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Sample records for cadmium body burden

  1. Changes in body burden of mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium and selenium in infants during early lactation in comparison with placental transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Chan, Hing Man; Domingo, José L; Kubota, Machi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    The developing brains of both fetuses and infants are susceptible to environmental contaminants. However, the contribution of breast-feeding to the element body burden in infants remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the changes in body burden of elements such as methylmercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in infants during a 3-month breast-feeding period compared with placental transfer of the elements. Element concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord (fetus) red blood cells (RBCs) at parturition and in infant RBCs at 3 months. Most of the mercury in RBCs is in the methyl form, and the total mercury concentration in RBCs reflects methylmercury exposure. The mercury level in cord RBCs was approximately 1.5 times higher than that in mothers, while in infants, it declined by approximately 60% after 3-months' breast-feeding. The cord selenium level was similar to the maternal level, but declined approximately 75% after 3-months' breast-feeding in infants. Lead and arsenic concentrations in cord RBCs were about 60% of the maternal levels, and remained constant until the 3-month study period. The cadmium level in cord RBCs was about 20% of that in maternal RBCs, and remained almost constant until the end of the 3-month study period. In conclusion, although pregnant women should pay attention to avoid high methylmercury exposure, element exposure through breast-feeding does not pose any great concern in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally ...

  4. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems.

  5. Higher cadmium burden in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea: implications for seafood intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chan-Seok; Lee, Chae Kwan; Hong, Young Seoub; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    This survey was initiated to examine possible coastal-inland differences in cadmium (Cd) burden in general Korean populations. In total, 268 healthy non-smoking middle-aged women (30 to 49 years; 88 residents in 8 coastal areas and 180 residents in 15 inland areas) participated in the study. They offered peripheral blood and spot urine samples so that cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as exposure markers. Determination of Cd-B and Cd-U was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With regard to Cd burden, geometric means for the coastal and inland residents were 1.70 and 1.72 μg/L for Cd-B, 1.54 and 1.00 μg/L for Cd-U as observed (Cd-U), 2.59 and 1.81 μg/g creatinine for Cd-U as corrected for creatinine (Cd-Ucr), respectively. Cd-U and Cd-Ucr were higher in the coastal areas than in inland areas. Reasons for higher Cd-U in the coastal areas than in the inland areas were are discussed in relation to major sources of Cd in daily life of the residents. Attention was paid to consumption of fish and shellfish in the coastal areas as major sources of dietary Cd intake. This study shows that Cd burdens were higher in coastal areas than in inland areas in Korea.

  6. FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Gelston, Gariann M.

    2001-06-01

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.

  7. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  8. LEWY BODY DEMENTIA: CAREGIVER BURDEN AND UNMET NEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, James E.; Duda, John E.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Lippa, Carol F.; Taylor, Angela; Zarit, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a common cause of dementia but to date, little is known about caregiver burden. The Lewy Body Dementia Association (www.LBDA.org) conducted a web-based survey of 962 caregivers (mean age 56y; 88% women). The most common initial symptoms were cognitive (48%), motor (39%), or both (13%). Caregivers expressed concerns about fear of future (77%), feeling stressed (54%), loss of social life (52%) and uncertainty about what to do next (50%). Caregivers reported moderate to severe burden; 80% felt the people around them did not understand their burden and 54% reported feelings of isolation with spousal caregivers reporting more burden than non-spousal caregivers. Only 29% hired in-home assistance while less than 40% used respite or adult day care, geriatric case managers or attended a support group meeting. Lack of service utilization occurred despite two-thirds of caregivers reporting medical crises requiring emergency services, psychiatric care or law enforcement. Caregivers reported preferences for web-based information, directories of LBD expert providers, information on LBD research and location of local support groups. These findings highlight significant unmet needs for LBD caregivers and provide targets for intervention to reduce caregiver burden. Community resources such as the Lewy Body Dementia Association may serve this end, while also providing practical information and support for caregivers. PMID:20505434

  9. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  10. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  11. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  12. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  13. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-analysis of the 1998 South Africa Demographic and Health Survey data provided mean BMI estimates by age and sex. Population attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. Setting.

  14. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  15. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  16. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-02-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of /sup 137/Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of /sup 137/Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on /sup 137/Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from /sup 137/Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the /sup 137/Cs content in reindeer meat and the /sup 137/Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of /sup 137/Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.

  17. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  18. Cadmium transfer from contaminated soils to the human body through rice consumption in southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Chang, Qing; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Jizhou; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Xinjian; Song, Yinxian; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-06-21

    Consumption of crops grown in cadmium-contaminated soils is an important Cd exposure route to humans. The present study utilizes statistical analysis and in vitro digestion experiments to uncover the transfer processes of Cd from soils to the human body through rice consumption. Here, a model was created to predict the levels of bioaccessible Cd in rice grains using phytoavailable Cd quantities in the soil. During the in vitro digestion, a relatively constant ratio between the total and bioaccessible Cd in rice was observed. About 14.89% of Cd in soils was found to be transferred into rice grains and up to 3.19% could be transferred from rice grains to the human body. This model was able to sufficiently predict rice grain cadmium concentrations based on CaCl 2 extracted zinc and cadmium concentrations in soils (R 2 = 0.862). The bioaccessible Cd concentration in rice grains was also able to be predicted using CaCl 2 extracted cadmium from soil (R 2 = 0.892). The models established in this study demonstrated that CaCl 2 is a suitable indicator of total rice Cd concentrations and bioaccessible rice grain Cd concentrations. The chain model approach proposed in this study can be used for the fast and accurate evaluation of human Cd exposure through rice consumption based on the soil conditions in contaminated regions.

  19. Cortical Lewy bodies and Aβ burden are associated with prevalence and timing of dementia in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffmann, C; Calboli, F C F; Bravi, I; Gveric, D; Curry, L K; de Smith, A; Pavlou, S; Buxton, J L; Blakemore, A I F; Takousis, P; Molloy, S; Piccini, P; Dexter, D T; Roncaroli, F; Gentleman, S M; Middleton, L T

    2016-08-01

    Our main objective was to determine the neuropathological correlates of dementia in patients with Lewy body disease (LBD). Furthermore, we used data derived from clinical, neuropathological and genetic studies to investigate boundary issues between Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with (PDD) and without (PDND) dementia. One hundred and twenty-one cases with a neuropathological diagnosis of LBD and clinical information on dementia status were included in the analysis (55 PDD, 17 DLB and 49 PDND). We carried out topographical and semi-quantitative assessment of Lewy bodies (LB), Aβ plaques and tau-positive neuropil threads (NT). The APOE genotype and MAPT haplotype status were also determined. The cortical LB (CLB) burden was the only independent predictor of dementia (OR: 4.12, P independent predictor of a shorter latency to dementia from onset of motor signs (P = 0.001). DLB cases had a higher LB burden in the parietal and temporal cortex, compared to PDD. Carrying at least one APOE ϵ4 allele was associated with a higher cortical LB burden (P = 0.02), particularly in the neocortical frontal, parietal and temporal regions. High CLB burden is a key neuropathological substrate of dementia in LBD. Elevated cortical LB pathology and Aβ plaque deposition are both correlated with a faster progression to dementia. The higher CLB load in the temporal and parietal regions, which seems to be a distinguishing feature of DLB, may account for the shorter latency to dementia and could be mediated by the APOE ϵ4 allele. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  20. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  1. A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingbin; Li, Jinhui

    2014-07-01

    As China is one of the countries facing the most serious pollution and human exposure effects of e-waste in the world, much of the population there is exposed to potentially hazardous substances due to informal e-waste recycling processes. This report reviews recent studies on human exposure to e-waste in China, with particular focus on exposure routes (e.g. dietary intake, inhalation, and soil/dust ingestion) and human body burden markers (e.g. placenta, umbilical cord blood, breast milk, blood, hair, and urine) and assesses the evidence for the association between such e-waste exposure and the human body burden in China. The results suggest that residents in the e-waste exposure areas, located mainly in the three traditional e-waste recycling sites (Taizhou, Guiyu, and Qingyuan), are faced with a potential higher daily intake of these pollutants than residents in the control areas, especially via food ingestion. Moreover, pollutants (PBBs, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and heavy metals) from the e-waste recycling processes were all detectable in the tissue samples at high levels, showing that they had entered residents' bodies through the environment and dietary exposure. Children and neonates are the groups most sensitive to the human body effects of e-waste exposure. We also recorded plausible outcomes associated with exposure to e-waste, including 7 types of human body burden. Although the data suggest that exposure to e-waste is harmful to health, better designed epidemiological investigations in vulnerable populations, especially neonates and children, are needed to confirm these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative assessment of whole-body tumor burden in adult patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Munn, Lance L; Muzikansky, Alona; Askenazi, Manor; Nguyen, Rosa; Wenzel, Ralph; Mautner, Victor F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are at risk for multiple nerve sheath tumors and premature mortality. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has limited ability to assess disease burden accurately. The aim of this study was to establish an international cohort of patients with quantified whole-body internal tumor burden and to correlate tumor burden with clinical features of disease. We determined the number, volume, and distribution of internal nerve sheath tumors in patients using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and three-dimensional computerized volumetry. We quantified the distribution of tumor volume across body regions and used unsupervised cluster analysis to group patients based on tumor distribution. We correlated the presence and volume of internal tumors with disease-related and demographic factors. WBMRI identified 1286 tumors in 145/247 patients (59%). Schwannomatosis patients had the highest prevalence of tumors (P = 0.03), but NF1 patients had the highest median tumor volume (P = 0.02). Tumor volume was unevenly distributed across body regions with overrepresentation of the head/neck and pelvis. Risk factors for internal nerve sheath tumors included decreasing numbers of café-au-lait macules in NF1 patients (P = 0.003) and history of skeletal abnormalities in NF2 patients (P = 0.09). Risk factors for higher tumor volume included female gender (P = 0.05) and increasing subcutaneous neurofibromas (P = 0.03) in NF1 patients, absence of cutaneous schwannomas in NF2 patients (P = 0.06), and increasing age in schwannomatosis patients (p = 0.10). WBMRI provides a comprehensive phenotype of neurofibromatosis patients, identifies distinct anatomic subgroups, and provides the basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with unique disease manifestations.

  3. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J. B.; Baral, M.; Geis, E.; Mitchell, J.; Ingram, J; Hensley, A.; I. Zappia; Newmark, S.; E. Gehn; Rubin, R A; Mitchell, K; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahr, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 3–8 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary ex...

  4. Body burden of Hg in different bio-samples of mothers in Shenyang city, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ming Li

    Full Text Available Hg is an accumulative and neuro-toxic heavy metal which has a wide range of adverse effects in human health. However, few studies are available on body burden of Hg level in different bio-samples of pregnant women in Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated Hg levels in different maternal bio-samples in Shenyang city, China and investigated the correlation of Hg levels in different bio-samples. From October to December 2008, 200 pregnant women about to deliver their babies at ShengJing Hospital (Shenyang city, northeast of China participated in this study. The geometric mean (GM of Hg levels in cord blood, maternal venous blood, breast milk, and maternal urine were 2.18 µg/L, 1.17 µg/L, 1.14 µg/L, and 0.73 µg/L, respectively, and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 404.45 µg/kg. There was a strong correlation between cord blood and maternal blood total Hg level (r = 0.713, P<0.001. Frequency of fish consumption more than or equal to 3 times per week during pregnancy was suggested as a significant risk factor of prenatal Hg exposure (unadjusted OR 3.5, adjusted OR 2.94, P<0.05. This study provides evidence about Hg burden of mothers and the risk factors of prenatal Hg exposure in Shenyang city, China.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MERCURY AS WELL AS CADMIUM AND ANTHOCYANIN CONTENTS IN WILD FOREST FRUITS FROM ENVIRONMENTALLY BURDEN REGION OF THE SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zupka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between total mercury as well as cadmium contents and total anthocyanins content in wild forest fruit berries collected in environemtally burden region of Stredny Spis in the Slovakia was investigated in this study. From the sampling points of different localities of this region small berries were sampled: blackberries (6 localities, blackthorns (5 localities, rosehips (6 localities, hawthorn fruits. Metal determinations were performed in a Varian AA240Z (Varian, Australia atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman background correction. Total anthocyanin content (TA in fruits was determined spectrophotometrically using the spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV/VIS – 1240, Japan. With exception of three samples in all other fruit samples the hygienic limit for Cd (30 μg/kg given for foodstuffs by Slovak Republic Food Codex was exceeded. Only in one fruit sample the determined Hg content was higher than hygienic limit (30 μg/kg. Total anthocyanin content expressed as mg cyanidin equivalents/kg of fresh matter (mg CE/kg FM was in range 370 – 830 in blackberries (Rubus Fruticosus, 2500 – 3000 in rosehips (Rosa rubiginosa, 213 in raspberries (Prunus spinosa and 317 mg CE/kg FM in hawthorn berries (Crataegus laevigata. The strong statistical dependences between investigated parameters: Hg – TA in blackthorns, , Cd – TA in raspberries, Hg – TA in raspberries, Cd – TA in hawthorn and Hg – TA in hawthorn were confirmed based on the values of correlation coefficients (R= 0.6958, R= 0.9633, R= 0.9163, R= 0.8587 and R= 0.8938 , respectively.

  6. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  7. Toxicokinetics of halogenated benzenes in fish: Lethal body burden as a toxicological end point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Schipper, M.; Opperhuizen, A. (University of Utrecht, (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1993-06-01

    The lethal body burden (LBB), the whole-body concentration in millimoles per kilogram at time of death or immobilization, and the LC50 of dihalogenated (F,Cl,Br) benzenes were measured. Except for 1,4-difluorobenzene in guppy, LBBs varied between 2 and 8 mmol kg[sub [minus]8]. The LBBs of the chemicals in guppies were not significantly different from those in fat head minnows. LC50 values varied between 0.54 and 41 [mu]mol L[sub [minus]1] and were inversely related to the octanol/water partition coefficient, K[sub ow]. To estimate the risk of a compound to fish, the LBB requires the exposure concentration in combination with a first-order one-compartment bioaccumulation model. Therefore, the time of death or the time of immobility, and bioconcentration parameters such as the uptake rate constant (k[sub 1]) and the elimination rate constant (k[sub 2]), were determined. For both species, k[sub 1] values of the chlorinated benzenes were smaller than those of the brominated compounds and k[sub 2] values decreased with increasing hydrophobicity. The lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (k[sub l]'s) were linearly related to K[sub ow].

  8. Dietary uptake efficiency of HCBP in channel catfish: The effect of fish contaminant body burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, H.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowski, K.; Staubus, A.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Groups of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed for 10 days to control or contaminated sediment, spiked with {sup 14}C-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP, 130 {micro}g{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight), in order to establish a known body burden. At the completion of that exposure, subsamples of fish were taken for HCBP analysis and the remaining fish were transferred to clean media. Each group transferred to clean media was then divided into two subgroups and offered either control or contaminated diet for 4 weeks. The contaminated diet (Tubifex worms) was spiked with {sup 14}C-HCBP (16.6 {micro}g{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1} wet weight). Feeding rates of Tubifex were quantified as were fish growth rates and lipid levels. Fish (five specimens) were collected at the beginning of the dietary exposure and after 10, 20, and 30 days of exposure. Average individual growth rate constants were similar in all fish groups and ranged from 0.005 d{sup {minus}1} to 0.007 d{sup {minus}1}. Both fish groups fed contaminated Tubifex accumulated HCBP in an apparent linear fashion over the study period. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were 1.38 and 1.66 for accumulation from sediment and uptake from food, respectively. The dietary uptake efficiency for HCBP was found not to be affected by contaminant present in the fish body.

  9. Relation of child birth and breast-feeding burden with cadmium and tubular dysfunction marker levels in urine of adult women in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko

    2013-08-01

    observations. Further comparison after age-matching showed that women having 2 or 3 children but no lactation burden had higher Cd than those with no children. In contrast, Cd was not higher for those having 2 or 3 children with substantial lactation scores (i.e., 2-4 or 3-6) than for those with the same number of children without lactation burden. Giving birth to 1-3 children was associated with an increase in urinary Cd, suggesting that child birth might be associated with elevation in Cd body burden. The effect of lactation is probably attributable to that of number of children. Further studies are necessary to examine whether the association is also observable in mothers who have 3 or more children.

  10. Intercomparison of Finnish and Russian whole-body counters used for the determination of {sup 137}Cs body burden in reindeer-herding populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahola, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Tillander, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Miretsky, G.I. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Radiatsionnoj Gigieny, Leningrad (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Intercalibration is a very important quality control in whole-body counting, as the human body is a very difficult ``sample`` to calibrate for. In 1994 the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki and the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (IRH) of St. Petersburg agreed to undertake the first Finnish-Russian intercalibration project for whole-body counters. The monitoring of body burdens of indigenous inhabitants in the far north of Russia, from the Kola Peninsula to Chuhodka, has been the responsibility of the ISH since 1960; the above-.mentioned Finnish institutes have monitored reindeer breeders in Finnish Lapland since 1961. The intercalibration was done in the field by measuring the same persons with both systems in Finnish Lapland and in the Kola Peninsula. Mean body burdens in the reindeer-herding population in the areas of current interest are presented in the present paper. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Survival, reproduction, and arsenic body burdens in Chironomus riparius exposed to arsenate and phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogren, Christina L., E-mail: christina.mogren@email.ucr.edu [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kiparski, Guntram R. von; Parker, David R. [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Trumble, John T. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of arsenic (As) contamination in surface waters worldwide, little is known about how As alone and in the presence of other chemicals affects aquatic insects. Larvae of Chironomus riparius were exposed in a laboratory investigation to factorial combinations of 0, 0.13, 2.0, 5.3, and 13 {mu}mol As l{sup -1} and 0, 0.15, and 15 {mu}mol PO{sub 4} l{sup -1} throughout development from first instar to pupal emergence. The time between male and female emergence increased from 1.8 {+-} 0.17 days to 2.9 {+-} 0.34 days with exposure at higher As levels. The highest As exposure also decreased the number of eggs per egg mass, which may affect population maintenance. For these parameters, there was no effect from PO{sub 4}, and no interaction between As and PO{sub 4}. Total As determination of larval and adult tissues was conducted using Hydride Generated Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (HGAAS) and revealed concentrations ranging from 2.48 {+-} 0.363 to 30.5 {+-} 0.473 {mu}g/g and 1.03 {+-} 0.286 to 8.97 {+-} 0.662 {mu}g/g, respectively, indicating elimination of approximately 72% of total As body burdens between the fourth instar and adult stages. There was no effect of PO{sub 4}, indicating PO{sub 4} does not alter uptake of As in C. riparius. The potential for movement of As to terrestrial systems exists, though trophic transfer may be more likely during the aquatic larval stage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how sublethal concentrations of As and P affect C. riparius. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly increased the time between male and female emergence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High As exposure significantly decreased the number of eggs per egg mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fourth instar larvae eliminate 72% of As body burdens before the adult stage.

  12. Cadmium levels in kidneys from Swedish pigs in relation to environmental factors--temporal and spatial trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawé, K P; Thierfelder, T; Jorhem, L; Oskarsson, A

    1997-12-03

    The kidney cadmium level in pigs slaughtered at the age of 5-7 months was analysed with respect to geographical and temporal trends. During the period 1984-1992, a total of 1051 samples of porcine kidney from 31 abattoirs were analysed for cadmium at the National Food Administration within the control programme for livestock production. The mean kidney cadmium level was 0.11 +/- 0.07 mg/kg wet wt. (mean +/- S.D.). Regression analysis showed that the cadmium concentration in pig kidney has increased by 2% per year. By using Geographic Information System (GIS), geographical trends in cadmium concentration of porcine kidney were analysed and correlated to cadmium levels in moss and pH in the mor layer of podsolized soil. These two parameters explained 60% of the random variation in cadmium levels in porcine kidney. There were significant differences between individual abattoirs, but no significant longitudinal or latitudinal trend was found. Variation in kidney cadmium levels within breeding stocks was investigated. Kidneys from eight stocks, with five pigs from each, were analysed for cadmium concentration. In spite of the homogeneous treatment of the pig within the same stock, kidney cadmium levels varied on average by a factor of two between individuals. There was a significant correlation between cadmium in feed and cadmium levels in porcine kidney (P = 0.002). The temporal increase in cadmium levels in porcine kidney should be further investigated. An increase in cadmium body burden in pig may be an indicator of an increase in human cadmium exposure.

  13. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  14. Tracking contributions to human body burden of environmental chemicals by correlating environmental measurements with biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Moo Shin

    Full Text Available The work addresses current knowledge gaps regarding causes for correlations between environmental and biomarker measurements and explores the underappreciated role of variability in disaggregating exposure attributes that contribute to biomarker levels. Our simulation-based study considers variability in environmental and food measurements, the relative contribution of various exposure sources (indoors and food, and the biological half-life of a compound, on the resulting correlations between biomarker and environmental measurements. For two hypothetical compounds whose half-lives are on the order of days for one and years for the other, we generate synthetic daily environmental concentrations and food exposures with different day-to-day and population variability as well as different amounts of home- and food-based exposure. Assuming that the total intake results only from home-based exposure and food ingestion, we estimate time-dependent biomarker concentrations using a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Box plots of modeled R2 values indicate that although the R2 correlation between wipe and biological (e.g., serum measurements is within the same range for the two compounds, the relative contribution of the home exposure to the total exposure could differ by up to 20%, thus providing the relative indication of their contribution to body burden. The novel method introduced in this paper provides insights for evaluating scenarios or experiments where sample, exposure, and compound variability must be weighed in order to interpret associations between exposure data.

  15. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  16. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Body burden of POPs of Hong Kong residents, based on human milk, maternal and cord serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hin L; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Clement K M; Tao, S; Wong, Ming H

    2011-01-01

    This study is one of the very few investigating the body burdens of persistent organic pollutants in residents of Hong Kong. Twenty-nine human milk samples and 21 human blood (and cord blood) samples collected from 2005 were analyzed for PAHs, OCPs and PCBs levels. Higher levels of PAHs, DDTs and PCBs were detected in human milk samples when compared to maternal serum and cord serum (PAHs: milk: 1981 ng g⁻¹ fat, maternal serum: 1461, cord serum: 1158; DDTs: 3099, 1934, 1556; PCBs: 49, 41, 40). Among the 16 PAHs, naphthalene (human milk: 786 ng g⁻¹ fat, maternal serum: 331, cord serum: 348), phenanthrene (361, 144, 193), pyrene (187, 154, 98) and fluoranthene (158, 128, 89) were the major PAHs detected in three human tissues. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were the only metabolites of DDT detected in the three types of human tissues. High detection rate of the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT (> 90%) were noted in the three types of human samples. On the contrary, low detection frequency of PCBs in human milk (10.7%), maternal serum (1.7%) and cord serum (0.8%) were observed. The correlation coefficients of the PAHs, DDTs and PCBs levels in the three types of human tissues together with fish consumption, maternal age and tissue fat were analyzed. The following significant correlations were observed: Σ DDTs and p,p'-DDE in human milk with consumption of freshwater and marine fish, and maternal age; Σ PCBs in human milk with marine fish consumption, and maternal age; Σ PAHs in human milk with maternal age, respectively. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs by infants indicated that 7 out of 29 of the human milk samples exceeded 20 ng g⁻¹ day⁻¹, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the Health Canada Guideline in terms of DDTs levels. The high intake of DDTs by infants may be of concern as infants are more susceptible to the adverse effects imposed by various environmental contaminants. Human milk is a reliable and comparatively non-invasive tool for monitoring body

  18. Tumor segmentation of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: tumor burden correlates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffler, Michael A.; Xi, Yin; Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Le, Lu Q. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Segmentation of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to assess the feasibility, quantitate the total tumor volume (tumor burden) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and examine associations with demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features. A consecutive series of patients with NF1 underwent WBMRI and were reviewed for tumors. Tumors were segmented using a semiautomated software-based tool. Tumors were classified as superficial or deep and discrete or plexiform. Segmentation times were recorded. Segmentation yielded the quantity and tumor burden of superficial, internal and plexiform tumors. Correlations between segmentation data and demographic, disease-related and anthropomorphic features were examined. Fifteen patients were evaluated (42.3 ± 13.6 years, 10 female, 5 male). Segmentation times were a median of 30 min and yielded 2,328 tumors (1,582 superficial, 746 internal and 23 plexiform). One tumor was malignant. Tumor counts ranged from 14 to 397. Tumor burden ranged from 6.95 cm3 to 571 cm3. Individual tumor volume ranged from 0.0120 cm3 to 298 cm3. Significant correlation was found between the total volume of superficial tumors and height (ρ = 0.5966, p < 0.02). Male patients had higher overall tumor burdens (p < 0.05) and higher superficial tumor burden (p < 0.03). Patients with negative family history had more tumors (p < 0.05). Segmentation of WBMRI in patients with NF1 is feasible and elucidates meaningful relationships among disease phenotype, anthropomorphic and demographic features. (orig.)

  19. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  20. Cadmium and membrane ion transport in a French urban male population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajem, S.; Moreau, T.; Lellouch, J.; Huel, G.; Girard, F.; Sahuquillo, J. (National Inst. of Health and Medical Research, Villejuif (France)); Hannaert, P.; Garay, R.P. (INSERM, Paris (France)); Orssaud, G.; Claude, J.R. (Social and Sanitary Dept. Labs., Paris (France))

    1991-12-01

    Toxic effects of cadmium upon cell membranes structures and function have been well documented. Experimental studies have shown that cadmium is a potent Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase inhibitor. One report has confirmed these findings with the human Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase. Based on the above observations, several authors have suggested that a Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase-inhibitory action could be involved in health related cadmium toxicity. Therefore, the authors measured hair cadmium and red blood cell Na{sup +}-K{sup +} pump (physiological counterpart of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase) in 129 urban caucasian males, without known occupational exposure to cadmium. In addition, four other ion transport pathways were measured in red blood cells. Hair cadmium was considered, as it is known as an indicator of cadmium body burden. A particular emphasis was placed in defining the smoking habits of the subjects since tobacco is known to be the main source of cadmium exposure in the general population.

  1. Psychological burden in adult neurofibromatosis type 1 patients: impact of disease visibility on body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granström, Sofia; Langenbruch, Anna; Augustin, Matthias; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of disease visibility on psychological stress factors in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to explore the body image of NF1 patients. 228 adult NF1 patients participated in this cross-sectional survey. The questionnaire assessed perceived disease visibility and patients' body image. Outcome parameters were depression, distress and quality of life. Mediation models were performed to test if body experience mediated the effect of disease visibility on outcome parameters. Adult NF1 patients had a negative body image, expressed by bodily insecurity/uneasiness and fewer feelings of attractiveness and self-confidence. Compared to the body image of patients with other disfiguring diseases, patients with NF1 felt less attractive, displayed less self-confidence (women: p bodies (men: p stress was completely mediated by how patients experienced their bodies. Our study shed light on the importance of how NF1 patients experience and appraise their own bodies. We revealed that body image is an important link between disease visibility and psychological well-being. The body image of patients can be improved with psychotherapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Relationship between whole-body tumor burden, clinical phenotype, and quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Vanessa L; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Muzikansky, Alona; Nguyen, Rosa; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2014-06-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis share a predisposition to develop multiple nerve sheath tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with NF1 and NF2 have reduced quality of life (QOL), but no studies have examined the relationship between whole-body tumor burden and QOL in these patients. We administered a QOL questionnaire (the SF-36) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS) to a previously described cohort of adult neurofibromatosis patients undergoing whole-body MRI. One-sample t-tests were used to compare norm-based SF-36 scores to weighted population means. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-specific clinical variable were used to relate whole-body tumor volume to QOL scales. Two hundred forty-five patients (142 NF1, 53 NF2, 50 schwannomatosis) completed the study. Subjects showed deficits in selected subscales of the SF-36 compared to adjusted general population means. In bivariate analysis, increased tumor volume was significantly associated with pain in schwannomatosis patients, as measured by the SF-36 bodily pain subscale (rho = -0.287, P = 0.04) and VAS (rho = 0.34, P = 0.02). Regression models for NF2 patients showed a positive relationship between tumor burden and increased pain, as measured by the SF-36 (P = 0.008). Patients with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis suffer from reduced QOL, although only pain shows a clear relationship to patient's overall tumor burden. These findings suggest that internal tumor volume is not a primary contributor to QOL and emphasize the need for comprehensive treatment approaches that go beyond tumor-focused therapies such as surgery by including psychosocial interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, stunting and anemia have declined but are still high in some regions and subpopulations, whereas overweight and obesity have increased at alarming rates in all age and socioeconomic groups. The objective was to describe the coexistence of stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity at the national, household, and individual levels. We estimated national prevalences of and trends for stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity in children aged obesity in women aged 20-49 y by using the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012. With the use of the most recent data (2012), the double burden of malnutrition at the household level was estimated and defined as the coexistence of stunting in children aged obesity in the mother. At the individual level, double burden was defined as concurrent stunting and overweight and obesity in children aged 5-11 y and concurrent anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and in women. We also tested if the coexistence of the conditions corresponded to expected values, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. At the household level, the prevalence of concurrent stunting in children aged obesity in mothers was 8.4%; at the individual level, prevalences were 1% for stunting and overweight or obesity and 2.9% for anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and 7.6% for anemia and overweight or obesity in women. At the household and individual levels in children aged 5-11 y, prevalences of double burden were significantly lower than expected, whereas anemia and the prevalence of overweight or obesity in women were not different from that expected. Although some prevalences of double burden were lower than expected, assuming independent distributions of the 2 conditions, the coexistence of stunting, overweight or obesity, and anemia at the national, household, and intraindividual levels in Mexico calls for policies and programs to prevent

  4. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  5. Stress and Burden among Caregivers of Patients with Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Zarit, Steven; Taylor, Angela; Galvin, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may present a unique set of symptoms and challenges to family caregivers compared with other types of dementia. Prominent difficulties include motor impairment, activities of daily living (ADLs) disability, recurrent behavioral and emotional problems (BEPs), and diagnostic difficulties. These…

  6. Lake levels and water quality in comparison to fish mercury body burdens, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kissane, Claire; LeDuc, Jamie F.

    2017-01-18

    Within Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota, lake levels are controlled by a series of dams to support a variety of uses. Previous research indicates a link between these artificially maintained water levels, referred to as rule curves, and mercury concentrations in fish owing to the drying and rewetting of wetlands and other nearshore areas, which may release methylmercury into the water when inundated. The U.S. Geological Survey, National Park Service, and University of Wisconsin-La Crosse cooperated in a study to assess the importance of lake-level fluctuation and other factors affecting mercury concentrations in Perca flavescens (yellow perch) in the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. For this study, mercury body burdens were determined for young-of-the-year yellow perch collected from the large lakes within Voyageurs National Park during 2013–15. These mercury body burdens were compared to lake levels and water-quality constituents from the same period.Field properties and profiles of lake water quality indicated that Sand Point, Little Vermilion, and Crane Lakes were anoxic at times near the lake bottom sediments, where sulfate-reducing bacteria may convert mercury to methylmercury. The median dissolved sulfate concentration was highest in Crane Lake, the median total organic carbon concentration was highest in Sand Point Lake, and the median total phosphorus concentration was highest in Kabetogama Lake, all of which is consistent with previous research. All lakes had median chlorophyll a concentrations of 3.6 micrograms per liter or less with the exception of Kabetogama Lake, where the median concentrations were 4.3 micrograms per liter for the midlake sites and 7.1 micrograms per liter and 9.0 micrograms per liter for the nearshore sites.Mercury concentrations in sampled fish varied widely between years and among lakes, from 14.7 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Kabetogama Lake in 2015 to 178 nanograms per gram in fish samples from Crane Lake in

  7. Effects of waterborne cadmium on metabolic rate, oxidative stress, and ion regulation in the freshwater fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Nicole K; Gaw, Sally; Glover, Chris N

    2018-01-01

    The freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus (inanga) is a widespread Southern hemisphere species, but despite its habitation of lowland near-coastal waters with a high potential for cadmium contamination, nothing is known regarding its sensitivity to this toxic trace metal. Acute (96h) exposures were therefore performed to determine sublethal responses of inanga to waterborne cadmium at a regulatory trigger value (nominally 0.2μgL-1; measured 1μgL-1), an environmental level (measured at 2.5μgL-1), and an effect level (measured at 10μgL-1). Whole body (tissue remaining following excision of kidney and liver) cadmium burden remained constant up until an exposure concentration of 10μgL-1, at which point cadmium concentration increased significantly. A transient effect of cadmium on metabolic rate was observed, with an impaired oxygen consumption noted at 2.5, but not 1 or 10, μg L-1. Cadmium did not impair influx rates of either sodium or calcium, and no effects of cadmium on oxidative stress parameters (catalase activity, lipid peroxidation) were noted in the kidney. However, at cadmium concentrations of 2.5 and 10μgL-1, lipid peroxidation in the liver increased, concomitant with a decline in hepatic catalase activity. These data indicate that there are significant differences in the mechanisms of cadmium toxicity in inanga, relative to better-studied Northern hemisphere species, especially with respect to ionoregulatory impacts. However, effects were induced at cadmium concentrations unlikely to be encountered in any but the most highly contaminated waterways, and thus our data suggest that current trigger values for cadmium concentrations in Australian and New Zealand waters are likely to be protective of inanga. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. EDTA redistribution of lead and cadmium into the soft tissues in a human with a high lead burden - should DMSA always be used to follow EDTA in such cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-06-01

    Intravenous sodium calcium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and oral 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) have both been used to reduce the burden of lead in humans. Each of these agents enhances the mobilization of lead from different areas of the body - EDTA from the trabecular bone and DMSA from the soft tissue. A study of Korean battery workers revealed that EDTA appeared to increase the soft tissue burden of lead, resulting in increased levels of aminolevulinic acid and greater subsequent lead mobilization with DMSA. This case report discusses a patient with a higher-than-normal lead burden who exhibited increased tissue lead burden after intravenous EDTA. The elevated tissue burden of lead was still present, albeit lower, after five consecutive days of oral DMSA therapy. If this single case is representative of a typical human response to the use of intravenous (IV) EDTA for lead, then it suggests that all persons undergoing such treatment should be administered oral DMSA for a minimum of one week after EDTA treatment.

  9. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    using for commercial applications Other zinc alloys Zinc cobalt , tin zinc, zinc iron Passivation Cadmium, ZnNi, SnZn, ZnCo, ZnFe, and...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  10. Body burdens of metals in spiders from the Lidice coal dump near Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, G.; Babczynska, A.; Majkus, Z. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    Spiders' feeding behaviour and external digestion expose them to man-made pollutants, especially those easily transferred along the food chain. The problem for this study was whether the levels of heavy metals in selected species of spiders from the Lidice coal dump reflect adaptation to environmental pollutants. We used flameless and flame AAS to measure the whole-body concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni and Mg in male and female spiders differing in their hunting strategies, type of web construction, prey, and taxonomic position (Araneidae, Agelenidae, Linyphiidae, Theridiidae, Tetragnathidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae, Pisauridae, Clubionidae, Philodromidae). The levels of metals found in the spiders were species-dependent, indicating differences related to the hunting strategy and type of prey. Accumulation of Pb, Cu and Zn was always higher in ground spiders than in web-constructing species. Sheet-web spiders Linyphia triangularis and wandering spiders Clubiona lutescens had the lowest Cd, Mg and Cu content of all the studied species. Web-building spiders of the Tetragnathidae family showed the highest Cd, Cu and Pb content, even in species with feeding behaviour similar to spiders of other families. There were no interspecific differences in accumulation only for Fe and Mg. The concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb were lower in females than in males, irrespective of their taxonomic position and the intensity of their hunting activity. This may suggest that females have better metal-excretion ability than males.

  11. Dose-response relations for occupational exposure to arsenic and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaerup, L. [Dept. of Environmental Hygiene and Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst. and Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and lung cancer in occupationally exposed workers and between occupational cadmium exposure and various kidney effects was studied. A cohort of 3916 Swedish smelter workers showed an increased over-all mortality as well as excess relative risks of deaths due to cancer of the lung and stomach, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, compared with the Swedish general population, When a regional reference population was used, only lung cancer mortality remained significantly elevated. A positive dose-response relation was found between cumulative arsenic exposure and lung cancer risk, the relative risk among the highest exposed workers being more than ten-fold (SMR=1137) (95% confidence interval=588-1986). The dose-response relation was further strengthened when smoking data was added in a nested case-referent study within the smelter cohort. The interaction between arsenic and smoking appeared to be more than additive, but less than multiplicative. Cadmium in the blood has been considered to reflect recent exposure. It was shown in a group of cadmium copper alloy workers that the decay of cadmium in blood followed a two-exponential model. Blood cadmium can thus also be regarded as an estimate of the body burden after cessation of exposure. The use of blood cadmium as a dose estimate was further explored in a group of 440 cadmium exposed battery workers. A clear dose-response relation was found between cumulative blood cadmium and tubular proteinuria. It is recognised that highly exposed workers may develop a glomerula dysfunction in addition to their tubular damage. A questionnaire including questions of the history of kidney stones was sent to the living individuals and the next of kin to the deceased workers in a cohort of 902 cadmium exposed battery workers. There was in increased incidence of renal stones among the medium and highly exposed workers.

  12. Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109 at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

  13. Lower Late-Life Body-Mass Index is Associated with Higher Cortical Amyloid Burden in Clinically Normal Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, David C; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Schultz, Aaron P; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Donovan, Nancy J; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Marshall, Gad A

    2016-06-18

    Lower body-mass index (BMI) in late life has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, and weight loss has been associated with more rapid decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. To explore the association between BMI and cortical amyloid burden in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD dementia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed using baseline data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study, consisting of 280 community-dwelling CN older adults aged 62-90. Assessments included medical histories and physical exam, Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid imaging, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) genotyping. For the primary analysis, a general linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of BMI with PiB retention. Covariates included age, sex, years of education, and APOE4 carrier status. Secondary analyses were performed for BMI subdivisions (normal, overweight, obese), APOE4 carriers, and BMI×APOE4 interaction. In the primary analysis, greater PiB retention was associated with lower BMI (β  =  -0.14, p = 0.02). In the secondary analyses, APOE4 carrier status (β= -0.27, p = 0.02) and normal BMI (β= -0.25, p = 0.01), as opposed to overweight or obese BMI, were associated with greater PiB retention. The BMI×APOE4 interaction was also significant (β= -0.14, p = 0.04). This finding offers new insight into the role of BMI at the preclinical stage of AD, wherein lower BMI late in life is associated with greater cortical amyloid burden. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism behind this association, especially in those with lower BMI who are APOE4 carriers.

  14. Radioactive body burden measurements in (131)iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer: effect of recombinant thyroid stimulating hormone in whole body (131)iodine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Al Saadi, Amal; Al Balushi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Protocols in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer, recommend adequate thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioactive (131)I administrations, both for imaging and subsequent ablations. Commonly followed method is to achieve this by endogenous TSH stimulation by withdrawal of thyroxine. Numerous studies worldwide have reported comparable results with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH) intervention as conventional thyroxine hormone withdrawal. Radiation safety applications call for the need to understand radioactive (131)I (RA(131)I) clearance pattern to estimate whole body doses when this new methodology is used in our institution. A study of radiation body burden estimation was undertaken in two groups of patients treated with RA(131)I; (a) one group of patients having thyroxine medication suspended for 5 weeks prior to therapy and (b) in the other group retaining thyroxine support with two rhTSH injections prior to therapy with RA(131)I. Sequential exposure rates at 1 m in the air were measured in these patients using a digital auto-ranging beta gamma survey instrument calibrated for measurement of exposure rates. The mean measured exposure rates at 1 m in μSv/h immediately after administration and at 24 h intervals until 3 days are used for calculating of effective ½ time of clearance of administered activity in both groups of patients, 81 patients in conventionally treated group (stop thyroxine) and 22 patients with rhTSH administration. The (131)I activities ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 GBq. The mean administered (131)I activities were 4.24 ± 0.95 GBq (n = 81) in "stop hormone" group and 5.11 ± 1.40 GBq (n = 22) in rhTSH group. The fall of radioactive body burden showed two clearance patterns within observed 72 h. Calculated T½eff values were 16.45 h (stop hormone group) 12.35 h (rhTSH group) for elapsed period of 48 h. Beyond 48 h post administration, clearance of RA(131)I takes place with T½eff> 20 h in both groups

  15. Deletion of Phytochelatin Synthase Modulates the Metal Accumulation Pattern of Cadmium Exposed C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona J. Essig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental metal pollution is a growing health risk to flora and fauna. It is therefore important to fully elucidate metal detoxification pathways. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs, plays an important role in cadmium detoxification. The PCS and PCs are however not restricted to plants, but are also present in some lower metazoans. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for example, contains a fully functional phytochelatin synthase and phytochelatin pathway. By means of a transgenic nematode strain expressing a pcs-1 promoter-tagged GFP (pcs-1::GFP and a pcs-1 specific qPCR assay, further evidence is presented that the expression of the C. elegans phytochelatin synthase gene (pcs-1 is transcriptionally non-responsive to a chronic (48 h insult of high levels of zinc (500 μM or acute (3 h exposures to high levels of cadmium (300 μM. However, the accumulation of cadmium, but not zinc, is dependent on the pcs-1 status of the nematode. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence imaging uncovered that the cadmium body burden increased significantly in the pcs-1(tm1748 knockout allele. Taken together, this suggests that whilst the transcription of pcs-1 may not be mediated by an exposure zinc or cadmium, it is nevertheless an integral part of the cadmium detoxification pathway in C. elegans.

  16. The association between urinary cadmium and frontal T wave axis deviation in the US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramawi, Mohammed F; Liu, Youcheng; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Gandhi, Subi; Singh, Karan P

    2012-04-01

    The association between environmental cadmium exposure and frontal T wave axis deviation, a valuable and easily detected subclinical marker of ventricular arrhythmias in individuals without heart disease is unexplored and unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure predicts frontal T-wave axis deviation. US adults 40 years of age or older from NHANES III were included in the analysis. The participants' creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium concentrations expressed as micrograms per gram were determined. Frontal T-wave axis deviations were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Multivariable regression analyses adjusting for age, race, smoking, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular mass, QRS duration and heart rate were performed. The odds ratio of borderline and abnormal frontal T wave axis deviations due to cadmium exposure and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.25 (1.10-1.54) and 1.64 (1.27-2.12), respectively. This study documents a positive graded relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and the risk for frontal T-wave axis deviation. Screening individuals with large body burden of cadmium to identify frontal T-wave axis deviation is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of organochlorine chemical body burdens of female breast cancer cases with cancer free women in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil--Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Petreas, M.X.; Caleffi, M.; Barbosa, F.S.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study collected preliminary data to examine known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women living in rural and urban areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by questionnaire. In addition, the body burden levels of a panel of organochlorines was measured in a small clinic-based prospective sample.

  18. Imposex and butyltin body burden in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), in coastal waters within the Basque Country (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J. German, E-mail: grodriguez@pas.azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Borja, Angel; Franco, Javier [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Muxika, Inigo [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain); Sariego, Cristina [Servicio de Espectrometria de Masas, SCT' s, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria s/n, 33006, Oviedo (Spain); Valencia, Victoriano [AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110-Pasaia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867), at 22 locations in the Basque Country (northern Spain). At 18 of these localities, butyltin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was analysed using isotope dilution and GC-ICP-MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with a large vessel traffic or the presence of a fishing fleet or a shipyard. For the first time, four apparently sequential types of aborted capsules are described in this species. Another novelty is the interspecific comparison between imposex intensities in sympatrically living populations of N. nitidus and N. reticulatus. This showed that sensitivity to TBT pollution of both species is relatively similar (in terms of Relative Penis Length Index). Since N. nitidus has a restricted habitat distribution due to its low presence in wave-exposed habitats, its complementary use with other species is recommended for its use in TBT monitoring programmes.

  19. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasim Babaknejad; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Kahin Shahanipour; Somaye Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    .... Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties...

  20. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  1. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  2. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  4. The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, Jasper [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: jasper.hattink@ua.ac.be; Boeck, Gudrun De [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2005-10-05

    Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer {sup 109}Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 deg C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia.

  5. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  7. The development of a spatially explicit model to estimate radiocaesium body burdens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) for ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Karen F. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)]. E-mail: kfgaines@usd.edu; Boring, C. Shane [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Porter, Dwayne E. [University of South Carolina, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    A spatially explicit model of raccoon (Procyon lotor) distribution for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina was developed using data from a raccoon radio-telemetry study and visualized within a Geographic Information System (GIS). An inductive approach was employed to develop three sub-models using the ecological requirements of raccoons studied in the following habitats: (1) man-made reservoirs (2) bottomland hardwood/riverine systems, and (3) isolated wetland systems. Logistic regression was used to derive probabilistic resource selection functions using habitat compositional data and landscape metrics. The final distribution model provides a spatially explicit probability (likelihood of being in an area) surface for male raccoons. The model is a stand-alone tool consisting of algorithms independent of the specific GIS data layers to which they were derived. The model was then used to predict contaminant burdens in raccoons inhabiting a riverine system contaminated with radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs). The predicted {sup 137}Cs burdens were less than if one would assume homogeneous use of the contaminated areas. This modelling effort provides a template for DOE managed lands and other large government facilities to establish a framework for site-specific ecological assessments that use wildlife species as endpoints.

  8. Dual body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers among local residents in an e-waste recycling region in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing-Ru; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Yong-Chuan; Ruan, Xian-Li; Zhang, Yin-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2010-02-01

    E-waste recycling resulted in serious pollution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, China. The aims of this study were to assess dual body burdens of the two pollutants and potential health risk for local residents. Blood samples were collected from two e-waste recycling sites, Luqiao (where PCBs-containing e-wastes were recycled) and Wenling (where PBDEs-containing e-wastes were recycled). The mean summation SigmaPCBs (CB-105, 118, 153, 183, and 180) and summation SigmaPBDEs (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 180, and 209) were 204.20 and 117.58 ng g(-1) lipid in the blood from Luqiao, respectively, while they were 83.80 and 357.44 ng g(-1) lipid from Wenling, respectively. The PCBs levels among Luqiao residents were comparable to the values reported for US populations, while the PBDEs levels among two study populations were higher than the values from US populations. This is the first report to present dual body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs at so high levels. Based on previous epidemiologic data, it is suggested that dual burdens of PCBs and PBDEs at so high levels might pose health risk for local residents. In addition, no correlation between PCBs or PBDEs concentrations and the ages of the volunteers was observed in the two populations, which was explained by similar exposure time. No correlation of PBDEs with PCBs concentrations suggested different pathways of human exposures to PCBs and PBDEs. Our findings have raised concern about human health risk of dual exposure to PCBs and PBDEs resulting from e-waste recycling. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) and Nymphal Body Weight of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; van Andel, Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-03-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment. Engorged larvae were collected from these bank voles, molted into nymphs, weighed, and analyzed for infection by PCR.Nymphs were attracted to the odors of a bank vole compared to ambient air and preferred the odors of an infected bank vole over that of an uninfected bank vole. In the semifield arena, infected male bank voles had greater larval tick burdens then uninfected males, while similar larval tick burdens were observed on females regardless of infection status. Nymphal ticks that acquired a B. afzelii infection had higher body weight than nymphs that did not acquire an infection regardless of the infection status of the vole. These results show that a B. afzelii infection in bank voles increases larval tick burden and that a B. afzelii infection in larvae increases nymphal body weight. This finding provides novel ecological insights into the enzootic cycle of B. afzelii. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Metallic trace element body burdens and gene expression analysis of biomarker candidates in Eisenia fetida, using an "exposure/depuration" experimental scheme with field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Fabien; Brulle, Franck; Douay, Francis; Lemière, Sébastien; Demuynck, Sylvain; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2010-07-01

    Smelting plant activities lead to the accumulation of Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) in soils. The presence of high concentrations of MTEs can generate an environmental stress likely to affect macroinvertebrates living in close soil contact such as the Annelida Oligochaeta. Eisenia fetida, an ecotoxicologically important test species, was successively exposed to two field soils: (1) a highly contaminated agricultural topsoil collected near the former smelter Metaleurop Nord (Noyelles-Godault, France) which contaminated surrounding soils by its atmospheric emissions [exposure phase], and then (2) a slightly contaminated topsoil from an urban garden located in the conurbation of Lille (Wambrechies) [depuration phase]. Two analyses were performed during each phase. Firstly, the gene expression levels of four biomarker candidates identified in previous studies were analyzed in E. fetida coelomocytes. These candidates are Cd-metallothionein, phytochelatin synthase, coactosin-like protein and lysenin. Secondly, the body burdens of the following elements Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and P were measured. Moreover, both analyses were also performed in Lumbricus rubellus, an Annelid species collected from the two tested soil-originating sites. Analysis of gene expression and MTE body burdens in both species are discussed to: (1) evaluate expression biomarkers; (2) gain insight the detoxification processes and the long-term response to a metallic stress and (3) compare the responses observed in a test species (E. fetida) with the responses of a field species (L. rubellus). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and age-related macular degeneration in U.S. adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Erin W. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schaumberg, Debra A. [Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Sung Kyun, E-mail: sungkyun@umich.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, and has been linked to oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms. Lead and cadmium can accumulate in human retinal tissues and may damage the retina through oxidative stress, and may thereby play a role in the development of AMD. We examined associations between blood lead, blood cadmium, and urinary cadmium concentrations and the presence of AMD in 5390 participants aged 40 years and older with blood lead and blood cadmium measures and a subsample of 1548 with urinary cadmium measures in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. AMD was identified by grading retinal photographs with a modification of the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. The weighted prevalence of AMD was 6.6% (n=426). Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and body mass index, adults in the highest blood cadmium quartile had higher odds of AMD compared to the lowest quartile (odds ratio [OR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.02–2.40), with a significant trend across quartiles (p-trend=0.02). After further adjustment for pack-years of cigarette smoking, estimates were somewhat attenuated (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.91–2.27; p-trend=0.08). Similar associations were found with urinary cadmium. The association between urinary cadmium and AMD was stronger in non-Hispanic whites (NHW) than in non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.37–8.01 for levels above versus below the median among NHW; OR,1.45; 95% CI, 0.40–5.32 for levels above versus below the median among NHB; p-interaction=0.03). We found no association between blood lead levels and AMD. Higher cadmium body burden may increase risk of AMD, particularly among non-Hispanic white individuals; however, additional studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. - Highlights: • We examined the association of cadmium and lead with age

  12. Whole-body aerosol exposure of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) induced hepatic changes in CD-1 male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Yabing; Liu, Shuyun; Zheng, Huiying; Wu, Xiaojuan; Huang, Zhengyu; Li, Hao; Peng, Baoqi; Long, Jinlie [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Pan, Bishu [Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taizhou 318000 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dong, Qiaoxiang, E-mail: dqxdong@163.com [Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hepatotoxicity of TBBPA and Cd aerosol co-exposure was evaluated in CD-1 male mice. • Hepatic changes include focal necrosis, increased organ weight, and elevated enzymes. • TBBPA group exhibited highest hepatic toxicity followed by co-exposure and Cd groups. • We did not observe any synergistic effect of hepatic toxicity between TBBPA and Cd. • TBBPA/Cd suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two prevalent contaminants in e-waste recycling facilities. However, the potential adversely health effect of co-exposure to these two types of pollutants in an occupational setting is unknown. In this study, we investigated co-exposure of these two pollutants on hepatic toxicity in CD-1 male mice through a whole-body aerosol inhalation route. Specifically, mice were exposed to solvent control (5% DMSO), Cd (8 μg/m{sup 3}), TBBPA (16 μg/m{sup 3}) and Cd/TBBPA mixture for 8 h/day and 6 days a week for 60 days. Hepatic changes include increased organ weight, focal necrosis, and elevated levels of liver enzymes in serum. These changes were most severe in mice exposed to TBBPA, followed by Cd/TBBPA mixture and Cd. These chemicals also led to suppressed antioxidant defensive mechanisms and increased oxidative stress. Further, these chemicals induced gene expression of apoptosis-related genes, activated genes encoding for phase I detoxification enzymes and inhibited genes encoding for phase II detoxification enzymes. These findings indicate that the hepatic damages induced by subchronic aerosol exposure of Cd and TBBPA may result from the oxidative damages caused by excessive ROS production when these chemicals were metabolized in the liver.

  13. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  14. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  15. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  16. Teratogenic effect of cadmium on the foetal development of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foetus of pregnant rats exposed to single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg body weight cadmium sulphate on eighth gestational days; were compared with control (saline injected) fetuses to assess the effects of cadmium sulphate on foetal growth and ossification. Cadmium sulphate caused significant reduction in body ...

  17. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  18. Temperature dependence of long-term cadmium toxicity in the zebrafish is not explained by liver oxidative stress: Evidence from transcript expression to physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergauwen, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.vergauwen@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Hagenaars, An, E-mail: an.hagenaars@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny, E-mail: ronny.blust@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Knapen, Dries, E-mail: dries.knapen@ua.ac.be [Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Gamete Research Center (GRC), Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are performed at species' specific standard temperatures, but temperature is known to affect chemical toxicity. A temperature increase has been shown to increase cadmium toxicity in several aquatic species but information in fish is scarce. Based on literature we hypothesize that with increasing temperature, cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress increase, resulting in increased toxicity. In this study zebrafish acclimated to 12, 18, 26 (standard temperature) or 34 Degree-Sign C for one month, were exposed to 5 {mu}M cadmium for 4 or 28 days at the respective acclimation temperature. Cadmium toxicity (mortality) increased with increasing temperature. PCA showed that the high mortality at 34 Degree-Sign C was closely correlated to an increasing tissue cadmium accumulation with increasing temperature, but not to liver oxidative damage under the form of protein carbonyl content or lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde levels) or liver antioxidative potential. Instead, acclimation to 12 Degree-Sign C induced the highest oxidative damage to liver proteins and lipids, and transcript levels of glucose-6P-dehydrogenase, 6P-gluconate-dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase were particularly good markers of cold-induced oxidative stress. At this low temperature there was no interaction with cadmium exposure and there was no sign of cadmium sensitivity. Contrastingly, the combined effect of high temperature and cadmium exposure on mortality proved synergistic. Therefore we conclude that interactions between temperature and cadmium toxicity increased with increasing temperature and that this probably played part in increasing cadmium sensitivity. Increased cadmium compartmentalization and protein carbonyl content in liver of zebrafish acclimated to the standard temperature of 26 Degree-Sign C probably played part in increased sensitivity towards the same cadmium body burden compared to lower temperatures. On the one hand we

  19. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  20. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-level parasitic worm burdens may reduce body condition in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R J; Corbishley, H; Pilkington, J G; Albon, S D

    2006-10-01

    Regulation of ungulate populations by parasites relies on establishing a density-dependent relationship between infection and vital demographic rates which may act through the effect of parasites on body condition. We examine evidence for parasite impacts in 285 red deer (Cervus elaphus) harvested during 1991 and 1992 on the Isle of Rum. In the abomasa, prevalence of nematodes was 100% and the most abundant genus observed were Ostertagia species, however, mean intensity of infection was low (less than 1000) relative to other studies. Additional species, also present in low numbers, included Nematodirus spp., Capillaria spp., Cooperia spp., Monieza expanza, Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis. Lungworm (Dictyocaulus spp.) and tissue worm (Elaphostronygylus cervi) larvae were also observed in faecal samples. There was no evidence for acquired immunity to abomasal nematodes. Despite low levels of infection, both adult male and female deer showed significant negative correlation between indices of condition (kidney fat index, dressed carcass weight and larder weight) and intensity of Ostertagia spp. infection. However, there was no evidence that pregnancy rate in females was related to intensity of infection. For calves, there was no relationship between body condition and intensity of infection. The apparent subclinical effects of low-level parasite infection on red deer performance could alternatively be due to animals in poorer nutritional state being more susceptible to infection. Either way the results suggest that further studies of wild populations are justified, in particular where high local host densities exist or alternative ungulate hosts are present, and, where experimental treatments are tractable.

  2. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body mass index as a risk prediction and prevention factor for professional mixed low-intensity EMF burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinova, Lyubina

    2015-09-01

    The exposure conditions in the physiotherapy are characterized with various sources emitting electromagnetic fields (EMF) in different frequency ranges. Very little is known about the exposure modalities' influence on the operators. In this article, we present the effects of EMF on personnel morbidity profile dependent on the body mass index (BMI) increase. By cross-tabulation, the role of higher BMI on enhancing the EMF vulnerability potential is confirmed. The correlation of the higher BMI with some serious diseases and conditions' development has been evidenced statistically significant. Вy the whole-studied group, a general tendency for allergy, cardiovascular diseases, sleep disruption and age-shortened menopause, as well as allergy and leiomyoma in the expositional criteria subgroups (ESG), formed for the purposes of this study, is evidenced. The three ESGs are formed on work residence duration in the electrolight therapy section. The first - up to four working hour daily, the second - the entire working day (7 h) and the third group is not residenced in the electrolight therapy section. We hypothesize two signaling ways of interaction of the chronically low-intensity EMF and the higher BMI as the most likely: hormonal - by melatonin levels decrease due to estrogen levels increasing and endocrine - mast-cells auto replication and degranulation stimulation. Based on the results of the study, the BMI increase as an observed control factor in the prediction of the professional risk can be recommended.

  4. First record of butyltin body burden and imposex status in Hexaplex trunculus (L.) along the Tunisian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahbib, Youssef; Abidli, Sami; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Averty, Bernard; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2009-06-01

    We have assessed for the first time the current status of tributyltin (TBT) contamination in Hexaplex trunculus along Tunisian coastal waters. Two sampling campaigns have been performed in July 2004 and July 2007 at seven different sites. The snails were analyzed for imposex status, i.e. Imposex incidence, Relative Penis Length Index (RPLI) and Vas Deferens Sequence Index (VDSI), followed by the quantification of butyltins in their tissues. Imposex was detected in six populations from the 2004 samples and in five populations from the 2007 samples. The imposex incidence ranged from 0 (no imposex) to 100%, the RPLI from 0 to 56.7 and the VDSI from 0 to 4.4. TBT was also detected in six populations in 2004 and five populations in 2007. The concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 73.7 ng Sn g(-1) dw in 2004 samples and from 1.2 to 23.9 ng Sn g(-1) dw in 2007 samples. Temporal comparison of the data indicates some evidence of imposex recovery in most affected populations. Improvements in reduced body concentrations of TBT in both sexes were also seen in most stations. These TBT concentrations were only significantly correlated to imposex indices in samples from 2007 (r > 0.8, n = 7, p < 0.05). The present results will serve as a reference for long-term monitoring of butyltin contamination in the Tunisian coast, where TBT restrictions were not yet implemented.

  5. Body burdens of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in childbearing-aged women at an intensive electronic-waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    This study is the first to investigate PBDE body burden with regard to the concurrent analyses of multiple human matrices, namely milk, placenta, and hair, collected from a group of childbearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site to determine the partitioning of PBDEs in these different human matrices and the possible health risks imposed to infants at the e-waste recycling site. Five sets of milk, placenta, and hair samples were collected from an e-waste site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province; 245 km away from Taizhou) in China. The concentrations of total PBDEs in different human tissues were analyzed according to US EPA standard methods. PBDE body burdens of women from the e-waste site (milk 117 +/- 191, 8.89-457 ng/g fat, placenta 19.5 +/- 29.9, 1.28-72.1 ng/g fat, hair 110 +/- 210, 8.47-486 ng/g dry wt.) showed significantly higher levels than those from the reference site (milk 2.06 +/- 0.94, 1.0-3.56 ng/g fat, placenta 1.02 +/- 0.36, 0.59-1.42 ng/g fat, hair 3.57 +/- 2.03, 1.56-5.61 ng/g dry wt.) and were higher than those reported in other studies, due to e-waste recycling operations, especially open burning. On a dry-weight basis, the following trend was found for PBDE among the samples from Taizhou: hair>milk>placenta. Among the donors, the body burden of an e-waste worker ranked second. Higher brominated BDEs (hepta-BDEs) contributed a significantly greater proportion to total PBDEs in hair of the Taizhou women (20%) than that in milk (2.9%) and in placenta (2.6%). The estimated intake of PBDEs of 6-month-old breastfed infants living at the e-waste site was 572 +/- 839 ng/kg body wt/day, which was 57 times higher than that of infants from the reference site (10.1 +/- 4.60 ng/kg body wt/day). Moreover, the maximum calculated value (2,240 ng/kg body wt/day) exceeded the chronic oral reference dose for penta-BDE (2,000 ng/kg/day) of US EPA. BDE-47 was the dominant congener accounting

  6. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  7. Body burdens, sources and interrelations of selected toxic and essential elements among the nine Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieboer, Evert; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Dewailly, Eric; Robinson, Elizabeth; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2017-05-24

    this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS. Concentrations of essential elements are compared to those considered normal (i.e., required for good health) and, when toxic, deemed acceptable at specified concentrations in public health guidelines. Their dependence on age, sex, the specific community lived-in and diet were explored employing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) involving new variables generated by principle component analysis (PCA) and correspondence analysis (CA). the 5 most prominent PCA axes explained 67.7% of the variation, compared to 93.0% by 6 main CA factors. Concentrations of the essential elements in whole blood (WB) and iodine(i) and arsenic (As) in urine were comparable to those reported in the recent Canadian Health Measures survey and are assigned to dietary sources. By contrast, WB cadmium (Cd) was elevated even when smoking was considered. Mercury (Hg) concentrations in WB and hair were also higher in adults, although comparable to those observed for other indigenous populations living at northern latitudes. Fish consumption was identified as the prominent source. Of the 5 coastal communities, all but one had lower Hg exposures than the four inland communities, presumably reflecting the type of fish consumed. Use of firearms and smoking were correlated with WB-lead (Pb). The concentrations of both Hg and Pb increased with age and were higher in men, while WB-Cd and smoking prevalence were higher in women when considering all communities. Hg and Pb were low in children and women of reproductive age

  8. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Malaysia. 27.74. Spain. 0.85. Philippines. 20.14. USA. 7.43. Dietary intake of Cadmium: The intake of Cd was estimated by multiplication of daily consumption ... cereals such as rice. JECFA has set PTWI for the. Cadmium at 7 µg/kg of body weight (WHO., 2004). According to the published papers, daily consumption of rice ...

  9. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  10. Evaluation of (137)Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Yui; Hayashida, Naomi; Karevskaya, Irina V; Vasilitsova, Olga A; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Omiya, Masanori; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2010-09-01

    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the (137)Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008. The study population is composed of 84 666 people who visited Bryansk No. 2 Hospital. A whole-body counter was used for measurement of (137)Cs body burden. (137)Cs concentration was significantly higher in the late period during the study and showed seasonal variation, suggesting that inhabitants may have consumed contaminated forest products. However, people with high annual exposure doses were quite rare during all years of the study. In conclusion, although internal radiation exposure from (137)Cs continues to this day in Bryansk Oblast, the annual exposure dose is low in almost all inhabitants. Because of the long half-life of (137)Cs, the long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor the health status and relieve the anxiety of the inhabitants around Chernobyl.

  11. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  12. Common carotid intima media thickness and ankle-brachial pressure index correlate with local but not global atheroma burden: a cross sectional study using whole body magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A; Adamson, Carly L; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J F; Struthers, Allan D; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D; Houston, J Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50-70%, 3 = 70-99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β -0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β -0.45 p = 0.005). ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is primarily due to

  13. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

    2015-08-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  14. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A.; Echols, Kathy R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Torres, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  15. Single or combined cadmium and aluminum intoxication of mice liver and kidney with possible effect of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we planned to test toxic effects of cadmium, aluminum either alone or combined with each other on sensitive organs as kidney and liver. The cadmium alone decreased the animal’s body weight. Meanwhile, aluminum did not affect the changes in body weight of cadmium treated animals; adding the zinc significantly reduced the loss of body weight. Serum creatinine and urea were significantly lower in treated group than in control group. Cadmium aluminum or combination of them resulted in a significant increase in serum GPT and GOT activity. Zinc did not prevent the changes caused by aluminum, however, the changes resulted by cadmium intoxication were almost healed or ameliorated by zinc. Treating with Zn alone resulted in drastic effects on kidney tissues more than either cadmium or aluminum. Treating with cadmium or aluminum resulted in infiltration of the liver parenchyma with lymphocytes, fibrosis, micro vesicular steatosis of the hepatocytes for both and appearance of many phagocytic cells, pyknotic cells and vacuolation for cadmium. Combined cadmium and aluminum treatment resulted in less damage than cadmium alone with exception of fatty degeneration. Unexpectedly, zinc induced acute cell vacuolation and steatosis. Cadmium and aluminum combined together did not worsen the situation as expected but was less damaging than cadmium alone, which suggests a possible synergistic effect of combination. Meanwhile, zinc failed to protect kidney from aluminum intoxication, which strengthens the suggestion of two different pathways of cadmium and aluminum intoxication. This finding meant that cadmium is more hepatotoxic than aluminum.

  16. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R

    1999-01-01

    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  17. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  18. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  20. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  1. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  2. Influence of cadmium on life-history characteristics of Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Brils, J.; Van Straalen, N.M. (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    To understand the consequences of soil pollution on higher levels of biological organization, the chain of effects of cadmium on several interrelated responses was studied in a chronic toxicity experiment using the collembolan species Folsomia candida (Willem) in an artificial soil. The individual parameters survival, growth, and number of offspring were determined after different time intervals up to 9 weeks. The accumulation of cadmium in springtails and the population increase during the experimental period were also determined. By combining all the mentioned parameters and their development in time, a detailed picture of the action of cadmium on F. candida was obtained. In order of decreasing sensitivity the EC50 values for Von Bertalanffy growth, number of offspring, population increase, and survival were 256, > 326, 475, and 850 micrograms Cd/g dry soil, respectively. The ultimate LC50 value and also the equilibrium body burden were reached after about 20 days. Reproduction started later because of retarded growth, but was not affected directly and eventually reached the control level. The results are discussed in light of the seemingly contradictory ideas of Halbach (1984, Hydrobiologia 109, 79-96) and Meyer et al. (1987, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 115-126) about the sensitivity of individual and population parameters. It appears to be very important to know how individual parameters develop in time so that the most sensitive parameter and the consequences for higher levels of biological organization can be determined.

  3. [A study of the literature on the concentrations of arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury in body fluids and tissues to define normal values and detection of overload. 1. Description of analytical methods and arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, P; Schweinsberg, F

    1988-07-01

    The present review covers 208 papers dealing with determination of the metals arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in human biologic material. A comprehensive data bank survey of the literature from January 1980 to April 1984 was conducted and supplemented by review of some earlier publications. As shown by comparison of the results from a number of papers, the various state-of-the-art methods for determining metal content in biologic materials (e.g., atomic absorption spectrophotometry, neutron activation analysis, and x-ray fluorescent analysis) appear to be equally sensitive and reliable. These detection methods are suited to determination of the above metals in the following media: arsenic in urine, hair; cadmium in blood, urine, hair, renal cortex; lead in blood, hair; mercury in blood, urine, hair. To permit better comparison of the results presented in various publications, agreement must be reached on use of uniform concentration units and participation in quality control programs. Safe levels of chronic biological exposure overlap with concentrations which cause health effects or measurable impairment of body function over a wide range. Individual sensitivity to biological exposure varies. In a number of studies, metal concentrations are measured in symptom-free persons which cause symptoms in persons examined in other studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of detection of symptoms, the range of minimum levels of biological exposure considered to be associated with deleterious health effects (levels of critical exposure) is unacceptably broad. Minimum levels of critical exposure should protect against development of early symptoms of toxicity. If the lowest published critical levels of biological exposure are taken as a cutoff, then a sizable portion of the persons currently revealing metal exposure in any of the reported media exceeds such levels. Symptoms of detrimental effects should be detectable in such persons and should be investigated. In

  4. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  5. Health effects of cadmium exposure--a review of the literature and a risk estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järup, L; Berglund, M; Elinder, C G; Nordberg, G; Vahter, M

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a review of the cadmium exposure situation in Sweden and updates the information on health risk assessment according to recent studies on the health effects of cadmium. The report focuses on the health effects of low cadmium doses and the identification of high-risk groups. The diet is the main source of cadmium exposure in the Swedish nonsmoking general population. The average daily dietary intake is about 15 micrograms/day, but there are great individual variations due to differences in energy intake and dietary habits. It has been shown that a high fiber diet and a diet rich in shellfish increase the dietary cadmium intake substantially. Cadmium concentrations in agricultural soil and wheat have increased continuously during the last century. At present, soil cadmium concentrations increase by about 0.2% per year. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys. Human kidney concentrations of cadmium have increased several fold during the last century. Cadmium in pig kidney has been shown to have increased by about 2% per year from 1984-1992. There is no tendency towards decreasing cadmium exposure among the general nonsmoking population. The absorption of cadmium in the lungs is 10-50%, while the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is only a few percent. Smokers have about 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations (about 1.5 micrograms/l), and twice as high kidney cortex cadmium concentrations (about 20-30 micrograms/g wet weight) as nonsmokers. Similarly, the blood cadmium concentrations are substantially elevated in persons with low body iron stores, indicating increased gastrointestinal absorption. About 10-40% of Swedish women of child-bearing age are reported to have empty iron stores (S-ferritin body iron stores, and people habitually eating a diet rich in cadmium. According to current knowledge, renal tubular damage is probably the critical health effect of cadmium exposure, both in the general population and in occupationally exposed

  6. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  7. Toxicity of cadmium to grapevine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, D.; Ruehl, E.; Alleweldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Cuttings of the cv. Riesling were cultivated in nutrient solutions with different amounts of cadmium. Cadmium inhibited the growth of shoot and of leaf area and produced chlorosis, necroses and leaf deformations. Old leaves showed no symptoms at all, but with high cadmium levels leaf fall occurred. The threshold of cadmium damage was beneath a level of 0.1 ppm Cd of the nutrient solution. The dry matter production of the plants was reduced by cadmium: 0.66 mg Cd/l of nutrient solution caused an inhibition of 50%. Cadmium reduced the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The transport of iron from roots to leaves was inhibited nearly completely by medium to high levels of cadmium (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 ppm). Iron was accumulated in the roots. Thus cadmium may have caused an iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevines. The uptake of cadmium showed a clear dependence on the amount of cadmium in the nutrient solution. Within the plants, decreasing amounts of cadmium were found following the pattern roots - stem - leaves.

  8. Excess of Radiation Burden for Young Testicular Cancer Patients using Automatic Exposure Control and Contrast Agent on Whole-body Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniviita, Hannele; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pölönen, Tuukka; Määttänen, Heli; Järvinen, Hannu; Salminen, Eeva

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patient dose from whole-body computed tomography (CT) in association with patient size, automatic exposure control (AEC) and intravenous (IV) contrast agent. Sixty-five testicular cancer patients (mean age 28 years) underwent altogether 279 whole-body CT scans from April 2000 to April 2011. The mean number of repeated examinations was 4.3. The GE LightSpeed 16 equipped with AEC and the Siemens Plus 4 CT scanners were used for imaging. Whole-body scans were performed with (216) and without (63) IV contrast. The ImPACT software was used to determine the effective and organ doses. Patient doses were independent (p agent caused significantly higher (13% Plus 4, 35% LightSpeed 16) exposure than non-contrast imaging (p agent and careful set-up of the AEC modulation parameters is recommended to avoid excessive radiation exposure on the whole-body CT imaging of young patients.

  9. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  10. Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic disease burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity and smoking are among the most important lifestyle factors that influence global disease burden. In this thesis we investigate the relations of these factors with total disease burden in a large Dutch population, the EPIC-NL cohort. In this

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would...

  12. The effect of different acute concentrations of cadmium chloride on the frequency of micronuclei in AO rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bubujuk Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is highly toxic heavy metal which may cause severe biological effects in vivo and in vitro. In this study, an evaluation of the acute Cd ability to trigger micronuclei (MNi formation was carried out on 3-monthold male and female Albino Oxford (AO rats using micronucleus (MN test. Experimental animals were treated intraperitoneally with three different concentrations of cadmium chloride (CdCl2: 0.5, 1, and 2 mg CdCl2 per kg of body weight. Control animals received equal volume of sterile phosphate buffered saline. The results showed that 2 mg CdCl2 per kg b.w. concentration caused a highly statistically significant (P < 0.001 increase in MNi formation in the bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs, exerting a clear-cut concentration-dependent effect. Lower concentrations of CdCl2 used (0.5 and 1 mg/kg b.w. also caused MNi formation, but with lower statistical significance. Sex differences in MNi production in bone marrow PCEs after acute exposure to different experimental concentrations of CdCl2 were not observed in our study. Our results indicate the ability of CdCl2 to exerts genotoxic effects in bone marrow of AO rats, and complement previous data on the genotoxicity of this important environmental contaminant, burdening the body from different sources - major being industrial exposure, food and cigarette smoking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  13. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr body-burden in general public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Edward B. [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Department of Physical Therapy Basics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Administration College, Bielsko-Biala (Poland); Tomankiewicz, Ewa [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Golec, Joanna [Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Nowak, Sebastian [Traumatology and Orthopaedic Clinic, 5th Military Clinical Hospital and Polyclinic, Independent Public Healthcare Facility, Wroclawska 1-3, 30-901 Cracow (Poland); Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Department, Chair of Clinical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Motor of the Bronislaw Czech' s Academy of Physical Education, Cracow (Poland); Szczygiel, Elzbieta [Physical Therapy Department, Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Heath Science, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow (Poland); Brudecki, Kamil [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of {sup 238}Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and {sup 90}Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. - Highlights: > Surgery for joint replacement as novel sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination. > Proposed way of sampling is not causing ethic doubts. > It is a convenient way of collecting human bone samples from global population. > The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. > The opposite patient age correlations trends were found for 90Sr (negative) and Pu, Am (positive).

  14. Some considerations on the avoidance of excess body burden in case of high dose {sup 131}I treatment. With special reference to the urination frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru [Japanese Red Cross Society, Tokyo (Japan). Tokyo Eastern Blood Center; Uchida, Isao; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    1998-04-01

    In case of the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer with radioiodine ({sup 131}I), 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) or more is often repeatedly administered to the patient. Therefore, we must be aware of avoiding unnecessary exposure to the radioiodine except for the lesions to be treated. The administered radioiodine is excreted mainly through urinary system, resulting in an accumulation of the urine in the bladder for a certain period, which is highly concentrated with it. Based on this fact, we set one case having a particular pattern of the whole body retention curve. Then, two different modes of urination were considered; mode A indicates every 2 hour-urination x 6 times followed by every 6 hour-urination x 2 times, and mode B indicates every 6 hour-urination x 4 times. Focusing on the different amounts of urine in the bladder upon the different modes of urination, the radiation exposures from the urine to the neighboring organs, such as bladder wall, uterus, ovary and testis, and also to the whole body were calculated. As the results, it was found that the urination mode B would cause radiation exposure from the urine in the bladder twice as much as the urination mode A to the neighboring organs as well as to the whole body. This study will supply arguments for the necessity of frequent urination in the cases receiving radioiodine treatment for metastatic thyroid cancer. (author)

  15. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  16. Human bones obtained from routine joint replacement surgery as a tool for studies of plutonium, americium and ⁹⁰Sr body-burden in general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Golec, Edward B; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Golec, Joanna; Nowak, Sebastian; Szczygiel, Elżbieta; Brudecki, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents a new sampling method for studying in-body radioactive contamination by bone-seeking radionuclides such as (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, (238)Pu, (241)Am and selected gamma-emitters, in human bones. The presented results were obtained for samples retrieved from routine surgeries, namely knee or hip joints replacements with implants, performed on individuals from Southern Poland. This allowed to collect representative sets of general public samples. The applied analytical radiochemical procedure for bone matrix is described in details. Due to low concentrations of (238)Pu the ratio of Pu isotopes which might be used for Pu source identification is obtained only as upper limits other then global fallout (for example Chernobyl) origin of Pu. Calculated concentrations of radioisotopes are comparable to the existing data from post-mortem studies on human bones retrieved from autopsy or exhumations. Human bones removed during knee or hip joint surgery provide a simple and ethical way for obtaining samples for plutonium, americium and (90)Sr in-body contamination studies in general public. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below.

  18. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  19. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  20. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  1. Profiles of enzymatic activity in earthworms from zinc, lead and cadmium polluted areas near Olkusz (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaszczyca, Piotr; Augustyniak, Maria; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Katarzyna; Kafel, Alina; Migula, Pawel; Wilczek, Grazyna; Witas, Ilona

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether there are signs of adaptation of soil fauna to a gradient of heavy metal contamination. Earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida were collected during the spring and summer of 2000 and 2001 from meadow sites situated between 2 and 32 km from the Bukowno-Olkusz complex of zinc-lead ore mines and smelters. The heavy metal content in the soil near smelters reaches 10,500 mg/kg (d.w.) for Zn, 2600 mg/kg for Pb and 81.9 mg/kg for Cd. The sites differ with respect to species composition of earthworm community, with A. caliginosa being dominant. Complete data was obtained only for A. caliginosa, since other species were not abundant at all investigated sites during the whole period of investigation. The body burdens of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in A. caliginosa reached 1500, 100, 220 and 10 microg/g, respectively, in the vicinity of the smelter (2-4 km), and decreased to 400, 2, 36 and 6 microg/g at the most distant site (32 km). Cadmium and lead content was significantly elevated in the whole body of L. terrestris collected at the site 2.5 km distant from the smelters when compared to more distant sites, while in E. fetida only the body burden of cadmium was elevated at the nearest site compared to the next site of transect. Activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.9) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cumene hydroperoxide (cumOOH), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) and catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) were assayed in postmitochondrial supernatant obtained from whole body homogenates. Seasonal and annual variations of enzyme activity were reflected by higher GPX activity in the late summer of 2001 in comparison with the spring and summer of 2000. This may reflect severe drought in the spring and summer of 2000. The activity of both GPX isozymes, GR and GST in A. caliginosa and L. terrestris increased with increasing distance from the

  2. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  3. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P nano-zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P nano-zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  4. Computer Assisted Semen Analysis of Epididymal Spermatozoa after an Interperitoneal Administration of Diazinon and Cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Adamkovicova; Robert Toman; Michal Cabaj; Svatoslav Hluchy; Peter Massanyi; Norbert Lukac; Monika Martiniaková

    2012-01-01

    The effects of cadmium and diazinon administration on rat sperm motility parameters were performed using a Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA) system. CASA was made on semen samples collected 36 h following an intraperitoneal injection of physiological solution (control group), diazinon (20 mg/kg body wt), cadmium (2 mg/kg body wt), separately and in combination. Sperm kinematic measurements revealed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.05), significant high...

  5. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijal, Renée S; Holzman, Claudia B

    2010-07-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  9. Food safety - new EU-wide maximum levels for lead and cadmium in foodstuffs; Neue EU-weite Hoechstgehalte fuer Blei und Cadmium in Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbach, C. [Referat ' Umwelteinwirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit' , Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany); Ballin, U. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, Veterinaerinstitut fuer Fische und Fischwaren, Cuxhaven (Germany); Klein, H. [Bundesinstitut fuer Gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinaermedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    As of 5 April 2002, the maximum levels of the environmental contaminants, lead and cadmium, in different foodstuffs are now applicable for the first time throughout the entire EU. The toxicological assessment of lead and cadmium provides the basis for establishing maximum levels for these heavy metals in foods. The fixation of maximum levels results in obligatory regulations concerning the admissible burden of foods with these contaminants and, consequently, contributes to a health-related protection of the consumer. On 8 March 2001, the Commission issued a directive laying down the sampling methods and the methods of analysis for the official control of the levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in foodstuffs. (orig.) [German] Ab dem 5. April 2002 gelten erstmals EU-weit Hoechstgehalte fuer die Umweltkontaminanten Blei und Cadmium in verschiedenen Lebensmitteln. Die toxikologische Bewertung von Blei und Cadmium setzt den Rahmen, innerhalb dessen Hoechstgehalte fuer diese Schwermetalle in Lebensmitteln festgelegt wurden. Die Festsetzung von Hoechstgehalten schafft verbindliche Regelungen ueber die zulaessige Belastung von Lebensmitteln mit Kontaminanten und ist damit ein Beitrag zum gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz. Fuer die amtliche Kontrolle der Umweltkontaminanten Blei, Cadmium und Quecksilber in Lebensmitteln hat die Kommission am 8. Maerz 2001 eine Richtlinie mit Probenahmeverfahren und Analysemethoden erlassen. (orig.)

  10. The contribution of ecdysis to the fate of copper, zinc and cadmium in grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio holthius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keteles, K.A.; Fleeger, J.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Depuration through ecdysis by grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was examined by exposure to a sublethal mixture of copper, zinc and cadmium for 72 h, followed by placement in uncontaminated water to molt. Percent eliminated with the exuviae varied for each metal; of the total intermolt body burden, 11% Cu, 18% Zn and 26% Cd was associated with the exuviae. Cu concentrations of intermolt exoskeletons were significantly higher than of the exuviae of post-ecdysis shrimp suggesting that Cu contained in the exoskeleton was reabsorbed before molting. Exuvial Cd concentration was not significantly different than the concentration of the intermolt exoskeleton, suggesting that most Cd in the exoskeleton was depurated with the exuviae. Although Zn whole-body burdens were lower after a molt, Zn losses were most likely due to excretion because exuvial concentrations were significantly lower than in the intermolt exoskeleton. Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations in exuvaie shed in metal-enriched water were significantly higher due to adsorption than exuvaie produced in uncontaminated water. (Author)

  11. Response of larval fish, Leiostomus xanthurus, to environmental stress following sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middaugh, D.P.; Davis, W.R.; Yoakum, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The toxicity of cadmium to larval fish, Leiostomus xanthurus, was studied. An incipient LC/sub 50/ concentration of approximately 0.2 to 0.3 mg/l cadmium was first estimated. Subsequent short-term sublethal tests were conducted to determine the relationship of cadmium exposure and accumulated whole body residues of the metal on the response of larvae to thermal stress and low dissolved oxygen. Results of this study indicated a significant decrease (..cap alpha.. = 0.05, t-Test) in the critical thermal maximum (CTM) for larvae exposed to 0.5 and 0.8 mg/l cadmium for 96 hours at 20/sup 0/C. Significant decreases (..cap alpha.. = 0.05, chi/sup 2/) in survival of larvae subjected to a dissolved oxygen (DO) level of 1.6 mg/l after exposure to 0.5 and 0.8 mg/l cadmium were also observed.

  12. Blood Cadmium Concentrations in Women with Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Abdullah; Tuncay, Gorkem; Tanrikut, Emrullah; Ozgul, Onur

    2017-10-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the blood level of cadmium and the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Forty-one (41) case patients with ectopic pregnancy and 41 uncomplicated intrauterine pregnant patients as controls were recruited. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd) were measured from blood samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cases and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and smoking habits. The median blood level of Cd was 0.32 μg/l (interquartile range [IQR] 0.00-0.71) in the women with ectopic pregnancies and 0.34 μg/l (IQR 0.09-0.59) in the controls. There was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and ectopic pregnancy.

  13. Simultaneous determination of the Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, nearly microscopic, nanoliter-volume aquatic organisms (Hyalella azteca) by rhenium-cup in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and axially viewed ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrea T.; Badiei, Hamid R.; Karanassios, Vassili [University of Waterloo, Department of Chemistry, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Evans, J. Catherine [University of Waterloo, Department of Biology, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    The Cd and Zn total body burden of individual, up to 7-day-old aquatic organisms (Hyalella aztecabenthic amphipod) with an average volume of approximately 100 nL was determined simultaneously by using rhenium-cup (Re-cup) in-torch vaporization (ITV) sample introduction and an axially viewed inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system. The direct elemental analysis capabilities of this system (i.e., no sample digestion) reduced sample preparation time, eliminated contamination concerns from the digestion reagent and, owing to its detection limits (e.g., in the low pg range for Cd and Zn), vit enabled simultaneous determinations of Cd and Zn in individual, neonate and young juvenile specimens barely visible to the unaided eye (e.g., nearly microscopic). As for calibration, liquid standards and the standard additions method were tested. Both methods gave comparable results, thus indicating that in this case liquid standards can be employed for calibration, and in the process making use of the standard additions method unnecessary. Overall, the ITV-ICP-AES approach by-passed the time-consuming acid digestions, eliminated the potential for contamination from the digestion reagents, improved considerably the speed of acquisition of analytical information and enabled simultaneous determinations of two elements using individual biological specimens. (orig.)

  14. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, low body mass index and the risk of self-reported symptoms of active tuberculosis: individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses of 72,684 individuals in 14 high tuberculosis burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jürgen; Suraweera, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting > = 3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMIeducation, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMIdiabetics with BMIdiabetics who smoked (RR = 3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR = 3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMIdiabetics who smoked (RR = 5.4) and women with BMIalcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries.

  15. Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yataan, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulcin Yapici; Gunay Can; Ali Riza Kiziler (and others) [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    The study was designed to determine asymptomatic lead poisoning prevalence and cadmium exposure of preschool children living in a coal-mining area in Yataan, Mugla, Turkey. The research was conducted between May and June 2002. The study included 236 healthy children (53.4% female and 46.6% male) between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. Assessments of the levels of blood lead and cadmium were performed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Themean blood lead level of the males was higher than the females.There was a negative correlation between blood lead level and age in both sex groups. The blood lead level was found to be > 10 {mu}g/dL in 95.7% and > 20 {mu}g/dL in 87.6% of all children. The mean blood cadmium level of all children was 1.31{+-}0.72 mg/dL. The blood cadmium level was found to be > 0.5 {mu}g/dL, which is considered to be toxic, in 85% of all children. The difference in blood cadmium levels between sexes was not significant. A negative correlation was found between blood cadmium level and age of all children. Although it is not possible to understand from this study what proportion of the biological lead and cadmium burden results from mining waste and what proportion comes from other sources, these results indicate that asymptomatic lead poisoning and cadmium exposure are significant problems in children living in the Yataan area. Environmental lead measurements must be performed, the results must be compared with the normal limits, and precautions must be taken if necessary in the Yataan area. Public health research efforts should focus on reducing the excessive levels of lead and cadmium in the environment.

  16. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  17. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  18. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  19. Comparative effects of repeated administration of cadmium chloride during pregnancy and lactation and selenium protection against cadmium toxicity on some organs in immature rats' offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheet, Souad H M

    2011-12-01

    This research comprises studies on the transfer of cadmium (CdCl(2)) from the lactating dam to the pup via milk and absorbed in the suckling, showing that cadmium is transferred to the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland during development. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the protective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in pregnant rats. On the sixth day of gestation, the females were dosed subcutaneously either with cadmium or with cadmium and selenium in the following doses (mg/kg of body weight): 0, 1 Cd, 1 Cd + 1 Se, 2 Cd, 2 Cd + 2 Se. In groups treated with cadmium, no maternal or embryonic toxicities were observed; however, an increase in testes diameters of seminiferous tubules, a progressive sloughing of germ cells, vacuolization of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells hyperplasia were noted. The reduction in the ovary size and inhibited folliculogenesis resulted in diminution of the numbers of primordial, growing, and tertiary follicles. The pathological change in the cerebellum, the migration of granular cells from the external germinal layer to the internal granular layer, was strongly retarded. Also, the formation of many microfollicles in the thyroid gland which mimic the changes was seen in thyrotoxicosis. It also appears that selenium used at a low-enough dose could be a very effective protection against cadmium-induced developmental toxicity in the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland but not in the higher dose in the ovary and cerebellum.

  20. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  1. Cadmium-109 and methyl mercury-203 metabolism, tissue distribution, and secretion into milk of cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Stake, P.E.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Metabolism of cadmium-109 and methyl mercury-203 was studied in six lactating Jersey cows for 14 days following single tracer oral doses. Most of the cadmium-109 was excreted in feces with only .05% in urine. When the cows were killed 14 to 16 days after dosing, kidney and liver had highest cadmium-109. About .75% of the cadmium-109 was retained in the body with 34% of this in gastrointestinal tract and contents, 32% in liver, and 10% in kidney. In fetal tissues highest cadmium-109 was in kidney, tibia, and liver whereas fetal liver had highest methyl mercury-203. Apparent methyl mercury-203 absorption was 59% with 1.1% in urine. Highest concentration was in kidney, followed by liver, skeletal muscles, heart, smooth muscle, spleen, lung, brain, ovaries, and pancreas. Of total body mercury-203, muscle had about 72% and liver 7%. In 14 days, only .17% of mercury-203 dose was secreted into milk. Cadmium-109 in milk was below detectable limits of .00008% of the dose/day. Feed of cattle kept for meat should be protected from methyl mercury, at least near slaughter. Milk is protected from methyl mercury. In sharp contrast to zinc, little of the ingested cadmium appears in muscle or milk. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  3. Burden of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Burden of Mental Illness Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Depression: According ... anxiety disorder, are the most common class of mental disorders present in the general population. 5 The estimated ...

  4. Burden of Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails The Burden of Rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Learn how ... bitten by an animal that has the disease. Rabies in the U.S. Rabies continues to be a ...

  5. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  6. Post-partum testosterone administration does not reverse the effects of perinatal exposure to cadmium on rat offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Moraes, R; Felicio, L F; Bernardi, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on physical and reflexologic development of pup rats. It was examined if the immediate postpartum testosterone administration was able to reverse the toxic effects of the metal. Forty Wistar pregnant rats were divided into three groups: control and 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day of cadmium chloride. These dams were treated from gestational days 18 to 21, and until the 7th lactation day. Immediately after birth, half of the offspring from the experimental and control groups received 50 microL of testosterone 0.2% i.p. The maternal body weight gain, food and water consumption were measured during the treatment period. In pups, the body weight, body length, physical landmarks, reflex development and the general activity were assessed. Results showed that: only 20 mg kg(-1) cadmium induced maternal toxicity; pup body weight and body weight gain were reduced in all experimental groups; only the cadmium-exposed offspring not treated with testosterone treatment showed a reduction in body length and body length gain; cadmium highest dose reduced the anogenital index in pups and delayed physical and reflexes development; and cadmium effects on the offspring, except in body length gain, were not reversed by testosterone. The results indicate that perinatal maternal exposure to cadmium promoted changes in the development of male rat offspring, reprogramming the pup's development. Testosterone administration was not able to reverse the cadmium effects, even on those parameters more directly related to the androgenic system as the testis descent and anogenital distance delays. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  8. Experimental food-chain studies to evaluate cadmium accumulation in amphibians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boliman, M.; Gillett, C.; Wilborn, D.; Ott, S.; Linder, G. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In order to more adequately address the uncertainty within the ecological risk assessment process, the authors completed a series of laboratory exposures with representative terrestrial (small herbivorous mammal) and wetland (amphibian) vertebrates for evaluating an validating relatively simple, linear food-chain models used in evaluating cadmium exposures in soils. Here, the authors summarize the work on food-chain contamination evaluations using laboratory feeding trials with amphibians. In these studies, frogs (Xenopuslaevis) were exposed to different metal-contaminated earthworm diets for 28 days. Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) used in these trials had been exposed to site-soils contaminated with cadmium, and following 28-day exposures to cadmium-contaminated worms, the frogs were killed and tissues were analyzed for total cadmium. No mortality or exposure related body weight changes were apparent in these feeding studies, but earthworm cadmium concentrations of 700 ppm were associated with elevated cadmium concentrations in livers of exposed frogs. In addition, female frogs had increased cadmium concentrations (relative to pair-fed controls) in their eggs.

  9. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  10. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  11. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, low body mass index and the risk of self-reported symptoms of active tuberculosis: individual participant data (IPD meta-analyses of 72,684 individuals in 14 high tuberculosis burden countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadeep Patra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting > = 3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 6.4, diabetics who smoked (RR = 3.8, and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR = 3.2. The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 10.0, diabetics who smoked (RR = 5.4 and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR = 5.0. These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across

  12. Anti-smoking legislation and its effects on urinary cotinine and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jinny E., E-mail: jinnysanchez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Bartolomé, Mónica, E-mail: mbj@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Cañas, Ana I, E-mail: acanas@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Huetos, Olga, E-mail: olgahh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, Carmen, E-mail: carnavarro@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, A. Carolina, E-mail: acrodriguez@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Arribas, Misericordia, E-mail: marribas@isciii.es [Servicio de Prevención, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); Esteban, Marta, E-mail: m.esteban@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); López, Ana, E-mail: alopezh@isciii.es [Environmental Toxicology, Centro Nacional de Sanidad Ambiental (CNSA), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Carretera Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Anti-smoking legislation has been associated with an improvement in health indicators. Since the cadmium (Cd) body burden in the general population is markedly increased by smoke exposure, we analyzed the impact of the more restrictive legislation that came into force in Spain in 2011 by measuring Cd and cotinine in first morning urine samples from 83 adults in Madrid (Spain) before (2010) and after (2011) introduction of this law. Individual pair-wise comparisons showed a reduction of creatinine corrected Cotinine and Cd levels for non-active smokers, i. e. those which urinary cotinine levels are below 50 μg/L. After the application of the stricter law, cotinine levels in urine only decreased in non-active smokers who self-reported not to be exposed to second-hand smoke. The reduction in second hand smoke exposure was significantly higher in weekends (Friday to Sunday) than in working days (Monday to Thursday). The decrease in U-Cd was highly significant in non-active smokers and, in general, correlated with lower creatinine excretion. Therefore correction by creatinine could bias urinary Cd results, at least for cotinine levels higher than 500 μg/L. The biochemical/toxicological benefits detected herein support the stricter application of anti-smoking legislation and emphasize the need to raise the awareness of the population as regards exposure at home.

  13. An individual-based, spatial foraging model for cadmium accumulation in diving ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovvorn, J.R.; Gillingham, M.P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Contaminant studies of migratory birds include two main approaches: (1) collecting wild birds and analyzing their tissues, and (2) toxicity assays with captive birds. The first approach has shortcomings for these highly mobile animals--one seldom knows their length of stay in the area, and sites are often in urban environments where shooting is problematic. The second approach with captive birds ignores changes in food intake with varying activity and weather experienced by wild birds, and greater toxic consequences under multiple environmental stresses. Neither of these approaches alone can predict maximum allowable contaminant levels in foods that preclude toxic effects under different field conditions, or what body burdens accumulate during varying lengths of stay and affect the birds` biology at other places and times. To allow such predictions, the authors developed an individual-based model for intake of benthic foods by diving ducks for varying weather, water depth, food dispersion, and nutrient content of food. Food-intake estimates are combined with laboratory data on contaminant uptake as a function of food consumption and contaminant content. As an example, the authors estimate cadmium uptake by canvas back ducks foraging on below ground tubers of the submerged plant Vallisneria americans. They then show how their model can be used to include avian benthiovores in aquatic food web models for ecological risk assessment.

  14. DNA methylation is differentially associated with environmental cadmium exposure based on sex and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Shama; Rentschler, Katie M; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Basu, Niladri; Rozek, Laura S

    2016-02-01

    The adverse health effects of cadmium (Cd) are well known in human populations; however, much of what is known about biological mechanisms of Cd comes from in vitro and animal studies. The adverse health outcomes due to high levels of Cd exposure in the population of Mae Sot, Thailand have been extensively characterized. Here, for the first time, this population is being studied in an epigenetic context. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between DNA methylation markers and Cd exposure, taking into account sex and smoking differences, in an adult population at an increased risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from high body burden of Cd. One hundred and sixty-nine residents from known exposure areas of Mae Sot, Thailand and one hundred residents from non-exposed areas nearby were surveyed in 2012. Urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of urinary Cd (UCd) and DNA methylation of Cd-related markers (DNMT3B, MGMT, LINE-1, MT2A). UCd levels were 7 times higher in the exposed compared to the unexposed populations (exposed median: 7.4 μg/L, unexposed median: 1.0 μg/L, p smoking status. In summary, environmental Cd exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation in a sex and smoking dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, and copper) from smelter in forest ecosystems and their uptakes by Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing. ) and Nameko mushroom (Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura) through polluted bed logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, T.; Fujita, K.; Furukawa, H.; Yoshimoto, M.

    1977-12-01

    Mushrooms cultivated on sawdust medium which had been innoculated with heavy metals accumulated the metals increasingly in stems, pileus, gill and spores, in that order. There were strain differences, in accumulation, and highest concentration was found in the first-born fruit body. At 2 ppm, cadmium did not affect yield of the fruiting body. At 20 ppm, however, yield was seriously reduced. Species differences in absorption capacity for heavy metals were noted. Seasonal variations in cadmium and copper accumulation were noted, along with zinc. Cadmium concentration in fruiting bodies increased with increase of cadmium concentration in the growth substrate. 23 figures, 16 tables.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE INDIRECT RISK OF NATURALLY OCCURING MERCURY AND CADMIUM THROUGH Mugil Sp. AND Geloina sp. CONSUMPTION IN SEGARA ANAKAN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Noegrohati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine ecosystem of Segara Anakan is located in south coast of Central Java, shielded from Indian Ocean by Nusakambangan island. The ecosystem of Segara Anakan estuary, Central Java, Indonesia, is influenced by fresh water inflow from Citanduy river basin and Indian sea water mostly by tidal actions through the western opening. The runoff materials continuously entering Segara Anakan from Citanduy catchment area, which geologically consist of weathering products of quarternary volcanic rocks from Galunggung mountain, West Java. Therefore various natural heavy metal contaminants are bound to the estuarine sediments, redistributed and accumulated within the ecosystem. In the present work, the effects of environmental stresses to mercury and cadmium abiotic distribution, and their availability to biotic ecosystems were studied, and consumers indirect risk assesment was carried out. In the laboratory scale studies on the distribution of mercury and cadmium in an estuarine simulation of water-field sediment, it was observed that the metal distribution coefficient decreases as the salinity and the acidity of the medium increases. Monitoring results confirmed that the highest levels of Hg and Cd in water and sediment samples were obtained in dry season. Consequently, the highest levels of Hg and Cd in biotic ecosystem, represented by Mugil sp. and Geloina sp., also obtained in dry season. The body burden of Hg in people of Segara Anakan villages, as indicated by the levels in hair and mother milk samples, taken at the end of the study (dry season 2004, were relatively low, but the levels of Cd in mother milk samples were significantly higher than that of control samples of Jogyakarta (P = 0.05. Consequently, the risk quotient for babies were exceeding the FAO/WHO PTWI. Based on the risk assessment carried out for babies and adults, at the present time it is advisable to consume Mugil sp. and Geloina sp., taken in wet season only and not in dry

  17. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  18. Effects of oral, subchronic cadmium administration on fertility, prenatal and postnatal progeny development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, B; Stetkiewicz, I; Sitarek, K; Szymczak, W

    1983-12-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered by gavage to female rats 5 days a week for 5 weeks, then during mating and gestation periods at doses of 0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg Cd/kg/day. Treatment with cadmium neither affected the survival and fertility of females, nor produced overt fetotoxic effects. Fetal cadmium concentration was not related to the level of exposure. Litter size, body weight gain and viability of offspring during 2 months after parturition were similar in all groups. The exploratory locomotor activity of 2-month-old males and females born to rats given 0.4 and 4 mg Cd/kg/day was significantly reduced. The progeny of cadmium-treated females showed decreased performance in the rotarod test. In general, the degree of behavioral impairment was dose-related.

  19. Long lasting cadmium intake is associated with reduction of insulin receptors in rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficková, M; Eybl, V; Kotyzová, D; Micková, V; Möstbök, S; Brtko, J

    2003-12-01

    The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on adipose tissue have not been extensively reported. In adult Wistar male rats we investigated in vivo effect of 6 weeks lasting cadmium intake in drinking tap water (CdCl2 9,7 mg/l). Insulin receptors in isolated adipocytes from epididymal fat and glucose transporter protein GLUT4 content in fat tissue plasma membranes were determined. Control and Cd treated rats had similar water intake with subsequent heavy augmentation of Cd content in liver of experimental animals. In comparison with controls, Cd intake did not influence body mass increment and fat cell size, but significantly increased serum glycemia and moderately elevated insulinemia. Cadmium intake significantly reduced (approximately 50%) both, total insulin receptors number and density of the receptors in fat cells. No differences in the content of GLUT4 in crude plasma membranes of adipose tissue were observed. Diminished insulin receptors in adipocytes could account for diabetogenic effect of long lasting cadmium intake.

  20. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and testes of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppm cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occured during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppm group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppm cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppm group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppm cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppm group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppm had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  1. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.

    1985-01-08

    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  2. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... P. chrysosporium was used to biosorp cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and the adsorption capacities reached 23.04, 69.77 and 20.33mg/g dry biomass, respectively (Say et al. 2001). The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of L. sajur-caju were found ...

  3. Protective effects of synbiotic diets of Bacillus coagulans, Lactobacillus plantarum and inulin against acute cadmium toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Dornoush; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Ghaisari, Hamid Reza; Nazifi, Saeed; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-06-05

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes oxidative stress and has toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two probiotics along with a prebiotic in preventing the toxic effects of cadmium in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups namely control, cadmium only, cadmium along with Lactobacillus plantarum (1 × 109 CFU/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff) and cadmium along with Bacillus coagulans (1 × 109 spore/day) and inulin (5% of feedstuff). Cadmium treated groups received 200 μg/rat/day CdCl2 administered by gavage. During the 42-day experimental period, they were weighed weekly. For evaluation of changes in oxidative stress, the levels of some biochemicals and enzymes of serum including SOD, GPX, MDA, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and creatinine, and also SOD level of livers were measured at day 21 and 42 of treatment. The cadmium content of kidney and liver was determined by using atomic absorption mass spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's post hoc test. Treatment of cadmium induced rats with synbiotic diets significantly improved the liver enzymes and biochemical parameters that decreased AST, ALT, total bilirubin, BUN and metal accumulation in the liver and kidney and increased body weight, serum and liver SOD values in comparison with the cadmium-treated group. No significant differences were observed with MDA and GP X values between all groups (p > 0.05). This study showed that synbiotic diets containing probiotics (L. plantarum and B. coagulans) in combination with the prebiotic (inulin) can reduce the level of cadmium in the liver and kidney, preventing their damage and recover antioxidant enzymes in acute cadmium poisoning in rat.

  4. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  5. Prophylactic Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Irvingia gabonensis Stem Bark against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prophylactic effect of ethanolic extract of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark on cadmium-induced oxidative damage in male albino rats’ liver was investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, cadmium, and treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Irvingia gabonensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered by oral gavage for 21 days before exposure to cadmium. Antioxidant marker enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH levels, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were determined in the liver and heart alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. Results indicate that cadmium-induced rats had significantly increased relative weight of liver and heart when compared to controls. Treatment with Irvingia gabonensis at 200 and 400 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in relative weight of the organs. In cadmium-induced rats, serum ALT and AST activities and levels of LPO were increased whereas hepatic and cardiac marker enzymes significantly decreased. Furthermore, histological alteration in liver and aorta was observed in cadmium untreated rats and was ameliorated in cadmium rats treated with Irvingia gabonensis. In conclusion, the extract indicates antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of cadmium.

  6. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  7. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. [Experimental evaluation of combined effects caused by stress and metals (cadmium and aluminium) in reproductivity of male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makutina, V A; Balezin, S L; Slyshkina, T V; Pashnina, I A; Likhacheva, E I

    2014-01-01

    To investigate combined effects of stress and metal (aluminium, cadmium) on reproductivity, male rats twice per week received intraperitoneal injections of aluminium (3.8 mg Al3+ per kg of body weight) or cadmium (0.3 mg Cd2+ per kg of body weight) and were subjected to stress via short-term immobilization during spermatogenic cycle (54 +/- 3 days). Findings are cumulation of both cadmium and aluminium in genitals and brain, increasing under stress. When acting separately to the laboratory animals, the three factors (aluminium/cadmium/stress) increase serum corticosterone level, change testosterone level, increase number of aberrant mitoses of spermatogenic epithelium cells, increased sperm count with fragmented DNA, lower percentage of the impregnated females. If the exposure combined with stress, spermatogenesis disorders are more marked, and preimplantation death rate of intact females' offspirngs becomes statistically significant.

  11. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CADMIUM EXPOSURE ON METAMORPHOSIS, SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN CHINESE TOAD BUFO GARGARIZANS TADPOLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nailiang; Wang, Hongyuan; Ju, Zongqi; Zhao, Hongfeng

    2017-08-11

    The study examined the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on metamorphosis, body size, thyroid gland, and skeletal development of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles. Tadpoles were exposed to cadmium concentrations at 0, 5, 10, 50,100 and 500 μg/L from Gonser stage 26 to Gosner stage 46 of completion of metamorphosis. Our results showed 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium concentrations increased mortality and decelerated metamorphosis rate. In addition, significant body size reduction at Gosner stage 42 was observed at 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium treatments (p Bufo gargarizans larvae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H. J.; Davison, A G; Wright, A. L.; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium bu...

  13. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [Effects of cadmium on testis function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  15. Associations of low-level urine cadmium with kidney function in lead workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Jaar, Bernard G.; Schwartz, Brian S.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; Simon, David; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Low-level cadmium exposure, e.g., urinary cadmium < 2.0 μg/g creatinine, is widespread; recent data suggest nephrotoxicity even at these lower levels. Few studies have examined the impact of low-level cadmium exposure in workers who are occupationally exposed to other nephrotoxicants such as lead. Methods We evaluated associations of urine cadmium, a measure of cumulative dose, with four glomerular filtration measures and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in lead workers. Recent and cumulative lead dose was assessed via blood and tibia lead, respectively. Results In 712 lead workers, mean (SD) blood and tibia lead, urine cadmium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation were 23.1 (14.1) μg/dl, 26.6 (28.9) μg Pb/g bone mineral, 1.15 (0.66) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, urine creatinine, smoking, alcohol, education, annual income, diastolic blood pressure, current or former lead worker job status, new or returning study participant, and blood and tibia lead, higher ln-urine cadmium was associated with higher calculated creatinine clearance, eGFR (β = 8.7 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI = 5.4, 12.1) and ln-NAG but lower serum creatinine. Conclusions Potential explanations for these results include a normal physiologic response in which urine cadmium levels reflect renal filtration; the impact of adjustment for urine dilution with creatinine in models of kidney outcomes; and cadmium-related hyperfiltration. PMID:20974743

  16. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of remed......A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  17. Interplay of calcium and cadmium in mediating cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2014-03-25

    The environmentally important toxic metal, cadmium, exists as the Cd(2+) ion in biological systems, and in this state structurally resembles Ca(2+). Thus, although cadmium exerts a broad range of adverse actions on cells by virtue of its propensity to bind to protein thiol groups, it is now well appreciated that Cd(2+) participates in a number of Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, attributable to its actions as a Ca(2+) mimetic, with a central role for calmodulin, and the Ca(2+)/calmodlin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) that mediates effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and apoptotic cell death. Cadmium interacts with receptors and ion channels on the cell surface, and with the intracellular estrogen receptor where it binds competitively to residues shared by Ca(2+). It increases cytosolic [Ca(2+)] through several mechanisms, but also decreases transcript levels of some Ca(2+)-transporter genes. It initiates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and activates calpains, contributing to mitochondria-independent apoptosis. However, the recent discovery of the role CaMK-II plays in Cd(2+)-induced cell death, and subsequent implication of CaMK-II in Cd(2+)-dependent alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics, has opened a new area of mechanistic cadmium toxicology that is a focus of this review. Calmodulin is necessary for induction of apoptosis by several agents, yet induction of apoptosis by Cd(2+) is prevented by CaMK-II block, and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of CaMK-II has been linked to increased Cd(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Calmodulin antagonism suppresses Cd(2+)-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and the Akt survival pathway. The involvement of CaMK-II in the effects of Cd(2+) on cell morphology, and particularly the actin cytoskeleton, is profound, favouring actin depolymerization, disrupting focal adhesions, and directing phosphorylated FAK into a cellular membrane. CaMK-II is also implicated in effects of Cd(2+) on microtubules and cadherin junctions. A key question for

  18. Components of Burden: Interventive Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studied 127 informal caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients to determine correlates of 5 components of burden as measured by Cost of Care Index. Significant relationships between predictor variables and burden components suggest that global scores and measures of burden do not identify specific problem areas relative to various components of…

  19. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  20. Computer Assisted Semen Analysis of Epididymal Spermatozoa after an Interperitoneal Administration of Diazinon and Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adamkovicova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium and diazinon administration on rat sperm motility parameters were performed using a Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA system. CASA was made on semen samples collected 36 h following an intraperitoneal injection of physiological solution (control group, diazinon (20 mg/kg body wt, cadmium (2 mg/kg body wt, separately and in combination. Sperm kinematic measurements revealed significant decline in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.05, significant higher amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH (P<0.01 with significant decline in beat cross frequency (BCF (P<0.001 after the diazinon administration. Cadmium-treated males exhibited significantly lower percentage of motile spermatozoa (P<0.01 and percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility (P<0.001 with significant decrease in straightness (STR and BCF (P<0.05. Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and diazinon led to significant increase in ALH (P<0.05 and significant decrease in BCF (P<0.001. Cadmium and diazinon exerted deleterious effect inducing spermatozoa motility alterations which could be subsequently negatively related to male fertility.

  1. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mørck, Thit A. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Flemming [Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Siersma, Volkert D. [The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K. [Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Skaanild, Mette T. [Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Denmark); Frederiksen, Hanne [Department of Growth and Reproduction, University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Biot, Pierre [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, Brussels (Belgium); Casteleyn, Ludwine [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda [Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin (Germany); Castaño, Argelia [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA), Bochum (Germany); Esteban, Marta [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  2. Chronic renal failure in Sri Lanka caused by elevated dietary cadmium: Trojan horse of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Liyanege, J; Upul, M A; Bandara, J M U A

    2010-09-15

    The endemic of chronic renal failure (CRF) emerged in 2002 in the farming provinces of Sri Lanka. An estimate of dietary cadmium intake was between 15 and 28 microg/kg body weight per week. The mean urinary cadmium in patients diagnosed with stage 5 kidney failure was 7.6 microg/g creatinine and 11.6 microg/g for asymptomatic persons. The agrochemical triple superphosphate (TSP) fertilizer containing 23.5-71.7 mg Cd/kg was the source of cadmium added to soils. Mean Cd content in cultivated vs. uncultivated soils in Anuradhapura district was 0.02 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.11 +/- 0.19 mg/kg while in Polonnaruwa district, it was 0.005 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.016 +/- 0.005 mg/kg. Prior to the Green Revolution, the amount of fertilizer used in rice cultivation in 1970 was 32,000 metric tons (Mts) rising to 74,000 Mts in 1975. Up to 68.9 Mts of Cd could have entered into the rice-cascade reservoir environment from TSP use since 1973. Diversion of the Mahaweli River in 1970-1980 further increased cadmium input. Cadmium transfer from Upper Mahaweli water to Polgolla was 72.13 kg/day. Cadmium content of the sediments from reservoirs collecting cadmium from irrigated TSP fertilized crop fields (rice and vegetables) was 1.8-2.4 mg/kg. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    and cadmium chloride in the drinking water did however not result in increased whole-body retention, and the organ distribution in the DDC-exposed group was similar to that in the control group. This result could be due to both increased rate of absorption and increased published extensive changes...

  4. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT MYOCARDIUM IN CADMIUM TOXICOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on lungs, testicles and prostate are well known, so as cumulative and toxic effects on kidney, liver and bones; however, there have not been many published articles about the effects of cadmium on myocardium. The aim of this study was to estimate the morphological changes in rat myocardium chronically treated by cadmium. The study was carried out on male albino Wistar rats (n=30, age=35-37 days, body mass 120g +/- 10g. The animals were raised in controlled laboratory conditions and provided with standard laboratory rat food and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups: ten animals composed the control group and did not undergo any treatment. The 20 experimental rats were exposed to 10mg of CdCl2 /L drinking water for 90 days. After 90 days, all animals were victimized and after the macroscopic inspection of the heart, myocardial tissue was routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections 5 micrometers thick were stained by HE method and histochemical PAS-AB (pH 2, 5, Masson trichrome method for demonstrating collagen fibers and Toluidine blue for mast cells identification. Cross-striated banding pattern of cardiac cells was ruined. Noticeable atrophy and hydropic degeneration of subendocardial localized cardiac cells were found, with the focal presence of myocytolysis. Endothelial cell hyperplasia and edema of the intima were present on arteriolar type blood vessels causing the focal subocclusion. Fibrocytes, histiocytes and mast cells were numerous, perivascularly localized. Mast cells were polymorphic, larger than normal, oval and mostly degranulated. Instead of scanty endomysium, there is a noticeable interstitial fibrillar fibrosis with few fields of collagen in all myocardium layers between cardiac cells, which is particularly prominent around the larger blood vessels. Cadmium has pronounced vasculotropic properties causing morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, myocardial

  5. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  6. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  7. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  8. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  9. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  10. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  11. Predictors of mercury, lead, cadmium and antimony status in Norwegian never-pregnant women of fertile age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fløtre, Christina Herland; Varsi, Kristin; Helm, Thea; Bolann, Bjørn; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    The toxic trace elements mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and antimony (Sb) are transferred over the placenta to the fetus and secreted into the breastmilk. All four elements bioaccumulate in the body and as maternal age at delivery is increasing in industrialized countries, the burden of toxic trace elements in never-pregnant women of fertile age is of concern. Healthy, never-pregnant women aged 18 to 40 years (n = 158) were recruited between June 2012 and March 2015 in Bergen, Norway. Clinical data were collected and non-fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for whole blood Hg, Pb and Cd and serum Sb by ICP-MS and related to diet and life style factors. In a multiple linear regression model, increasing age was associated with higher levels of Hg and Sb, but diet and life style factors were more important predictors. Median whole blood Hg was increased by a factor of 70 in women who had fish for dinner ≥1/week, compared to women who rarely or never ate fish (pnever-pregnant women, age contributed to Hg and Sb levels, but diet and life style factors were stronger determinants of whole blood Hg, Pb, Cd and serum Sb levels. Continuous public actions are needed to reduce modifiable and preventable sources of potentially deleterious toxins to minimize the exposure in children and fertile women.

  12. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  13. Effects of cadmium salt on phosphomonoesterases activity and fertilizing ability of fowl spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, J; Moudgal, R P; Panda, J N

    1992-03-01

    Daily administration of cadmium salt for 25 days (2.5 mg per Kg body weight) in the male domestic fowl caused the end of treatment period. An increased incidences of concentration. Fertility dropped to zero at the end of the treatment period. Activity of acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterases were also drastically reduced by the end of treatment period. An increased incidences of morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa were noticed in the treated birds. After 46 days cessation of the treatment, full recovery of the above measures was found. These alterations suggest the reversible type of effect of cadmium chloride on the spermatozoa of male domestic fowl.

  14. Effect of cadmium on the nucleoli of meristematic cells of onion Allium cepa L: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, L; Carruyo, I; Del Campo, A; Montiel, X

    2002-01-01

    This study of the effect of cadmium on nucleolar ultrastructure was carried out with meristematic cell populations of Allium cepa L. Meristems, grown at 25 degrees C, were treated with 10 ppm cadmium chloride. Conventional and silver staining techniques were carried out, and the ultrastructure was analyzed using electron microscopy. Observation showed alterations in the nucleoli of the cells that had been treated with cadmium and this effect varied according to the time of exposure to the metal. After 4h of treatment, nucleolar segregation was observed in interphase, probably because of the effect of cadmium on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA precursors. A decrease in the fibrillar to granular component ratio also occurred in the cells exposed to Cd2+ for 8 h. Some changes were observed in the G1 cells; their chromatin still remained very condensed, and prenucleolus bodies remained scattered within the nucleus. At the same time, there was a large amount of interchromatin granules. These changes produced by cadmium resembled those produced during inhibition of RNA synthesis. The fibrillar bodies, another morphologic feature, resulting from a blocked transcription, were also evidenced. All these observations suggest that one of the ways that cadmium exercises its toxicity is by altering the biosynthesis of the preribosomal RNA precursor.

  15. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  16. Protective role of metallothionein during regeneration in Eisenia andrei exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Agnieszka; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gałuszka, Adrianna; Klimek, Beata; Plytycz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Lumbricid earthworms are often exposed to simultaneous action of various environmental stressors like soil contamination, temperature fluctuation or predators' attacks, which may induce extrusion of coelomocyte-containing coelomic fluid or loss of tail segments. If the injuries are not lethal, renewal of the immune-competent cells and soluble components of coelomic fluid and/or the regeneration of tail segments occurs. The aim of our investigations was to test the hypothesis that exposure of adult earthworms Eisenia andrei to cadmium-polluted soil at room temperature (RT) and/or low temperature (6°C) have adverse effects on restoration of experimentally depleted coelomocytes or on regeneration of amputated posterior segments. Intact control earthworms and their experimental counterparts subjected to electrostimulation-induced coelomocyte depletion or surgical amputation of posterior segments were maintained either in control soil or in soil spiked with cadmium chloride (500mg/kg air-dried soil) at RT or 6°C. Four weeks after the beginning of experiments, cadmium accumulation in earthworm bodies was significantly lower at 6°C than at room temperature. The numbers of restored cells and fluorophore contents were hardly affected by temperature or cadmium. However, cocoon production was reduced by cadmium and completely abolished at 6°C and regeneration of amputated posterior segments was inhibited in cold but was enhanced by cadmium exposure at RT. Independently on the temperature, the 4-week cadmium exposure of adult earthworms was connected with significantly upregulated expression of Cd-metallothionein (but not of catalase, lysenin and phytochelatin) in coelomocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, V. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-reims.fr; Charmantier, G. [Equipe Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese, UMR 5119 Ecolag, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Mons, R. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Geffard, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-toxicologie, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rousselle, P. [Laboratoire Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Ecosystemes, Universite de Metz, Campus Bridoux, Rue du General Delestraint, 57 070 Metz (France); Coquery, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Environnementale, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Garric, J.; Geffard, O. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)

    2008-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50{sub 96h} = 82.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 120h} = 37.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 168h} = 21.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 264h} = 10.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca{sup 2+} concentration, but not on haemolymph Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations, whereas the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms.

  18. Modelling injury-burden in rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W

    2017-10-23

    To develop a time-based model of injury-burden for international rugby sevens teams and to demonstrate its utility. Descriptive, cohort study. Injury data recorded during seven seasons of the Sevens World Series were used to quantify the rate of injury and the rate at which injured players recovered from injury. An equation describing the rate at which injuries were sustained was combined with an equation for the rate at which injured players recovered from injury to produce a time-based equation for the injury-burden of rugby sevens players at any point in time during a season. The overall rates at which match and training injuries were sustained (incidence of injury) were 108.6 (95% confidence interval: 101.6-116.1) injuries/1000 player-match-hours and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.65-1.27) injuries/1000 player-training-hours, respectively. Injured players recovered from injury according to a first-order rate equation with a rate constant of 0.0257 days(-1) calculated from the median severity of injuries sustained (27 days). The time-based injury-burden values predicted from the proposed kinetic model of injury-burden closely matched the values recorded in the Sevens World Series. For governing bodies in rugby, the proposed model provides a way to examine the consequences of changes in the number and timing of international rugby sevens tournaments. For individual teams, the model provides a means to forecast and manage the team's injury-burden as a function of the team's scheduled match and training loads throughout a season. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls: Different distribution pattern in North Sea Benthic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Otter, E.; Fischer, C. V.

    Whole-body concentrations of cadmium in the shrimp Crangon allmanni and the starfish Asterias rubens were significantly higher in specimens collected from areas north and northeast of the Dogger Bank than in other areas of the North Sea studied. In the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, whose distribution is restricted to the estuarine and coastal zone, the cadmium concentration was found to be significantly lower than in C. allmanni and did not vary with sampling site. The cadmium concentrations in shrimp increased from the estuarine area (including the Dutch Wadden Sea) to the coastal zone and Southern Bight of the North Sea and again to the open central North Sea (Dogger Bank). Concentrations of the total of 50 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners ( Σ50-CB) were higher in Crangon crangon and Asterias rubens occurring in the coastal zone of the Southern Bight than in specimens of the central and northern part of the Dutch continental shelf. The Σ50-CB concentration in the shrimp Crangon allmanni was considerably lower than in the closely related species C. crangon. Thus, cadmium and PCBs showed different distribution patterns in North Sea benthic invertebrates: highest concentrations of Σ50-CB were restricted to estuarine and coastal areas and highest concentrations of cadmium were found in the open sea (central North Sea, north of the Dogger Bank).

  20. Cadmium neurotoxicity to a freshwater planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Lee, Hui-Ling; Li, Mei-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Although freshwater planarians are evolutionarily primitive, they are some of the simplest bilateral animals possessing integrated neural networks similar to those in vertebrates. We attempted to develop planarian Dugesia japonica as a model for investigating the neurotoxicity of environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). This study was therefore designed to study the effects of Cd on the locomotor activity, neurobehavior, and neurological enzymes of D. japonica. After planarians were exposed to Cd at high concentrations, altered neurobehavior was observed that exhibited concentration-dependent patterns. Morphological alterations in Cd-treated planarians included irregular shape, body elongation, screw-like hyperkinesia, and bridge-like position. To study the direct effects of Cd on neurological enzymes, tissue homogenates of planarians were incubated in vitro with Cd before their activity was measured. Results showed that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activities were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. MAO-B activity was significantly induced by Cd at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Changes in the in vivo activity of AChE and ATPase were also found after planarians were treated with Cd at a sublethal concentration (5.56 μM). These observations indicate that neurotransmission systems in planarians are disturbed after Cd exposure.

  1. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  2. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  3. [Cadmium and selenium interaction in mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium occurs in the environment naturally and as a pollutant. Its exposure is inevitable and may produce toxic effects in many organs and organ systems through binding to biological structures, accumulation in internal organs or induction of free radical production. Another important aspect of Cd toxicity is its interaction, often anthagonistic, with essential elements. Vice versa, additional intake of the essential elements may have beneficial influence on distribution and toxic effects of cadmium. Selenium is an essential microelement and a constituent of many selenoproteins with antioxidant properties that bind cadmium (and other toxic elements such as mercury or arsenic). This review summarizes results, to date, of cadmium toxicokinetics and toxicodinamics, selenium biokinetics and biodinamics, as well as mechanisms of cadmium-selenium interaction and their impact on the oxidative status derived from the studies based upon mainly on animal experiments and on limited number of human studies. The wide variety of different doses, dose ratios, element administration modes and exposure lenghts of cadmium and selenium often yielded contradictory results. Future studies should be focused on assessment of effects of cadmium and selenium interaction in sensitive population groups and mechanisms of that interaction. Regarding animal studies, doses and exposure should be adjusted to long-term low exposure levels that are usually found in human population.

  4. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  5. Adjustment of a direct method for the determination of man body burden in Pu-239 on by X-ray detection of U-235; Mise au point d'une methode directe de determination de la charge corporelle en plutonium 239 chez l'homme par detection X de l'uranium 235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulay, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-04-01

    The use of Pu-239 on a larger scale sets a problem about the contamination measurement by aerosol at lung level. A method of direct measurement of Pu-239 lung burden is possible, thanks to the use of a large area window proportional counter. A counter of such pattern, has been especially carried out for this purpose. The adjustment of the apparatus allows an adequate sensibility to detect a contamination at the maximum permissible body burden level. Besides, a method for individual 'internal calibration', with a plutonium mock: the protactinium-233, is reported. (author) [French] L'utilisation a une echelle de plus en plus large du plutonium-239 pose un probleme de la mesure de la contamination par aerosol au niveau du poumon. Une methode de mesure directe de la charge pulmonaire en plutonium-239 est possible grace a l'utilisation d'un compteur proportionnel a fenetre de grande surface. Un compteur de ce type a specialement ete realise dans ce but. La mise au point de l'appareillage permet une sensibilite suffisante pour deceler une contamination au niveau de la Q.M.A (quantite maximale admissible). D'autre part, une methode 'd'etalonnage interne' de l'individu a l'aide d'un simulateur de plutonium, le protactinium-233, est decrite. (auteur)

  6. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  7. Low level determinations of environmental cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.R.

    1976-06-24

    An isotope dilution technique has been developed to measure the concentration of cadmium in aqueous solutions with a sensitivity of 0.003 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of cadmium in two river systems in Western Australia has been measured to establish an accurate set of low level reference determinations in a region which is relatively free of sources of industrial pollution. The results of the study demonstrate that the cadmium content in the two major river systems in western Australia is about 100 times lower than the World Health Organization limits. The data indicate that the cadmium content tends to decrease upstream from the mouth of the river, and that in the reservoir areas the content is as low as 0.02 micrograms per liter. These values are substantially lower than waterways in other parts of the world. 13 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content.

  9. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  10. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  11. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  12. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  14. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd{sup 2+}] ([Cd{sup 2+}]-based-IC{sub 50}, i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  15. Influence of cadmium loading on the state of the antioxidant system in the organism of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Gutyj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on the influence of cadmium loading on the state level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant links of the antioxidant defense system of the organisms of young cattle, such as the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione levels, selenium, vitamins A and E. It was found that feeding bull calves with cadmium chloride at doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg of body weight helped to reduce both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic link of antioxidant protection (superoxide dismutase 31%, catalase 13%, glutathione peroxidase 23%, reduced glutathione 10%, vitamin A 28%, vitamin E 31%, selenium 20%. Toxic effects of cadmium promotes change in steady-state concentrations of radical metabolites О2–,ОН˙, НО2˙, which, in turn, trigger the process of lipid peroxidation. The lowest level of indicators of antioxidant defense system in the blood of young cattle was registered on the sixteenth and twenty-fourth days of the experiment, which is associated with increased activation of lipid peroxidation and the disturbaance of the balance between the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation intensity. The activity of the antioxidant defense system in the blood was different for calves fed with cadmium chloride at doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg of animal mass. The more cadmium chloride in the feed, the lower the activity of the antioxidant defense system of the calves’ organisms was registered. Thus cadmium chloride depresses the antioxidant defense system, which specifically involves lowering the activity of enzymatic links (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and non-enzymatic links (reduced glutathione, selenium, vitamins A and E.

  16. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  17. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  18. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  19. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  20. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  1. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  2. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  3. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum, in reducing genotoxic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur AR

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium poisoning in the environment has assumed an alarming problem in recent years. Effective antimutagenic agents which can reverse or combat cadmium induced genotoxicity in mice have not yet been reported. Therefore, in the present study, following the homeopathic principle of "like cures like", we tested the efficacy of two potencies of a homeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum (Cad Sulph, in reducing the genotoxic effects of Cadmium chloride in mice. Another objective was to determine the relative efficacy of three administrative modes, i.e. pre-, post- and combined pre and post-feeding of the homeopathic drugs. For this, healthy mice, Mus musculus, were intraperitoneally injected with 0.008% solution of CdCl2 @ 1 ml/100 gm of body wt (i.e. 0.8 mcg/gm of bw, and assessed for the genotoxic effects through such studies as chromosome aberrations (CA, micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE, mitotic index (MI and sperm head anomaly (SHA, keeping suitable succussed alcohol fed (positive and CdCl2 untreated normal (negative controls. The CdCl2 treated mice were divided into 3 subgroups, which were orally administered with the drug prior to, after and both prior to and after injection of CdCl2 at specific fixation intervals and their genotoxic effects were analyzed. Results While the CA, MNE and SHA were reduced in the drug fed series as compared to their respective controls, the MI showed an apparent increase. The combined pre- and post-feeding of Cad Sulph showed maximum reduction of the genotoxic effects. Conclusions Both Cad Sulph-30 and 200 were able to combat cadmium induced genotoxic effects in mice and that combined pre- and post-feeding mode of administration was found to be most effective in reducing the genotoxic effect of CdCl2 followed by the post-feeding mode.

  4. Cadmium chloride-induced testicular toxicity in male wistar rats; prophylactic effect of quercetin, and assessment of testicular recovery following cadmium chloride withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nna, Victor U; Ujah, Godwin A; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Etim, Kingsley B; Igba, Benedict O; Augustine, Ele R; Osim, Eme E

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the effect of quercetin (QE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2) - induced testicular toxicity, as well as the effect of withdrawal of CdCl2 treatment on same. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old and weighing 270-300g were assigned into 5 groups and used for this study. Rats in groups 1-4 were administered vehicle, CdCl2 (5mg/kg bwt), CdCl2+QE (5mg/kg bwt and 20mg/kg bwt, respectively) or QE (20mg/kg bwt) orally for 4 weeks. Group 5 rats received CdCl2, with 4 weeks recovery period. Results showed that cadmium accumulated in serum, testis and epididymis, decreased body weight, testicular and epididymal weights, sperm count, motility and viability. Cadmium decreased serum concentrations of reproductive hormones, but increased testicular glucose, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Cadmium decreased testicular enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, vitamins C and E) antioxidants, and increased malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide. Cadmium down-regulated Bcl-2 protein, up-regulated Bax protein, increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 activity. Histopathology of the testis showed decreased Johnsen's score and Leydig cell count. These negative effects were attenuated by QE administration, while withdrawal of CdCl2 did not appreciably reverse toxicity. We conclude that QE better protected the testis from CdCl2 toxicity than withdrawal of CdCl2 administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  6. Toxicity of cadmium to the developing lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daston, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on the developing lung and pulmonary surfactant were studied. Pregnant rats received subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride on days 12 to 15 of gestation and were sacrificed throughout late gestation. The treatment resulted in high embryonic mortality and growth regardation. Fetal lung weight was reduced 20 to 30% due to hypoplasia, as the number of lung cells (DNA/lung) but not cell size (protein/cell) was lowered. The ultrastructural development of alveolar epithelium was altered; cytodifferentiation was delayed; and the cytoplasmic inclusions which contain pulmonary surfactant, were reduced in the term fetus. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was diminished in the lungs of treated fetuses. The immediate cause of this lowered accumulation was a decreased rate of synthesis of PC from choline. Carbohydrates probably represent a major source of PC precursors and are present in large quantities in the fetal lung as glycogen. The pulmonary glycogen content of cadmium-exposed fetuses was diminished. It is postulated that this is a reason for the lowered rate of PC synthesis. Maternally administered cadmium did not pass through the placenta; thus, the mechanism of fetotoxicity was indirect. Maternal cadmium exposure did result in lowered fetal zinc levels. Coadministration of zinc with cadmium raised fetal zinc concentration to control values and alleviated all fetotoxicity. Fetal zinc deficiency is a possible mechanism for the toxic effects on the developing lung. Several dams were allowed to give birth and their offspring were observed for respiratory problems. Cadmium treatment delayed parturition by about a day. Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were observed in 11% of the treated neonates. All but one of these individuals died and had lungs with hyaline membranes. This is the only known case of an environmental agent causing neonatal RDS.

  7. Caregiving burden and its determinants in Polish caregivers of stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaracz, Krystyna; Grabowska-Fudala, Barbara; Górna, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2014-10-27

    Despite the growing body of literature on the consequences of providing non-professional care to stroke survivors, the determinants of caregiving burden are still not fully recognized. Identification of significant determinants can facilitate caregiver intervention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of burden borne by caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the most important determinants of burden at 6 months after hospitalization. Data were collected from 150 pairs of stroke patients/caregivers. Caregiver burden was assessed on the Caregiver Burden scale (CB). Several characteristics were measured as potential predictors of the burden. Special attention was paid to the caregiver's sense of coherence (SOC) and anxiety. Regression analysis was employed to test the hypothesized relationships between these variables and the burden. Forty-seven percentage of the caregivers reported a substantial burden (severe or moderate). Caregiver SOC (p burden and the most consistent predictors of the majority of aspects included in the CB scale. Caregiver health, patient's gender, time spent caregiving and social support were also factors related to the burden. The identified predictors explained 67% of the variance in the overall burden. Clinicians and other professionals should focus on the coping abilities of caregivers, their emotional state and the level of patients' dependency, as these are the vital and modifiable factors affecting caregiver burden following stroke.

  8. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  9. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  10. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATZ), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Nitrate (NO3) have both estrogenic activity and carcinogenic potential. Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. Arsenic and Cadmium ...

  11. Caregiving burden and its determinants in Polish caregivers of stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaracz, Krystyna; Grabowska-Fudala, Barbara; Górna, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the growing body of literature on the consequences of providing non-professional care to stroke survivors, the determinants of caregiving burden are still not fully recognized. Identification of significant determinants can facilitate caregiver intervention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of burden borne by caregivers of stroke patients and to identify the most important determinants of burden at 6 months after hospitalization. Material and metho...

  12. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  13. Mercury, lead, and cadmium in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida, USA: a multipredator approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas H; Engel, Marc E

    2014-04-01

    Blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from the Atlantic coast of Florida were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, lead, and cadmium. Paired samples of two tissue types were analyzed for each crab, (1) muscle tissue (cheliped and body muscles) and (2) whole-body tissue (all organs, muscle tissue and connective tissue), for evaluation of the concentration of metals available to human consumers as well as estuarine predators. There were clear patterns of tissue-specific partitioning for each metal. Total mercury was significantly greater in muscle tissue (mean=0.078 µg/g) than in whole-body tissue (mean=0.055 µg/g). Conversely, whole-body concentrations of lead and cadmium (means=0.131 and 0.079 µg/g, respectively) were significantly greater than concentrations in muscle (means=0.02 and 0.029 µg/g, respectively). There were no significant correlations between any metal contaminant and crab size. Cadmium levels were significantly greater in the muscle tissue of females, but, no other sex-related differences were seen for other metals or tissue types. Methylmercury composed 93-100% of the total mercury in tissues. Compared to previous blue crab studies from different regions of the United States, mean concentrations of mercury, lead, and cadmium were relatively low, although isolated groups or individual blue crabs accumulated high metal concentrations. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  15. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  16. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-10-29

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  17. Caregiver Burden in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ilhan Atagun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Duration of human life has been substantially increased in the last fifty years. Survivals of diseases have been prolonged through the advances in medicine. Together with these gratifying consequences, there appeared novel difficulties to cope with. Furthermore developments including globalization, industrialization and transition from rural to urban life occurred during the last century; so family units became smaller and numbers of members on employment in family units increased. As a result numbers of family members to undertake the responsibility of care decreased. As a concept, caregiver burden expresses physical, psychosocial and financial reactions during the course of care providing. Distinct factors including structures of social, cultural and family units and health care systems may affect conditions of care. Caregiver’s age, gender, ethnicity, education, relationship with the patient, attitude towards providing care, financial situation, coping abilities, her own health, beliefs, social support and cultural pattern are the personal factors that are related to perception of caregiver burden. Burden of care giving is geared to differential aspects of care needs. For instance care needs of physically disabled and medical care requiring patients with spinal cord injuries may differ from care needs of chronic psychiatric disorders, demented patients in advanced age of their lives or cancer patients in terminal periods. Strain due to care giving may differ as a result of properties of care demands. It is aimed to review the burden of caregivers in different medical and psychiatric care requiring conditions and to introduce differential aspects of caregiver burden in these different conditions.

  18. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  19. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  20. Impairment of lipid storage by cadmium in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron, Fabien [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)]. E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr; Bossy, Angelique [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Brethes, Daniel [IBGC, UMR CNRS 5095, Universite Bordeaux 2 and CNRS, 1, rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Elie, Pierre [Cemagref, Unite Ecosystemes Estuariens et Poissons Migrateurs Amphihalins, U.R. EPBX, Cemagref, 50 Avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France); Massabuau, Jean-Charles [UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Universite Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France)

    2007-03-10

    Because European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) fast during their reproductive migration to the Sargasso Sea, the successful completion of their unusual life cycle depends on quantity of lipids stored beforehand. These lipids are mainly accumulated during the growth phase stage of the animals, called yellow eel, as triglycerides in muscle. They are then catabolized to provide sufficient energy to enable migration, gonad maturation and spawning. In the laboratory, we investigated the possible impact of cadmium on the lipid storage efficiency of yellow eels in order to evaluate the possible contribution of this pollutant to the reported decline of European eel populations. Eels were exposed to dissolved cadmium at nominal concentrations of 0 and 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} for 1 month. Cd toxicity was then examined by studying the activity and expression level of several enzymes involved in liver lipolysis and lipogenesis and by determining lipid content in muscle. Contaminated eels showed a lower body weight growth with a lower efficiency of lipid storage compared to controls. Using two complementary approaches, genetic and enzymatic, it was possible to conclude that this impairment is mainly explained by an increased utilisation of triglycerides since cadmium contamination did not trigger a reduced fatty acid synthesis. These observations suggest an increased fat consumption in presence of cadmium, which could compromise successful reproduction.

  1. DETERMINATION OF ZINC, CADMIUM, LEAD AND COPPER IN SAMPLES OF COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Kupchik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential pollutants which can get to the body using food products were explored in this work. The content of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead and copper are determined in coffee by inversion voltammetry. Sample preparation of samples was performed by oxidizing mineralization of paint sample in nitrate acid. It is shown that the method of inversion voltammetry can be successfully applied for the determination of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper at their combined presence in coffee. It is established that lead and zinc contain in all investigated samples, most of them contain cadmium and copper. Based on the analysis of experimental data discovered that the content of lead and cadmium don’t exceed permissible limits. It is noted that the average number of heavy metals increases in the order: coffee drinks- a soluble coffee – coffee beans and Grinded – green coffee. However, for an objective assessment of hair dyes quality, it is recommended to use a separate identification on each of heavy metals.

  2. Histopathologic effects of dietary cadmium on kidneys and tests of mallard ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Victoria, TX); Finley, M.T.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    Mallard ducks fed 2, 20, or 200 ppM cadmium chloride were sacrificed at 30, 60, and 90 d. No mortality occurred during the study and body weights remained unchanged. Kidney weights of the 200-ppM group were significantly greater after 60 and 90 d than those of controls; also, testis weights were significantly lower after 90 d. Kidneys of ducks fed 2 and 20 ppM cadmium were relatively unaffected; however, slight to severe kidney lesions were found in the 200-ppM group after 60 d of treatment. No significant lesions were found in mallard testes after feeding 2 ppM cadmium in the diet, and only a few birds in the 20-ppM group showed slight to moderate gonad alterations. After 90 d of treatment, however, testes of males fed 200 ppM had atrophied and the spermatogenic process had ceased. This study should provide important information for the interpretation of cadmium levels found in kidneys and testes of wild ducks.

  3. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  4. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nourmoradi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  5. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  7. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  8. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Dam Petersen, K; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease......; there was little or no evidence of increasing or decreasing cost trends. Increased awareness of the detrimental effects of AR and/or AA on patients' HRQL and its considerable cost burden might encourage early diagnosis and treatment, in order to minimize the disease burden and ensure beneficial and cost...

  9. A case-control study of the association between urinary cadmium concentration and endometriosis in infertile Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: moiwasak@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Endo, Yoko [Research Center for Occupational Poisoning, Tokyo Rosai Hospital, Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, 4-13-21 Omoriminami, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0013 (Japan); Hanaoka, Tomoyuki [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tadao; Yang, Bin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2008-09-01

    Cadmium may act like an estrogen and be a potential risk factor for estrogen-related diseases such as breast cancer and endometriosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher cadmium exposure is associated with endometriosis among infertile Japanese women in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited consecutive female patients aged 20-45 years who had complained of infertility and presented to a university hospital in Tokyo. The subjects were interviewed and provided a urine sample prior to a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis between January 2000 and December 2001. The severity of endometriosis was then dichotomized into controls (stage 0 and I) and cases (stage II-IV). We finally measured urinary total cadmium concentration in 54 cases and 74 controls as a biomarker of long-term cumulative exposure. Odds ratios were adjusted for average menstrual cycle length, body-mass index and smoking status using unconditional logistic regression. Results showed no association between endometriosis and urinary cadmium concentration. Medians (interquartile ranges) of urinary cadmium concentration in cases and controls were 0.53 (0.40-0.73) and 0.54 (0.34-0.76) {mu}g/g creatinine, respectively (P for difference = 0.88). Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest tertile of urinary creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was 0.86 (0.30 to 2.49, P for trend = 0.79). Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher urinary cadmium concentration is associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  10. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  11. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  12. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  13. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  14. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  15. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  16. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  17. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  18. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Cd destroyed the balance of free radical metabolisms, which resulted in increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the relative cell membrane permeability (RMP). The kernel yield and kernel rate per pot showed significant decrease under cadmium stress (P < 0.05). The varieties FengHua3 ...

  19. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  20. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay

  1. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  2. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  3. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 μmol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping. Keywords. Cadmium sulphide; combustion synthesis; anion doping; water splitting; ...

  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on reproduction in adult animals previously exposed in ovo or as hatchlings. Adults were raised either from eggs produced during a two week exposure to 0, 1, 5, o...

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  6. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  7. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the ..... accessory sex tissues atrophy such as the prostate. (Waalkes et al 1997a).

  8. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  9. Opiatergic participation in the thirst-inhibiting effect of acute third ventricle injections of cadmium (Cd2+ and lead (Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of both lead and cadmium prevent the dipsogenic response elicited by dehydration or by central injections of dipsogenic agents such as angiotensin II, carbachol and isoproterenol in rats. We have also shown that the antidipsogenic action of cadmium may be due, at least in part, to activation of thirst-inhibitory central serotonergic pathways. In the present paper we show that in Wistar male rats the antidipsogenic effect of both lead acetate (3.0 nmol/rat and cadmium chloride (3.0 nmol/rat may be partially dependent on the activation of brain opiatergic pathways since central injections of naloxone (82.5 nmol/rat, a non-selective opioid antagonist, blunt the thirst-inhibiting effect of these metals. One hundred and twenty minutes after the second third ventricle injections, dehydrated animals (14 h overnight receiving saline + sodium acetate displayed a high water intake (7.90 ± 0.47 ml/100 g body weight whereas animals receiving saline + lead acetate drank 3.24 ± 0.47 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving naloxone + lead acetate drank 6.94 ± 0.60 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving saline + saline drank 8.16 ± 0.66 ml/100 g body weight whilst animals receiving saline + cadmium chloride drank 1.63 ± 0.37 ml/100 g body weight. Animals receiving naloxone + cadmium chloride drank 8.01 ± 0.94 ml/100 g body weight. It is suggested that acute third ventricle injections of both lead and cadmium exert their antidipsogenic effect by activating thirst-inhibiting opioid pathways in the brain.

  10. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R.. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  11. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration.

  12. The Relationship between Sleep Quality and Brain Amyloid Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Belinda M; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Villemagne, Victor L; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Macaulay, S Lance; Ames, David; Fowler, Christopher; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Martins, Ralph N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep quality and levels of brain β-amyloid (Aβ) burden, and to determine the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on any associations found. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 184 cognitively healthy men and women aged over 60 y. We measured sleep quality factors: specifically, sleep duration, latency (time taken to fall asleep), disturbances, efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and overall sleep quality, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. All participants underwent Aβ positron emission tomography imaging for the quantification of brain Aβ burden and were APOE genotyped. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality factors and brain Aβ burden, adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, and symptoms of depression, with APOE ε4 carriage entered as a moderator. Of the sleep factors, longer sleep latency was associated with higher levels of brain Aβ (B = 0.003 [standard error = 0.001], P = 0.02). APOE ε4 allele (carrier/noncarrier) did not moderate the relationship between sleep latency and brain Aβ burden. Our findings suggest a relationship between brain Aβ burden and sleep latency, independent of APOE ε4 genotype. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Burden of COPD in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Neupane, Dinesh; Kallestrup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Background: COPD is a globally significant public health problem and is the second leading cause of mortality. This study presents the health burden of COPD in Nepal using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2016 dataset. Methods: This study used the data from the GBD repository presenting...... morbidity and mortality attributed to COPD, by sex and age. In GBD 2016, due to a lack of the primary source of data in Nepal, estimations on morbidity and mortality of COPD were based on its predictive covariates. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated based on the cause of death estimations, applying...... age-standardized mortality rate due to COPD was decreasing for both genders, but the decline was much higher among males. Unlike the high rate of incidence among males, the age-standardized DALYs were found to be high among females (2,274.9 [95% UI: 1,702.0-2,881.5] per 100,000). YLLs contributed...

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Burden of epilepsy in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Ayala, Alejandro; Nariño, Daniel; Rosselli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy lays an important burden on healthcare systems and society in general. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been developed to compare the burden of this disease both between conditions and between geographical boundaries. With improving data on disease incidence and prevalence in Colombia, we can refine our DALYs-based estimates. Using different strategies, including the official healthcare provision database and death certificates, as well as extrapolation from published neuroepidemiologic studies, we estimated the incidence and prevalence by age groups, disease duration and attributable mortality. With this information we calculated DALYs for the year 2012. Overall, it was found that epilepsy was responsible for 0.88% of all deaths in Colombia. A total of 5.25 DALYs per 1,000 person-years are lost due to epilepsy in Colombia, 75% of which (3.91 DALYs) are due to premature mortality, with a higher burden in men (6.12 DALYs) than in women (4.41 DALYs). We reported new estimations on epilepsy incidence and prevalence by age groups in Colombia and conclude that DALYs lost due to epilepsy in Colombia are almost double the previous figure, mostly because of the underestimation of attributable mortality. With this figure, epilepsy ranks 12th instead of 19th in the list of the most important causes of DALYs lost. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Economic burden of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ceri J

    2006-10-01

    Pain represents a major clinical, social and economic problem, with estimates of its prevalence ranging from 8 to over 60%. The impact of pain on economies is enormous, with the cost of back pain alone equivalent to more than a fifth of one country's total health expenditure and 1.5% of its annual gross domestic product, while in another, it represents three-times the total cost of all types of cancer. However, decision makers have tended to concentrate their attention on a very minor component of the cost burden, namely prescription costs, which, in the case of back pain, represent 1% of the total cost burden. In addition to its economic impact, chronic pain is probably one of the diseases with the greatest negative impact on quality of life. For example, the quality of life for those with migraine has been shown to be at best equal to that for people with arthritis, asthma, diabetes mellitus or depression. The burden that pain imposes on individuals and the enormous costs that society has to bear as a result clearly demonstrate the need for collective thinking in the decision-making process. A broad, strategic perspective - based on evidence relating to effectiveness (including tolerability), efficiency and equity - is required in determining issues relating to the provision of services and resource allocation.

  17. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heavy Metals (Mercury, Lead and Cadmium Determination in 17 Species of Fish Marketed in Khorramabad City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals entrance to fish body tissues and transferring to human body systems after their consuming makes numerous undesirable effects and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine some heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury in fresh fishes marketed in Khorramabad City, west of Iran. In this descriptive study, five samples of 17 fish species with high consumption were purchased randomly in 2014. Measurement of mercury, lead and cadmium was performed using atomic absorption spectrometry. All measurements were performed three times for each sample. Lead mean levels in fish samples was in the range 0.736 -1.005 ppm, cadmium range was from 0.196 to 0.015 ppm and mean content of mercury was  0.431 - 0.107 ppm. At present mean concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in supplied fishes muscle is lower than maximum recommended levels according to WHO, EC and FDA guidelines. Based on the obtained results of this study and the importance of heavy metals in foods and their impacts on human health, continuous monitoring of heavy metals levels in foods is necessary.

  19. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  20. Effect of Acute Toxicity of Cadmium in Mice Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Masoomi Karimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals in our environment having a very strong ability to accumulate in body organs, especially in kidney. The present study was done to determine the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in kidneys of rats exposed to cadmium. Methods: Male rats (n=30, kept in standard conditions were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups (control and treatment. The treatment group was intraperitoneally injected with Cd (300µm/kg at hours 0, 6, 12, 24, 48. Twenty four hours after the last injection, the rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were obtained. Then oxidative stress markers, malondialdehide (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, were assayed in homogenized kidney for studying their cytotoxicity. For genotoxicity and DNA damage studies, Comet assay was run on isolated kidney cells. Data analysis was done by t-test and ANOVA using SPSS software version 15. Results: MDA and GSH concentrations in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 287.01±37.30nmol/g.pr and 15.61±3.89µmol/g.pr and 609.24±87.87nmol/g.pr and 28.52±5.22µmol/g.pr, respectively. In addition, SOD activity in normal and Cd exposed kidney cells were 77.75±4.12 and 218.91±5.40 U/mg.pr, respectively. Comet assay results (content comet length, tail length, and head diameter showed DNA breakage in the treatment group that was stimulated by Cd which was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the genotoxicity effect of Cd on kidney cells as well as the ability of Cd to producing cytotoxicity.

  1. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Bala Banjare; Supriya Bhalerao

    2016-01-01

    World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic ...

  2. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  3. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Robert O Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  4. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Babaknejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has widespread use. It enters the food chain in different ways, including soil and water. Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn and magnesium (Mg supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties. This study examines the influence of supplemental Zn and Mg on Cd renal toxicity. Methods: Young male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five. The Cd group received 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 mg/kg normal saline (i.p.. The other four groups were administered 1 mg/kg Cd+0.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+1.5 mg/kg Zn, 1 mg/kg Cd+ 0.5 mg/kg Mg, and 1 mg/kg Cd+ 1.5 mg/kg Mg (i.p. for 21 days. Then, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and protein levels were measured. Results: The results indicated that creatinine and protein levels decreased while urea, sodium, and potassium levels increased as a result of Cd exposure. Co-administered Cd and Zn and Mg decreased urea and increased sodium serum level in comparison to the cadmium group. Treatment by Mg, contrary to co-administered Cd and Zn, reduced serum protein level compared to the cadmium group. Compared to the cadmium treated group, Zn and Mg treatment enhanced serum creatinine level and reduced serum potassium level. Conclusion: The findings seem to suggest that zinc and magnesium compounds, due to their antagonistic and antioxidant activities, can protect Cd renal toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. The Humanistic and Economic Burden of Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Natalia M; Villa, Kathleen F; Black, Jed; Chervin, Ronald D; Witt, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of narcolepsy--with respect to psychiatric comorbidities, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), direct costs for healthcare resource utilization, and indirect costs for reported work loss-through comparison of patients to matched controls. This analysis was conducted on data from the 2011, 2012, and 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; 2011 NHWS n = 75,000, 2012 NHWS n = 71,157, and 2013 NHWS n = 75,000). Patients who reported a narcolepsy diagnosis (n = 437) were matched 1:2 with controls (n = 874) on age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, exercise, and physical comorbidity. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to assess whether the narcolepsy and control groups differed on psychiatric comorbidities, HRQoL, labor force participation, work productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Patients with narcolepsy, in comparison to matched controls, reported substantially (two to four times) greater psychiatric comorbidity, HRQoL impairment, prevalence of long-term disability, absenteeism, and presenteeism, and greater resource use in the past 6 mo as indicated by higher mean number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits, traditional healthcare professional visits, neurologist visits, and psychiatrist visits (each p narcolepsy diagnosis is associated with substantial adverse impact on mental health, HRQoL, and key economic burdens that include work impairment, resource use, and both direct and indirect costs. Although this study is cross-sectional, the results highlight the magnitude of the potential opportunity to improve mental health, lower costs, and augment work-related productivity through effective assessment and treatment of narcolepsy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  8. Inactivation of cadmium in contaminated soils using synthetic zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, B

    1992-01-01

    The addition of synthetic zeolite pellets to soils contaminated with cadmium significantly reduced the concentrations of cadmium in the roots and shoots of a range of crop plants. Use of synthetic foyazite group zeolites types 4A and 13X, at application rates of 1% by soil weight, caused reductions in cadmium concentrations of up to 86% in leaves of lettuce grown in pots, compared to controls with no added zeolites. The potential of these substances to reduce cadmium entry into the food chain, and as a clean up method, is noted.

  9. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  10. Patient Burden of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Cathryn; Drucker, Aaron M

    2017-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is associated with significant patient burden, with impacts from symptoms and visible physical manifestations of the disease. Consequences include detrimental effects on quality of life (QoL), sleep, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, participation in leisure and sports, and attendance or performance at school or work. Patients also spend a significant amount of time on treatments and care. Worsening severity of disease appears to be associated with a higher risk of impaired QoL, and pharmacologic and educational interventions that improve disease severity appear to, for the most part, simultaneously improve QoL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The...

  12. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following the...

  13. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  14. Cadmium-binding proteins from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) environmentally exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedow, M.A.; Kneip, T.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1982-06-01

    Two heat-stable (90/sup 0/C) cadmium-binding proteins were isolated from the hepatopancreas of Hudson River blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. These proteins have molecular weights of 10,600 and 9,400, and ultraviolet absorbance ratios at 250/280 nm of 12.4 and 5.4, respectively. Repeated freezing and thawing and prolonged (3-6 weeks) storage resulted in protein degradation or loss of Cd-binding activity. These proteins were induced by laboratory injection of CdCl/sub 2/ in blue crabs from pristine (Chesapeake Bay) areas; however, injection of CdCl/sub 2/ into Hudson River animals yielded anomalous chromatography profiles. Cadmium-binding proteins were also identified in blue crab thoracic muscle and gill. The possibility is discussed that these proteins are a type of metallothionein and could contribute to the human toxicity of this cadmium-contaminated edible crustacean.

  15. Knowns and unknowns on burden of disease due to chemicals: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous exposure to many chemicals, including through air, water, food, or other media and products results in health impacts which have been well assessed, however little is known about the total disease burden related to chemicals. This is important to know for overall policy actions and priorities. In this article the known burden related to selected chemicals or their mixtures, main data gaps, and the link to public health policy are reviewed. Methods A systematic review of the literature for global burden of disease estimates from chemicals was conducted. Global disease due to chemicals was estimated using standard methodology of the Global Burden of Disease. Results In total, 4.9 million deaths (8.3% of total) and 86 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) (5.7% of total) were attributable to environmental exposure and management of selected chemicals in 2004. The largest contributors include indoor smoke from solid fuel use, outdoor air pollution and second-hand smoke, with 2.0, 1.2 and 0.6 million deaths annually. These are followed by occupational particulates, chemicals involved in acute poisonings, and pesticides involved in self-poisonings, with 375,000, 240,000 and 186,000 annual deaths, respectively. Conclusions The known burden due to chemicals is considerable. This information supports decision-making in programmes having a role to play in reducing human exposure to toxic chemicals. These figures present only a number of chemicals for which data are available, therefore, they are more likely an underestimate of the actual burden. Chemicals with known health effects, such as dioxins, cadmium, mercury or chronic exposure to pesticides could not be included in this article due to incomplete data and information. Effective public health interventions are known to manage chemicals and limit their public health impacts and should be implemented at national and international levels. PMID:21255392

  16. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  18. Acute fatal occupational cadmium poisoning by inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Ueda, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Hattori, H.; Hiraoka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A 43-year-old male smelter was admitted to a hospital on account of severe dyspnea about 2 days after exposure to brownish-yellow smoke produced by melting of ''copper'' scrap. On admission pronounced hypoxemia was revealed, and an oxygen-enriched gas was administered after intubation. Although inspired oxygen concentration was gradually increased, hypoxemia progressed and he died on day 11 in hospital. The principal autopsy finding was chiefly confined to the lungs. Both lungs were heavy (the left weighing 1,470 g; the right 1,710 g) and firm to the touch. Histologically, no normal alveoli were found throughout the entire lung. Some alveolar spaces were occupied by pneumocytes, others by organized exudate with fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was present. Patchy areas of inflammatory cell infiltrations as well as intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed. On the basis of the above findings a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar damage was made. Based on the available evidence (presence of cadmium in the ''copper'' scrap, feature of the smoke, clinical signs with latent time, and high cadmium concentration of the lung), the diffuse alveolar damage was considered to have been caused by inhaled cadmium. The pulmonary change of the present case was more advanced in pathologic stage in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  19. The burden of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Although formerly regarded as a nuisance disease, allergic rhinitis (AR) has a considerable effect on quality of life and can have significant consequences if left untreated. The total burden of this disease lies not only in impaired physical and social functioning but also in a financial burden made greater when considering evidence that AR is a possible causal factor in comorbid diseases such as asthma or sinusitis. Compared with matched controls, patients with AR have an approximate twofold increase in medication costs and 1.8-fold the number of visits to health practitioners. Hidden direct costs include the treatment of comorbid asthma, chronic sinusitis, otitis media, upper respiratory infection, and nasal polyposis. Nasal congestion, the most prominent symptom in AR, is associated with sleep-disordered breathing, a condition that can have a profound effect on mental health, including increased psychiatric disorders, depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse. Furthermore, sleep-disordered breathing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased disorders of learning performance, behavior, and attention. In the United States, AR results in 3.5 million lost workdays and 2 million lost schooldays annually. Patients struggle to alleviate their misery, frequently self-adjusting their treatment regimen of over-the-counter and prescription medications because of lack of efficacy, deterioration of efficacy, lack of 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects. Ironically, health care providers overestimate patient satisfaction with therapy. Therefore, improvement in patient-practitioner communication may enhance patient adherence with prescribed regimens.

  20. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, Mark [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.wayland@ec.gc.ca; Gilchrist, H. Grant [Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region, Suite 301, 5204-50th St., Yellowknife, NT, X1A 1E2 (Canada); Neugebauer, Ewa [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  1. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  2. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  3. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  4. Cadmium biodynamics in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and its implications for trophic transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Lingtian [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Lambert, Daniel [Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Martin, Caitrin [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Cain, Daniel J.; Luoma, Samuel N. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Buchwalter, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)], E-mail: david_buchwalter@ncsu.edu

    2008-01-31

    It has become increasingly apparent that diet can be a major source of trace metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. In this study, we examined cadmium uptake, efflux, and subcellular compartmentalization dynamics in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. L. variegatus is an important component of freshwater food webs in Europe and North America and is potentially useful as a standard food source for laboratory-based trophic transfer studies. Cadmium accumulation and depuration were each followed for 10 days. Rate constants of uptake (k{sub u}) and efflux (k{sub e}) were estimated and subcellular Cd compartmentalization was followed over the course of uptake and efflux. The partitioning of Cd into operationally-defined subcellular compartments was relatively consistent throughout the 20-day experiment, with the majority of Cd accumulating in the cytosol. No major changes in Cd compartmentalization were observed over uptake or depuration, but there appeared to be some exchange between heat-stable and heat-labile cytosolic protein fractions. Cadmium accumulation from solution was strongly affected by ambient calcium concentrations, suggesting competition between Cd and Ca for uptake sites. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate the whole body calcium content of L. variegatus as a potential tool for examining calcium influences on dietary Cd dynamics. The potential for this species to be an important conduit of Cd to higher trophic levels is discussed, along with its potential as a standardized food source in metal trophic transfer studies.

  5. Cadmium biodynamics in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and its implications for trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingtian; Lambert, Daniel; Martin, Caitrin; Cain, Daniel J; Luoma, Samuel N; Buchwalter, David

    2008-01-31

    It has become increasingly apparent that diet can be a major source of trace metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. In this study, we examined cadmium uptake, efflux, and subcellular compartmentalization dynamics in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. L. variegatus is an important component of freshwater food webs in Europe and North America and is potentially useful as a standard food source for laboratory-based trophic transfer studies. Cadmium accumulation and depuration were each followed for 10 days. Rate constants of uptake (k(u)) and efflux (k(e)) were estimated and subcellular Cd compartmentalization was followed over the course of uptake and efflux. The partitioning of Cd into operationally-defined subcellular compartments was relatively consistent throughout the 20-day experiment, with the majority of Cd accumulating in the cytosol. No major changes in Cd compartmentalization were observed over uptake or depuration, but there appeared to be some exchange between heat-stable and heat-labile cytosolic protein fractions. Cadmium accumulation from solution was strongly affected by ambient calcium concentrations, suggesting competition between Cd and Ca for uptake sites. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate the whole body calcium content of L. variegatus as a potential tool for examining calcium influences on dietary Cd dynamics. The potential for this species to be an important conduit of Cd to higher trophic levels is discussed, along with its potential as a standardized food source in metal trophic transfer studies.

  6. Sizing, stoichiometry and optical absorbance variations of colloidal cadmium sulphide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, S R; Hughes, R W; Reynolds, P A

    2009-01-01

    Simple preparative methods were used to synthesise cadmium sulphide particles in the size ranges larger than those associated with quantum confinement. UV/visible absorption spectra were measured. Rayleigh and Mie theories were used to analyse normalised absorption spectra to allow estimates of particle size and number to be obtained simultaneously. Each model was utilised in an appropriate size and wavelength range. Surprisingly, Mie calculations were found to over-estimate the absorbance of particles below 50 nm radius. Powder X-ray diffraction results showed the crystallites to be independent of particle size and suggested that the particles grew through aggregation of smaller bodies. The Mie results could therefore be interpreted in terms of changes in the particles' optical indicatrix with radius. Large poly-crystalline particles (>50 nm radius) should possess a near spherical indicatrix, fulfilling the assumptions of the Mie theory. The indicatrix of particles smaller than 50 nm should become increasingly anisotropic with decreasing size, leading to discrepancies between the Mie model and measured data. Although the results could also be explained through changes in the magnitude of the particle refractive index, compositional (Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis) and structural (powder X-ray diffraction) analyses of the particles complicate the hypothesis. Energy dispersive X-ray results showed that small cadmium sulphide particles possessed a large excess of sulphur suggesting a change in effective cadmium sulphide stoichiometry.

  7. Comparative analysis of antioxidants against cadmium induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Sarwat; Khan, Mehreen; Ahmed, Shakeel; Ullah, Hizb

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the potential benefits of three different antioxidants in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Rats (n = 5) weighing 180 +/- 20 gm were divided into five groups (control, Cd, Cd + sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract). Treated groups received CdCl2 (0.2 mg/kg), sulforaphane (25 µg/rat), vitamin E (75 mg/kg), and plant extract (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples and testicular tissues were obtained for estimation of testosterone, Zn, and Cd concentration and daily sperm production/efficiency of sperm production. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease in final body weight (p Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease (p toxicity. Present findings suggest that Ficus religiosa and sulforaphane are more powerful antioxidants as compared to vitamin E in reversing the oxidative stress and can have a protective role against Cd induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Part of the mechanism involved in this protective role seems to be associated with the antioxidant properties of these agents in reducing reproductive damage.

  8. [Levels of lead and cadmium in pregnant women and newborns and evaluation of their impact on child development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durska, G

    2001-01-01

    This study was done in 83 mothers and their 83 newborns with the aim of determining the levels of lead and cadmium in maternal venous and umbilical cord blood. Hair levels were also measured in 60 mothers and 14 newborns. The course of pregnancy was normal in each case and all deliveries were by natural forces at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital in the City of Szczecin. The mean age of mothers was 26 and the postpartum Apgar score of each child was normal. The relationship between levels of lead and cadmium in blood and hair of mothers and newborns was examined and their influence on the general health status of the newborn was assessed, in particular on the body weight and length, head and chest circumferences. The influence of socio-economic conditions on levels of lead and cadmium in blood and hair of mothers and newborns was also examined. Levels of the two toxic metals in blood and hair were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry done in reference laboratories. The results were statistically compared taking the level of significance as p = 0.05. It was found that levels of lead and cadmium are lower in mothers and newborns from Szczecin than values reported by Polish and international investigators and are markedly below the upper permissible limit. Levels of lead and cadmium in maternal venous blood were 0.133 mumol/L (2.75 micrograms/dL) and 0.008 mumol/L (0.09 microgram/dL), respectively, and were significantly higher than levels in cord blood: 0.103 mumol/L (2.14 micrograms/dL) and 0.0025 mumol/L (0.028 microgram/dL). The concentration of lead and cadmium in cord blood was 78% and 33% of the concentration, respectively, in maternal blood. This difference seems to reflect the activity of the placental barrier which apparently is more effective in the case of cadmium. Contrary to this pattern, hair levels of both metals were lower in mothers (Pb 0.004 mumol = 0.86 microgram/g dry mass, Cd 0.0012 mumol = 0.13 microgram

  9. Aging and changes in body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van D.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    As we grow older changes in body composition occur. These changes include a loss of lean body mass (LBM), bone mass, body water, and a relative increase of fat mass. In view of these changes and acknowledging demographic trends, elder people are facing a growing burden of health-compromising levels

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Yan, Jun; Zou, Xiao-Li; Guo, Ke-Jun; Zhao, Yue; Meng, Chun-Yang; Yin, Fei; Guo, Li

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal with widespread exposure to people that can cause tissue injuries that lack effective treatment. The aim of this project was to uncover whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury and to explore the role of mitochondrial apoptosis in this process. To this end, 21 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, model and therapy groups, 7 each, and were administered 0, 0.4 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight CdCl2 saline solution, respectively, by intraperitoneal injection 5 times per week for 5 weeks. Then, rats in the therapy group were treated with 10(7) BMSCs by retro-orbital injections, while the others were given equal volumes of phosphate buffered saline. Following 2-week BMSCs-treatment, the therapy rats were heavier than the model rats, despite there being no difference in testicular cadmium contents between these groups, which were both significantly higher than the control group. BMSCs were observed in the testis of the therapy rats, in which pathological changes improved significantly compared with the model group. Expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bim, Bax, Cytochrome C, Caspase-3, active-Caspase-3 and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 was reduced significantly in rat testes of model group compared with the other groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that cadmium can accumulate in rat testes where it caused severe tissue injury, BMSCs can be localized to the injured testicular tissue of rats and repair the tissue injury, these reparative effects may be highly related with mitochondrial apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  12. The global burden of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87,000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91,000 people (uncertainty range: 28,000 to 142,000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.

  13. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  14. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  15. Biosorption of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of cadmium and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto the unmodified compact biomass of microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus DESM. was studied in the concentration range of 0.25 – 100 mg.l-1. The experimental biosorption results for arsenic and cadmium followed well the Freundlich ...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed. Keywords. Cadmium; lead borate glasses. 1. Introduction.

  17. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  18. Levels of cadmium in cigarette brands found in Zamfara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium were determined in some cigarette brands found in Zamfara state, North-west Nigeria. The solutions of the samples were prepared using the dry-ash method. The levels of cadmium in the solution were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance readings of the elements were ...

  19. Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Oreochromis Niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels in Oreochromis niloticus, aquatic plants, water and sawdust were collected and analyzed for Lead, Cadmium and Chromium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained showed that sawdust had the highest Lead and Chromium contents of 32.0 + 0.99 μg/g ...

  20. Evaluation of serum levels of cadmium and Lead in occupationally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium and Lead are extremely toxic metals found in industrial workplaces. They are also found in some industrial paints and may represent hazards when sprayed.Exposure to Cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever and muscle ache sometimes reffered to as "the cadium blues." Occupational ...

  1. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly.

  2. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  3. Elevated cadmium exposure may be associated with periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Dillon, Charles F

    2010-06-01

    Association of environmental cadmium exposure with periodontal disease in US adults. Arora M, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Wright RO. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:739-44. Bruce A. Dye, DDS, MPH, Charles F. Dillon, MD, PhD. Is environmental cadmium associated with periodontal disease? Information not available. Cross-sectional study. Level 3: Other evidence. Not applicable.

  4. Cadmium, an Environmental Pollutant: A Review | Adedapo | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and is considered to be an environmental pollutant. Cadmium levels in the environment vary widely. Several sources of human exposure to Cd, including employment in primary metal industries, production of certain batteries, foods, soil and cigarette smoke, are known. Its inhalation has ...

  5. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Studies indicate that liver function is impeded particularly with respect to protein synthesis, detoxification processes and the cellular integrity of the organ is damaged in the group that cadmium and lead were added (p<0.05). But the water sample from the mining pond, though containing higher cadmium and ...

  6. Effect of cadmium stress on antioxidative enzymes during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the influence of high cadmium concentrations on percentage germination, specific activities and isoenzyme patterns of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) during the germination of Serbian spruce [Picea omorika (Pan..) Purkynĕ] was studied. Cadmium chloride concentrations ...

  7. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March ...

  8. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of S. cerevisiae (Inouhe et al 1989) were used for under- standing the molecular genetics of cadmium toxicity and ... The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6⋅4 before autoclaving. Cadmium-resistant mutants after isolation ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Biochem. Biophys. Acta 993 51–55. Kimura M, Otaki N and Imano M ...

  9. induced by cadmium using random amplified polymorphic DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    darya

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Jin YH, Clark AB, Slebos, RJC, Al-Refai H, Taylor JA, Kunkel TA,. Resnick MA, Gordenin DA (2003). Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nat. Genet. 34(3):326-329. Joseph P (2009). Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238:272-279. Azimi et al.

  10. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of varying doses of cadmium on bone and kidney alkaline phosphatase and on testis and prostate acid phosphatase after 4 weeks of administration to separate groups of rats. Relative to the cadmium-free control rats femur bone alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly (P<0.05) ...

  11. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  12. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  13. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het

  14. Environmental Exposures to Lead, Mercury, and Cadmium and Hearing Loss in Adults and Adolescents: KNHANES 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeing; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-06-08

    The prevalence of hearing loss increases rapidly with aging. Hearing loss is common in all age groups, even in young adults and adolescents. A growing body of evidence has suggested that heavy metals have ototoxic effects, yet few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between heavy metals and hearing loss in a general population that includes adults and adolescents. We examined the association between environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium and the risk of hearing loss in adults and adolescents while controlling for potential confounding factors, including noise exposures and clinical factors. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 5,187 adults and 853 adolescents in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. Pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at high frequency (3, 4, and 6 kHz) were computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA>25 dB in adults and PTA>15 dB in adolescents. In adults, the highest (vs. lowest) quartiles of blood lead and cadmium were associated with 1.70 (95% CI: 1.25, 2.31) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.05) odds ratios for high-frequency hearing loss (p-trendadults or adolescents. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to environmental lead and cadmium in adults and exposure to environmental cadmium in adolescents may play a role in the risk of hearing loss. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP565.

  15. Cadmium content in soil at Heirisson Island, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosie, D.J.; Bogoiais, A.; De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the cadmium level of soil samples from Heirisson Island, western Australia. Cadmium is a particularly toxic element considered harmful to humans and vegetation. Experimental methods and materials are described. Results indicate that cadmium concentrations decrease markedly with distance from road edges, where the cadmium is thought to originate from automobile tires. Other results are detailed. Despite the fact that the amount of cadmium fallout from vehicular traffic is considerably smaller in Australia than was expected on the basis of overseas studies, it is still apparent that the accession rate in soil adjoining busy highways is sufficiently large to demand that care is taken to avoid growing vegetation for human consumption too close to such roadside locations. (3 graphs, 8 references)

  16. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  17. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  19. Biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, N M; Suvarnakhandi, S S; Mulgund, G S; Ratageri, R H; Taranath, T C

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on biochemical responses of Spirodela polyrhiza to cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for twelve days exposure. Spirodela showed visible symptoms like withering of roots and chlorosis at higher concentration (2.0 ppm), however the plant showed normal growth at lower concentration (0.1 ppm). The estimation of biochemical parameters (total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) of test plants showed a significant increase at lower concentration (0.1 ppm) of cadmium. The biochemical changes decrease with increase in exposure concentration and duration. The toxic effect of cadmium is directly proportional to its concentration and duration. The accumulation of cadmium by Spirodela polyrhiza was maximum at four days exposure duration and gradually decreases.

  20. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  1. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-02-13

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  2. Caregiver Burden in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanujam Vaishnavi; Murugan Selvaraj Karthik; Ramasamy Balakrishnan; Ramanathan Sathianathan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Alcoholism is a major threat to the individual as well as the society and the maximum burden of the illness is borne by the family. Aim. The study is aimed at assessing the pattern of burden on the caregivers of alcohol dependent patients and at assessing the relationship between the severity of dependence and the burden on caregivers. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Inst...

  3. Possible use of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution. Part 2. Body burden calculations for identification of depot compartments; Untersuchungen zur Eignung wildlebender Wanderratten (Rattus norvegicus) als Indikatoren der Schwermetallbelastung. Teil 2. Die Berechnung der Koerperlast zur Identifikation von Depotkompartimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenschmann, S. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany); Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Oehlmann, J. [J.W. Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt, Zoologisches Inst., Frankfurt/M. (Germany); Delakowitz, B. [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz, Fachbereich Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften, Zittau (Germany); Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau, Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik, Zittau (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Background concentrations of eleven elements in tissues and organs of wild-living rats (Rattus norvegicus) obtained from a region (Euroregion Neisse, around the trilateral border region of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic) distinguished by low to intermediate levels of environmental contaminations are given in part I of this work. In order to identify the most important depot compartments for certain elements, a body burden method was applied. Differences of affinity due to sex and age of analyzed rats are discussed, as are the suitability of specific organs and tissues with regard to bioaccumulation measurements concerning metals. The principal depot compartments for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cd, (in adult rats) and Tl are the liver and kidneys, whereas the elements Ni, Sr, Pb (for adult animals) and Ti are more affinitively to bones. Co and Zn displayed a more pronounced affinity towards tissues of the bones and liver. The analysis revealed large differences in Cd and Pb distributions both among young and adult rats, and with respect to sexes. It can be concluded that the distribution of the elements investigated in this study in free-living rats agrees with that in man, except for that of Ni. The above agreement gives proof of the possibility to use depot organs of rats for bioindication which was already mentioned in part I of this work. (Sex and age-related quantification of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Tl and Zn in liver, heart, lung, kidney, muscle, brain and bones and establishment of distribution patterns'). (orig.) [German] Die in Teil I quantifizierten Hintergrundkonzentrationen von 11 Elementen in Geweben und Organen wildlebender Ratten (Rattus norvegicus) aus einem gering bis maessig belasteten Untersuchungsgebiet (Euroregion Neisse) werden im 2. Teil fuer die Berechnung ihres relativen Beitrags zur Gesamtkoerperbelastung (Koerperlast oder Bodyburden) verwendet, um bevorzugte Depotkompartimente fuer die untersuchten Elemente

  4. Caregiver Burden in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanujam Vaishnavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholism is a major threat to the individual as well as the society and the maximum burden of the illness is borne by the family. Aim. The study is aimed at assessing the pattern of burden on the caregivers of alcohol dependent patients and at assessing the relationship between the severity of dependence and the burden on caregivers. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional assessment was done in 200 patients with alcohol dependence and their caregivers. The severity of dependence and the pattern of burden on caregivers were assessed. Statistical Analysis. The data thus collected was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study demonstrates that caregivers of alcohol dependent patients reported significant objective burden and subjective burden. Furthermore, the severity of alcohol dependence and the domains of burden such as financial burden, disruption of family interaction, and disruption of family routine activities were positively correlated with high level of significance. Conclusion. The current study has illustrated that all the caregivers experienced significant amount of burden which has to be addressed for better treatment outcome of the patients.

  5. Frontal Function, Disability and Caregiver Burden in Elderly Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers of patients with late-life major depressive disorder experience a significant level of general caregiver burden. Disability in patients is possibly one of the origins of caregiver burden. Frontal lobe dysfunction might be the source of disability. This study investigated if frontal lobe dysfunction (body level of patients with late-life major depressive disorder was associated with their disability (individual level, and if it led to a high level of caregiver burden (societal level. Thirty-four unselected pairs of caregivers and their family members with late-life major depressive disorder were recruited. Frontal Assessment Battery and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL were used to assess patients' frontal function and disability, and Caregiver Burden Inventory was used to measure caregiver burden. Frontal Assessment Battery correlated with TIADL (r= −0.47; p<0.006. TIADL score was also associated with two subscales of the Caregiver Burden Inventory: social (r = 0.38, p=0.026 and time-dependent (r= 0.37, p= 0.033. This study supported the hypothesis that frontal lobe dysfunction in elderly patients with depression is associated with their disability in instrumental activities of daily living. Disability is related to social and time-dependent aspects of caregiver burden. Further studies to examine proposed cognitive interventions are suggested to reduce patient disability and caregiver burden.

  6. Modeling chronic dietary cadmium bioaccumulation and toxicity from periphyton to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Borgmann, Uwe; Dixon, D George

    2011-07-01

    A chronic (28-d) Cd saturation bioaccumulation model was developed to quantify the Cd contribution from a natural periphyton diet to Cd in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Bioaccumulation was then linked to chronic toxic effects. Juvenile H. azteca were exposed to treatments of Cd in water (3.13-100 nmol/L nominal) and food (389-26,300 nmol/g ash-free dry mass). Cadmium bioaccumulation, survival, and growth were recorded. Dietary Cd was estimated to contribute 21 to 31, 59 to 94, and 40 to 55% to bioaccumulated Cd in H. azteca exposed to treatments of Cd primarily in water, food, and food + water, respectively. Survival as a function of Cd lethal body concentration (679 nmol/g; 95% confidence limits, 617-747) was the most robust endpoint. Body concentration integrated all exposure routes. Based on the lethal body concentration, dietary Cd was predicted to contribute markedly (26-90%) to Cd in H. azteca. Cadmium concentration and food nutritional quality (biomass, chlorophyll a, total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) had no effect on H. azteca nutritional quality (total lipid, fatty acids, total protein) but did influence H. azteca dry weight. This research highlighted the importance of including a dietary component when modeling chronic effects of Cd and when refining endpoints for use in ecological risk assessment and water quality guidelines. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1–xCdxTe) for infrared (IR) sensor applications, but etch pit density ( EPD ) measurements are required to measure...dislocations that affect device performance. No EPD solutions have been reported for Hg1–xCdxSe, and standard EPD solutions for Hg1–xCdxTe have proved...ineffective. Thus, a new etching solution is required for EPD measurements of Hg1–xCdxSe. Samples were etched in various solutions and the resulting pits

  8. The Effect of Selenium and +(-)Catechin on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione in Cadmium Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Semra; Dursun, Şefik

    2007-04-01

    Cadmium performs its effect on living organisms by accumulating in various tissues and effects tissue antioxidant enzyme systems. The testes are critical target organ following cadmium exposure. The present study was planned to determine the possible protective roles of selenium and +(-) catechin against the toxic effects of cadmium. The study has been performed in Wistar Albino rats which divided into four groups as control, cadmium, cadmium+selenium and cadmium+ catechin received groups. Each experimental group consisted of ten rats. The experimental group rats have received cadmium sulphate, sodium selenite and +(-) catechin via there drinking water for thirty days. Cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation and glutathione were measured in the homogenate of testes and blood. As a result of the study it may be said that: The cadmium accumulates in testes and its concentration increases in blood and possibly selenium administration is helpful against cadmium but not +(-)catechin.

  9. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  10. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1977-01-13

    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  11. Neuropsychiatric Burden in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Ricardo Augusto; Botturi, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Prunas, Cecilia; Lucchiari, Claudio; Zugno, Elisa; Caletti, Elisabetta

    2017-06-16

    Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape). Psychiatric conditions were classified into two main categories: affective and nonaffective disorders/symptoms; and anxiety and neuropsychiatric features such as apathy and irritability. Though the literature is extensive, it is not always convergent, probably due to the high heterogeneity of methods used. We summarize main papers for pathology and sample size, in order to present a synoptic vision of the argument. Since the association between Huntington's disease and psychiatric symptoms was demonstrated, we argue that the prevalent and more invalidating psychiatric components should be recognized as early as possible during the disease course in order to best address psychopharmacological therapy, improve quality of life, and also reduce burden on caregivers.

  12. Relationship between risk factors for infertility in women and lead, cadmium, and arsenic blood levels: a cross-sectional study from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hsiao-Ling; Wei, Hsiao-Jui; Ho, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Kai-Wei; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-12-09

    The World Health Organization reported that more than 10 % of women are severely affected by infertility, making the condition a major worldwide public health problem. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are environmental pollutants that may contribute to reproductive disorders. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As and risk factors for infertility in women. Women who were infertile (N = 310) or pregnant (N = 57) were recruited from the gynecology and obstetrics department of a hospital. The participants were interviewed to obtain their sociodemographic, reproductive, and lifestyle information. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and As in their blood samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our findings suggested that the concentrations of Pb and As, but not Cd, were significantly higher in the blood of infertile women than in that of pregnant women. A higher percentage of the infertile women consumed more alcohol, used Chinese herbal medicine more frequently, and lacked physical activity compared with the pregnant women. After accounting for potentially relevant predictors, we observed that blood Pb levels might be elevated by using Chinese herbal medicine 1-6 times per week (aOR = 2.82, p = 0.05). In addition, engaging in physical activity 1-2 times per week (aOR = 0.37, p = 0.05) might assist in reducing Pb accumulation in infertile women, though the p value was borderline. Lack of physical activity and frequent use of Chinese herbal medicine may be associated with elevated blood Pb levels in infertile women. Chinese herbal medicine use was observed to increase the Pb body burden of both infertile and pregnant women in this study. The risk-benefit for Chinese herbal medicine intake should be evaluated by women of childbearing age.

  13. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index <25 kg/m2 and ≥25 kg/m2. In comparison with obese subjects with blood cadmium <1.00 μg/L, those with blood cadmium >1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01 and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38 at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  14. Pneumococcal infection in adults: burden of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijkoningen, J.J.; Rohde, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    To overview the present global burden of pneumococcal disease is important because new preventive measures such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 are currently being evaluated. Pneumococcal disease is roughly divided into non-invasive and invasive disease. The burden of non-invasive

  15. Terminology and the Psychosocial Burden of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, David

    2004-01-01

    Various denotations and connotations of the word "blindness" are examined and the inference is drawn that they constitute a psychosocial burden that perpetuates prejudice. The analysis leads on to a hypothesis in which a more progressive terminology could lead to reduction of this burden.

  16. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns the...

  17. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in the...

  18. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and

  19. How Does Oyster Shell Immobilize Cadmium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Owens, Vance N; Park, Sungkyun; Kim, Jiwoong; Hong, Chang Oh

    2018-01-01

    The exact mechanism of cadmium (Cd) immobilization by oyster shell (OS) has not been reported. The effect of OS on Cd immobilization and the exact mechanism should be known before applying remediation technology using OS to Cd contaminated soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cd immobilization by OS. Three grams of OS (< 0.84 mm) was reacted with 30 mL of 0-3.56 mg Cd L-1 solution at 25 °C for 48 h. Cadmium adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration of Cd in solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly demonstrated that precipitation of CdCO3 did not take place in suspensions of OS after reacting with up to 3.56 mol Cd L-1. Interestingly, we found formation of Ca0.67Cd0.33CO3 crystalline in suspension of OS after reacting with maximum initial Cd concentrations. Precipitation and chemisorption might contribute to Cd immobilization together. However, we feel confident that chemisorption is the major mechanism by which Cd immobilization occurs with OS. In conclusion, OS could be an effective bioadsorbent to immobilize Cd through formation of geochemically stable Cd mineral.

  20. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium-Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, R; Cobbett, C S

    1992-09-01

    A screening procedure for identifying Cd-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is described. With this procedure, two Cd-sensitive mutants were isolated. These represent independent mutations in the same locus, referred to as CAD1. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Crosses of the mutant to marker strains showed that the mutation is closely linked to the tt3 locus on chromosome 5. In addition to Cd, the mutants are also significantly more sensitive to mercuric ions and only slightly more sensitive to Cu and Zn, while being no more sensitive than the wild type to Mn, thus indicating a degree of specificity in the mechanism affected by the mutation. Undifferentiated callus tissue is also Cd sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. Both wild-type and mutant plants showed increased sensitivity to Cd in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the cadmium-binding (gamma-glutamylcysteine)(n)-glycine peptides, suggesting that the mutant is still able to synthesize these peptides. However, the effects of a cad1 mutation and buthionine sulfoximine together on cadmium sensitivity are essentially nonadditive, indicating that they may affect different aspects of the same detoxification mechanism. Assays of Cd uptake by intact plants indicate that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester Cd.

  2. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  5. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.

    2003-05-01

    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B; Carter, A Brent; Rowe, Steven M; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1(+/+) or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1(-/-) PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1(+/+) PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. [Family caregivers' burden and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Kazuko; Becker, Carl; Siwaku, Kuninori; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between home-based elder care and marital satisfaction. Care managers distributed a questionnaire to home caregivers in order to assess the items such as annual income, marital satisfaction, Zarit caregiver burden, sleeping hours and how often they have to get up in the night to take care of the elder. A total of 149 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Their marital satisfaction was inversely correlated to caregiver burden, but positively correlated with annual income. Subjective psychological perception of caregiver burden was the most important factor influencing a marital satisfaction. It appears that a marital satisfaction depend far more on subjective perception of caregiver burden than on more objective measurements of caregiver burden.

  8. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  9. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  10. Cadmium free lead alloy for reusable radiotherapy shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, C R; Amundson, K D

    1990-01-01

    A low melting point cadmium free fusible lead alloy suitable for custom radiotherapy shielding blocks is described. The alloy, referred to here as Alloy-203, differs in composition from the more common Lipowitz's metal (Cerrobend) by being cadmium free, having a slightly higher lead content and a 203 degrees F melting temperature. Attenuation properties have been studied for 4-18 MV X-rays. Alloy-203 has lower transmission than Lipowitz's metal, primarily due to the higher content of lead and bismuth. Daily use for the past 2 years at Mayo Clinic has not indicated any major problems associated with the use of this cadmium free alloy for custom shield fabrication.

  11. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal ...

  12. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  13. Studies on growth and nucleation kinetics of cadmium thiourea sulphate and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mekala [Quaid-e-Milleth College, Chennai 600002 (India)], E-mail: mekaladaniel@rediffmail.com; Malliga, M. Jeyarani [Bharathi Women College, Chennai 600108 (India); Sankar, R. [Kings Engineering College, Irungatukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Chennai 602105 (India); Jayaraman, D. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 004 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Semiorganic materials, in general possess high non-linear coefficient and mechanical strength which will be more applicable for device fabrication. Cadmium thiourea sulphate (CTS) and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate (MCTS) are better semiorganic materials which find applications in the field of optoelectronics. Single crystals of CTS and MCTS have been successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique using predetermined solubility data. The basic growth parameters of the crystal nuclei of the grown crystals of CTS and MCTS were evaluated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. The classical nucleation theory makes use of capillarity approximation which has certain limitations. A correction has to be applied for it and the classical nucleation theory has been suitably modified in order to calculate the critical nucleus parameters.

  14. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  15. Interactive effects of cadmium and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacterium) on the growth, antioxidative responses and accumulation of cadmium and microcystins in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiaolin; Gu, Ji-Dong; Tie, BaiQing; Yao, Bangsong; Shao, Jihai

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium pollution and harmful cyanobacterial blooms are two prominent environmental problems. The interactive effects of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria on rice seedlings remain unknown. In order to elucidate this issue, the interactive effects of cadmium(II) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 on the growth and antioxidant responses of rice seedling were investigated in this study, as well as the accumulation of cadmium(II) and microcystins. The results showed that the growth of rice seedlings was inhibited by cadmium(II) stress but promoted by inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905. cadmium(II) stress induced oxidative damage on rice seedlings. Inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905 alleviated the toxicity of cadmium(II) on rice seedlings. The accumulation of cadmium(II) in rice seedlings was decreased by M. aeruginosa FACHB905, but the translocation of cadmium(II) from root to shoot was increased by this cyanobacterium. The accumulation of microcystins in rice seedlings was decreased by cadmium(II). Results presented in this study indicated that cadmium(II) and M. aeruginosa had antagonistic toxicity on rice seedlings. The findings of this study throw new light on evaluation of ecological- and public health-risks for the co-contamination of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria.

  16. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  17. Lead, cadmium and mercury contents and bioaccumulation potential of wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Kasap, Ante; Bedeković, Dalibor; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) contents in ten species of edible mushrooms in Trakošćan, Croatia were determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis. The caps and stipes of the fruiting bodies were analysed separately. The analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The greatest mean lead concentrations of 1.91 and 1.60 mg kg -1 were determined in caps and stipes of Macrolepiota procera. The greatest mean concentrations of cadmium (3.23 and 2.24 mg kg -1 ) were determined in caps and stipes of Agaricus campestris and of mercury (2.56 and 2.35 mg kg -1 ) in Boletus edulis. In terms of the anatomical parts of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably greater concentration of the analysed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bio-concentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bio-accumulators of Cd and Hg. On the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals, great similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation was obtained by cluster analysis.

  18. Protective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Qin; Zheng, Gaoli; Chen, Yunxiang; Huang, Mincong; Zhang, Lijiang; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) would protect mice against cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity. Seventy-two male mice were randomly divided into six groups with twelve mice per group. Four groups were administered orally with cadmium chloride (5.0 mg per kg body weight) for 35 days and treated in combination with LBPs (0, 10.0, 33.3 or 100 mg kg(-1)) from one week before exposure to Cd until the end of the experiment. The other two groups were administered orally with vehicle or LBP (100 mg kg(-1)) only. Pretreatment with LBP ameliorated the Cd-induced reduction in the body weights, sperm motility as well as the level of testosterone in serum. Moreover, Cd-induced increase in the abnormal sperms was reduced and effects of Cd on the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were reversed. Histopathological examination further confirmed that the LBPs effectively attenuated Cd-induced degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Thus, LBPs attenuated Cd-induced testicular injury by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymatic activity and lowering the oxidative stress, so it could be a potential auxiliary therapeutic agent for Cd-induced testicular toxicity.

  19. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  20. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial ... Read on for tips to have a healthy body image. Â Topics About body image When you ...

  1. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  2. Plasma S100β is not a useful biomarker for tumor burden in neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miriam J; Esparza, Sonia; Merker, Vanessa L; Muzikansky, Alona; Bredella, Miriam A; Harris, Gordon J; Kassarjian, Ara; Cai, Wenli; Walker, James A; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis are characterized by a predisposition to develop multiple neurofibromas and schwannomas. Currently, there is no blood test to estimate tumor burden in patients with these disorders. We explored whether S100β would act as a biomarker of tumor burden in NF since S100β is a classic immunohistochemical marker of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and a small study showed S100β concentrations correlate with the volume of vestibular schwannomas. We calculated whole-body tumor burden in subjects with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis using whole-body MRI (WBMRI) and measured the concentration of S100β in plasma using ELISA. We used chi-square tests and Spearman rank correlations to test the relationship between S100β levels and whole-body tumor burden. 127 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study (69 NF1 patients, 28 NF2 patients, and 30 schwannomatosis patients). The median age was 40years, 43% were male, and median whole-body tumor volume was 26.9mL. There was no relationship between the presence of internal tumors and the presence of detectable S100β in blood for the overall group or for individual diagnoses (p>0.05 by chi-square for all comparisons). Similarly, there was no correlation between whole-body tumor volume and S100β concentration for the overall group or for individual diagnoses (p>0.05 by Spearman for all comparisons). Plasma S100β is not a useful biomarker for tumor burden in the neurofibromatoses. Further work is needed to identify a reliable biomarker of tumor burden in NF patients. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of cadmium and monensin on renal and cardiac functions of mice subjected to subacute cadmium intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Juliana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a well-known nephrotoxic agent. Cd-induced renal dysfunction has been considered as one of the causes leading to the development of hypertension. The correlation between Cd concentration in blood and urine and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in many epidemiological studies. A therapy with chelating agents is utilized for the treatment of toxic metal intoxication. Herein we present novel information indicating that monensin (applied as tetraethylammonium salt is a promising chelating agent for the treatment of Cd-induced renal and cardiac dysfunction. The study was performed using the ICR mouse model. Adult ICR male mice were divided into three groups with six animals in each group: control (received distilled water and food ad libitum for 28 days; Cd-intoxicated (treated orally with 20 mg/kg b.w. Cd(II acetate from day 1 to day 14 of the experimental protocol, and monensin treated group (intoxicated with Cd(II acetate as described for the Cd-intoxicated group followed by oral treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w. tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid for 2 weeks. Cd intoxication of the animals resulted in an increase of the organ weight/body weight indexes. Cd elevated significantly creatinine and glucose level in serum. Monensin treatment improved the organ weight/body weight ratios. The therapy of the Cd-intoxicated animals with monensin ameliorated the creatinine and glucose level in serum and decreased the concentration of the toxic metal ions in the heart and kidneys by 54 % and 64 %, respectively

  4. Integrated photovoltaics in nickel cadmium battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This research report presents Connecticut Department of Transportations (ConnDOTs) : evaluation of preproduction prototype nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery-powered electric : vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative-fuel (alt-fuel) option for local trips...

  5. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    –234. Cieslinski G, Van Rees KCJ, Szmigielska AM, Krishnamurti GSR,. Huang PM (1998). Lowmolecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere soils of durum wheat and their effect on cadmium bioaccumulation. Plant Soil, 203: ...

  6. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats and their fetuses at morphological, physiological and molecular level. Ashraf El-Sayed, Salem M Salem, Amany A El-Garhy, Zeinab A Rahman, Asmaa M Kandil ...

  7. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHAR HABIBAR CHOWDHURY SUSHOVAN KONER SUBHASIS ROY BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 1377- ...

  8. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in plants growing in abandoned mining-district area. HK Chakroun, F Souissi, JL Bouchardon, R Souissi, J Moutte, O Faure, E Remon, S Abdeljaoued ...

  9. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  10. Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran. E Rahimi, M Hajisalehi, HR Kazemeini, A Chakeri, A Khodabakhsh, M Derakhshesh, M Mirdamadi, AG Ebadi, A Rezvani, FM Kashkahi ...

  11. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  12. Cadmium-binding in the pregnant and fetal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, B.J.; Ozga, J.A.; Walter, B.K.; Sasser, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    A cadmium-binding moiety with properties in common with adult cadmium-thionein was identified in the livers of fetal rats at day 18 of gestation. Pregnant rats (approx. 200 g) were subcutaneously injected with 50 ..mu..g of radiolabeled cadmium in the form of /sup 115m/CdCl/sub 2/ daily from days 11 through 15 of gestation. Maternal liver contained 14 to 18 ..mu..g Cd/g tissue; fetal liver contained 44 to 70 ng Cd/g tissue. A soluble (aqueous), heat stable, cadmium-binding molecule(s) was found which had an apparent molecular weight of approx. 10,000 in adult livers and 6000 in fetal livers by gel filtration chromatography. Both fetal and adult proteins absorbed maximally at 254 but not 280 nm.

  13. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  14. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  15. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame absorption ... known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low ... Changes in. pH and electrode potential (Eh) can mobilise heavy.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  17. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Stroiński; Monika Kozłowska

    2014-01-01

    Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202) and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP) and catalase (CAT) was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dism...

  19. Protective effect of pre-supplementation with selenium on cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the antioxidant nutrient selenium, Se, on biologic response to cadmium-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was investigated in rats pretreated with Se prior to exposure to mild doses of Cd. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water ...

  20. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Toman; Svätoslav Hluchý; Jozef Golian; Michal Cabaj; Mária Adamkovičová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group). Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluatio...

  1. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 103 μg g-1 usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g-1, was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g-1 and 8 μg g-1, respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Monitoring the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium in working and living environment through standard biochemical blood parameters and liver endonucleases activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ružica S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals as pollutants in the working and living environment are a serious health and environmental problem because they are toxic, non-biodegradable, accumulate in living systems and have a long half-life in soil. Sources of lead contamination are combustion products in the chemical industry and metallurgy, industrial waste water, landfills, traffic etc. Lead enters into the body via the food chain and drinking water. In the body lead is deposited in the liver, kidneys, brain and mineral tissues. Excretion of lead causes damage to the epithelial cells of certain organs. High level exposure to cadmium is usually the result of environmental pollution by human activities. Exposure to cadmium can lead to acute and chronic tissue damage of various organs, including liver and kidneys in humans and in animals. In this paper we analyzed the effects of lead and cadmium exposure, in working and living environment, on the model system of experimental animals, particularly the activity of certain liver enzymes, acid and alkaline DNase, and standard biochemical blood parameters. The study showed that lead and cadmium significantly affect the protein content, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and the activity of liver enzymes. This harmful effect of this toxic metal can be reduced by the supplements.

  4. Human seminal plasma cadmium: comparison with fertility and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, M; Kantola, M; Saarikoski, S; Vanha-Perttula, T

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium, selenium and zinc were determined in seminal plasma and serum of 64 men by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The mean (+/- SD) cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma and serum were 0.22 +/- 0.22 micrograms and 0.28 +/- 0.10 micrograms, respectively, but they did not correlate with each other. Smokers (n = 31) had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher serum cadmium concentrations than non-smokers (n = 31). Also seminal plasma cadmium in smokers was elevated, but a significant difference to non-smokers was only found if more than 20 cigarettes were consumed daily. No differences were found in semen quality and fertility between smokers and non-smokers. The seminal plasma cadmium had no correlation to selenium or zinc which, however, displayed a positive correlation (r = 0.852, p less than 0.001) to each other. It is concluded that smoking increases the exposure to cadmium. Although no obvious reproductive suppression was observed, heavy smoking may possibly enhance toxic effects in men under other detrimental exposures.

  5. Influence of combined antioxidants against cadmium induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuturk, Meral; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tunali, Sevim

    2006-05-01

    Acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and combined antioxidants were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rat testes. The rats were subdivided into four groups. Cadmium chloride (2mg/kgday) injected intraperitoneally during 8 days. Vitamin C (250mg/kgday), vitamin E (250mg/kgday) and sodium selenate (0.25mg/kgday) were pretreated by gavage in both of control and cadmium injected rats. Testis lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were determined by spectrophotometrically. In Cd treated rats, lipid peroxidation levels were increased and glutathione levels were decreased and combined antioxidants treatment was effective in preventing of lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione. In Cd treated animals, the degenerative changes were observed, but not observed in the administrated rats with Cd and antioxidants under the light microscope. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein and caspase-3 activities were evaluated by immunohistochemically. Proliferation activity was not seen in the spermatogonial cells of cadmium treated testis. Treatment with antioxidants in cadmium administrated testis leads to pronounced increase in proliferation activity. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity was determined in the spermatogenic cells but not spermatogonia in treatment of antioxidants with Cd. In control and treated with antioxidants animals, metallothionein expressions were localized in the cells of seminiferous tubules, although the expression only was observed in the interstitial cells of cadmium treated rats. Results demonstrated beneficial effects of combined vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium treatment in Cd toxicity.

  6. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. International Peacekeeping Operations: Burden Sharing and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Todd

    2017-10-01

    This article takes stock of some of the important contributions to the study of peacekeeping (PK). Two key topics stand out: peacekeeping burden sharing and mission effectiveness. For burden sharing, the theoretical foundation is the private provision of public goods and joint products. Implications for burden sharing differ whether financial or troop contributions are being shared, with the latter driven by jointly produced country-specific benefits. Financial burden sharing can also differ between United Nations (UN)-led and non-UN-led peacekeeping operations, wherein country-specific benefits are especially important for the latter. Many articles gauge peacekeeping effectiveness by the mission's ability to maintain the peace or to protect lives for a set time period. More recently, multiple criteria are raised for evaluating peacekeeping in today's world of multifaceted peacebuilding operations.

  8. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  9. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2001-08-01

    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  10. Gene expression analysis in cadmium-stressed roots of a low cadmium-accumulating solanaceous plant, Solanum torvum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirotaka Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Fukuoka; Tomohito Arao; Akio Ohyama; Tsukasa Nunome; Koji Miyatake; Satomi Negoro

    2010-01-01

    Solanum torvum Sw. cv. Torubamubiga (TB) is a low cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the Cd acclimation process in TB roots, transcriptional regulation was analysed in response to mild Cd treatment...

  11. Hair toxic element content in adult men and women in relation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the hair toxic metal content in adults in relation to body mass index. A total of 1,229 persons including 719 women and 510 men were examined. All subjects were divided into two age groups: 1 and 2 periods of adulthood. All men and women were also subdivided into groups in relation to their values of body mass index (BMI): underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Hair aluminium (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) content was evaluated using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. It has been shown that increase in body weight is accompanied by elevated hair cadmium content in women. At the same time, no significant alteration of hair cadmium concentration was observed in males. Higher values of scalp hair mercury and lead content were observed in men and women with increased body mass index independently of their age. BMI-related elevation of hair tin content was registered only in men of the first period of adulthood. A significant correlation between hair metal content and the values of BMI was observed for mercury independently of the gender of the subjects, whereas BMI values correlated significantly with hair cadmium levels in women and lead and tin levels in men. It has been also estimated that hair cadmium, mercury and lead levels in men exceed the respective values in women.

  12. The burden of zoonoses in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Chapter 1 provided the background for this thesis. The main goal of public health policy is to promote, enhance and protect population health. This requires information on the health status of the population, often referred to as the “burden of disease”. Population health is a multifactorial phenomenon with many facets. As a result, the disease burden of a population can be described by a variety of indicators. As current health policy requires a global overview of public health, combining mo...

  13. Solar geoengineering reduces atmospheric carbon burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Wagner, Gernot; Zabel, Claire L.

    2017-09-01

    Solar geoengineering is no substitute for cutting emissions, but could nevertheless help reduce the atmospheric carbon burden. In the extreme, if solar geoengineering were used to hold radiative forcing constant under RCP8.5, the carbon burden may be reduced by ~100 GTC, equivalent to 12-26% of twenty-first-century emissions at a cost of under US$0.5 per tCO2.

  14. Dementia Caregiver Burden: a Research Update and Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-08-10

    This article provides an updated review of the determinants of caregiver burden and depression, with a focus on care demands and especially the differential effects of various neuropsychiatric symptoms or symptom clusters. Moreover, studies on caregivers for frontotemporal and Lewy body dementias were referred to in order to identify differences and similarities with the mainstream literature based largely on Alzheimer caregivers. As a group, neuropsychiatric symptoms are most predictive of caregiver burden and depression regardless of dementia diagnosis, but the effects appear to be driven primarily by disruptive behaviors (e.g., agitation, aggression, disinhibition), followed by delusions and mood disturbance. Disruptive behaviors are more disturbing partly because of the adverse impact on the emotional connection between the caregiver and the care-recipient and partly because they exacerbate difficulties in other domains (e.g., caring for activities of daily living). In behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, not only are these disruptive behaviors more prominent but they are also more disturbing due to the care-recipient's insensitivity to others' feelings. In Lewy body dementia, visual hallucinations also appear to be distressing. The disturbing nature of disruptive behaviors cuts across dementia conditions, but the roles played by symptoms that are unique or particularly serious in a certain condition need to be explored further.

  15. Changes in carboxypeptidase A, dipeptidase and Na+/K+ ATPase activities in the intestine of rats orally exposed to different doses of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyamremu, G E; Asagba, S O; Onyeneke, E C; Adaikpoh, M A

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium on some protein digestive and absorption enzymes in rats. Thirty-six rats were grouped into three groups of 12 animals each; one group received deionised water and acted as control. One group received 445 microM Cd and the last group received 890 microM Cd in their drinking water for a period of one month. The results obtained indicate that increasing the level of cadmium from 445 microM to 890 microM in the drinking water of the rats led to 29% and 23% increase in accumulated cadmium in the proximal and distal small intestine respectively. The body weight gain of rats exposed to 445 microM and 890 microM Cd was decreased by about 24% and 43% respectively when compared with the control. The activities of carboxypeptidase A, dipeptidase and Na+/K+ ATPase were reduced in the mucosa of the proximal end of the small intestine of cadmium exposed rats. The reduction was dose dependent; with the 890 microM Cd exposed rats displaying the least activities. In the distal small intestine, the activities of these enzymes were restored in the 445 microM Cd exposed rats to levels that were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from those observed in the controls. In the 890 microM Cd exposed rats, dipeptidase activity improved by about 80% compared with the activity of the enzyme in the proximal small intestine. Likewise, Na+/K+ ATPase activity increased by about 125% compared with the observed level in the proximal small intestine. The study suggests that cadmium given to rats in drinking water compromise protein digestion and absorption of nutrients particularly in the proximal region of small intestine and could account for weight reduction associated with cadmium toxicity.

  16. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  17. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengue, Yves; Steiman, Régine; Garrel, Catherine; Lefèbvre, Emmanuel; Guiraud, Pascale

    2008-01-14

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 microM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 microM lead to 30% mortality after 24h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 microM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium.

  18. Validation of the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC), a multidimensional short care burden scale from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mitsunori; Yamaguchi, Aki; Kayama, Mami; Narita, Yugo; Kawada, Norikazu; Akiyama, Miki; Hagiwara, Akiko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2006-08-18

    We constructed a concise multidimensional care burden scale that reflects circumstances unique to Japan, with a focus on intractable neurological diseases. We surveyed 646 family caregivers of patients with intractable neurological diseases or stroke using 28 preliminary care burden scale items obtained from qualitative research. The results were used to finalize the feeling of care burden scale (BIC: burden index of caregivers), and verify its reliability and validity. The survey was conducted among caregivers providing home health care to patients with intractable neurological diseases (PD [Parkinson's disease], SCD [spinocerebellar degeneration], MSA [multiple system atrophy], and ALS [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]) or CVA (cerebrovascular accident) using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire between November, 2003 and May, 2004. Response rates for neurological and CVA caregivers were 50% and 67%, respectively, or 646 in total (PD, 279; SCD, 78; MSA, 39; ALS, 30; and CVA, 220). Item and exploratory factor analyses led to a reduction to 11 items, comprising 10 items from the 5 domains of time-dependent burden, emotional burden, existential burden, physical burden, and service-related burden; and 1 item on total burden. Examination of validity showed a moderate correlation between each domain of the BIC and the SF-8 (Health related quality of life scale, Short Form-8), while the correlation coefficient of the overall BIC and CES-D was 0.62. Correlation between the BIC and ZBI, a preexisting care burden scale, was high (r = 0.84), while that with the time spent on providing care was 0.47. The ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient) by test-retest reliability was 0.83, and 0.68 to 0.80 by individual domain. These results show that the BIC, a new care burden scale comprising 11 items, is highly reliable and valid.

  19. Validation of the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC, a multidimensional short care burden scale from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiwara Akiko

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We constructed a concise multidimensional care burden scale that reflects circumstances unique to Japan, with a focus on intractable neurological diseases. We surveyed 646 family caregivers of patients with intractable neurological diseases or stroke using 28 preliminary care burden scale items obtained from qualitative research. The results were used to finalize the feeling of care burden scale (BIC: burden index of caregivers, and verify its reliability and validity. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers providing home health care to patients with intractable neurological diseases (PD [Parkinson's disease], SCD [spinocerebellar degeneration], MSA [multiple system atrophy], and ALS [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] or CVA (cerebrovascular accident using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire between November, 2003 and May, 2004. Results Response rates for neurological and CVA caregivers were 50% and 67%, respectively, or 646 in total (PD, 279; SCD, 78; MSA, 39; ALS, 30; and CVA, 220. Item and exploratory factor analyses led to a reduction to 11 items, comprising 10 items from the 5 domains of time-dependent burden, emotional burden, existential burden, physical burden, and service-related burden; and 1 item on total burden. Examination of validity showed a moderate correlation between each domain of the BIC and the SF-8 (Health related quality of life scale, Short Form-8, while the correlation coefficient of the overall BIC and CES-D was 0.62. Correlation between the BIC and ZBI, a preexisting care burden scale, was high (r = 0.84, while that with the time spent on providing care was 0.47. The ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient by test-retest reliability was 0.83, and 0.68 to 0.80 by individual domain. Conclusion These results show that the BIC, a new care burden scale comprising 11 items, is highly reliable and valid.

  20. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity, and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants--implications for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Umar, Shahid; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    This study, based on a greenhouse pot culture experiment conducted with 15-day-old rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. cv. Pusa Gold; family Brassicaceae) and moong bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Pusa Ratna; family Fabaceae) plants treated with cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) soil), investigates their potential for Cd accumulation and tolerance, and dissects the underlying basic physiological/biochemical mechanisms. In both species, plant dry mass decreased, while Cd concentration of both root and shoot increased with increase in soil Cd. Roots harbored a higher amount of Cd (vs. shoot) in B. campestris, while the reverse applied to V. radiata. By comparison, root Cd concentration was higher in B. campestris than in V. radiata. The high Cd concentrations in B. campestris roots and V. radiata shoots led to significant elevation in oxidative indices, as measured in terms of electrolyte leakage, H2O2 content, and lipid peroxidation. Both plants displayed differential adaptation strategies to counteract the Cd burden-caused anomalies in their roots and shoots. In B. campestris, increasing Cd burden led to a significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content but a significant increase in activities of GSH reductase (GR), GSH peroxidase (GPX), and GSH sulfotransferase (GST). However, in V. radiata, increasing Cd burden caused significant increase in GSH content and GR activity, but a significant decline in activities of GPX and GST. Cross talks on Cd burden of tissues and the adapted Cd tolerance strategies against Cd burden-accrued toxicity indicated that B. campestris and V. radiata are good Cd stabilizer and Cd extractor, respectively, wherein a fine tuning among the major components (GR, GPX, GST, GSH) of the GSH redox system helped the plants to counteract differentially the Cd load-induced anomalies in tissues. On the whole, the physiological/biochemical characterization of the B. campestris and V. radiata responses to varying Cd

  1. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  2. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  4. Branchial cadmium and copper binding and intestinal cadmium uptake in wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from clean and metal-contaminated lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, J S; Green, W W; Mirza, R S; Nadella, S R; Chowdhury, M J; Wood, C M; Pyle, G G

    2007-08-30

    Branchial binding kinetics and gastro-intestinal uptake of copper and cadmium where examined in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from a metal-contaminated lake (Hannah Lake, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada) and an uncontaminated lake (James Lake, North Bay, Ontario, Canada). An in vivo approach was taken for gill binding comparisons while an in vitro gut binding assay was employed for gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) uptake analysis. By investigating metal uptake at the gill and the gut we cover the two main routes of metal entry into fish. Comparisons of water and sediment chemistries, metal burdens in benthic invertebrate, and metal burdens in the livers of perch from the two study lakes clearly show that yellow perch from Hannah L. are chronically exposed to a highly metal-contaminated environment compared to a reference lake. We found that metal-contaminated yellow perch showed no significant difference in gill Cd binding compared to reference fish, but they did show significant decreases in new Cd binding and absorption in their GITs. The results show that gill Cd binding may involve low-capacity, high-affinity binding sites, while gastro-intestinal Cd uptake involves binding sites that are high-capacity, low-affinity. From this we infer that Cd may be more critically controlled at the gut rather than gills. Significant differences in branchial Cu binding (increased binding) were observed in metal-contaminated yellow perch. We suggest that chronic waterborne exposure to Cu (and/or other metals) may be the dominant influence in gill Cu binding rather than chronic exposure to high Cu diets. We give supporting evidence that Cd is taken up in the GIT, at least in part, by a similar pathway as Ca(2+), principally that elevated dietary Ca(2+) reduces Cd binding and uptake. Overall our study reveals that metal pre-exposure via water and diet can alter uptake kinetics of Cu and Cd at the gill and/or the gut.

  5. Burden of depressive disorders by country, sex, age, and year: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrari, Alize J; Charlson, Fiona J; Norman, Rosana E; Patten, Scott B; Freedman, Greg; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-01-01

    ...) 1990 and 2000 studies. Here, we analyze the burden of depressive disorders in GBD 2010 and present severity proportions, burden by country, region, age, sex, and year, as well as burden of depressive disorders as a risk...

  6. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Chong, Huey Yi; Abdul Aziz, Salina; Chemi, Norliza; Othman, Abdul Razak; Md Zaki, Nurzuriana; Vanichkulpitak, Possatorn; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia. A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient's identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted. The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million (M) which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%), costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%), costing at USD 1.7M. This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.

  7. 77 FR 36295 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cadmium in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... cadmium, to provide medical surveillance, to train workers about the hazards of cadmium in the workplace... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of...

  8. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  9. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  10. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  11. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  12. Allostatic load but not medical burden predicts memory performance in late-life bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Sophie R; Rajji, Tarek K; Gildengers, Ariel G; Waters, Sarah E S; Butters, Meryl A; Menon, Mahesh; Blumberger, Daniel M; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2017-12-13

    Older patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with variable degrees of cognitive impairment. Over time, stress, mood episodes, and comorbidities increase the body's allostatic load. We assessed the extent to which allostatic load vs more traditional measures of medical burden account for the heterogeneity in cognition in this population. Thirty-five older euthymic patients with BD and 30 age-equated, gender-equated, and education-equated comparison participants were administered a comprehensive assessment including a neuropsychological battery, and 9 physiological measures to determine allostatic load. The relationship among allostatic load, medical burden, and cognition was assessed. Compared with the mentally healthy comparators, patients were impaired globally, and in 4 cognitive domains-information-processing speed / executive functioning, delayed memory, language, and visuomotor ability, and presented with greater medical burden but not a different allostatic load. Allostatic load, but not medical burden, was associated with delayed memory performance both in a correlational analysis and in a multivariate regression analysis. Euthymic older patients with BD are impaired on several cognitive domains and have high medical burden. Their memory performance is more strongly associated with allostatic load than with traditional measures of medical burden. These findings need to be replicated and extended longitudinally. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Burden and modifications in life from the perspective of caregivers for patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Huana Carolina Cândido; Soares, Arethusa Morais de Gouveia; Oliveira, Ana Railka de Souza; Carvalho, Carolina Maria de Lima; da Silva, Maria Josefina; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the impact that caring has on a member of the family caring for a patient after a cerebrovascular accident, correlating life modifications and mental suffering with the perceived burden. a cross-sectional, quantitative study, undertaken in January-April 2010 in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. 61 individuals were investigated, monitored by three hospitals' Home Care Program. Data collection was through interviews for identifying life changes, and through the application of three scales for investigating perceived burden, mental state and mental suffering. Respectively these were the Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ). The majority of the carers were female, married, and the children of the stroke patients. The average age was 48.2 years (±12.4). The most-cited life modifications referred to the daily routine, to leisure activities, and to exhaustion or tiredness. Regarding burden, the dimensions of General tension, Isolation and Disappointment stood out. It was ascertained that overload was more severe when the carer presented more symptoms of psychological distress, in the absence of a secondary carer, and when the principal carers reported perceiving changes in their bodies and health. an association between burden and the carer's mental state was not observed. Understanding the care, through analysis of the burden and of the knowledge of the biopsychosocial situation will provide support for the nurse's work in reducing the overload for family caregivers.

  14. Effect of selenium on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and esterase activity in rat organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Dzobo; Yogeshkumar S. Naik

    2013-01-01

    Metal toxicity is a threat mainly in the industrialised world where industry discharges many toxic metals into the environment. We investigated the effects of two metals cadmium and selenium on the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and esterases in the liver, kidneys and testes of rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) were divided equally into four groups: control, cadmium, selenium and cadmium/selenium. Salts of the metals were administered intraperitoneally for 15 days. In the liver, cadmium tr...

  15. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyang Hu; Xing Lu; Xiang Cen; Xiaohua Chen; Feng Li; Shan Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively in...

  16. The effect of betaine administration on rat sperm quality following cadmium toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    arash Kheradmand; masoud Alirezaei; omid Dezfoulian

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to survey the protective effects of betaine against cadmium and on sperm quality including progressive motility, sperm membrane integrity, concentration as well as testicular weight. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats were allocated to the following three groups (n=10 in each group): control-saline, cadmium-saline and cadmium-betaine. Induction of testicular injury was achieved by a single injection of cadmium chloride intraperotoneally, and bet...

  17. Toxicity of cadmium and protective effect of bee honey, vitamins C and B complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, I; Elhabiby, M I; Ashour, A A

    2013-04-01

    The present work aimed to study the toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) on rabbits' blood indices, as well as the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant agents, vitamins C and B complex and bee honey on Cd intoxicated rabbits. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was injected subcutaneously at a dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight. The results showed a significant increase in serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine, compared to the control group. In addition, CdCl2 intoxication increased the levels of uric acid, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Concerning haematological parameters, the more obvious changes were an increase in mean corpuscular volume and a decrease in white blood cells count, platelets, lymphocytes, heamatocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. Treatment of CdCl2-intoxicated animals with vitamins C and B complex and bee honey showed a decrease in the harmful effects of Cd by restoring haematological and biochemical changes. Bee honey treatment was the most effective in providing recoveries in the altered blood parameters.

  18. Cadmium Testicular Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats: Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaknejad, Nasim; Bahrami, Somaye; Moshtaghie, Ali Asghar; Nayeri, Hashem; Rajabi, Parvin; Iranpour, Farhad Golshan

    2017-12-14

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element, which may cause toxicity to most organs in the body. Zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) are essential minerals with probable benefits on Cd harmful effects. Finding an efficient and non-pathological treatment against Cd toxicity seems promising. Fifty adult rats were divided into ten experimental groups of five rats each. The Cd group was treated with 1 mg Cd/kg and the control group received 0.5 cm3 normal saline. The other eight groups received Zn (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) and Mg (0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg) either alone or in combination with 1 mg Cd/kg through IP injection for 3 weeks. Testis malondialdehyde (MDA), sperm parameters, and testis histopathology were investigated. Cd reduced sperm parameters and increased testis MDA. Moreover, Cd exposure caused a significant histological damage in testis of male rats. However, Zn or Mg treatment prevented and reversed Cd toxic alterations in testis. These findings suggest that co-administration of Zn or Mg could improve cadmium testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats.

  19. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  20. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  1. [Burden of disease in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Dantés, Héctor; Castro, Ma Victoria; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Bedregal, Paula; Rodríguez García, Jesús; Espinoza, Azalea; Valdez Huarcaya, William; Lozano, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    To describe the burden of disease studies made in the region, identify the main priorities in health from the indicator Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). By the use of DALYs identify the burden of disease in the countries in the network. DALYs emphasize the emergency of mental disorders, diabetes mellitus in women and the disorders associated with alcohol consumption and injuries in men. Latin America is the region with more national studies of burden of disease, using a standardized methodology, that allows identifying new health priorities which are pressing to the health services; for that reason these results constitute an element to take into account in the establishment of public policies in each country.

  2. The global burden of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkol, Thomas; Schraufnagel, Dean

    2014-03-01

    The Forum of International Respiratory Societies has released a report entitled Respiratory Disease in the World: Realities of Today-Opportunities for Tomorrow. The report identifies five conditions that primarily contribute to the global burden of respiratory disease (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and lung cancer), and offers an action plan to prevent and treat those diseases. It describes the staggering magnitude of the global burden of lung disease: hundreds of millions of people suffer and four million people die prematurely from respiratory diseases each year. The situation is not hopeless, because most major respiratory illnesses are avoidable. Much of the disease burden can be mitigated by reducing exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, restraining tobacco use, and relieving urban overcrowding. Implementation of the strategies described in the Forum of International Respiratory Societies respiratory diseases report would have a profound effect on respiratory health, reduce economic costs, and enhance health equality in the world.

  3. Health Burden of Extreme Weather in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraphan Plongmak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Thailand has a DALYs lost of over 16,274 from extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include floods, flash floods, and severe storms, and most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872 DALYs. The second most impactful weather event was severe storms, with losses of approximately 2,019 DALYs, followed by flash floods, which caused losses of about 1,383 DALYs. Climate change is a cause of extreme weather events, and a relationship betweenclimate and health has been found worldwide. Improved long-term, high-quality data sets are needed to better analyze and improve accuracy of the health burden.

  4. Targeting communication interventions to decrease caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Rankin, Anna

    2012-11-01

    To describe family communication patterns that give shape to four types of family caregivers: Manager, Carrier, Partner, and Loner. Case studies of oncology family caregivers and hospice patients selected from data collected as part of a larger, randomized controlled trial aimed at assessing family participation in interdisciplinary team meetings. Each caregiver type demonstrates essential communication traits with nurses and team members; an ability to recognize these caregiver types will facilitate targeted interventions to decrease family oncology caregiver burden. By becoming familiar with caregiver types, oncology nurses will be better able to address family oncology caregiver burden and the conflicts arising from family communication challenges. With an understanding of family communication patterns and its impact on caregiver burden, nurses can aid the patient, family, and team to best optimize all quality-of-life domains for patient and family caregiver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igura, Masato, E-mail: mst_igr@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g{sup -1}, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  6. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  8. Biosynthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum semiconductor crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, C. T.; Reese, R. N.; Mehra, R. K.; Kortan, A. R.; Carroll, P. J.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Brus, L. E.; Winge, D. R.

    1989-04-01

    NANOMETRE-SCALE semiconductor quantum crystallites exhibit size-dependent and discrete excited electronic states which occur at energies higher than the band gap of the corresponding bulk solid1-4. These crystallites are too small to have continuous energy bands, even though a bulk crystal structure is present. The onset of such quantum properties sets a fundamental limit to device miniaturization in microelectronics5. Structures with either one, two or all three dimensions on the nanometer scale are of particular interest in solid state physics6. We report here our discovery of the biosynthesis of quantum crystallites in yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cultured in the presence of cad-mium salts. Short chelating peptides of general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly control the nucleation and growth of CdS crystallites to peptide-capped intracellular particles of diameter 20 Å. These quantum CdS crystallites are more monodisperse than CdS par-ticles synthesized chemically. X-ray data indicate that, at this small size, the CdS structure differs from that of bulk CdS and tends towards a six-coordinate rock-salt structure.

  9. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L.; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M.; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  10. Various cadmium compounds in the feed for broilers and laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezel, K.; Matthes, S.; Vogt, H.

    1981-06-01

    The influence of various cadmium compounds on the performance and health of broilers and laying hens and on the residues in tissues and eggs has been investigated. The easily soluble cadmium acetate, cystein cadmium and the low-soluble cadmium sulfide in the doses of 0-20-40 ppm cadmium were compared. Eight x 12 male Lohmann broiler chickens in cages for every ration in the 42-/49-days broiler test and 32 LSL-hens (Leghorn type) in single cages for every ration in the 336-days laying test have been used. Parameters tested in both tests were: mortality, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, pathological-anatomical changes as well as cadmium contents in the test rations and in the pectoral muscle, the thigh muscle, the liver, the kidneys and the bones. In the laying test, also the laying rate, egg weight, daily egg output, egg shell stability and cadmium contents in egg white, yolk and in the tissues were tested. In both age groups the negative effect of cadmium acetate and cystein-cadmium employment on performance and health of the birds were similar; comparable concentrations were found in the tissues. Cadmium sulfide had no effect on the performance of the birds and cadmium contents in the tissues were only slightly raised. In the eggs, no cadmium enhancement was noticed.

  11. Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of lead and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala. Seed were grown under laboratory conditions at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of metal ions of lead and cadmium. Both lead and cadmium treatments showed toxic ...

  12. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  13. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  14. Computational and Pharmacological Evaluation of Ferrocene-Based Acyl Ureas and Homoleptic Cadmium Carboxylate Derivatives for Anti-diabetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shahar; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Asghar, Faiza; Usman, Muhammad; Badshah, Amin; Ali, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible anti-diabetic effect of ferrocene-based acyl ureas: 4-ferrocenyl aniline (PFA), 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DPC1), 1-(3-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DMC1), 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DOC1) and homoleptic cadmium carboxylates: bis (diphenylacetato) cadmium (II) (DPAA), bis (4-chlorophenylacetato) cadmium (II) (CPAA), using in silico and in vivo techniques. PFA, DPC1, DMC1, DOC1, DPAA and CPAA exhibited high binding affinities (ACE ≥ -350 Kcal/mol) against targets: aldose reductase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, C-alpha glucosidase and glucokinase, while showed moderate affinities (ACE ≥ -250 Kcal/mol) against N-alpha glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, phosphorylated-Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, whereas revealed lower affinities (ACE diabetic mice, DPAA and DPC1 (1-10 mg/Kg) at day 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20th decreased blood glucose levels, compared to diabetic control group and improved the treated animals body weight. DPAA (10 mg/Kg) and DPC1 (5 mg/Kg) in time-dependent manner (30-120 min.) enhanced tolerance of oral glucose overload in mice. DPAA and DPCI dose-dependently at 1, 5, and 10 mg/Kg decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels in diabetic animals, as caused by metformin. These results indicate that aforementioned derivatives of ferrocene and cadmium possess anti-diabetic potential.

  15. One-Dimensional Fast Transient Simulator for Modeling Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da

    Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

  16. 42 CFR 93.516 - Standard and burden of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard and burden of proof. 93.516 Section 93.516... Actions Hearing Process § 93.516 Standard and burden of proof. (a) Standard of proof. The standard of proof is the preponderance of the evidence. (b) Burden of proof. (1) ORI bears the burden of proving the...

  17. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Li Teoh,1 Huey Yi Chong,1 Salina Abdul Aziz,2 Norliza Chemi,2 Abdul Razak Othman,2 Nurzuriana Md Zaki,2 Possatorn Vanichkulpitak,3 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,4–6 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 4Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 6Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: Schizophrenia (SCZ is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL. The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results: The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million

  18. Tax burden - the tax evasion generator

    OpenAIRE

    Iudit FODOR

    2009-01-01

    The economic globalization has emphasized and elaborated the existing inter-dependencies between the national economies, favouring the development of the world economy, but at the same time, of the underground economy - a tax evasion generator. In the context of debating the tax evasion which is currently present in all the countries of the world, it is not possible to ignore one of the most important generating factors of this phenomenon, i.e. the tax burden. In our opinion, the tax burden i...

  19. Bioavailability and oxidative stress of cadmium to Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinghua; Luo, Jun; Ma, Hongrui; Wang, Xiaorong; Ma, Lena Q

    2013-04-01

    This work set out to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) in sediments on the antioxidant enzyme activities in the digestive gland of Asian clam Corbicula fluminea and to explore the potential for applying these responses to evaluate the Cd-contaminated sediment. Additionally, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique was used to predict the response of its antioxidant defense system. The sediments, collected from Taihu Lake, were spiked with Cd at different concentrations (0.72, 0.91, 1.62, 2.59, 11.2, 20.4 and 40.6 mg kg(-1), dry weight). Asian clam was cultivated for 28 days. Concentrations of Cd in the body of Asian clam had a good relationship with concentrations of Cd in overlying water and sediments, as measured by DGT. Cd affected these biochemical parameters significantly, especially for superoxide (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH), which began to show higher sensitivity and have a significant difference in low dosage (0.91 mg Cd kg(-1)) compared with blank. Contents of MDA and MT, which were induced by Cd, increased with the increasing Cd concentration in sediments and reached peak values at 11.2 and 20.4 mg kg(-1), respectively, after 28 days exposure. All of these results suggested that biochemical responses cooperated in detoxifying and maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. The R(2) of regression analysis between the contents of MT and the concentrations of Cd measured by DGT, in sediments and soft body were 0.71, 0.94 and 0.88 after 28 days exposure. This suggested that DGT measurement could predict the response of MT. Cd accumulation, GSH and MT were indispensable biomarkers and the MDA content and DGT appeared to be promising biomarkers. The results clearly indicated that Cd could induce oxidative stress in the digestive gland of Asian clam. The combination of biomonitors with DGT can obtain different information about Cd bioavailability and confirm the significance of applying a suite of biomarkers rather than a selective

  20. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-28

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1098 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99-16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males.

  1. Blood Cadmium Is Associated with Osteoporosis in Obese Males but Not in Non-Obese Males: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Jun; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis in males is becoming an important health concern in an aging society. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cadmium exposure and osteoporosis by considering the effect of obesity in aged males using a representative sample of the Korean population. Using the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 1089 males over 50 years of age were analyzed. The blood cadmium concentration was measured. The bone mineral density in the total hip, femur neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. T-scores to determine the presence of osteoporosis were calculated using a Korean reference. Subjects were stratified into two groups according to obesity status (body mass index obese subjects with blood cadmium 1.50 μg/L had odds ratios of 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–14.01) and 5.71 (95% CI 1.99–16.38) at the femur neck and any site, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, serum creatinine, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity level. However, this association was not significant in non-obese males. In conclusion, the effect of cadmium on osteoporosis was different by obesity status in aged males. PMID:26426028

  2. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  3. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J.H. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females. The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles.

  4. Study on removal of cadmium by hybrid liquid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H; Mandanipour, Valiollah

    2010-05-15

    Removal of cadmium as a hazardous heavy metal is studied by applying a new design of hybrid cell for liquid membrane process. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) is used as the carrier in the organic phase. The concentration of cadmium in the samples is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of various parameters including type of supporting membrane, pH of feed and stripping phases, initial concentration of cadmium, carrier concentration, solvent nature, and also organic film resistance on mass transfer rate and removal efficiency are studied. The effect of temperature on mass transfer flux is studied by proposing a prediction model. The optimum carrier concentration is found to be about 0.05 M. The appropriate values of pH for feed and stripping phases are about 3 and 13, respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium toxicity: a possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Shittu, Olayiwola B; Anetor, John I

    2006-03-01

    Serum and seminal plasma cadmium (Cd) concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 60 infertile adult male Nigerians (40 oligozoospermics and 20 azoospermics). The results were compared with Cd level in 40 normozoospermic subjects (matched age, with proven evidence of fertility). The relationship between Cd levels and spermatograms or the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) -axis was investigated by correlating serum and seminal plasma Cd levels with semen characteristics and hormone levels. The seminal plasma Cd level was significantly higher than those of serum in all studied groups (pcadmium as a cause of infertility in male Nigerians as well as extend and support previous findings concerning cadmium toxicity and male infertility. The strong deleterious effect of cadmium on spermatogenesis may be due to the systemic and cellular toxicity. A possible relationship between this element and the HPG axis is also suggested.

  6. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stroiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202 and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP and catalase (CAT was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT and AAP was observed and it comes from inactivation of enzymes by cadmium ions. A subsequent activity increase of the enzymes aroused earlier in tolerant tissues. It seems therefore, that tolerant tissues possess a more efficient antioxidative system.

  7. Removal of cadmium by pleurotus sajor-caju basidiomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihangir, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Saglam, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Education

    1999-11-01

    The bioaccumulation of cadmium by the white rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju onto dry biomass was investigated using aqueous media with concentrations in the range of 0.125 mM-1.0 mM. The highest cadmium uptake (between 88.9 and 91.8%) was observed with aerobic fungal biomass from the exponential growth phase. Up to 1.0 mM cadmium gradually inhibited mycelium development, but never blocked it completely. Freeze-dried, oven-dried and non-metabolizing live Pleurotus sajor-caju biomass types were tested for their capacity to adsorb the test ion Cd{sup 2+} within the pH range of 4.5 to 6.0. Freeze-dried biomass proved to be the most efficient biomass type for Cd{sup 2+} metal adsorption. Therefore, Pleurotus sajor-caju may be used for heavy metal removal and bioremediation. (orig.)

  8. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  9. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  10. Economic Burden of Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Maximilian; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nilsson, Peter M; Saha, Sanjib

    2017-04-19

    Background: The rising prevalence of obesity represents an important public health issue. An assessment of its costs may be useful in providing recommendations for policy and decision makers. This systematic review aimed to assess the economic burden of obesity and to identify, measure and describe the different obesity-related diseases included in the selected studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of studies in the English language was carried out in Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science databases to select cost-of-illness studies calculating the cost of obesity in a study population aged ≥18 years with obesity, as defined by a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m², for the whole selected country. The time frame for the analysis was January 2011 to September 2016. Results: The included twenty three studies reported a substantial economic burden of obesity in both developed and developing countries. There was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches, target populations, study time frames, and perspectives. This prevents an informative comparison between most of the studies. Specifically, there was great variety in the included obesity-related diseases and complications among the studies. Conclusions: There is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent obesity in order to save societal resources. Moreover, international consensus is required on standardized methods to calculate the cost of obesity to improve homogeneity and comparability. This aspect should also be considered when including obesity-related diseases.

  11. THE INVESTIGATION OF CO-ADMINISTRATION TO CADMIUM, DIAZINON AND SELENIUM ON GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF ADULT MALE RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Chovancová; Ivana Boboňová; Monika Martiniaková; Radoslav Omelka; Mária Adamkovičová; Róbert Toman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, differences in growth characteristics (body weight, femoral weight and femoral length) of adult male rats after single cadmium (Cd), as well as, simultaneous exposure to Cd and diazinon (DZN), and after DZN, Cd and selenium (Se) co-administration were investigated. One-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. In the first group (A), rats received a drinking water containing 30 mg of CdCl2/l for 90 days. In the second group (B), males...

  12. EDITORIAL Neglected Diseases: Burden and attention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Neglected diseases are largely infectious diseases that have burdened humanity for centuries, but currently receiving little attention. Infectious diseases in their long histories have resulted in considerable morbidities, disabilities and deformities, often subjecting to stigma. The magnitude of their impact on health and labor.

  13. The dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Olga L; Parra, Diana C; González, Silvia A; González-Casanova, Inés; Forero, Ana Y; Garcia, Johnattan

    2014-12-01

    Almost all nutrition policies in Colombia currently focus on either undernutrition or obesity, with the predominant emphasis on undernutrition. It is crucial to assess the prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia to better target programs and policies. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of the dual burden of malnutrition in Colombia at the individual and household levels in children aged Colombia, low to high prevalences of overweight and obesity (3.4-51.2%) coexist with moderate to high prevalences of anemia (8.1-27.5%) and stunting (13.2%). The observed prevalence of the dual burden was lower than expected. Approximately 5% of households had at least one stunted child aged Colombia are lower than expected. Despite the independence of the occurrence of these conditions, the fact that the dual burden coexists at the national, household, and intraindividual levels suggests that public policies should address both conditions through multiple strategies. It is imperative to evaluate the current nutrition policies to inform malnutrition prevention efforts in Colombia and to share lessons with other countries at a similar stage of nutritional transition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  15. Economic burden of Parkinson's disease in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y J; Tan, L C S; Li, S C; Au, W L; Seah, S H; Lau, P N; Luo, N; Wee, H L

    2011-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the economic burden of Parkinson's disease (PD) and factors independently associated with individual components of total cost in Singapore. A consecutive sample of 195 patients with PD (mean age: 68.2, men: 51.8%) attending a tertiary neuroscience clinic were identified and interviewed using standardized questionnaires including a financial burden questionnaire, two Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire. Annual total cost of PD from a societal perspective was SGD11345 (USD10129) per patient, with direct cost accounted for 38.5% and indirect cost 61.5%. The main cost components for direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost was pharmacotherapy (50.4%), home care (76.1%), and productivity loss (97.9%), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, higher education, younger age and longer duration of PD were associated with higher total cost. Parkinson's disease exerts a considerable burden on patients, health care system and society in Singapore. As productivity loss accounts for a large share of the economic burden imposed by PD, treatments and health care programmes with potential for returning patients to higher productivity are urgently needed. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

  16. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  17. CALCULATION OF THE PROCESS OF BURDEN HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The original method of calculation of duration of burden heating till predetermined temperature is stated. The results of numerical modeling of nonstationary heating of fixed bed are given. Experimental check of the received results is carried out at full-scale plants.

  18. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    This being the case, the government is advised to make the rural areas, where majority of farmers reside, a priority in its malaria control efforts. Key Words: Malaria burden; Nigerian agricultural output; and malaria control efforts. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a serious problem in Africa (Gallup and Sachs, 2001; Shepard, et al,.

  19. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  20. A Model of Cadmium Uptake and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, T N; Senyavina, N V; Anisimov, N U; Tonevitskaya, S A

    2016-05-01

    We created a physiologically substantiated kinetic model of cadmium transport and toxicity in intestinal cell model (Caco-2 cells). Transcriptome profiling of Caco-2 cells revealed high content of transporter DMT1 and ZIP14 and intensive expression of some calcium channels of the CACN family. The mathematical model describing three types of transporters, as well as intracellular cadmium binding with metallothionein and excretion through the basolateral membrane allowed us to construct cadmium uptake and transport curves that approximated the previously obtained experimental data. Using the proposed model, we determined toxic intracellular cadmium concentration leading to cell death and impairing the integrity of cell monolayer and described cadmium transport in this case.

  1. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  2. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  4. Potentiation of cadmium nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Russis, R. de; Ouled Amor, A.; Lauwerys, R.R.

    1988-10-01

    The possible interactions between acetaminophen and cadmium (Cd) on the kidney were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetaminophen was administered in the food at an average dose of 900 mg/kg and Cd in drinking water at the concentration of 200 ppm. The treatment with acetaminophen and Cd lasted 2 and 10 months, respectively. No interaction between Cd and acetaminophen was observed during the period of their concomitant administration: the increase in albuminuria caused by Cd and acetaminophen was additive, while the tubular impairment caused by acetaminophen (increased ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria and decreased kidney concentrating ability) was not exacerbated by Cd. None of these treatments affected the glomerular filtration rate. Four months after the end of acetaminophen treatment, the renal changes had almost completely disappeared in the rats which had received the analgesic alone. Those continously exposed to Cd had developed slight tubular damage, as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin and ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase. By contrast, rats pretreated with acetaminophen for 2 months and exposed to Cd showed a marked increase in urinary excretion of albumin and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, suggesting an interaction between both treatments. At the end of the study, only the interaction with ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin excretion was still evident; that with the urinary excretion of ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase and albumin having been masked by the chronic progessive nephrosis affecting most animals at that stage. As acetaminophen had no effect on the renal accumulation of Cd, it may be concluded that pretreatment with this analygesic at a dose causing slight tubular dysfunction renders rat kidney more sensitive to the nephrotoxic action of Cd. This observation may be of clinical relevance for population groups occupationally or environmentally exposed to Cd.

  5. Bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics of cadmium to freshwater planarian and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Although toxic responses of freshwater planarians after exposure to environmental toxicants can be observed through external toxicological end points, physiological responses inside the bodies of treated planarians have rarely been investigated. The present study was designed, using cadmium (Cd) as a reference toxicant, to determine its bioaccumulation and toxicodynamics in the freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, after acute toxicity was obtained. Accumulated Cd concentrations, metallothionein levels, and the oxidative status in planarians were determined after exposure to Cd. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the acute death of Cd-treated planarians was associated with increased oxidative stress. After Cd-treated planarians were coexposed to antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we found that NAC protected planarians from Cd lethality by maintaining the oxidative status and decreasing the bioaccumulation of Cd. The results of the present study support planarians being used as a practical model for toxicological studies of environmental contaminants in the future.

  6. Influences of chromium and cadmium on the development of black soldier fly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Wanqiang; Lei, Chaoliang; Zhu, Fen

    2017-03-01

    The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is a good candidate for waste management. The harvested insects are rich in protein and have the potential to be used in animal feed. However, people are wary about heavy metals in waste. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how the uptake of heavy metals could affect H. illucens and where and to what extent metals are accumulated by the black soldier fly. Based on these considerations, developmental parameters were investigated in the different life stages of H. illucens fed an increasing concentration gradient of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr); additionally, Cd and Cr distribution in the body parts of H. illucens at the different life stages was monitored. We found that Cd and Cr have no effects on larvae survival and eclosion rate, but they do have effects on larvae duration and pupation rate. Both Cd and Cr were transferred into larvae, prepupae, and pupae. While the concentrations of Cd in larvae and prepupae were much higher than that in their diets, the opposite case was observed with Cr. The concentrations of Cd and Cr in H. illucens decreased in later development stages. In individual larva and prepupa, Cd and Cr were mainly included in the body and not in the integument. In the pupa, the puparium contained higher Cd and Cr concentrations than the pupa body. The distribution of Cd and Cr in the different life stages and body parts may present a potential strategy for how H. illucens tolerate and remove heavy metal stress.

  7. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  8. Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

    2012-09-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or β-estradiol (200 μg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and β-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats.

  9. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, G.; Klavis, G.; Schaller, K. H.; Haas, T.

    1969-01-01

    Lehnert, G., Klavis, G., Schaller, K. H., and Haas, T. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 156-158. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in the urine and serum of 18 workers exposed to cadmium dust and fume in a zinc smelting plant. In all cases the concentrations of cadmium in the serum were within the normal range, but those in the urine were elevated. The elevated urine concentrations showed that the exposed group had taken up more cadmium than normal, although they showed no clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning. Analysis of urine for cadmium is therefore of value in preventive medicine, and should be used for periodic check-ups on those occupationally exposed. PMID:5780108

  10. Antagonism between cadmium and magnesium: a possible role of magnesium in therapy of cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matović, Vesna; Plamenac Bulat, Zorica; Djukić-Cosić, Danijela; Soldatović, Danilo

    2010-03-01

    One of the important mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) toxicity is its interactions with bioelements, including magnesium (Mg). Exposure to Cd leads to disturbances in Mg metabolism in the organism, while Mg supplementation has an adverse effect on Cd absorption, accumulation and toxicity. According to the available results, which indicate a protective role of Mg against Cd toxicity, it remains to be seen whether magnesium may influence the important unsolved problem of Cd intoxication therapy. In this review, the interactions between the toxic metal Cd and the bioelement Mg are discussed on the basis of the available literature and our own results. We discuss these interactions mainly based on experimental data because data from human studies are scarce.

  11. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Feizi, Shahzad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Application Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh [Yazd University, Department of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with {sup 68}Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with {sup 68}Ga NPs ({sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 68}Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 68}Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 68}Ga radionuclide, the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  12. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Cadmium and cadmium-tolerant soil bacteria in cacao crops from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Pardo-Díaz, S; Benavides-Erazo, J; Rengifo-Estrada, G; Braissant, O; Leon-Moreno, C

    2018-01-18

    This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3·74 mg kg -1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2·76 and 1·16 mg kg -1 , respectively). Coefficient of determination between total soil Cd and CFU of CdtB was high (R 2  = 0·83) for the farm in Boyacá. Moreover, a pool of 129 CdtB was isolated, and phylogeny of 21 CdtB was discussed. Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Nothing is known about soil CdtB in cacao. Our data showed that CdtB such as Enterobacter sp. has high immobilization capacity. Furthermore, the otavite found in situ might be mineralized due to the bacterial metabolic activity of CdtB. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shute, Tracy [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Macfie, Sheila M. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)]. E-mail: smacfie@uwo.ca

    2006-12-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  16. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...

  17. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  18. Body Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition "Body Alchemy" centers on the artistic concept of jewelry and metal art, new materials and the relation and dialogue between body and space. It discusses the evolution of contemporary jewelry and metal art from alchemy to casting body, from material aesthetics to conceptual art and from space shaping to body language. (subtracts from invite and event program). \\ud \\ud International contemporary jewelry artists and metal artists are invited to participate in the exhibition next ...

  19. [Psychosocial burdens in teaching proffession--initial results of Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzalski, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results obtained using a new tool for measuring psychosocial burdens in teaching profession--the Questionnaire of Occupational Burdens in Teaching (QOBT). In its first theoretical part, some typologies of stressors in teaching, developed in other countries, are presented and the need to construct a new tool in Poland is discussed. In this part, the construction process of the new tool and its three scales comprising: Conflict Situations, Organizational Burdens and Lack of Work Sense are described. The psychometric features of the new questionnaire (e.g., Cronbach a = 0.63-0.84) are also given. The results are based on a large random sample of teachers from the Łódz voivodeship. The results did not show significant differences in the level of occupational burdens between men and women. Generally, neither are seniority and age related to the level of burdens. One exception are Organizational burdens that slightly more affect older teachers. The study also showed the need to incorporate the activities at the organizational level into programs on occupational stress.

  20. Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2006-01-01

    Many compounds in the environment have been shown capable of binding to cellular oestrogen receptors and then mimicking the actions of physiological oestrogens. The widespread origin and diversity in chemical structure of these environmental oestrogens is extensive but to date such compounds have been organic and in particular phenolic or carbon ring structures of varying structural complexity. Recent reports of the ability of certain metal ions to also bind to oestrogen receptors and to give rise to oestrogen agonist responses in vitro and in vivo has resulted in the realisation that environmental oestrogens can also be inorganic and such xenoestrogens have been termed metalloestrogens. This report highlights studies which show metalloestrogens to include aluminium, antimony, arsenite, barium, cadmium, chromium (Cr(II)), cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenite, tin and vanadate. The potential for these metal ions to add to the burden of aberrant oestrogen signalling within the human breast is discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.