditions, including Japanese encephalitis, upper respiratory infections, and hepatitis B.

  1. Formation and Characterization of Mixed Crystals Based on Bis (Thiourea)Cadmium Chloride and Bis (Thiourea)Cadmium Iodide

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Bis(thiourea)cadmium chloride(BTCC) and bis(thiourea)cadmium iodide (BTCI) are metal complexes of thiourea having better nonlinear optical properties than KH2PO4. An attempt has been made in the present study to form mixed crystals based on BTCC and BTCI (even though their crystal lattices mismatch) from aqueous solutions, the precursors mixed in proper proportions. A total of seven (including the end members) crystals were formed by the free evaporation method and characteriz...

  2. Effects of Soil pH,Texture,Moisture,Organic Matter and Cadmium Content on Cadmium Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQI-TANG; J.L.MOREL; 等

    1994-01-01

    The supply of cadmium from soil to plant roots mainly depends on the diffusion prooess.This work was conducted to study the effects of some soil properties on cadmium diffusion coefficient (D) in soil. Measurements were made using the Shofield and Graham-Bryce's isotopic labelling method.Cadmium diffusion coefficients varied from 10-7to 10-9 cms2-1.Higher values were observed in acid sandy soils and lower values in calcareous clay soils.Liming an acid soil resulted in a substantial decrease of D.Addition of cadmium as nitrate salt generally increased D,while addition of sewage sludge and organic matter resulted in a significant decrease of cadmium diffusion.The rhizospheric activity also induced a moderate reduction in D.The relationships between D(10-9cms2-1)on the on hand and soil pH.moisture(Mc,g kg-1) ,organic matter(OM,g kg-1),clay(Cy,gkg-1)and cadmium content(Cd,mgkg-1) on the other were obtained by the multiple regression:D=182.1-29.91pH+0.210Mc-0.303OM+0.011Cy+1.64Cd(R2=0.859,n=22).

  3. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  4. Time-course of cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat liver: the role of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N.; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I.; Hereti, Rosa I.; Alexandropoulou, Katerina N.; Basayannis, Aristidis C.; Mykoniatis, Michael G. [Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Medical School, Athens University, 75 Mikras Asias St., 115 27, Athens (Greece); Demonakou, Maria D. [Histopathology Laboratory, Sismanoglion G.D. Hospital, Sismanogliou 1, Marousi, Attiki 151 27 (Greece)

    2003-12-01

    Exposure to toxic metals and pollutants is a major environmental problem. Cadmium is a metal causing acute hepatic injury but the mechanism of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism and time-course of cadmium-induced liver injury in rats, with emphasis being placed on apoptosis in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Cadmium (3.5 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally and the rats were killed 0, 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h later. The extent of liver injury was evaluated for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis, mitoses and inflammatory infiltration in hematoxylin-eosin-stained liver sections, and by assaying serum enzyme activities. The number of cells that died via apoptosis was quantified by TUNEL assay. The identification of nonparenchymal liver cells and activated Kupffer cells was performed histochemically. Liver regeneration was evaluated by assaying the activity of liver thymidine kinase and by the rate of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. Both cadmium-induced necrotic cell death and parenchymal cell apoptosis showed a biphasic elevation at 12 and 48 h and peaked at 48 and 12 h, respectively. Nonparenchymal cell apoptosis peaked at 48 h. Peliosis hepatis, another characteristic form of liver injury, was first observed at 16 h and, at all time points, closely correlated with the apoptotic index of nonparenchymal liver cells, where the lesion was also maximial at 48 h. Kupffer cell activation and neutrophil infiltration were minimal for all time points examined. Based on thymidine kinase activity, liver regeneration was found to discern a classic biphasic peak pattern at 12 and 48 h. It was very interesting to observe that cadmium-induced liver injury did not involve inflammation at any time point. Apoptosis seems to be a major mechanism for the removal of damaged cells, and constitutes the major type of cell death in nonparenchymal liver cells. Apoptosis of nonparenchymal cells is the basis

  5. BURDEN OF ABNORMAL HEMATOPOIETIC CLONE IN PATIENTS WITH MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the burden of abnormal hematopoietic clone in the development of myelodys plastic syndromes (MDS).Methods The ratio of the bone marrow cells with abnormal chromosomes to the total counted bone marrow cells was regarded as the index of MDS clone burden. The disease severity related parameters including white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase level, bone marrow blast, myeloid differentiation index, micromegakaryocyte, transfusion, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor ( TNF), CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of MDS patients were assayed, and the correlations between those parameters and MDS clone burden were also analyzed.Results The clone burden of MDS patients was 67.4% ± 36. 2%. MDS clone burden positively correlated with bone marrow blasts (r=0.483, P<0.05), negatively with hemoglobin level (r=-0.445, P<0.05). The number of blasts, hemoglobin, and erythrocytes in high clone burden (>50%) and low clone burden (≤50%) groups were 7.78%±5.51% and 3.45%±3.34%, 56.06±14. 28 g/L and 76.40±24.44 g/L, (1.82±0.48)×1012/L and (2. 32±0.66)×1012/L, respectively (all P <0.05). CD4 + T lymphocytes of MDS patients and normal controls were (0. 274±0.719)×109/L and (0.455±0.206)×109/L, respectively (P<0.05). CD8 ± T lymphocytes of MDS patients and normal controls were (0.240±0.150)×109/L and (0.305 ±0.145)×109/L, respectively. The serum level of interleukin-2 of MDS patients (6.29±3.58 ng/mL) was significantly higher than normal control (3.11±1.40ng/mL, P<0.05). The serum level of TNF of MDS patients and normal control group were 2.42±1.79 ng/mL and 1.68 ±0.69 ng/mL, respectively. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 was higher in high clone burden MDS patients (1.90 ±0.52) than that in low clone burden patients (0.97±0.44, P<0.05).Conclusion The quantitive clonal karyotype abnormalities and deficient T cell immunity are important parameters for evaluating MDS severity and predicting its

  6. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong HY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Surachai Kotirum,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–5 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 5School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit from inception to August 31, 2014. Results: A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94

  7. A review of the economic burden of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramore Clark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common disorder that is associated with broad functional impairment among both children and adults. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize available literature on the economic costs of ADHD, as well as potential economic benefits of treating this condition. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE to identify all published articles on the economic implications of ADHD, and authors were contacted to locate conference abstracts and articles in press that were not yet indexed. In total, 22 relevant items were located including published original studies, economic review articles, conference presentations, and reports available on the Internet. All costs were updated and presented in terms of year 2004 US dollars. A growing body of literature, primarily published in the United States, has demonstrated that ADHD places a substantial economic burden on patients, families, and third-party payers. Results of the medical cost studies consistently indicated that children with ADHD had higher annual medical costs than either matched controls (difference ranged from $503 to $1,343 or non-matched controls (difference ranged from $207 to $1,560 without ADHD. Two studies of adult samples found similar results, with significantly higher annual medical costs among adults with ADHD (ranging from $4,929 to $5,651 than among matched controls (ranging from $1,473 to $2,771. A limited number of studies have examined other economic implications of ADHD including costs to families; costs of criminality among individuals with ADHD; costs related to common psychiatric and medical comorbidities of ADHD; indirect costs associated with work loss among adults with ADHD; and costs of accidents among individuals with ADHD. Treatment cost-effectiveness studies have primarily focused on methylphenidate, which is a cost-effective treatment option with cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from $15

  8. Burden of maxillofacial trauma at level 1 trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Ruchi Pathak; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Maneesh; Kumar, Abhishek; Jaipuria, Jiten; Misra, Mahesh

    2014-06-01

    There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide. This study was performed to evaluate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures, associated injuries, and treatment used at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India, between January 2007 and June 2010. The study provides basis for establishment of trauma as major etiology of maxillofacial injuries and planning for preventive strategies. A retrospective study of patients seen and treated at JPNATC, AIIMS, New Delhi, between January 2007 and June 2010 was performed. Data extracted from patient records included etiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality, and concomitant injuries. There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (RTA) (56.8%) was the most common etiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 to 75 years (mean, 34.7 years) with a peak incidence in the third decade with a male-to-female ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615 (77%) and middle third 180 (23%). With regard to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the most common site, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%), and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 84 (10.8%) with orthopedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated in 16.3% of cases. RTA was the

  9. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: the impact of dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Sedairi, Al Anoud

    2011-07-15

    The risks and benefits of using mercury (Hg) in dental amalgam have long been debated. This study was designed to estimate Hg body burden and its association with dental amalgam fillings in 182 children (ages: 5-15 years) living in Taif City. Hg was measured in urine (UHg), hair (HHg) and toenails (NHg) by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Vapor Generator Accessory system. Urinary Hg levels were calculated as both micrograms per gram creatinine (μg/g creatinine) and micrograms per liter (μg/L). We found that children with amalgam fillings (N=106) had significantly higher UHg-C levels than children without (N=76), with means of 3.763 μg/g creatinine versus 3.457 μg/g creatinine, respectively (P=0.019). The results were similar for UHg (P=0.01). A similar pattern was also seen for HHg, with means of 0.614 μg/g (N=97) for children with amalgam versus 0.242 μg/g (N=74) for those without amalgam fillings (P=0). Although the mean NHg was higher in children without amalgam (0.222 μg/g, N=61) versus those with (0.163 μg/g, N=101), the relationship was not significant (P=0.069). After adjusting for many confounders, the multiple logistic regression model revealed that the levels of UHg-C and HHg were 2.047 and 5.396 times higher, respectively, in children with dental amalgam compared to those without (Pdental amalgam fillings (P=0.003). Despite the controversy surrounding the health impact of dental amalgam, this study showed some evidence that amalgam-associated Hg exposure might be related with symptoms of oral health, such as aphthous ulcer, white patches, and a burning-mouth sensation. Further studies are needed to reproduce these findings. The present study showed that significant numbers of children with or without amalgam had Hg levels exceeding the acceptable reference limits. The detrimental neurobehavioral and/or nephrotoxic effects of such an increased Hg on children should be a cause of concern, and further investigation is warranted. Our

  10. Primary caregivers of schizophrenia outpatients: burden and predictor variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandón, Pamela; Jenaro, Cristina; Lemos, Serafín

    2008-04-15

    This article explores family burden in relation to relatives' coping strategies and social networks, as well as in relation to the patients' severity of positive and negative symptoms. Data on the severity of symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia [PANSS]), social functioning (Social Functioning Scale [SFS]), caregivers burden (Interview on Objective and Subjective Family Burden or Entrevista de Carga Familiar Objetiva y Subjetiva [ECFOS]), coping skills (Family Coping Questionnaire [FCQ]), and social support (Social Network Questionnaire [SNQ]) were gathered from a randomized sample of 101 Chilean outpatients and their primary caregivers, mostly mothers. Low levels of burden were typically found, with the exception of moderate levels on general concerns for the ill relative. A hierarchical regression analysis with four blocks showed that clinical characteristics, such as higher frequency of relapses, more positive symptoms and lower independence-performance, together with lower self-control attributed to the patient, decrease in social interests, and less affective support, predict burden. The results support the relevance of psychoeducational interventions where families' needs are addressed.