WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium 127

  1. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  2. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 127.613 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.613 Section 127.613 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT... Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.613 Smoking. In the marine transfer area for...

  4. 33 CFR 127.1601 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 127.1601 Section 127.1601 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Fire Protection § 127.1601 Smoking. Each operator of...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  6. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  7. 23 CFR 1.27 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 1.27 Section 1.27 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.27 Maintenance... maintenance of projects shall be carried out in accordance with policies and procedures issued by...

  8. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  9. 33 CFR 117.127 - Current River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Current River. 117.127 Section 117.127 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.127 Current River. The draws of...

  10. 33 CFR 127.1302 - Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training. 127.1302 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1302 Training. (a) Each operator of a... transfers for the facility has training in the following subjects: (1) Properties and hazards of each...

  11. 28 CFR 0.127 - Indigent prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indigent prisoners. 0.127 Section 0.127 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.127 Indigent prisoners. The U.S. Parole Commission is authorized to exercise...

  12. 5 CFR 185.127 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 185.127 Section 185.127 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.127 Fees. The party requesting a subpoena shall pay the cost of the fees and mileage of...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.127 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing. 1260.127 Section 1260.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.127 Marketing. Marketing means the sale or other...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SSI127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSI127 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16580-1 SSI127F (Link to Original site) SSI...127F 410 - - - - - - Show SSI127 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSI127 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSI1-B/SSI127Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSI12...7F (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSI127 (SSI127Q) /CSM/SS/SSI1-B/SSI127Q.Seq.d/ AAAAA...s*c*gvslplcfallssssdnlelh*rcsssilrvnps hsyatlsnv*avfnkkkylkkkkkekkkilkyff*nqf*i*iimffffl*kkerkkekkk kkkkrf*k

  15. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a...

  16. 33 CFR 127.311 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.311 Motor vehicles. (a) The operator shall designate and mark parking spaces that— (1) Do not block fire lanes; (2) Do not impede any...

  17. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  18. 24 CFR 886.127 - Lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tenancy for “other good cause” under 24 CFR 247.3(a)(3), unless the termination is based on family... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 886.127 Section... for Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.127 Lease requirements. (a) Term of...

  19. 44 CFR 12.7 - Charter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charter. 12.7 Section 12.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... also be furnished at the time of filing to the Library of Congress, Exchange and Gift Division,...

  20. 7 CFR 1221.127 - Confidential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1221.127 Section 1221.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  1. 33 CFR 127.1305 - Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations Manual. 127.1305... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1305 Operations Manual. Each Operations Manual must contain— (a) A description of each liquid-transfer system and vapor transfer...

  2. 33 CFR 127.305 - Operations Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations Manual. 127.305... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.305 Operations Manual. Each Operations Manual must contain— (a) A description of the transfer system including mooring areas,...

  3. 33 CFR 127.1307 - Emergency Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....1505(a)(2). (b) The employee-emergency plan and fire-prevention plan required by OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency Manual. 127.1307... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1307 Emergency Manual. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 127.307 - Emergency Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency Manual. 127.307 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.307 Emergency Manual. Each Emergency Manual must contain— (a) LNG release response procedures, including contacting local...

  5. 33 CFR 127.1203 - Gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas detection. 127.1203 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1203 Gas detection. (a) Each... LHG that transfers a toxic LHG, other than anhydrous ammonia, must have at least two portable...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1109 - Lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting systems. 127.1109 Section 127.1109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1107 - Electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical systems. 127.1107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1107 Electrical systems. Electrical equipment and wiring must be of the kind specified by, and must be installed in accordance...

  8. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...

  9. 33 CFR 127.711 - Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications. 127.711 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.711 Communications. The marine transfer area for LNG must have a means of direct communications between the security patrol and other...

  10. 33 CFR 127.705 - Security systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security systems. 127.705 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Security § 127.705 Security systems. The operator shall... manned television monitoring system is used, to detect— (a) Unauthorized personnel; (b) Fires; and...

  11. 33 CFR 127.111 - Communications systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications systems. 127.111... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.111 Communications systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a ship-to-shore communication system and a separate emergency...

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHR127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR127 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHR...127Z 594 - - - - Show CHR127 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR127 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR127Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR127 (CHR127Q) /CSM/CH/CHR1-B/CHR127Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTGTAGC...qvll*lvllf*vllyl rvrkxmmlanksspml Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHR127 (CHR

  13. Cadmium toxicity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols.

  14. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Bernhoft

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established proto...

  16. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COOH (H/sub 2/Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COO) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure.

  17. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  18. 5 CFR 1201.127 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1201.127 Section 1201... Judicial review. (a) An employee subject to a final Board decision imposing disciplinary action under 5 U.S.C. 1215 may obtain judicial review of the decision in the United States Court of Appeals for...

  19. 27 CFR 21.127 - Shellac (refined).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 21.127 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... A—5 ml of phenol dissolved in 10 ml of carbon tetrachloride. Solution B—1 ml of bromine dissolved in 4 ml of carbon tetrachloride. To the residue obtained above add 2 ml of Solution A and transfer...

  20. 33 CFR 127.1111 - Communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication systems. 127.1111... systems. (a) The marine transfer area for LHG must possess a communication system that enables continuous... in charge of transfer for the facility. (b) The communication system required by paragraph (a)...

  1. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  2. Rotational Raman scattering in sup 127 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondry, G.; Wissmann, F.; Mueller, G.; Schroeder, F.; Rullhusen, P.; Smend, F.; Schumacher, M. (2. Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Goettingen (Germany)); Fettweis, P.; Carchon, R. (Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre de l' Etudes de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1991-09-02

    Elastic and Raman scattering of photons by {sup 181}Ta and {sup 127}I are studied using the 11.4 MeV mono-energetic photon beam installed at the Mol BR2 reactor. For the strongly deformed prolate nucleus {sup 181}Ta the simple rotator model is re-investigated and found to be valid. The intrinsic quadrupole moment Q{sub 0} derived from spectroscopic data by assuming a strong particle-surface coupling was found to be in agreement with the splitting of the giant dipole resonance, thus removing previous inconsistencies. When applying the same model to the oblate nucleus {sup 127}I a severe discrepancy between experimental and predicted Raman cross sections was observed; this discrepancy is discussed in terms of nuclear-structure properties. (orig.).

  3. 21 CFR 801.127 - Medical devices; expiration of exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; expiration of exemptions. 801.127 Section 801.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.127 Medical devices; expiration of exemptions. (a) If...

  4. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  5. 19 CFR 127.35 - Presentation of accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of accounts. 127.35 Section 127.35 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Proceeds of Sale § 127.35 Presentation...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  7. 21 CFR 201.127 - Drugs; expiration of exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs; expiration of exemptions. 201.127 Section 201.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.127 Drugs;...

  8. 45 CFR 12.7 - Applications for surplus real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for surplus real property. 12.7 Section 12.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.7 Applications for surplus real property. Applications for surplus real...

  9. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  10. Cadmium absorption inhibitors for soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.

    1974-05-25

    Cadmium absorption by soil is one cause of soil pollution. Cadmium adsorption inhibitors were prepared by mixing alginic acid which contained brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) and an inorganic material, shell fossils. This mixture was highly effective in preventing cadmium absorption by the soil.

  11. Total Routhian surface calculation for 127I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculation is a very useful and well known way to understand the rotational motion of the atomic nuclei theoretically. The evolution of the deformations during the process of nuclear rotation can be studied theoretically under the framework of TRS. The quadrupole and triaxial deformation play crucial roles in the rotational properties of nuclei. The TRS formalism was developed mainly based on the macroscopic-microscopic model. The aim of the present work is to study the positive parity yrast rotational structure of 127I in terms of deformation, under the framework of macroscopic-microscopic model

  12. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  13. CADMIUM – ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge and industrial uses of Cd are the major source of widespread of this metal at trace levels into the general environment and human foodstuffs. It is well known that high cadmium (Cd exposure causes renal damage, anemia, enteropathy, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, whereas the dose-response relationship at low levels exposure is less established. During the last decade an increasing number of studies have found an adverse health effects due to low environmental exposure to Cd. Many authors try to determine the relationship between Cd intake and Cd toxicity indicators, especially dealing renal tubular damage. The level of b2-microglobulin in urine is regarded as the most sensitive biomarker of renal disfunction due to low environmental Cd concentrations.

  14. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  15. 22 CFR 127.2 - Misrepresentation and omission of facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misrepresentation and omission of facts. 127.2... AND PENALTIES § 127.2 Misrepresentation and omission of facts. (a) It is unlawful to use any export or... fact for the purpose of exporting any defense article or technical data or the furnishing of...

  16. 19 CFR 127.25 - Advertisement of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 127.25 Advertisement of sale. (a) Regular advertising. Except as prescribed in § 127.28 (c), (d), and... given for three successive weeks, immediately preceding the sale, in one newspaper of extensive circulation published at the port where the sale is to be held. The newspaper is to be selected by the...

  17. 40 CFR 86.127-96 - Test procedures; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures; overview. 86.127-96 Section 86.127-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... determined by the procedure described in § 86.139. This testing requires a dilution tunnel as well as...

  18. 45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... confidentiality requirements, including 42 CFR part 2; and (4) will conduct case management activities to ensure... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis....

  19. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  20. 34 CFR 303.127 - Assurance regarding expenditure of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assurance regarding expenditure of funds. 303.127 Section 303.127 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Assurance regarding expenditure of funds. The statement must include an assurance satisfactory to...

  1. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee, certificate... handling, storage, shipping, cleaning, and preservation of materials and equipment to be used in...

  2. 33 CFR 127.107 - Electrical power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical power systems. 127.107... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.107 Electrical power systems. (a) The electrical... source does not affect the capability of the other source. The system must meet the National...

  3. 47 CFR 76.127 - Satellite sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite sports blackout. 76.127 Section 76... Sports Blackout § 76.127 Satellite sports blackout. (a) Upon the request of the holder of the broadcast rights to a sports event, or its agent, no satellite carrier shall retransmit to subscribers within...

  4. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  5. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 19

  6. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  8. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  9. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  10. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  11. 33 CFR 110.127c - Trinidad Bay, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127c Trinidad Bay, Calif. The waters of Trinidad Bay... floats and buoys for anchoring will be allowed in the area. Fixed moorings, piles or stakes...

  12. Bands and Band Termination in 127La%127La转动带及带终止

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董保国; Ragna.,I

    2000-01-01

    The configuration-dependent shell-correction approach with cranked Nilsson potential is employed for explaining the experimental high-spin spectra in 127La. The experimental high spin band with parity and signature (+,-1/2) consists of two parts with a crossing around I=20h. It is most like to have the configuration[02,6], π(h11/2)2v(h11/2)6 and almost reaching the maximum angular momentum at I=47.5 h. It is in normal deformation region with ε2≈0.22 and γ≈0° up to I=40 h and then moving over the γ-plane to termination atγ=60。. Comparing calculations and experiment, one notes that the bands are seen to spin values where according to calculation they start to go away clearly from yrast, thus this supports our interpretation. There are strongly deformed (or superdeformed) bands with ε2≈0.35 and ν≈0°. They were calculated to become yrast for I=40h making it very unlikely that the observed bands were strongly deformed. However, they represent a challenge for future experiments. Below I=21.5 Kthe experimental high spin bands appear to have strong pairing interaction since their moments of inertia go down to 10/2 MeV-1 from I=11.5h to I=19.5 h.%用组态相关推转壳模型Nilsson势研究了C.M.Parry组最近用EUROBALL谱仪观测到的127La高自旋态结构.实验上观测的127La的宇称和辛量子数为(π,α)=(+,-1/2)的带自旋达到(83/2)h.理论计算结果表明该带可能具有组态π(h11/2)2v(h11/2)6.并且几乎达到该带的带终止理论预言值 I=47.5h.该带的形变在I≤40h内处于正常形变区(ε2≈0.22,γ≈0°),随着角动量的增加ν值逐渐增加,直到ν=60°时带终止.

  13. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  14. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  16. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    ) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected environmental......Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...

  17. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  18. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg−1) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg−1, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg−1. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg−1), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg−1, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is likely

  19. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pbeans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  20. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  1. Properties of Formula 127 glass prepared with radioactive zirconia calcine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formula 127 glass has been developed to immobilize ICPP zirconia calcine. This glass has been prepared remotely on a laboratory scale basis with actual radioactive zirconia calcine retrieved after ten years of storage from Bin Set 2. The aqueous leachability of the glass produced was investigated and compared through application of the MCC-1, MCC-2 and Soxhlet leach tests with that of Formula 127 glass prepared with simulated calcine. The solid state properties of the glasses prepared with actual and simulated calcines were also measured by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX). Based on the application of these leaching tests and analysis techniques the properties measured in this study are similar for 127 glass prepared with either simulated or radioactive calcine. 13 figures, 16 tables

  2. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  3. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  4. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  5. 27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...

  6. 49 CFR 572.127 - Test conditions and instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SA572-S11 and be mounted in the head-neck assembly as shown in drawing 127-0000 sheet 3. (2) The... characteristics specified in drawing SA72-S10 and be mounted in the leg assembly as shown in drawing...

  7. 49 CFR 37.127 - Complementary paratransit service for visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complementary paratransit service for visitors. 37... FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.127 Complementary paratransit service for visitors. (a) Each public entity required to provide...

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFM127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available qrfpxxksixxxf Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value AFM127 (...ducing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ346853 ) Dictyostelium discoide...cing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q54HY4) RecName: Full=Putative uncharacterized protein DDB_G028..

  9. Jaekaubandus kaotab kaubakadudest 1,27% käibest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 3 apr. lk. 8. Briti firma The Centre for Retail Research uuring näitas, et Baltimaade suurte jaekaubandusfirmade keskmine kaubakadu 2005. aastal oli 1,27% käibest. Tabel: Euroopa jaekaubafirmade kahjud kadude tõttu (% käibest)

  10. 14 CFR 121.127 - Flight following system; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight following system; requirements. 121... Supplemental Operations § 121.127 Flight following system; requirements. (a) Each certificate holder conducting supplemental operations using a flight following system must show that— (1) The system has adequate...

  11. Tight LMC massive star clusters R 127 and R 128

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Walborn, N R; Walborn, Nolan R.

    2003-01-01

    We study the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star clusters R 127 and R 128 using imaging and spectroscopy obtained at the ESO NTT telescope. An advanced image restoration technique allows us to resolve these two clusters into at least 14 and 33 stars respectively and obtain their photometry. In particular, we show that the core of R 127 is composed of at least four stars and identify the Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) component. The closest neighbor of the LBV (star #8) is 1".5 away. Moreover, from medium dispersion spectroscopy we determine the spectral types for 19 stars in and near both clusters, and in particular present the first spatially resolved observation of the second brightest component of the R 127 cluster (star #3) situated 3".3 from the LBV. By comparing with evolutionary models we also look into the stellar ages. The oldest stars of the cluster are ~ 6-8 Myr old, whereas the most massive star of the region (#7), formed ~ 3 Myr ago as an 80 solar mass star, has turned into an LBV, the ``R 127'' star...

  12. 27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...

  13. 42 CFR 424.127 - Payment to the beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Special Conditions: Services Furnished in a Foreign Country § 424.127 Payment to the beneficiary. (a) Conditions for payment of inpatient hospital... amount payable to the beneficiary is determined in accordance with § 424.109(b). (c) Conditions...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.127 - Drug free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Workplace Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-690, title V, subtitle D) and the Act's implementing regulations (7 CFR... pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (title 48 CFR) to sell to a Federal agency... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug free workplace. 1710.127 Section...

  15. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  16. Determination of cadmium in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Katrin; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Drexler, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of cadmium concentrations in biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), but also electrochemical methods, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The predominant sample matrices include blood, plasma, serum, and urine, as well as hair, saliva, and tissue of kidney cortex, lung, and liver. While cadmium in blood reveals rather the recent exposure situation, cadmium in urine reflects the body burden and is an indicator for the cumulative long term exposure.After chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the human body and causes kidney diseases, especially lesions of proximal tubular cells. A tubular proteinuria causes an increase in urinary excretion of microproteins. Excretions of retinol binding protein (RBP), β2-microglobulin (β2-M), and α1-microglobulin are validated biomarkers for analyzing cadmium effects. For this purpose, immunological procedures such as ELISA, and radio- and latex-immunoassays are used.However, proteinuria is not specific to cadmium, but can also occur after exposure to other nephrotoxic agents or due to various kidney diseases. In summary, cadmium in urine and blood are the most specific biomarkers of cadmium exposure. A combination of parameters of exposure (cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine) and parameters of effect (e.g., β2-M, RBP) is required to reveal cadmium-induced nephrological effects. PMID:23430771

  17. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  18. Static strength of gold compressed up to 127 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Qiu-Min; Wu Qiang; Liu Lei; Bi Yan; Zhang Yi; Liu Sheng-Gang; Xu Ji-An

    2012-01-01

    Gold powder is compressed non-hydrostatically up to 127 GPa in a diamond anvil cell (DAC),and its angle dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns are recorded.The compressive strength of gold is investigated in a framework of the lattice strain theory by the line shift analysis.The result shows that the compressive strength of gold increases continuously with the pressure up to 106 GPa and reaches 2.8 GPa at the highest experimental pressure (127 GPa) achieved in our study.This result is in good agreement with our previous experimental result in a relevant pressure range.The compressive strength of gold may be the major source of the error in the equation-of-state measurement in various pressure environments.

  19. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Cosson, Richard; Gallien, Isabelle; Caurant, Florence; Miramand, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience The high concentrations of cadmium recorded in the digestive gland of cephalopods from various temperate and subpolar waters suggest that these molluscs have developed efficient cadmium detoxification mechanisms. The subcellular distribution of cadmium in the digestive gland cells was investigated in seven cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (France) and the Faroe Islands. In most species, cadmium was mainly found in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive glan...

  20. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Brian G.; L. Joseph Su; Rood, Jennifer C.; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney c...

  2. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  3. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...... of remediation. Further removal of cadmium could be possible with longer remediation time or a higher current density...

  4. 14 CFR 135.127 - Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... smoking prohibitions. 135.127 Section 135.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.127 Passenger information requirements and smoking prohibitions. (a) No person may conduct a scheduled flight on which smoking is prohibited by part 252 of...

  5. 25 CFR 170.127 - What terms apply to access roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What terms apply to access roads? 170.127 Section 170.127 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Irr Housing Access Roads § 170.127...

  6. 9 CFR 381.127 - Wording on labels of shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wording on labels of shipping containers. 381.127 Section 381.127 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Containers § 381.127 Wording on labels of shipping containers. (a) Each label for use on a shipping...

  7. 27 CFR 1.27 - Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., management, or control of the applicant. 1.27 Section 1.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Basic Permits Applications for Permits § 1.27 Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant. In the event of any change in the ownership, management, or control...

  8. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. 127.1105 Section 127.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction § 127.1105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. Each new waterfront...

  10. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium ...

  11. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  12. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans

  13. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  14. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  15. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...... parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected...

  16. Immunoassay for Cadmium Detection and Quantification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG-LIANG LIU; JU-FANG WANG; ZHI-YONG LI; SHI-ZHONG LIANG; XIAO-NING WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect cadmium in environmental and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Methods An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) was developed based on a cadmium-specific monoclonal antibody.IC-ELISA for cadmium in environmental and food samples was evaluated. Results IC-ELISA showed an IC50 of 45.6 μg/L with a detection limit of 1.95 μg/L for cadmium,and showed a mean recovery ranging 97.67%-107.08%.The coefficient of variations for intra- and iuterassay was 3.41%-6.61% and 4.70%-9.21%,respectively.The correlation coefficient between IC-ELISA and GFAAS was 0.998. Conclusion IC-ELISA can detect and quantify cadmium residue in environmental or food samples.

  17. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The ef

  18. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, J N; Tasse, C; Hess, S; de Pater, I; Santos-Costa, D; Nenon, Q; Sicard, A; Bourdarie, S; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Bell, M E; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Breton, R P; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corbel, S; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markov, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Moldon, J; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Schwarz, D; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observing Jupiter's synchrotron emission from the Earth remains today the sole method to scrutinize the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic electrons magnetically trapped around the planet (because in-situ particle data are limited in the inner magnetosphere). Aims. We perform the first resolved and low-frequency imaging of the synchrotron emission with LOFAR at 127 MHz. The radiation comes from low energy electrons (~1-30 MeV) which map a broad region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Methods (see article for complete abstract) Results. The first resolved images of Jupiter's radiation belts at 127-172 MHz are obtained along with total integrated flux densities. They are compared with previous observations at higher frequencies and show a larger extent of the synchrotron emission source (>=4 $R_J$). The asymmetry and the dynamic of east-west emission peaks are measured and the presence of a hot spot at lambda_III=230 {\\deg} $\\pm$ 25 {\\deg}. Spectral flux density measurements ar...

  19. Peculiarities of preparation of cadmium isotopes of high enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade equipped by gas centrifuges with regard for requirements to structural materials operating with chemically active compounds (dimethylcadmium) was devised for preparation of high-enriched cadmium isotopes. Solutions of such problems as overcoming of isotope memory, compensation of the effect of isotope overlapping, operative analytical accompanying permitted to optimize separation process and to obtain cadmium isotopes of high enrichment degree: cadmium-116 ∼98.9 %, cadmium-114 ∼98.7 %, cadmium-113 ∼93.3 %, cadmium-112 ∼99.1 %, cadmium-110 ∼95.8 %

  20. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  1. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  2. Neutron halos in the excited states for N=127 isotones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qin; GUO Jian-You

    2009-01-01

    Properties of the ground states and the excited states of N=127 isotones are investigated by using the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory with the interactions PK1. By analyzing the rms of proton and neutron, the single particle energies of valence nucleon and the density distributions of neutron, proton and the last neutron, it can be found that there exists a neutron halo in the excited states of 3d5/2, 4s1/2 and 3d3/2 in 209Pb. It is also predicted that there exists a neutron halo in the excited states of 3d5/2, 4s1/2 and 3d3/2 in 207Hg, 208Tl, 210Bi and 211Po.

  3. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  4. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain......Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...

  5. Recent progress in biomedical applications of Pluronic (PF127): Pharmaceutical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal

    2015-07-10

    Most of the administered anti-cancer drugs are hydrophobic in nature and are known to have poor water solubility, short residence time, rapid clearance from the body and systemic side effects. Polymeric-based targeted particulate carrier system has shown to directly deliver the encapsulated anti-cancer drug to the desired site of action and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. Pluronic F127 (PF127) has been widely investigated for its broad-range of therodiagnostic applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, but rapid dissolution in the physiological fluids, short residence time, rapid clearance, and weak mechanical strength are the main shortcomings that are associated with PF127 and have recently been overcome by making various modifications in the structure of PF127 notably through preparation of PF127-based mixed polymeric micelles, PF127-conjugated nanoparticles and PF127-based hydrophobically modified thermogels. In this article, we have briefly discussed the recent studies that have been conducted on various anti-cancer drugs using PF127 as nano-carrier modified with other copolymers and/or conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles. The key findings of these studies demonstrated that the modified form of PF127 can significantly increase the stability of incorporated hydrophobic drugs with enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of anti-cancer drugs. Moreover, the modified form of PF127 has also shown its therapeutic potentials as therodiagnostics in various types of tumors and cancers. Hence, it can be concluded that the modified form of PF127 exhibits significant therodiagnostic effects with increased tumor-specific delivery of anti-cancer drugs having minimal toxic effects as compared to PF127 alone and/or other copolymers. PMID:25921088

  6. Light- and temperature-responsive liposomes incorporating cinnamoyl Pluronic F127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, MinHui; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2014-07-01

    Light- and temperature-responsive liposomes were prepared by immobilizing cinnamoyl Pluronic F127 (CP F127) on the surface of egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes. CP F127 was prepared by a condensation reaction, and the molar ratio of cinnamoyl group to Pluronic F127 was calculated to be 1:1.4 on (1)H NMR spectrum. The cinnamoyl group of CP F127 was readily dimerized under the irradiation of a UV light (254 nm, 6 W). CP F127 decreased the absolute value of the zeta potential of liposome possibly because it can shift the hydrodynamic plane away from the liposome surface. The size of liposome decorated with CP F127, measured on a dynamic light scattering machine and observed on a TEM, was larger than that of bare liposome. The liposome bearing CP F127 seemed to fuse and aggregate each other. The liposome released calcein, a fluorescence dye, in response to a UV irradiation, possibly because the photo-dimerization of cinnamoyl group perturbs the liposomal membrane. Moreover, the liposome released the dye in response to a temperature change, possible due to the phase transition of Pluronic F127 layer on the liposomal surface or the hydrophobic interaction of the polymer with liposomal membrane. PMID:24709213

  7. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  9. Some Aspects of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cell system is termed till today as the most reliable power pack for electronic apparatus specially in low temperature use. This paper brings out the development and production of sealed nickel cadmium cells of pocket plate construction. The author who has gained experience in production of Ni-Cd cells in East Germany discusses also the major problems faced by the battery manufactures of to-day.

  10. Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room temperature gamma-ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented

  11. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  12. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 oC), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO3 (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 oC was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples

  13. 13 CFR 127.101 - What type of assistance is available under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What type of assistance is available under this part? 127.101 Section 127.101 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL CONTRACT ASSISTANCE PROCEDURES General Provisions §...

  14. 26 CFR 12.7 - Election to be treated as a DISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to be treated as a DISC. 12.7 Section... (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1971 § 12.7 Election to be treated as a DISC. (a) Manner and time of election—(1) Manner—(i) In general. A corporation can elect to be...

  15. 22 CFR 127.5 - Authority of the Defense Security Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ensure compliance with the Department of Defense National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of the Defense Security Service. 127... VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.5 Authority of the Defense Security Service. In the case of exports...

  16. 33 CFR 127.309 - Operations Manual and Emergency Manual: Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations Manual and Emergency Manual: Use. 127.309 Section 127.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Manual and Emergency Manual: Use. The operator shall ensure that— (a) LNG transfer operations are...

  17. 33 CFR 127.1309 - Operations Manual and Emergency Manual: Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations Manual and Emergency Manual: Use. 127.1309 Section 127.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....1309 Operations Manual and Emergency Manual: Use. Each operator of a waterfront facility handling...

  18. Down-regulation of MiR-127 facilitates hepatocyte proliferation during rat liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyong Pan

    Full Text Available Liver regeneration (LR after partial hepatectomy (PH involves the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and microRNAs have been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in the regulation of these processes. To explore the role of miR-127 during LR, the expression patterns of miR-127 and its related proteins were investigated. MiR-127 was introduced into a rat liver cell line to examine its effects on the potential target genes Bcl6 and Setd8, and functional studies were undertaken. We discovered that miR-127 was down-regulated and inversely correlated with the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8 at 24 hours after PH, a time at which hypermethylation of the promoter region of the miR-127 gene was detected. Furthermore, in BRL-3A rat liver cells, we observed that overexpression of miR-127 significantly suppressed cell growth and directly inhibited the expression of Bcl6 and Setd8. The results suggest that down-regulation of miR-127 may be due to the rapid methylation of its promoter during the first 24 h after PH, and this event facilitates hepatocyte proliferation by releasing Bcl6 and Setd8. These findings support a miRNA-mediated negative regulation pattern in LR and implicate an anti-proliferative role for miR-127 in liver cells.

  19. Lubrication of soft and hard interfaces with thermo-responsive F127 hydrogel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Lee, Seunghwan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the lubricating properties of an aqueous fluid prepared with polyoxamer triblock copolymer in water, namely “F127-20” (F127 at the concentration of 20% wt./vol.). In coherence with its well-known thermo-responsive rheological properties, lubricating properties ...

  20. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. (a) Arduous work. Arduous work is primarily physical work requiring a high level of strength or endurance. The Board will consider the claimant unable... unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...

  1. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  2. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  3. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator. PMID:24933906

  4. Farewell TID-14844; hello SECY-92-127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, 1992, marks the 50th anniversary of the first sustained nuclear reaction in the pile at the University of Chicago's Stagg Field. But it also marks the 30th anniversary of the publication of TID-14844, which has served as the design-basis source term for radiological assessments supporting the licensing of nuclear power plants in the United States since its inception. The conservative TID-14844 model assumes that 100% of the noble gases and 50% of the iodines are instantaneously released to the containment and are available for leakage to the environment. TID-14844 is formally embodied in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) regulations in parts 10CFR100 (siting) and 10CFR50 (review of control room habitability, postaccident shielding and sampling systems). It is also embodied in a host of NRC Regulatory Guides and NUREG reports that address off-site consequences of releases of radioactivity, equipment qualification, and other postaccident radiological concerns. On April 20, 1992, the NRC staff presented to the NRC commissioners the draft 'Revised Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.' This effort is documented in SECY-92-127 and provides the first official position of the NRC in this matter

  5. MGS Approach Image - 127.2o W longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image, the last in sequence of 8 taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft prior to its arrival at Mars on September 11, 1997, shows a spectacular view of the large volcano, Olympus Mons, very close to the morning sunrise line (called the terminator). Taken early in the morning of August 21, the view clearly shows the summit crater (the caldera) and the 3,000 m (9,800 feet) high escarpment that surrounds the base of the 25,000 meter (82,000 feet) high, 550 km (340 mile) wide volcano. To the right of Olympus Mons are three other large volcanoes (Ascraeus Mons, top; Pavonis Mons, middle; Arsia Mons, bottom). The image is centered near 23.6o N, 127.2o W, and was acquired when MGS was 5.38 million kilometers (3.34 million miles) from Mars. At this distance, the MOC's resolution is about 20 km per picture element, and the 6800 km (4200 mile) diameter planet is about 340 pixels across. In the 46 hours between the first and last images in the sequence, the diameter of Mars in the pictures grew by almost 10%.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  6. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  7. Measurement of Gamow-Teller strength for {sup 127}I as a solar neutrino detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palarczyk, M.; Rapaport, J.; Hautala, C. [Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Prout, D.L. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Goodman, C.D.; van Heerden, I.J.; Sowinski, J.; Savopulos, G.; Yang, X. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Sages, H.M.; Howes, R.; Carr, R.; Islam, M. [Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (United States); Sugarbaker, E.; Cooper, D.C. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Lande, K. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Luther, B. [Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota 56562 (United States); Taddeucci, T.N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Gamow-Teller transition strengths obtained in the {sup 127}I(p,n){sup 127}Xe reaction studied at 94, 159, and 197 MeV incident proton energies are presented, and used to evaluate the efficiency of {sup 127}I as a solar neutrino detector. Excitation of the J{sup {pi}}=(3/2){sup +} first excited state at E{sub x}=0.125 MeV in {sup 127}Xe, sensitive to {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, is evaluated. The sum of Gamow-Teller strength up to particle emission threshold and up to 20 MeV excitation energy are also reported. This paper also provides a new measurement of the Coulomb displacement energy {Delta}E{sub c}, the excitation energy of the isobaric analog state, and the centroid of the Gamow-Teller resonance in {sup 127}Xe. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Rheological, mucoadhesive and release properties of pluronic F-127 gel and pluronic F-127/polycarbophil mixed gel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirnaksiz, F; Robinson, J R

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to combine the mucoadhesive property of Noveon and the thermosensitive property of Pluronic F-127 into one gel system. A rheological study of Pluronic aqueous sols (10-35%), Noveon gels (0.5-2%) and of mixed gels containing Pluronic (10-17.5%) and polycarbophil (0.5-2.5%) was conducted at different temperatures (15-35 degrees C). The viscosity of Pluronic sols increased with an increase in temperature and the mixed gels had thermoreversible property. The viscosity of mixed gels was higher than that of the Pluronic sols containing only Pluronic because of the increase in total polymer concentration. No interaction was found between -COOH groups of Noveon and Pluronic molecules at the studied concentrations of polymers; the viscosity of mixed gels containing un-neutralized Noveon was lower than that of the neutralized mixed gels. The effect of Pluronic F-127 on the mucoadhesive property of Noveon was investigated. The mucoadhesive properties of Pluronic and Noveon gels were compared by a force of detachment test. It was found that Pluronic and Noveon gels showed approximately the same mucoadhesive strength. However, there were significant differences in the viscosity of Noveon and Pluronic gels. The adhesive force of the mixed gel was almost same as that of the Noveon gel. The Pluronic did not affect the adhesive power of Noveon and the increased viscosity did not affect the bioadhesive force of the mixed gels. In spite of increasing viscosity of the gel, the percentage of released model material (mannitol) increased with increasing temperature. This is based on the previously reported observation that the interaction between the Pluronic molecules squeezed mannitol molecules out of the polymer chains. The mannitol release obeyed zero-order kinetics and the flux values of mixed gels at 15 and 35 degrees C were very similar. The Noveon chains among Pluronic chains probably hindered the diffusion of mannitol molecules and the release was thus

  9. The interactions between humic acids and Pluronic F127 produce nanoparticles useful for pharmaceutical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Bruna Alice Gomes de; Motta, Fernanda Lopes; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade, E-mail: mariahelena.santana@gmail.com [University of Campinas, Development of Biotechnological Processes Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Humic acids (HAs) are macromolecules composed of a large variety of functional groups including phenols and carboxylic acids, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. HAs are completely soluble in aqueous medium in alkaline conditions only. At neutral pH, the protonation of the OH/OOH groups causes the formation of micelle-like structures containing a hydrophobic core. Pluronic F127 (PF127) is a nonionic and non-toxic block copolymer with surfactant properties, which are able to interact with HAs through hydrophobic interactions. In this work, these interactions were studied to determine the potential of HA–PF127 structures for pharmaceutical applications. The HAs used was composed of phenol (15.92 %), carboxylic (13.70 %), and other aromatic groups as characterized by {sup 13}C NMR, GC–MS, and FTIR. Initially, the HA–PF127 interactions were identified by a fivefold decrease in the CMC of PF127. The effects of the HA:PF127 molar ratio were studied by adding naturally occurring HAs to PF127 dispersions under mechanical stirring. The highest ratios, 1:8 and 1:80, favored the formation of submicellar aggregates of approximately 100 nm and zeta potentials of −28.37 and −30.23 mV, respectively. HA–PF127 structures were spherical, with a polydispersity of approximately 0.43. These results show that the interactions between HAs and PF127 produce stable nanoparticles. These nanoparticles may be used as a carrier for hydrophobic bioactives and as an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory agent. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to develop HA–PF127 nanoparticles.

  10. The interactions between humic acids and Pluronic F127 produce nanoparticles useful for pharmaceutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acids (HAs) are macromolecules composed of a large variety of functional groups including phenols and carboxylic acids, which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. HAs are completely soluble in aqueous medium in alkaline conditions only. At neutral pH, the protonation of the OH/OOH groups causes the formation of micelle-like structures containing a hydrophobic core. Pluronic F127 (PF127) is a nonionic and non-toxic block copolymer with surfactant properties, which are able to interact with HAs through hydrophobic interactions. In this work, these interactions were studied to determine the potential of HA–PF127 structures for pharmaceutical applications. The HAs used was composed of phenol (15.92 %), carboxylic (13.70 %), and other aromatic groups as characterized by 13C NMR, GC–MS, and FTIR. Initially, the HA–PF127 interactions were identified by a fivefold decrease in the CMC of PF127. The effects of the HA:PF127 molar ratio were studied by adding naturally occurring HAs to PF127 dispersions under mechanical stirring. The highest ratios, 1:8 and 1:80, favored the formation of submicellar aggregates of approximately 100 nm and zeta potentials of −28.37 and −30.23 mV, respectively. HA–PF127 structures were spherical, with a polydispersity of approximately 0.43. These results show that the interactions between HAs and PF127 produce stable nanoparticles. These nanoparticles may be used as a carrier for hydrophobic bioactives and as an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory agent. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to develop HA–PF127 nanoparticles.

  11. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  12. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  13. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  14. Odontogenic tumors: analysis of 127 cases Tumores odontogênicos: análise de 127 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nunes SANTOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty-seven cases of histologically confirmed odontogenic tumors were retrieved from a total of 5,289 oral and maxillary lesions diagnosed at the Division of Oral Pathology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, during a period of 30 years (l970-l999. The most common histological diagnosis was odontoma (50.40%, followed by ameloblastoma (30.70%. The prevalence of odontogenic tumors was greater in females and the peak incidence occurred in the second and third decades of life. The main anatomical location was the mandible, and no malignant tumors were found.De uma série de 5.289 casos de lesões orais e dos maxilares diagnosticadas no Laboratório de Patologia Oral da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte no período de 30 anos (1970-1999, foram analisados 127 casos de tumores odontogênicos confirmados histologicamente. A lesão mais freqüente foi o odontoma (50,40% seguida pelo ameloblastoma (30,70%. A prevalência de tumores odontogênicos foi maior nas mulheres e o pico de incidência ocorreu na segunda e terceira décadas de vida. A localização anatômica mais comum foi a mandíbula e não foram encontrados casos de tumores malignos.

  15. On the effect of thallium additions on cadmium amalgam potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the influence of additives of thallium on potentials of cadmium amalgams with thallium contents of 10, 20, 30, and 40 at.% at 20, 40, 60, and 80 deg C. Additives of thallium have been found to shift the potential of cadmium amalgams towards the range of negative values which indicates an increase in the activity of cadmium. A possibility of calculation of the potential shift for heterogeneous cadmium amalgams on introducing thallium has been shown

  16. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prando Adilson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73, multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS (n = 4 and multiple with TS (n = 8, were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14% presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13, hemorrhage (n = 11 and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8. There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC with fat component in this group of patients. RESULTS: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal: 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exophytic: 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exophytic and perirenal: 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exophytic and perirenal: 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm, pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exophytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III. The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exophytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with detectable

  17. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prando, Adilson [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: aprando@mpc.com.br

    2003-05-15

    Purpose: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. Materials And Methods: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73), multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS) (n = 4) and multiple with TS (n = 8), were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14%) presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13), hemorrhage (n = 11) and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8). There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with fat component in this group of patients. Results: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal): 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exo phytic): 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exo phytic and peri renal): 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exo phytic and peri renal): 6%. Conclusions: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm), pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exo phytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III). The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exo phytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with

  18. Radiological classification of renal angiomyolipomas based on 127 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Demonstrate radiological findings of 127 angiomyolipomas (AMLs) and propose a classification based on the radiological evidence of fat. Materials And Methods: The imaging findings of 85 consecutive patients with AMLs: isolated (n = 73), multiple without tuberous sclerosis (TS) (n = 4) and multiple with TS (n = 8), were retrospectively reviewed. Eighteen AMLs (14%) presented with hemorrhage. All patients were submitted to a dedicated helical CT or magnetic resonance studies. All hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic lesions were grouped together since our objective was to analyze the presence of detectable fat. Out of 85 patients, 53 were monitored and 32 were treated surgically due to large perirenal component (n = 13), hemorrhage (n = 11) and impossibility of an adequate preoperative characterization (n = 8). There was not a case of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with fat component in this group of patients. Results: Based on the presence and amount of detectable fat within the lesion, AMLs were classified in 4 distinct radiological patterns: Pattern-I, predominantly fatty (usually less than 2 cm in diameter and intrarenal): 54%; Pattern-II, partially fatty (intrarenal or exo phytic): 29%; Pattern-III, minimally fatty (most exo phytic and peri renal): 11%; and Pattern-IV, without fat (most exo phytic and peri renal): 6%. Conclusions: This proposed classification might be useful to understand the imaging manifestations of AMLs, their differential diagnosis and determine when further radiological evaluation would be necessary. Small (< 1.5 cm), pattern-I AMLs tend to be intra-renal, homogeneous and predominantly fatty. As they grow they tend to be partially or completely exo phytic and heterogeneous (patterns II and III). The rare pattern-IV AMLs, however, can be small or large, intra-renal or exo phytic but are always homogeneous and hyperdense mass. Since no renal cell carcinoma was found in our series, from an evidence-based practice, all renal mass with

  19. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  20. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  1. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell. PMID:26349455

  2. Cadmium-113m as a biogeochemical tracer for cadmium in Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lake Michigan watershed has been sampled for 113mCd. This long-lived metastable isotope of cadmium allowed independent evaluation of cadmium distribution in this dynamic ecosystem. 113mCd analysis was not hampered by contamination or loss. These are problems which have plagued stable cadmium measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were necessary concerns. 113mCd has been preconcentrated from large samples in order to obtain sufficient activity for quantification. Specificity for the gross beta activity measured was secured in a rigorous ion exchange decontamination. Confirmation of the suspected 113mCd beta source was checked by reverse tracer analysis and modified Feather analysis range-energy relationships. The 113mCd activities confirm the expected semiconservative behavior for cadmium. This behavior manifests itself in a long residence time for cadmium in Lake Michigan. The inefficiency of outflow removal, the low sedimentation rate and the unquantified sediment resuspension and release of cadmium are factors contributing to this residence time. Steady state concentration of cadmium in Lake Michigan will increase if present input rates persist

  3. Dynamic Expression of MicroRNA-127 During Porcine Prenatal and Postnatal Skeletal Muscle Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-lan; LI Yan; LIANG Ru-yi; ZHOU Rong; AO Hong; MU Yu-lian; YANG Shu-lin; LI Kui; TANG Zhong-lin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNAs in length 21-24 bp, play a critical role in skeletal muscle development. In this study, to explore the function of mircoRNA-127 in porcine skeletal muscle development, eight tissue samples from adult pigs and longissimus muscle samples at 26 developmental stages were collected from Tongcheng and Landrace pigs. The spatial-temporal expression proifles of miRNA-127 were carried out using step-loop quantitative real-time PCR (stem-loop RT-PCR). To explore the molecular functions of miRNA-127, we predicted its target genes and performed functional annotation using bioinformatics methods. Results suggested that miRNA-127 was abundantly expressed in heart, ovary, uterus and spleen tissues and was weakly expressed in liver, lung, kidney and small intestine in both Tongcheng and Landrace pigs. And miRNA-127 showed signiifcant expression differences in heart, ovary, spleen and uterus tissues between these two breeds. miRNA-127 basically kept at a relatively stable high level in middle and later embryonic stages and a low expression level in early embryonic stages and postnatal stages, but the expression levels of miRNA-127 were higher in Tongcheng pigs than in Landrace at most developmental stages. miRNA-127 potentially regulated 240 candidate genes. Results of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes could be involved in many molecular functions and mechanisms, such as regulation of the force of heart contraction, regulation of transcription, regulation of T cell differentiation, MAPK signaling pathway and GnRH signaling pathway. Many signiifcantly enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways were related to skeletal muscle development. This study will be helpful to understand the biological function for miRNA-127 and identify candidate gene associated with meat production traits in pigs.

  4. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  5. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  6. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  7. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  8. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  9. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  10. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  11. Thermodynamic properties of cadmium in lead amalgam dilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of thermodynamic properties of cadmium dilute solutions in lead amalgam is carried out by means of electromotive force technique within 453-523 K temperature range. Cadmium thermodynamic functions are calculated: activity, activity ratio, Libbs partial energy and its excess value and integral characteristics, respectively. When changing cadmium content from 0.01 up to 0.1 χcd at T=473 K, logarithm of activity ratio does not depend on alloy composition, that is, Heury's law is fulfilled. Increase of cadmium content in amalgam results in the essential reduction of mercury and cadmium reaction

  12. Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Kjellstrom, T.; Linnman, L.; Pershagen, G.

    1978-06-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the urine of 132 Swedes, including 50 pairs of identical twins, were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry procedures were developed for the analysis. Cadmium concentration increased with age and was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Estimated 24-hr excretion of cadmium among nonsmokers increased from about 0.25 to 0.40 ..mu..g in persons from 20 to 70 years old. The 24-hr cadmium excretions among nonsmokers in different age-groups fitted better to total kidney burden than to daily cadmium intake from food. Zinc excretion, on the other hand, decreased after the age of 20.

  13. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  14. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton".......Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton"....

  15. Cadmium exposure and pancreatic cancer in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; Su, L Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  16. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  17. Study of cadmium electrochemical deposition in sulfate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, T.; Solorza, O.; Sanchez, H.

    2000-03-01

    The cadmium electrochemical deposition process from sulfate medium was studied by means of different electrochemical techniques in both stationary and nonstationary diffusion regimes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reduction of cadmium on solid cadmium electrodes was examined and the kinetic parameters are presented, as well as the diffusion coefficient derived from the different techniques. Temperature has an important effect on the cadmium reduction kinetics, and the activation energy of the process was evaluated. The electrochemical deposition of cadmium is a complex process due to the coexistence of adsorption and nucleation processes; the adsorbed electroactive species appears to be Cd{sup +2}, and a mechanism for cadmium electrodeposition on solid cadmium electrodes is proposed.

  18. Chemical Speciation Analysis and Environmental Behaviour of 127I and 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    H. The absorption capacity of iodate is low and reduces quickly when its concentration increases. Compared with activated charcoal, DEAE 32 cellulose showed a lower adsorption capacity of inorganic and organic iodine species. Adsorption of iodine species onto activated charcoal and DEAE 32 cellulose from seawater......This thesis deals with chemical speciation analysis and behaviour of the anthropogenic radioisotope 129I as well as stable iodine 127I in environmental samples such as freshwater, seawater, soils, sediments and seaweed. The behaviour and chemical speciation of iodine (127I and 129I...... been present in the biosphere for a relatively short time, may not show the same behaviour as the stable 127I isotope. The present study illustrates this. Chemical speciation analysis of 129I and 127I as iodide, iodate and total inorganic iodine in seawater samples from the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak...

  19. 33 CFR 110.127a - Lake Powell, Utah-Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127a Lake Powell, Utah-Arizona. (a) Castel...″ W. Note: Fixed moorings, piles, or stakes are prohibited. Single and fore-and-aft temporary...

  20. 33 CFR 110.127b - Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah. (a... moorings, piles, or stakes are prohibited. Single and fore-and-aft temporary moorings will be allowed....

  1. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  2. Engineering of a Pluronic F127 functionalized magnetite/graphene nanohybrid for chemophototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongyong; Liu, Jiaqiang; Dong, Haiqing; Liu, Guangzhen; Hu, Haiqing

    2014-02-14

    In this study, a multifunctional graphene based nanohybrid, termed as GN/Fe3O4/PF127, is engineered via a facile one-pot process consisting of simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide/Fe3O4 and subsequent assembly of Pluronic F127 (PF127) onto graphene nanosheets (GNs). The unique aromatic and planar structure of GNs allows the attachment of multiple functional components including MRI contrast agent (Fe3O4 nanoparticles) and an aromatic anticancer drug like doxorubicin (DOX), as well as PF127 coating which imparts physiological dispersivity and stability to the nanohybrid. The successful assembly process is revealed by TEM observation, size and FITR monitoring. In contrast with the primitive graphene or its oxide derivative, the resulting GN/Fe3O4/PF127 nanohybrids have shown high biological dispersion and MRI effect for diagnosis due to the incorporation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles without evident cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GN/Fe3O4/PF127 nanohybrid exhibits a photothermal effect due to the considerable optical absorption in the near-infrared region of GNs. The GN/Fe3O4/PF127 nanohybrid could be a further platform for chemophototherapy assisted by the therapeutic DOX. Cellular toxicity assays indicated that the DOX-loaded GN/Fe3O4/PF127 nanohybrid showed a remarkable cytotoxicity to HeLa cells and the cytotoxic effect was intensified when subjected to photoirradiation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric analysis (FCAS) revealed that the nanohybrid could be easily uptaken into HeLa cells.

  3. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  4. Urinary cadmium and estimated dietary cadmium in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Sabah M; Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin; Meliker, Jaymie R; Li, Wenjun; Luo, Juhua; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal dispersed in the environment as a result of industrial and agricultural applications, has been implicated in several human diseases including renal disease, cancers, and compromised bone health. In the general population, the predominant sources of cadmium exposure are tobacco and diet. Urinary cadmium (uCd) reflects long-term exposure and has been frequently used to assess cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies; estimated dietary intake of cadmium (dCd) has also been used in several studies. The validity of dCd in comparison with uCd is unclear. This study aimed to compare dCd, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, to uCd measured in spot urine samples from 1,002 participants of the Women's Health Initiative. Using linear regression, we found that dCd was not statistically significantly associated with uCd (β=0.006, P-value=0.14). When stratified by smoking status, dCd was not significantly associated with uCd both in never smokers (β=0.006, P-value=0.09) and in ever smokers (β=0.003, P-value=0.67). Our results suggest that because of the lack of association between estimated dCd and measured uCd, dietary estimation of cadmium exposure should be used with caution in epidemiologic studies.

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CADMIUM IN PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction occurred where subsistence rice farmers produced their lifetime dietary rice on Zn-mine waste contaminated soils in Japan and other Asian countries. Research has shown that polished rice Cd is greatly increased while grain Zn is not incre...

  6. Field scale behaviour of cadmium in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhold, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Although total heavy metal contents of soil are often used to express the degree of contamination, they are of little value to judge environmental effects. The main objective of this thesis was to develop and test methodologies with which environmental risks of cadmium pollution of field soils can b

  7. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay content).The adsorption ap

  8. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  9. Interaction between Albumin and Pluronic F127 Block Copolymer Revealed by Global and Local Physicochemical Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Maria Victoria; Matei, Iulia; Micutz, Marin; Staicu, Teodora; Precupas, Aurica; Popa, Vlad Tudor; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Ionita, Gabriela

    2016-05-12

    The interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic F127 has been investigated by several physical methods. Interest in studying this system stems from a broad range of bioactivities involving both macromolecules. Serum albumins constitute a significant class of proteins in the circulatory system, acting as carriers for a wide spectrum of compounds or assemblies. Pluronic block copolymers have revealed their capacity to ferry a variety of biologically active compounds. Circular dichroism, rheological measurements, and differential scanning microcalorimetry (μDSC) were employed to get insight into the interaction betweeen the two macromolecules. The results reveal that Pluronic F127 induces conformational changes to albumin if it is organized in a micellar form, while albumin influences the self-assembly of Pluronic F127 into micelles or gels. F127 micelles, however, induce smaller conformational changes compared to ionic surfactants. The μDSC thermograms obtained for HSA and/or F127 show that HSA shifts the critical micellar temperature (cmt) to lower values, while concurrently the HSA denaturation behavior is influenced by F127, depending on its concentration. Rheological measurements on solutions of F127 17% have shown that a sol-to-gel transition occurs at higher temperatures in the presence of HSA and the resulting gel is weaker. The global profile on HSA/F127 systems was complemented by local information provided by EPR measurements. A series of X-band EPR experiments was performed with spin probes 4-(N,N'-dimethyl-N-hexadecyl)ammonium-2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl iodide (CAT16) and 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA). These spin probes bind to albumin sites and are sensitive to phase transformations in Pluronic block copolymer solutions. For a given F127 concentration, the spin probe binds only to HSA below cmt and migrates to the F127 micelles above cmt. The collective data suggest soft interactions between the

  10. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  11. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  14. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  15. Study on electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-xin; CUI Chong-wei; YU Shui-li; FENG Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    Kaolinite from a lead-zinc mining district, which was spiked with cadmium, has been treated by electrokinetics to investigate effects of treatment time and applied voltage gradient. The results showed that the increased test duration had induced a higher removal rate of cadmium. Being treated for 7 days, cadmium was removed from kaolinite dramatically. It was also found that higher removal rate happened when a higher voltage gradient was applied and cadmium accumulated near the cathode because pH increased. Increase of pH near the cathode caused accumulation of cadmium. Moreover, it was observed that cation exchange membrane which was placed between kaolinite and cathode could make pH lower than the initial value and avoid the higher pH near the cathode. As a result, the high concentration accumulation of cadmium near the cathode was avoided.

  16. Research and Development of Cadmium Sulphoselenide Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Kun; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; XU Xiaoyang; LAO Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphoselenide was synthesized continuous substitution solid solution and the only known pigment to yield bright red color on ceramic decoration. Encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide pigments could yield abundant hues from yellow to red with high opacity at high temperature. The color generation has a linear function relation with the substitution rate. The encapsulation formation process of zirconium silicate encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide was shown. Insufifcient encapsulation efifciency and potential hazard to human and environment had limited the industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment. Ink-jet printing decoration required ifne size cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment on ceramic decoration. The review mainly focused on the synthesis techniques and industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment.

  17. Fabrication of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    The present work was aimed to develop a new kind of stone conservation materials (TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating) by a facile sol-gel method for the protection of decayed sandstones of Chongqing Dazu stone sculptures in China. The hydrophobic property, surface morphology, water vapor permeability, ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating as a stone conservation material. The results showed that the addition of hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) contributed to improve the hydrophobic properties and incorporation of PEO-PPO-PEO (F127) surfactant resulted in the formation of superficial protrusions with micro- and nanoscopic structures and overall alteration of surface morphology and roughness, thus preventing the coating materials from cracking. After treatment with TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials, the ultraviolet aging resistance and mechanical properties of stone were also improved without the obvious effects on the breathability and color of the stone, indicating promising applications of TEOS/PDMS/F127 hybrid coating materials for conservation of historic stone sculptures.

  18. An approach for measuring the 129I/127I ratio in fish samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuno, Haruka; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2015-10-01

    The 129I/127I ratio in marine fish samples was measured employing accelerator mass spectrometry. The measurement was successful because of the low experimental background of 129I. Pyrohydrolysis was applied to extract iodine from fish samples. The experimental background of pyrohydrolysis was checked carefully and evaluated as 104-105 atoms 129I/combustion. The methodology employed in the present study thus required only 0.05-0.2 g of dried fish samples. The methodology was then applied to obtain the 129I/127I ratio of marine fish samples collected from the Western Pacific Ocean as (0.63-1.2) × 10-10. These values were similar to the ratio for the surface seawater collected at the same station, 0.4 × 10-10. The 129I/127I ratio of IAEA-414, which was a mix of fish from the Irish Sea and the North Sea, was also measured and determined as 1.82 × 10-7. Consequently, fish from the Western Pacific Ocean and the North Sea were distinguished by their 129I/127I ratios. The 129I/127I ratio is thus a direct indicator of the area of habitat of fish.

  19. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  20. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  1. Oral cadmium exposure of adults in Germany. 1: Cadmium content of foodstuffs and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Anke, M; Hartmann, E; Illing-Günther, H

    1996-04-01

    The cadmium contents of 94 and 105 foodstuffs bought in six-fold repetition in 1988 and in nine-fold repetition in 1991, respectively were analysed within the framework of a market-basket study. These foodstuffs were typical of German eating habits. Additionally, 170 samples of drinking water were investigated. The cadmium concentrations of the foodstuffs were comparable with results of recent studies carried out in Europe and North America. Fruit, milk and dairy products, sugar and sugar-rich foodstuffs as well as beverages showed mean cadmium contents cakes and pastries as well as farinaceous products were within the range of 20-40 ng/g. The most important bread, cakes and pastries (wheat and rye bread, toasted bread, rolls) contained 25-35 ng/g. A median cadmium concentration of 0.2 micrograms/l was found in the drinking water. As expected, liver and kidneys showed the highest cadmium levels of 73 and 204 ng/g, respectively on average. PMID:8718751

  2. Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity, due to these reports this study reviewed relevant literature on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity with emphasis on doses, route of administration, salt forms (cadmium compounds and the roles of mitigating agents. Reports have shown that continuous exposure of the liver to cadmium has led to hepatotoxicity. Humans are generally exposed to cadmium by two main routes, inhalation and ingestion. In this study, evaluation of relevant literature showed that irrespective of route of administration and salt forms cadmium hepatotoxicity is dose and time dependent. Cadmium associated hepatotoxicity manifested through impaired functions of hepatic biomarkers (transaminases, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological damage to liver architecture manifested as swelling of hepatocytes, focal necrosis, hepatocytes degeneration, dilatation of ribosomes, damage of membrane-bounded lysosomes, nuclear pyknosis and cytoplasm vacuolization. Deterioration of mitochondrial cristae, deposition of collagen fibrils, hypertrophy of kuffer cells, congestion in central veins and sinusoids, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage also occurred. Hepatotoxic effect of cadmium was mitigated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Manganese (11 Chloride, N-acetylcysteine and Selenium. Extracts of plant origin including Solanum tuberosum, Calycopteris floribunda Hibiscus sabdariffa mitigated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. Chemical substances of animal origin including honey and camel milk were reported to have ameliorated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms of cadmium induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be associated with the up regulation of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress which caused oxidative damage to lipid contents of membranes and direct liver injury. Conclusion cadmium is dose and time dependently hepatotoxic irrespective of route of administration

  3. Extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, A.N.; Malyarova, M.A.; Zhulenko, V.N.

    1986-06-01

    As a result of industrial discharges, burning of solid and liquid fuels, and recycling of metal scrap, cadmium compounds enter the atmosphere and drop into the water and soil causing contamination. In this paper, a method was developed for determining cadmium in meat products. It involves wet ashing the sample, extractive separation of the cadmium as the diethyldithiocarbamate, reextraction, and determination as cadmium dithizonate or as a complex with 2,2'-dipyridyl. The detection limit with dithizone is 0.005 mg/kg and with 2,2'-dipyridyl 0.05 mg/kg. An analysis is shown to take less than 60 minutes.

  4. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  5. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Effects of Cadmium on BMP Induced Bone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 徐顺清

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the direct effects of cadmium on activities of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a complex containing BMP and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was implanted beneath the abdominal skin of young male Wistar rats. The activity of BMP was studied by observing the histological changes, and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) and calcium content of the implants at different time points. Our results showed that during bone formation induced by BMP, cadmium inhibited the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and slowed the deposition of calcium. It is concluded that cadmium can directly affect biological activities of BMP directly.

  7. β—Correction Spectrophotometric Determination of Cadmium with Cadion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜洪文

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium has been determined by β-correction spectrophotometry with cadion,p-nitrobenzenediazoaminoaz-obenzone,and a non-ionic surfactant,tuiton X-100.The real absorbance of a Cd-cadion chelate in the colored solution can be accurately determined and the complex-ratio of cadion with Cd(II) has been worked out to be 2.Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0-0.20mg/1 cadmium and the detec-tion limit for cadmium is only 0.003mg/1.Satisfactory experimental results are presented with respect to the determination of trace cadmium in wastewaters.

  8. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    Hosliggende rapport formidler resultaterne fra PSO-projektet: ”Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker” (PSO-F&U 3206), finansieret af Elkraft System og Energi E2 A/S. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden 01.05.2003 – 30.06.2004, og partnerne var Energi E2 A/S, BYG-DTU og Krüger A/S, med...... BYG-DTU som den primært udførende part. Projektets formål var at undersøge, om den elektrodialytiske rensningsmetode kunne bruges til at reducere indholdet af cadmium i asker fra biobrændsel (f.eks. træflis og halm) med henblik på nyttiggørelse af askerne. Projektet havde nær sammenhæng med det...

  9. Fluorescence of commercial Pluronic F127 samples: Temperature-dependent micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher C; Sabir, Theodore S; Livingston, Wesley J; Milligan, Jamie R; Chen, Qiao; Maskiewicz, Victoria; Boskovic, Danilo S

    2011-02-15

    We present a novel approach of using the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant found in commercial Pluronic F127 samples as a marker of polymer aggregation. The BHT marker was compared to the pyrene dye and static light scattering methods as a way to measure the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and critical micelle temperature (CMT). The n→π(∗) transitions of BHT are sensitive to the microenvironment as demonstrated by plotting the fractional intensities of its excitation (≈280nm) and emission (≈325nm) peaks. BHT is more sensitive to changes in temperature than concentration. The partition coefficient increases ≈40-fold for pyrene compared to ≈2-fold for BHT when the temperature is increased from 25 to 37°C. CMT values determined using the BHT fluorescence decrease with increasing F127 concentration. Our results show that BHT can be used as a reliable marker of changes in the microenvironment of Pluronic F127. PMID:21087773

  10. Electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A previously developed program, which includes all electronic interactions thought to be important, does not correctly predict the value of electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride particularly near room temperature. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the way screening is handled. It seems likely that there are a number of contributors to errors in the calculation. The objective is to survey the calculation, locate reasons for differences between experiment and calculation, and suggest improvements.

  11. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; A. Gopala Reddy; G S Rao; Ravi Kumar, P.; D Srinivas Kumar; P Prabhu Prasadini

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods : A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed wi...

  12. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; Srivastava, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  13. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  14. Cadmium biosorption rate in protonated Sargassum biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Biosorption of the heavy metal ion Cd{sup 2+} by protonated nonliving brown alga Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake of cadmium and the release of proton matched each other throughout the biosorption process. The end-point titration methodology was used to maintain the constant pH 4.0 for developing the dynamic sorption rate. The sorption isotherm could be well represented by the Langmuir sorption model. A mass transfer model assuming the intraparticle diffusion in a one-dimensional thin plate as a controlling step was developed to describe the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption mathematical model equations were solved numerically yielding the effective diffusion coefficient D{sub e} about 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. This value matches that obtained for the desorption process and is approximately half of that of the molecular diffusion coefficient for cadmium ions in aqueous solution.

  15. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  16. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  17. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Siswanto; Parinda Suksabye; Paitip Thiravetyan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N), Cd soils (Cds), and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP), coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm) and corncob (CC) under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatm...

  18. Influence of a high level of dietary cadmium on cadmium content in milk, excretion, and cow performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Lampp, B.; Powell, G.W.; Salotti, C.A.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1967-01-01

    Three Holstein cows were each given 3.0 g of cadmium daily (two equal doses) for two weeks by gelatin capsules. There was a sharp drop in concentrate consumption for the first few days of cadmium administration but, by the second week, consumption returned to normal. Milk production declined sharply for several days and then increased appreciably, but to a level still substantially lower than that of controls during the last five days cadmium was given. When cadmium treatments ceased, milk production increased by 50%. Fat content of milk was elevated considerably during the week when production was most reduced. Cows given cadmium lost considerable weight. There were no other clinical manifestations of toxicity. As determined by the chromic oxide indicator method and twice-daily grab samples, fecal excretion of cadmium for the second week averaged 82% of that given. The cadmium level in the urine was below the limits of detectability of the method (0.5 ppm of urine). The cadmium content of the milk was less than 0.1 ppm of the milk, which was the lower reliability limit of the procedure used. On this basis less than 0.22% of the amount administered appeared in the milk. In vitro studies demonstrated that cadmium combines with the casein and whey protein fractions of the milk readily, with the amount combined being linear when levels from 1.0 to 25.0 ppm are added to milk. Smaller amounts were present in the lactose and mineral fractions.

  19. Assessment of pulmonary ventilation scans using Xenon-127 in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary ventilation scans using 127Xe were compared with scans using 133Xe in the diagonsis of pulmonary embolism. A perfusion scan using sup(99m)Tc-microspheres and ventilation scans with each of the xenon isotopes were performed on 44 patients referred for lung scanning to confirm or exclude a suspected clinical diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. No significant difference was found in the frequency of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism when comparing each of the ventilation scans with the corresponding perfusion scan. For reasons discussed, 127Xe may be more useful than 133Xe for pulmonary ventilation scanning. (orig.)

  20. Relationship between 129I and 127I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. E.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Wallner, A.; Arazi, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    129I/127I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the 129I/127I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that 129I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the 129I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total 129I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  1. Experimental Study of High-spin States in ~(127)I~1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Study of in-bearn γ-ray spectroscopy o~(127)I has been carried out by using~(124)Sn(~7Li,4n)~(127)I reaction.The ~7Li beam was delivered by the Tandem Accelerator in the University of Tsukuba,Japan.The target was an enriched self-supporting~(124)Sn metallic foil of 4 mg/cm~2 thickness.A γ-ray detector array composed of one planar detector and 9 BGO-Compton-suppressed Ge detectors was used.Five Ge detectors were positioned at

  2. Cadmium sulfate complexing with thiourea during preparation of cadmium sulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of complexes deposited from cadmium sulfate and thiourea(TU) aqueous solution is studied. Its influence on cadmium sulfide film deposition during solution spraying is ascertained. It is shown that with increase of TU concentration in aqueous solution gradual substitution of TU molecules for the first sphere SO42- ions takes place. As a result CdS deposition from these solutions is initiated when the ratio of CdSO4:TU concentrations is 1:2 and for prepartation of uniform films a five-fold TU excess as a minimum is necessary

  3. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  4. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  5. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  6. Drikkevands optagelse af cadmium og bly fra armaturer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.

    Notatet omfatter rapporter fra to forsøgsrækker vedr. brugsvands optagelse af bly og cadmium. Den første omhandler brugsvandsarmaturers afgivelse af bly og cadmium til syntetisk brugsvand med en sammensætning svarende til en sur, blød vandtype. Forsøgene omfatter 10 armaturer og armaturdele...

  7. Cadmium-induced ectopic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Po Kwok; Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced developmental toxicity was mediated via ectopic occurrence of apoptosis during embryonic development. We employed confocal microscopy to acquire images of whole-mount staining of apoptotic cells in zebrafish embryo exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium from 5 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 28 hpf. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the images was performed and the spatial and temporal distributions of apoptotic cells in the embryos were compared. In cadmium-treated embryos with varying degrees of gross developmental malformations, significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells were detected with this method. In order to detect the precise locations of apoptotic cells, we performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay in sectioned embryos. In the degenerating neural tube of cadmium-treated embryos apoptotic cells were detected, while in the healthy neural tube of the untreated controls no apoptotic cells were found. We then employed flow cytometry to investigate whether cadmium exposure would affect the dynamics of apoptosis or induce any abnormalities in cell-cycle progression. It appeared that cadmium did not induce cell-cycle arrest. The percentages of apoptotic cells did not differ in the two groups at 13, 16 or 19 hpf. At 28 hpf, however, a significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells were found in the cadmium-treated group. Exposure to cadmium, therefore, induced ectopic apoptosis at 28 hpf without affecting the dynamics of apoptosis at earlier developmental stages. (orig.)

  8. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  9. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...

  10. Electrolytic indium refining from cadmium in glycerine electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations directed on development of electrochemical indium cleaning from cadmium in glycerine base electrolyte are presented. Optimal operational conditions, specific consumption of reactants and electric power are determined. Relationship between variation of concentration of cadmium impurity in refined metal and duration of electrolysis is revealed. The method for determination of cleaning time is proposed. Developed process was put into commercial operation

  11. Method of making a thin film cadmium telluride solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for making a photovoltaic cell is described comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a transparent or semi-transparent conductive window layer onto a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of cadmium telluride including phosphorus onto the window layer; (c) depositing a layer of lead telluride onto the layer of cadmium telluride; and (d) depositing a metallic electrode onto the lead telluride layer

  12. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  13. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  14. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  15. Effect of environmental exposure to Cadmium on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezanzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds andObjectives:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of environmental exposure to toxic metal (cadmium on pregnancy outcome and fetal growth."nMaterials and Methods: 330 normal pregnant women were randomly selected from vali-e-asr hospital, from July 2003 through Feb. 2005. Cadmium was measured in umbilical cord blood and mother whole blood of postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry"nResult: Whole blood cadmium and cord blood cadmium ranged from 0/00 to 6/30 μg/L ,respectivly. in the group higher level of maternal blood cadmium (> 0.40 μg/L 1cm decrease was seen in neonatal birth height. (p = 0.007 There was a significant association between cadmium exposure and birth weight.Mann-whitney test showed that, maternal blood cadmium level, was significantly negatively associated with neonatal birth weight (z = -1.83, P < 0.06."nConclusion: It was concluded that environmental exposure to cadmium significantly reduces neonatal birth height.

  16. Risk of overestimation of urinary cadmium concentrations: interference from molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas A.I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show here that the selection of analytical method is critical when measuring low levels of cadmium in human urine. Cadmium is today usually analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, which has a higher sensitivity than Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. ICP-MS cadmium measurements show interference from tin (114Sn and molybdenum oxides, which can result in an overestimation of cadmium levels. The 114Sn interference is stable and can be mathematically corrected. Molybdenum concentrations in urine are variable and different from individual to individual. We have estimated the degree of error which molybdenum interference introduces in the measurement of cadmium in urine by conventional ICP-MS. 268 urine samples from mothers and their children were measured. Removal of the molybdenum oxide interference (DRC-ICP-MS method reduced urinary cadmium concentrations significantly (47.8%. The urinary molybdenum concentration in children was higher than in their mothers, resulting in greater overestimation. Our results clearly show that the DRC method is essential for reliable measurements of urinary cadmium concentrations, particularly in children. Furthermore, care should be taken when comparing Human Biomonitoring data for cadmium in urine and attention should be paid to which analytical method has been used (e.g. AAS and ICP-Ms, and especially if the measurements have been corrected for molybdenum interference.

  17. 21 CFR 131.127 - Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D... and Cream § 131.127 Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D. (a) Description. Nonfat dry milk fortified with vitamins A and D conforms to the standard of identity for nonfat dry milk, except...

  18. 21 CFR 111.127 - What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.127 What quality control operations are required for packaging and labeling operations? Quality control operations for packaging...

  19. In vivo triarylmethyl radical stabilization through encapsulation in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kahina; Boutier-Pischon, Audrey; Auger, Florian; Françon, Dominique; Almario, Antonio; Frapart, Yves-Michel

    2016-09-01

    In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and spectroscopy are non-invasive technologies used to specifically detect and quantify paramagnetic species. However, the relative instability of spin probes such as triarylmethyl radicals limits their application to conduct oxygen quantification and mapping. In this study we encapsulated tetrathiatriarylmethyl radical (TAM; known as "Finland" probe) in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel (PF-127) in order to limit its degradation and evaluate its in vitro and in vivo EPR properties as a function of oxygen. Our results show that the EPR signal of encapsulated TAM in PF-127 hydrogel is similar to the one in solution. Although it is less sensitive to oxygen, it is suitable for oximetry. We also demonstrated that the incorporation of TAM in PF-127 hydrogel leads to an improved in vivo EPR stability of the radical under anesthesia. This new formulation enables high quality EPR imaging and oximetry and paves the way for the application of TAM radical-based probes in various biomedical fields.

  20. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical speciation analysis of 129I and 127I as iodide, iodate and total inorganic iodine in seawater samples from the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat has been carried out. The important findings of this study are that the reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process while along the Baltic Sea surface water reduction of iodate is a relatively fast process. Although suboxic or anoxic condition are encountered in some of the Baltic Sea deep basins, the concentration of 129IO3- increases with water depth indicating that the reduction of iodate in the oxygen deficient bottom water of the Baltic Sea is a slow process. Iodine chemical speciation analysis (as iodide, iodate and total iodine including inorganic and organic iodine species) in lake water samples collected from Denmark and southern Sweden has been carried out. Destruction of organic iodine was performed by alkaline oxidation using NaOH - NaClO at 100 deg. C and anion exchange chromatography was used for separation of iodide and iodate. Iodine-129 concentrations in the lakes ranged from 1.3 - 12.8 x109 at/L and show elevated concentrations in lakes located in southwest Jutland (Denmark), near the North Sea. Except the Skaersoe Lake, were the organic iodine - 127 accounts for 50% of the total iodine, iodide (both 129I and 127I) is the predominant species form in surface water of the studied lakes. An investigation was conducted in order to quantify the total aquatic iodine (129I and 127I as inorganic and organic iodine) from fresh water and seawater samples by adsorption onto activated charcoal and DEAE 32 cellulose followed by alkaline digestion or combustion. The results show that iodide from freshwater samples can easily be adsorbed onto activated charcoal. The sorption was not affected by the pH. The absorption capacity of iodate is low and reduces quickly when its concentration increases. Compared with activated charcoal, DEAE 32 cellulose showed a

  1. Distribution of I-127 and I-129 in precipitation at high European latitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahan, A.; Persson, S.; Possnert, G.;

    2009-01-01

    We here present the most extensive data set on the distribution of 127I and 129I in precipitation (rain and snow) covering the period 2000–2006 and European latitudes 55°N–68°N. Our results indicate a wide variation in the concentrations and fluxes of the two isotopes associated with generally...

  2. Deliverable 1.2.7: Cross-cultural benefit segmentation of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.J.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Berg, van den I.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Guardia, M.D.; Guerrero, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present report, deliverable D.1.2.7, gives a final view of the work done in ISAFruit Work Package (WP) 1.2. Average Europe fruit consumption is below the recommended level and moreover the consumption level is still decreasing in Europe. A large survey was carried out in four European countries

  3. 33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake...′50″ W. “c” 36°05′00″ N. 114°06′13″ W. Note: Fixed moorings, piles, or stakes are prohibited....

  4. In vivo triarylmethyl radical stabilization through encapsulation in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kahina; Boutier-Pischon, Audrey; Auger, Florian; Françon, Dominique; Almario, Antonio; Frapart, Yves-Michel

    2016-09-01

    In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and spectroscopy are non-invasive technologies used to specifically detect and quantify paramagnetic species. However, the relative instability of spin probes such as triarylmethyl radicals limits their application to conduct oxygen quantification and mapping. In this study we encapsulated tetrathiatriarylmethyl radical (TAM; known as "Finland" probe) in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel (PF-127) in order to limit its degradation and evaluate its in vitro and in vivo EPR properties as a function of oxygen. Our results show that the EPR signal of encapsulated TAM in PF-127 hydrogel is similar to the one in solution. Although it is less sensitive to oxygen, it is suitable for oximetry. We also demonstrated that the incorporation of TAM in PF-127 hydrogel leads to an improved in vivo EPR stability of the radical under anesthesia. This new formulation enables high quality EPR imaging and oximetry and paves the way for the application of TAM radical-based probes in various biomedical fields.

  5. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het cadmiumgehalt

  6. SORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS AND CADMIUM SALT AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosolids and Cd salt-amended soils were collected from a long-term field experiment established in 1976. Cadmium sorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd salt, and unamended soils (control). The organic carbon (OC) of soils ...

  7. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium metallothionein in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.In short, the main source of environmental exposure to cadmium for no

  8. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  9. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  10. Cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite as affected by glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; LUO Xiao-san; SUN Rui-juan; CHEN Huai-man

    2004-01-01

    Behaviors of soil heavy metals are often affected by coexisting herbicides due to their physical and chemical interaction. Effect of glyphosate, an herbicide containing -PO32- and -COOH groups, on cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite was studied in detail. The results showed that cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite increased with increasing soil solution pH and cadmium concentration as usual, but decreased with glyphosate, which is due to the formation of a low affinity complex of Cd and glyphosate and decreasing solution pH induced by glyphosate addition. When the equilibrium solution pH was below 6.7, glyphosate has little effect on cadmium adsorption, but when the equilibrium solution pH was above 6.7, glyphosate significantly decreased cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite. In addition, the adding order of Cd and glyphosate also influenced Cd adsorption quantity in montmorillonite.

  11. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the cadmium and copper content inherent to metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, B.; Kozar, S.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Zagreb, P.O.B. 1016, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1998-05-01

    The reliability of the voltammetric determination of the cadmium and copper content (at pH 1.0), inherent to metallothionein (MT) isolated from the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis, was investigated. An artifact signal enhancement of copper, caused by the cupric-thionein complex adsorption at the mercury electrode, was established. This artifact was removed by UV-digestion of the sample for 15-20 h prior to analysis. A similar artifact was not detected for cadmium, because at this pH the cadmium-thionein complex has dissociated, and cadmium exists in the ionic form. Therefore, the voltammetric analysis of the cadmium content can be performed directly at pH 1.0, without prior UV-digestion of the sample. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  13. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  14. The biocompatibility of PluronicF127 fibrinogen-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachaf, Yonatan; Gonen-Wadmany, Maya; Seliktar, Dror

    2010-04-01

    Our research is focused on the design of hydrogel biomaterials that can be used for 3-D cell encapsulation and tissue engineering. In this study, our goal was to engineer a temperature-responsive biomaterial to possess bioactive properties using polymer and protein chemistry, and at the same time provide the biomaterial with susceptibility to cell-mediated remodeling. Toward this goal, we developed a biomimetic material that can harness the bioactive properties of fibrinogen and the unique structural properties of PluronicF127. PluronicF127 is a synthetic block copolymer that exhibits reverse thermal gelation (RTG) in response to small changes in ambient temperature. We conjugated fibrinogen to Pluronic)F127 to create a biosynthetic precursor with tunable physicochemical properties based on the relationship between the two constituents. A hydrogel matrix was formed from the fibrinogen-F127 adducts by free-radical polymerization using light activation (photo-polymerization). These materials displayed a reversible temperature-induced physical sol-gel transition and an irreversible light-activated chemical cross-linking. The susceptibility of this hydrogel biomaterial to protease degradation and consequent cell-mediated remodeling was controlled by the PluronicF127 constituent. The protein-based material also conveyed inductive signals to cells through bioactive sites on the fibrinogen backbone, as well as through structural properties such as the matrix modulus. We apply these materials as a tissue engineering hydrogel scaffold for 3-D in vitro culture of dermal fibroblasts in order to gain a better understanding of how the material bioactivity and matrix properties can independently affect cell morphology and remodeling. PMID:20092890

  15. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  16. 13 CFR 127.203 - What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the same or similar line of business. (b) Limitation on personal net worth. In order to be... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the rules governing the requirement that economically disadvantaged women must own EDWOSBs? 127.203 Section 127.203 Business...

  17. 12 CFR 220.127 - Independent broker/dealers arranging credit in connection with the sale of insurance premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... connection with the sale of insurance premium funding programs. 220.127 Section 220.127 Banks and Banking... with the sale of insurance premium funding programs. (a) The Board's September 5, 1972, clarifying... engaged in the sale and arranging of credit in connection with such insurance premium funding programs....

  18. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  19. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  20. Comparative transcriptomic responses to chronic cadmium, fluoranthene, and atrazine exposure in Lumbricus rubellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, C; Owen, J; Kille, P; Wren, J; Jonker, M J; Headley, B A; Morgan, A J; Blaxter, M; Stürzenbaum, S R; Hankard, P K; Lister, L J; Spurgeon, D J

    2008-06-01

    Transcriptional responses of a soil-dwelling organism (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus) to three chemicals, cadmium (Cd), fluoranthene (FA), and atrazine (AZ), were measured following chronic exposure, with the aim of identifying the nature of any shared transcriptional response. Principal component analysis indicated full or partial separation of control and exposed samples for each compound but not for the composite set of all control and exposed samples. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis allowed separation of the control and exposed samples for each chemical and also for the composite data set, suggesting a common transcriptional response to exposure. Genes identified as changing in expression level (by the least stringent test for significance) following exposure to two chemicals indicated a substantial number of common genes (> 127). The three compound overlapping gene set, however, comprised only 25 genes. We suggest that the low commonality in transcriptional response may be linked to the chronic concentrations (approximately 10% EC50) and chronic duration (28 days) used. Annotations of the three compound overlapping gene set indicated that genes from pathways most often associated with responses to environmental stress, such as heat shock, phase I and II metabolism, antioxidant defense, and cation balance, were not represented. The strongest annotation signature was for genes important in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. PMID:18589989

  1. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Fels-Klerx, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this

  2. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  3. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  4. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 129I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-10-15

    Chemical speciation analysis of 129I and 127I as iodide, iodate and total inorganic iodine in seawater samples from the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat has been carried out. The important findings of this study are that the reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process while along the Baltic Sea surface water reduction of iodate is a relatively fast process. Although suboxic or anoxic condition are encountered in some of the Baltic Sea deep basins, the concentration of 129IO{sub 3}- increases with water depth indicating that the reduction of iodate in the oxygen deficient bottom water of the Baltic Sea is a slow process. Iodine chemical speciation analysis (as iodide, iodate and total iodine including inorganic and organic iodine species) in lake water samples collected from Denmark and southern Sweden has been carried out. Destruction of organic iodine was performed by alkaline oxidation using NaOH - NaClO at 100 deg. C and anion exchange chromatography was used for separation of iodide and iodate. Iodine-129 concentrations in the lakes ranged from 1.3 - 12.8 x109 at/L and show elevated concentrations in lakes located in southwest Jutland (Denmark), near the North Sea. Except the Skaersoe Lake, were the organic iodine - 127 accounts for 50% of the total iodine, iodide (both 129I and 127I) is the predominant species form in surface water of the studied lakes. An investigation was conducted in order to quantify the total aquatic iodine (129I and 127I as inorganic and organic iodine) from fresh water and seawater samples by adsorption onto activated charcoal and DEAE 32 cellulose followed by alkaline digestion or combustion. The results show that iodide from freshwater samples can easily be adsorbed onto activated charcoal. The sorption was not affected by the pH. The absorption capacity of iodate is low and reduces quickly when its concentration increases. Compared with activated charcoal, DEAE 32 cellulose showed

  5. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  6. Cadmium Uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Vallarta Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01 showed a biphasic behavior, with an initial rapid passive cell wall interaction phase and a later slow intracellular cation uptake process. The cell wall uptake process followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km of the uptake system was 38.89 µM, a relatively high affinity Km value compared to other metal uptake systems. Fitting of experimental data to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms showed that binding of cadmium to the cell surface was monolayer and/or multilayer, although the monolayer adsorption was more probable, as exemplified by a high correlation coefficient. This could be explained by the presence of a strong primary binding site which was responsible for a monolayer adsorption and a weak secondary binding site which could be responsible for a multilayer adsorption. The uptake process was found to be relatively specific for cadmium. Equimolar amounts (200 µM of cobalt, nickel, magnesium, and copper did not significantly affect cadmium uptake. Synechococcus aquatilis Strain SY01 cells also showed an efflux mechanism for cadmium, although the amount of excluded cadmium was insignificant compared with the amount of adsorbed cadmium in the cell wall.

  7. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  8. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  9. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  10. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  11. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  12. Selenium protection from cadmium and chromium poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of selenium with cadmium and chromium was studied in 168 chicken-broilers (DWCxWR) divided into four equal groups. Eight-week old control animals received an intravenous dose of /sup 115m/Cd Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group I), or 51Cr Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group II). The kinetics of these isotopes were studied by scintillation spectrometry (NaI/TI) carried out for whole blood, plasma, plasma proteins, urine, feces and homogenates of all organs at various time intervals. Animals in Groups III and IV received eight subcutaneous doses of sodium selenate (5ug) at 8-week intervals prior to /sup 115m/Cd or 51Cr. The kinetics of these elements were studied as in the previous two groups. It was found that selenium affected those kinetics in two ways: (a) by increasing the excretion of Cd by 11 +/- 3% (P < 0.001) and that of Cr by 7 +/- 1% (P < 0.001); and (b) by favoring redistribution of those elements, with significant (P < 0.001) reductions in liver, endocrine glands and kidney and increases (P < 0.01) in bone. The study suggests that selenium protects the animals' vital organs from environmental pollutants, such as cadmium and chromium

  13. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  15. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  16. Cadmium biosorption by baker’s yeast in aqueous suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Tálos Katalin; Pernyeszi Tímea; Majdik Cornelia; Hegedűsova Alzbeta; Páger Csilla

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of cadmium from artificial aqueous solutions using native baker’s yeast was investigated. The highest metal uptake value was 110 mg g-1 in a suspension of 0.3 g L-1. The effect of pH, initial cadmium concentration, adsorption time and biosorbent dosage on biosorption by baker’s yeast was studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of cadmium by yeast was observed at pH 6.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within sixty minutes and the sorption process followed pseudo...

  17. Relationship between {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I contents in bovine thyroid glands from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and iodine concentrations in bovine thyroids stemming from Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. From these measurements, a relationship of the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio with iodine content in the gland was obtained. A weak correlation between the two isotopes was found, suggesting that {sup 129}I re-emission from the ocean is not the only process for the {sup 129}I deposition in Argentina. Moreover, contributions to the total {sup 129}I inventory in the Southern hemisphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources were theoretically studied. Surface compartments present similar contribution from natural sources and nuclear explosions fallout.

  18. THE SWELLING OF EXPANSIVE SUBGRADE AT WATES-PURWOREJO ROADWAY STA. 8 127

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setyo Muntohar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage of structures and road beds due to expansive soil are common in Indonesia. One example is the deterioration of a road section at Sta. 8 + 127 of the Purworejo-Wates Highway. This Technical Note presents the investigation of the cause of the deterioration of the road bed. The author concludes that the sub grade is an expansive soil and the swelling pressure is able to lift the overlaying pavement and cause considerable cracking. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kerusakan struktur bangunan dan perkerasan jalan karena tanah ekspansif merupakan masalah yang banyak terjadi di Indonesia. Salah satu kerusakan perkerasan jalan yang terjadi karena tanah ekspansif adalah kerusakan perkerasan jalan di Sta. 8+127, Jalan Raya Purworejo-Wates. Technical Note ini menyajikan penyelidikan penyebab kerusakan perkerasan jalan tersebut. Penulis menyimpulkan bahwa tanah dasar di lokasi tersebut adalah tanah ekspansif dengan tekanan mengembang yang sanggup merusak struktur perkerasan jalan di atasnya.

  19. Real-time UV imaging of drug diffusion and release from Pluronic F127 hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fengbin; Yaghmur, Anan; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Larsen, Claus; Østergaard, Jesper

    2011-07-17

    The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate UV imaging technology for real-time characterization of drug diffusion in and release from hydrogels. Piroxicam and human serum albumin diffusion in Pluronic F127 hydrogel was monitored by measuring the absorbance of light passing through the diffusion cell at 26°C, thus providing real-time concentration maps (7×3 mm imaging area) within the gel as a function of time. Apparent diffusion coefficients were obtained on the basis of Fick's second law. Piroxicam and human serum albumin diffusivities in 20% (w/w) F127 gel were 8 and 24 times lower than those determined in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The effect of increasing polymer concentration (20%, 25% and 30% (w/w)) on piroxicam diffusion was further investigated. The decreasing diffusion rate with increasing F127 concentration agreed well with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. UV imaging was also successfully applied to monitor piroxicam release from 30% (w/w) F127 gel into a stirred aqueous buffer solution, providing simultaneous information on gel dissolution rate, change in thickness of gel-aqueous boundary layer as well as the release of piroxicam into bulk aqueous phase. The current study indicates that UV imaging has great potential for measuring drug diffusion in and release from gel matrices. Compared to the currently used conventional techniques, this technology has several advantages including high information content, non-intrusive measurements without the need for labeling, flexibility with respect to experimental design and simplicity of operation. PMID:21550399

  20. Compensating laser wave-front aberration in atmosphere 1.27 km away with SBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youlun Ju(鞠有伦); Qi Wang(王骐); Deying Chen(陈德应); Xin Yu(于欣); Yuezhu Wang(王月珠)

    2003-01-01

    It is reported that the wave-front aberration produced by atmosphere disturbance can be compensated with nonlinear optics phase conjugate technology. The distance of laser propagating in atmosphere is up to 1.27 km away. The result shows that SBS phase conjugating beam energy can be focus in a little area on target. And the biggest energy of phase conjugating beam on target is up to 142 mJ.

  1. M 127- A Promising Tomato Variety Developed Through Induced Mutation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is the most serious constraints for tomato cultivation in Sri Lanka. At present, the producers and consumers are more interested in yield and quality of produce. The objective of this study was to develop genotypes having BW resistance, high yield potential (>20 t/ha) with desirable fruit qualities. Application of induced mutations was practiced on the Manik variety. It is a well-adapted variety with BW resistance, large fruit size with low fruit weight (76 g) due to large empty locular cavities. Several beneficial mutants better than the parent variety were identified in the M2 generation and confirmed in the M4 generation. The five most promising mutants were evaluated for BW resistance, fruit quality and yield. During dry and wet seasons, the yield evaluation studies were conducted in research and farmers' fields. The mutant M 127 gave significantly higher yields (32.2 t/ha) than the check variety T 245 (21.7 t/ha) during the both seasons. Bacterial wilt screening in the field and laboratory demonstrated that M 127 was moderately resistant. The National Coordinated Varietal Trials confirmed that it was a promising mutant under different agro-ecological zones in both dry and wet seasons. Farm trials indicated that farmer acceptability was higher for the mutant than the check variety. The mutant M 127 possesses high fruit weight (158.6 g), red, slightly flattened firm fruits. It is highly acceptable for table purposes. In the near future the mutant M 127 will be officially released to farmers and at present, it is utilized as a donor parent in the development of new HF3 hybrid under the heterosis breeding programme. (author)

  2. Calculation of Energy Levels of Nucleus 127I in the Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui-Chao; LIU Yu-Xin; ZHANG Yu-Hu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Theoretical calculations have been performed for nucleus 127 I in the framework of the particle-triaxial-rotor model.The calculated results indicate that both the 5+2 and 7+2 bands are oblate deformed bands. Their configurations are associated with the πd5/2 [402] 52 and πg7/2[404] 72 orbitals and the strong mixing between them. Meanwhile a possible explanation of the strong mixing is given.

  3. Chromosomal Locus for Cadmium Resistance in Pseudomonas putida Consisting of a Cadmium-Transporting ATPase and a MerR Family Response Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seon-Woo; Glickmann, Eric; Cooksey, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonads from environmental sources vary widely in their sensitivity to cadmium, but the basis for this resistance is largely uncharactarized. A chromosomal fragment encoding cadmium resistance was cloned from Pseudomonas putida 06909, a rhizosphere bacterium, and sequence analysis revealed two divergently transcribed genes, cadA and cadR. CadA was similar to cadmium-transporting ATPases known mostly from gram-positive bacteria, and to ZntA, a lead-, zinc-, and cadmium-transporting ATPase...

  4. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  5. Time Series of I-129 and I-127 Speciation in Precipitation from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    2009-01-01

    Environmental 129I mainly released from reprocessing plants at La Hague (France) and Sellafield (UK) provides a unique atmospheric and environmental tracer. This study deals with 129I and 127I speciation in precipitation collected in Denmark during 2001−2006 that indicates many new findings. The...... concentrations of total 129I in precipitation vary from 0.28 to 5.63 × 109 atoms 129I L−1 with an average of (2.34 ± 1.43) × 109 atoms 129I L−1, and the annual deposition flux of 129I is (1.25 ± 0.30) × 1012 atoms m−2. Increased 129I levels in precipitation and 129I/127I ratio are attributed to the releases of......−8. Seasonal variations of 129I/127I values and 129I concentrations are associated with highs in spring and lows in summer−autumn periods. Re-emission of 129I from the surface water of the English Channel, Irish Sea, North Sea, and Norwegian Sea, especially from the European continental coast areas, is...

  6. Performance Test of gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) in Kyoto and ITB Jatinangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, E. J.; Fukuda, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Itakura, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gravity team of ITB, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University plan to carry out super hybrid measurement to monitor Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) injection in Gundih. During preparation stage and baseline survey before injection phase, gravity team analyze gPhone performance. Performance test of gPhone gravimeters in 2014 conducted in Kyoto and Jatinangor (three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) placed in the same location). The tidal analysis program BAYTAP-G was used to decompose the gravity data into four components (tidal, trend, irregular, and response for auxiliary data). Response component in Kyoto relatively has lower frequency compare to Jatinangor, due to differences of the two measurement location. Response component from the longest time recording data (gPhone #123) give similiar pattern as gPhone #126, while gPhone #127 slightly different. Average standard deviation of the response component of three gPhone (#123, #126, and #127) respectively were 0.8, 1.0, and 1.9 μGal. Best drift achieved from this test show possibility to reach -4 to 5 pGal/day. Although gPhone #126 records different trend, but from tidal analysis comparison shows similiarity with gPhone #123.

  7. Proton and iodine-127 nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the binding of iodide by lactoperoxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, J.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, T.; Hatano, M.; Nakamura, S.; Hosoya, T.

    1987-10-06

    Interaction of an iodide ion with lactoperoxidase was studied by the use of /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 127/I NMR, and optical difference spectrum techniques. /sup 1/H NMR spectra demonstrated that a major broad hyperfine-shifted signal at about 60 ppm, which is ascribed to the heme peripheral methyl protons, was shifted toward high field by adding KI, indicating the binding of iodide to the active site of the enzyme; the dissociation constant was estimated to be 38 mM at pH 6.1. The binding was further detected by /sup 127/I NMR, showing no competition with cyanide. Both /sup 1/H NMR and /sup 127/I NMR revealed that the binding of iodide to the enzyme is facilitated by the protonation of an ionizable group with a pK/sup a/ value of 6.0-6.8, which is presumably the distal histidyl residue. Optical difference spectra showed that the binding of an aromatic donor molecule to the enzyme is slightly but distinctly affected by adding KI. On the basis of these results, it was suggested that an iodide ion binds to lactoperoxidase outside the heme crevice but at the position close enough to interact with the distal histidyl residue which possibly mediates electron transport in the iodide oxidation reaction.

  8. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rongfei Wei; Qingjun Guo; Hanjie Wen; Congqiang Liu; Junxing Yang; Marc Peters; Jian Hu; Guangxu Zhu; Hanzhi Zhang; Liyan Tian; Xiaokun Han; Jie Ma; Chuanwei Zhu; Yingxin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively cou...

  9. Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio-ash; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Pedersen, Anne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter; Christensen, Terkel C.

    2004-07-01

    The potential of using the method electrodialytic remediation for removal of cadmium from bioashes has been investigated. Five different types of fly ash from biomass combustion were included in the study: 1) A straw combustion fly ash from grate-firing at Avedoere power plant. 2) A fly ash from co-firing of wood and fuel oil at Avedoere power plant. 3) A suspended, grain size fractionated straw fly ash, obtained from PSO project FU 2201, fine and coarse size fraction. The ash was originally produced at Avedoere power plant. 4) A straw pellet fly ash from dust-firing at Amager power plant. Thr five ashes were characterised, and a series of preliminary elekctrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted on each ash. In spite a significant differences between the five ashes with respect to parameters such as pH and content of cadmium, all ashes showed promising remediation potential. For all ashes cadmium concentrations below the regulatory limits for recycling were reached in one or more of the preliminary remediation experiements. The best results were obtained with the suspended straw ash from PSO FU 2201, whereas the results with the wood chips ash, due to a high initial pH value, were less sucessful, meaning that the remediation process was progressing more slowly. (BA)

  10. An X-linked homologue of the autosomal inprinted gene ZNF127 escapes X inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longstreet, M.; Nicholls, R.D.; Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The ZNF127 gene has been shown to be subject to parental imprinting in both humans and the mouse and maps to within the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome critical region on chromosome 15. We have cloned two X-linked related loci, one of which, ZNFXp is a transcribed gene while the other, ZNFXq, is an untranscribed pseudogene. ZNFXp is 83.6% identical to ZNFXq and 65.4% identical to ZNF127 over 1.4 kb of open reading frame they share in common, Like ZNF127, the predicted protein sequence of ZNFXp contains a C{sub 3}HC{sub 4} zinc finger domain and C{sub 3}H zinc finger-like motifs. Whereas ZNF127 has three C{sub 3}H motifs, ZNFXp has four. A strong CpG island is located within 1 kb 5{prime} of the predicted amino terminus of ZNFXp. Expression of ZNFXp has been detected from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing either an active (n=2) or an inactive (n=4) chromosome, and thus escapes X inactivation. Probes made from the 3{prime} UTR of ZNFXp detect a number of related loci in both human and murine DNA, none of which is the ZNF127 locus on chromosome 15. None of the detectable murine bands shows dosage differences between males and females as would be expected for X-linked loci. This raises the possibility that ZNFXp inserted into the human X chromosome after its divergence from a common ancestor with the murine X. We have mapped ZNFXp to Xp11.4 by Southern blotting and PCR of hybrid DNAs and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). ZNFXq maps within the X Inactivation Center (XIC) region on Xq13.2, approximately 300 kb distal to the XIST gene. We find it intriguing, and perhaps significant, that two members of this gene family are subject to epigenetic regulation -- one autosomal imprinting, and the other escape from X inactivation. These results could imply an evolutionary and mechanistic relationship between these two processes.

  11. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  12. A Study of Growth of Cadmium Oxide Nano structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium oxide nano structure were synthesized by solid-vapor deposition without catalyst. Cadmium Oxide powder was heated to 1320 K in a tube furnace, and the resultant vapor was carried to the silicon substrate zone by an argon flow. Field electron scanning electron microscopy revealed that the product was dendrite-like petals of Cadmium Oxide nano structure. The grown nano structure had random orientations and a grain size of 30 nm. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was conducted to investigate the optical properties of the nano structures. The red-shift direct band gap energy of Cadmium Oxide nano structure was at 548 nm (2.26 eV), whereas that of CdO bulk was at 491 nm (2.5 eV). (author)

  13. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  15. Literature review on pickling inhibitors and cadmium electroplating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsea, A. R.; Fletcher, E. E.; Groeneveld, T. P.

    1969-01-01

    Because introduction of hydrogen during bright-cadmium electroplating of high strength steels causes hydrogen-stress cracking, a program was undertaken to evaluate various processes and materials. Report describes effectiveness of inhibitors for reducing hydrogen absorption by steels.

  16. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  17. A Facile Glycosylation of Spirostanol Catalyzed by Cadmium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A facile glycosylation for the synthesis of spirostanol glycosides was reported. Using cadmium carbonate as a catalyst in CH3CN, a series of saponins was synthesized efficiently in a satisfactory yield.

  18. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  19. Nuclear parameters determination of the {sup 127}Te {beta} {sup -} decay: a proposal for teaching nuclear physics; Determinacao de parametros nucleares do nucleo de {sup 127}Te: uma proposta para o ensino de fisica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Wagner Fonseca

    2011-07-01

    A study of the {sup 127}Te {beta}{sup -} decay was carried out by means of gamma spectroscopy measurements using high resolution HPGe detector, in the region from 30 keV to 1.0 MeV, aiming to get a better understanding of the {sup 127}Te nuclear structure. The radioactive sources of {sup 12}7Te were obtained from the {sup 126}Te(n,{gamma}){sup 1}'2{sup 7}Te nuclear reaction produced in the IEA- R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Five gamma {sup t}ransitions previously attributed to this decay were confirmed with a better precision than previously. The half-life of {sup 127}Te was also studied resulting in data with lower uncertainty. Using a set of data selected from gamma spectroscopy measurements was developed and applied a didactic proposal for high school students using the Excel software. (author)

  20. Prediction of cadmium concentration in selected home-produced vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešter, Petra Karo; Lobnik, Franc; Eržen, Ivan; Kastelec, Damijana; Zupan, Marko

    2013-10-01

    Soil contaminated with cadmium presents a potential hazard for humans, animals and plants. The latter play a major role in the transfer of cadmium to the food chain. The uptake of cadmium and its accumulation by plants is dependent on various soil, plants and environmental factors. In order to identify soil properties with statistically significant influence on cadmium concentration in vegetables and to reduce the collection of data, time and costs, regression models can be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop regression models to predict the concentration of cadmium in 9-vegetable species: zucchini, tomato, cabbage, onion, potato, carrot, red beet, endive and chicory, based on soil properties. Soil samples were collected from 123 home gardens of the Municipality of Celje and 59 of these gardens were also included in vegetable sampling. The concentration of elements (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) in the samples was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Single (for cabbage, potato, red beet and chicory) and multiple (for tomato, onion, carrot and endive) linear regression models were developed. There was no statistically significant regression model for zucchini. The most significant parameter for the influencing the cadmium concentration in vegetables was the concentration of cadmium in soil. Other important soil properties were the content of organic matter, pH-value and the concentration of manganese. It was concluded that consuming carrots, red beets, endives, onions, potatoes and chicory which are grown in gardens with Cd concentrations (mgkg(-1) DW) above 2.4, 3.2, 6.3, 7.9, 8.3 and 10.9, respectively, might represent an important contribution to dietary Cd exposure. PMID:23886800

  1. Surfactant Mediated Cadmium Determination with Dithizone in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Fouad Jawad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic and hazardous trace metal that has become a serious environmental pollutant since industrialization and intensive farming began in late 19th century. Although there are many established wet-chemical and instrumental methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of cadmium, most involve the formation of the Cd-dithizone complex in the presence of the highly toxic potassium cyanide which is then extracted into carcinogenic chlorinated organic solvents such ...

  2. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  3. Avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes in cadmium telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Demich, N V

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the ratio of the coefficients of the electrons and holes of the diode structures impact ionization is carried out with the purpose of optimizing the parameters of the avalanche diodes from the cadmium telluride. It is shown experimentally, that the process of the impact ionization in the cadmium telluride is stimulated by holes. The ratio of the coefficients of the holes and electrons impact ionization constitutes approx = 30-40

  4. Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environm...

  5. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  6. Harmful effects of cadmium on olfactory system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondier, Jean-Robert; Michel, Germaine; Propper, Alain; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-10-01

    The inhalation of certain metals can result in olfactory epithelial injury, an altered sense of smell, and direct delivery of the metal from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and other parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine whether mice given an intranasal instillation of cadmium would develop altered olfactory function and to assess whether cadmium may be transported directly from the olfactory epithelium to the central nervous system. To evaluate cadmium's ability to induce anosmia and on the basis of olfactory epithelium sensitivity to metals, the aim of this study was first to study cadmium effects on the olfactory function and secondly to check whether cadmium may be transported from the nasal area to the central nervous system. After an intranasal instillation of a solution containing CdCl2 at 136 mM, we observed in treated mice: (1) a partial destruction of the olfactory epithelium, which is reduced to three or four basal cell layers followed by a progressive regeneration; (2) a loss of odor discrimination with a subsequent recovery; and (3) a cadmium uptake by olfactory bulbs demonstrated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but not by other parts of the central nervous system. Cadmium was delivered to the olfactory bulbs, most likely along the olfactory nerve, thereby bypassing the intact blood-brain barrier. We consider that cadmium can penetrate olfactory epithelium and hence be transported to olfactory bulbs. The olfactory route could therefore be a likely way to reach the brain and should be taken into account for occupational risk assessments for this metal.

  7. Cadmium removal in a biosorption column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volesky, B.; Prasetyo, I. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    New biosorbent material derived from a ubiquitous brown marine alga Ascophyllum nodosum has been examined in packed-bed flow-through sorption columns. It effectively removed 10 mg/L of cadmium down to 1.5 ppb levels in the effluent, representing 99.985% removal. The experimental methodology used was based on the early Bohart and Adams sorption model, resulting in quantitative determination of the characteristic process parameters which can be used for performance comparison and process design. An average metal loading of the biosorbent (N[sub 0]) determined was 30 mg Cd/g, corresponding closely to that observed for the batch equilibrium metal concentration of 10 mg Cd/L. The critical bed depth (D[sub min]) for the potable water effluent quality standard varied with the column feed flow rate from 20 to 50 cm. The sorption column mass transfer and dispersion coefficients were determined, which are also required for solving the sorption model equations.

  8. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bellad; S C Watawe; A M Shaikh; B K Chougule

    2000-04-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5–/2 Cd Fe2.5–/2O4 ferrites where = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up to = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values of . A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability () is however found to increase continuously with . The increase in is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

  9. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Characterization of Cadmium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized a new electroluminescence material,Cadmium [(2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole(8-hydoxyquinoline] Cd(HPBq. The absorption spectra of this material show maxima at 378 nm. It may be attributed due to π° – π* transition. The photoluminescence showed peak at 520 nm. TGA data of the material shows stability up to 370 °C .Organic light emitting diode have been fabricated with this material and the fundamental structures of the device is ITO/α-NPD/ Cd(HPBq/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al exhibited a luminescence peak at 550 nm. The maximum luminescence of the device was 295 cd/m2 with current density of 6687 A/m2 at 20 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 1.01 cd/A at 17 V and power efficiency was 1.01 lm/w at 17 V.

  10. Soil Cadmium Regulates Antioxidases in Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Da-lin; ZHANG Shu-pan; CHEN Zheng; QIU Wei-wei

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of soil cadmium(Cd)on antioxidases in sorghum was studied using 3 sorghum species viz.,sweet sorghum[Sorghum bicolor(L.)]Moench.cv.Hunnigreen,sorghum hybrid sudangrass(Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense,cv.Everlush)and sudangrass[Sorghum sudanense(Piper)Stapf cv.Xinjiang].The results showed that low concentrations of Cd2+(≤10 mg kg-1)induced the activities of 4 antioxidases in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum,but high Cd2+concentrations(≥50 mg kg-1)significantly reduced the activities of all the four antioxidases.The glutathione(GSH)contents in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum correlated positively with the Cd2+concentrations.The maximum antioxidase activities were observed at the elongation stage of sorghum during the whole growth period.

  11. Flotation of cadmium-loaded biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I

    1994-07-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions such as Cd(2+) by dead biomass has been recognized as a potential alternative to existing removal technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Two bacterial strains were studied in the laboratory, streptomyces griseus and S. clavuligerus, an industrial by-product. Both washed and unwashed samples were examined. Foam flotation proposed in this work as the separation state following biosorption. Effective biomass separation was conducted in the presence of a frother, ethanol. The pH of the solution was a crucial parameter for flotation and also for metal binding. Other basic parameters of flotation examined were the initial cadmium concentration in the dilute aqueous solution and the quantity of biomass used. A study of zeta-potential measurements of the actinomycetes was carried out under the conditions used in the separation; surface tension was also measured. These provided useful information on the process. PMID:18618752

  12. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Tantalum-cadmium film coatings: Preparation, phase composition, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ion-plasma sputtering and codeposition of ultrafine Ta and Cd particles were used for the first time to prepare solid solutions, namely, alloys with up to 66.2 at % Cd in the form of coatings; the fact of such a production confirms the thermal-fluctuation melting and coalescence of small particles. When the coatings are formed by tantalum and cadmium nanolayers, the mutual dissolution of the components takes place, which is accompanied by the formation of solid solutions of one metal in the other. When the cadmium concentration is above 44 at %, the β-Ta tetragonal lattice transforms into the α-Ta body-centered cubic lattice. Beginning from 74.4 at % Cd, a hexagonal structure typical of cadmium is formed, and tantalum is present in the coatings in the form of amorphous phase. The formation of β-Ta- and Cd-based interstitial and α-Ta-based substitute solid solutions is stated. At 700°C, cadmium evaporates from Ta-based solid solutions, and porous tantalum is formed. The evaporation of cadmium from coatings, which consist of the mixture of tantalum solid solution in cadmium and amorphous tantalum, leads to the formation of tantalum characterized by a highly developed surface. The prepared Ta-based materials assume the technological application of the results of the investigation.

  14. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. PMID:26467054

  15. Chemical speciation analysis and environmental behaviour of 127I and 129I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Violeta

    2011-10-15

    Chemical speciation analysis of 129I and 127I as iodide, iodate and total inorganic iodine in seawater samples from the Baltic Proper, Skagerrak and Kattegat has been carried out. The important findings of this study are that the reduction of iodate and oxidation of iodide in Skagerrak and Kattegat may be a slow process while along the Baltic Sea surface water reduction of iodate is a relatively fast process. Although suboxic or anoxic condition are encountered in some of the Baltic Sea deep basins, the concentration of 129IO{sub 3}- increases with water depth indicating that the reduction of iodate in the oxygen deficient bottom water of the Baltic Sea is a slow process. Iodine chemical speciation analysis (as iodide, iodate and total iodine including inorganic and organic iodine species) in lake water samples collected from Denmark and southern Sweden has been carried out. Destruction of organic iodine was performed by alkaline oxidation using NaOH - NaClO at 100 deg. C and anion exchange chromatography was used for separation of iodide and iodate. Iodine-129 concentrations in the lakes ranged from 1.3 - 12.8 x109 at/L and show elevated concentrations in lakes located in southwest Jutland (Denmark), near the North Sea. Except the Skaersoe Lake, were the organic iodine - 127 accounts for 50% of the total iodine, iodide (both 129I and 127I) is the predominant species form in surface water of the studied lakes. An investigation was conducted in order to quantify the total aquatic iodine (129I and 127I as inorganic and organic iodine) from fresh water and seawater samples by adsorption onto activated charcoal and DEAE 32 cellulose followed by alkaline digestion or combustion. The results show that iodide from freshwater samples can easily be adsorbed onto activated charcoal. The sorption was not affected by the pH. The absorption capacity of iodate is low and reduces quickly when its concentration increases. Compared with activated charcoal, DEAE 32 cellulose showed

  16. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  17. Geologic interpretation of seismic data relocation route 1: proposed cut at stations 127-135 in Danvers, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, James E.; Linehan, Rev. Daniel

    1950-01-01

    The layout for the reconstruction of the Newburyport Turnpike (Route 1) proposed cit at stations 127-135, in Danvers, Mass., shows a deep cut through the western end of a hill between stations 127 and 135. Because of the depth of this cut seismic work was done at the site in September 1949. The work constitutes part of the cooperative program of the Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  18. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  19. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  20. Effects of Soil pH,Texture,Moisture,Organic Matter and Cadmium Content on Cadmium Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQI-TANG; J.L.MOREL; 等

    1994-01-01

    The supply of cadmium from soil to plant roots mainly depends on the diffusion prooess.This work was conducted to study the effects of some soil properties on cadmium diffusion coefficient (D) in soil. Measurements were made using the Shofield and Graham-Bryce's isotopic labelling method.Cadmium diffusion coefficients varied from 10-7to 10-9 cms2-1.Higher values were observed in acid sandy soils and lower values in calcareous clay soils.Liming an acid soil resulted in a substantial decrease of D.Addition of cadmium as nitrate salt generally increased D,while addition of sewage sludge and organic matter resulted in a significant decrease of cadmium diffusion.The rhizospheric activity also induced a moderate reduction in D.The relationships between D(10-9cms2-1)on the on hand and soil pH.moisture(Mc,g kg-1) ,organic matter(OM,g kg-1),clay(Cy,gkg-1)and cadmium content(Cd,mgkg-1) on the other were obtained by the multiple regression:D=182.1-29.91pH+0.210Mc-0.303OM+0.011Cy+1.64Cd(R2=0.859,n=22).

  1. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata

  2. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  3. Cadmium: A toxin and a nutrient for marine phytoplankton. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Although cadmium is known to be very toxic, it exhibits nutrient-like vertical concentration profiles in the open ocean. Cadmium enhances the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, a chlorophyte and some prymnesiophytes at inorganic zinc and cadmium concentrations typical of surface seawater. Detailed studies of T. weissflogii show that cadmium is also regulated like a nutrient over a wide range of external inorganic cadmium (5-500pM) and inorganic zinc (2-16pM) concentrations. The cellular cadmium concentration is maintained at relatively constant levels both through uptake and, at high inorganic cadmium concentrations (5nM), export of cadmium, most likely complexed to the metal-binding polypeptide phytochelatin. Cadmium may play an essential role in carbon uptake under conditions of zinc limitation. The same low level of inorganic cadmium that enhances the growth of T. weissflogii restores the activity of carbonic anhydrase, thought to be the key enzyme limiting growth at low zinc. Cadmium coelutes with a least one of the multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase produced by T. weissfiogii and covaries with activity of this isoform. The substitution of cadmium for zinc in carbonic anhydrase links the geochemical cycle of cadmium to those of zinc and carbon.

  4. CD4(+)CD25 (+)CD127 (low/-) T cells: a more specific Treg population in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Li, Xiaomei; Song, Weiya; Li, Dongmei; Yu, Daliang; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Li, Mengtao; Leng, Xiaomei; Li, Xiangpei

    2012-12-01

    The quantitative identification and enrichment of viable regulatory T cells (Treg) requires reliable surface markers that are selectively expressed on Treg. Foxp3 is the accepted marker of nTreg, but it cannot be used to isolate cells for functional studies. In this study, we compared four staining profiles of Treg, including CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells, CD4(+)CD39(+) T cells, CD4(+)CD73(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) T cells. We found that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) T cells expressed the highest level of Foxp3 and had the strongest correlation with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, the accepted identifying characteristics for "real" nTreg cells. Moreover, functional data showed that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) T cells could effectively suppress the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, suggesting that compared with the other three populations, CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) T cells best fit the definition of naturally occurring regulatory T cells in human peripheral blood. Finally, we showed that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) can be used to quantitate Treg cells in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus supporting the use of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) to identify human Treg cells. PMID:22752562

  5. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn2+ coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn2+ coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed

  6. Cadmium detoxification strategies in two phytoplankton species: Metal binding by newly synthesized thiolated peptides and metal sequestration in granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intracellular detoxification mechanisms could explain, at least partially, the different sensitivity to Cd of two freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Subcellular Cd distribution and the synthesis of metal-binding thiolated peptides were thus examined in both algae exposed to a range of free [Cd2+] from 0.7 to 253 nM. Cadmium partitioning among five subcellular fractions (cellular debris, granules, organelles, heat-denaturable proteins - HDP, and heat-stable proteins - HSP) was determined after differential centrifugation of algal homogenates. Thiolated-peptides, phytochelatins (PCn) and precursors, were analyzed by HPLC with pre-column monobromobimane derivatization. Cadmium accumulation per cell was 2-4 times greater for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata, yet C. reinhardtii was more resistant to Cd with an EC50 of 273 nM Cd2+ [244-333 nM Cd2+ CI95%]) compared to 127 nM Cd2+ [111-143 nM Cd2+ CI95%] for P. subcapitata. Although [Cd] generally increased in the organelle fractions when free [Cd2+] increased in the experimental media, their relative contributions to the total Cd cellular content decreased, suggesting that partial protection of some metal sensitive sites was achieved by the initiation of cellular detoxification mechanisms. An increase in the proportion of Cd in the granules fraction was observed for C. reinhardtii between 6 and 15 nM Cd2+ (i.e., at [Cd2+] n, but with longer oligomers for C. reinhardtii. Unknown thiolated compounds (Xn), which were not canonical or hydroxymethyl PCn, were also found in both algae but at much higher concentrations for C. reinhardtii than for P. subcapitata. This difference in thiol synthesis could also be involved in the higher Cd resistance of C. reinhardtii with respect to P. subcapitata. This study demonstrates the importance of metal detoxification strategies in explaining the Cd sensitivity of different algal species

  7. Partition of iodine (129I and 127I) isotopes in soils and marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids and humin, plays a key role in determining the fate and mobility of radioiodine in soil and sediments. The radioisotope 129I is continuously produced and released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and as a biophilic element, its environmental mobility is strongly linked to organic matter. Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years), 129I builds up in the environment and can be traced since the beginning of the nuclear era in reservoirs such as soils and marine sediments. Nevertheless, partition of the isotope between the different types of organic matter in soil and sediment is rarely explored. Here we present a sequential extraction of 129I and 127I chemical forms encountered in a Danish soil, a soil reference material (IAEA-375), an anoxic marine sediment from Southern Norway and an oxic sediment from the Barents Sea. The different forms of iodine are related to water soluble, exchangeable, carbonates, oxides as well as iodine bound to humic acid, fulvic acid and to humin and minerals. This is the first study to identify 129I in humic and fulvic acid and humin. The results show that 30-56% of the total 127I and 42-60% of the total 129I are associated with organic matter in soil and sediment samples. At a soil/sediment pH below 5.0-5.5, 127I and 129I in the organic fraction associate primarily with the humic acid while at soil/sediment pH > 6 129I was mostly found to be bound to fulvic acid. Anoxic conditions seem to increase the mobility and availability of iodine compared to oxic, while subaerial conditions (soils) reduces the availability of water soluble fraction compared to subaqueous (marine) conditions. - Highlights: → Chemical speciation of 129I and 127I in soil and sediment. → Association of 129I with humic substances in soil and marine sediments is reported. → Partition of iodine within the organic fraction depends on soil/sediment pH. → Anoxic conditions seem to increase the mobility

  8. A comparison of submicronic technetium aerosol with xenon 127 for ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of ventilation scans obtained using a small disposable submicronic aerosol generator system are described. Submicronic 99mTc-S-colloid aerosol distributes in the lungs of normal individuals as a gas and detects regions of poor ventilation at least as well and probably better than 127Xe. The major advantages of using aerosols are: multiple views can be obtained, the technique is performed with quiet breathing and no breath holding, there is no need for a spirometer, no disposal problem, the resolution is the same as the 99mTc MAA scan and 99mTc is readily available in all nuclear medicine laboratories at low cost

  9. Study of nuclear structure of odd mass 119-127I nuclei in a phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    By using the phenomenological approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), the positive and negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 119-127I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of backbending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work. Besides this, the reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B (E 2) and B (M 1), are obtained from the PSM wavefunction for the first time for yrast bands of these isotopes.

  10. Iodoinsulin specifically labelled with 125I and 127I for use as insulin tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to describe for the first time iodine-labelled in the B1 position starting with inactive Bolton-Hunter reagents, the essential intermediate steps with secure sup(125,127) iodine positions were synthesized. This labelling position is essential to obtain the structural and biological porperties of insulin on the one hand, and to enable one to trace the metabolism further of the B chain after splitting the insulin in the organism on the other hand. The preparate was made with high specific activity of 420 Ci/mMol. A new high-pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed to separate the products. (RB)

  11. Iodine (I-129 and I-127) in aerosols from northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, E.; Aldahan, A.; Hou, Xiaolin;

    2010-01-01

    Huge amount of 129I has been emitted to the environment during the last decades from a variety of anthropogenic nuclear activities. Aerosols represent a carrier of iodine in the atmosphere in addition to gaseous forms for which data are lacking in Sweden. In this study the first time series of io...... concentrations between the sites being 6 times higher for 129I compared to 3 times for 127I. The portion of the 129I related to dry deposition, based on aerosol data, represents only a minor amount of the total fallout which is dominated by wet deposition....

  12. ZRD127型乳化液泵站电控装置的研制%Development of ZRD127 Electric Control Device for Emulsified Pump Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军

    2012-01-01

    针对煤矿井下多泵、高压、大流量乳化液泵站,研制了一种可实现无人值守、高度自动化的电气控制装置(以下简称装置)。ZRD127型乳化液泵站电控装置的研制成功,不仅很好地解决了液压支架的快速跟进和不连续性动作问题,而且有效地保障了设备安全运行,降低了工人劳动强度,提高了生产效率,为高产高效自动化矿井的建设提供了选择。重点介绍该装置的结构组成,功能特点,部分硬件电路设计,以及软件程序设计。该装置已配套应用在BRW315/31.5-XR945/50乳化液泵站,取得了良好的效果。%Aiming at coal mine pumps, high pressure, big discharge emulsion pump station, develops a kind of electricity control device that can carry out an unmanned value to guard and highly automate to control (as follows brief name equip). The success of electric control device for ZRD127 emutsified pump station is not only to solve the problems such as concerning quickly moving and not the continuous act of the hydraulic support, but also effectively guarantees equipment' s safety movement, lower worker labor strength and raise a production efficiency, to provide a choice for high yield and effect coal mine. The structure, function and parts of hardware electric circuit design are introduced, particularly introduced the software program design. The equipment has already mated with BRW 315/31.5-XR 945/50 emulsified pump station and gains good effect.

  13. CONCENTRATION OF CADMIUM IN MEAT AND SELECTED MEATS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and food production methods. The monitoring of cadmium concentration in meat is important for human health. The concentrations of cadmium in meat and meat products collected from central Slovakia, in the central Europe region and from different countries of West Europe were assessed using by AA spectrometer with graphite furnace (PerkinElmer AAnalyst 80, MA, USA. Within starting materials we detected the highest values of cadmium in beef from foreign production (0.1101 ppm, followed by pork from foreign production (0.0901 ppm in Lovecka salama and pork thigh (0.0523 ppm in selected ham. In Lovecka salami we were found the highest concentration of cadmium in final samples from foreign starting materials, followed by homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final samples from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.3728, 0.3549, 0.2387, 0.2112 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration of cadmium in selected ham were found in final products from foreign starting materials, homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final products from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.1453, 0.1382,0.0810, 0.0734 ppm, respectively. The obtained results suggested that the concentrations of cadmium are higher in homogenized samples and final products in Lovecka salami and selected ham in comparison with to starting materials. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products.

  14. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  15. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd2+-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C354, C356 and proline P355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D692 in Tm8, glutamate E164 in Tm4 and methionine M149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author)

  16. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  17. In Vitro Activities of Moxifloxacin, 127I-Moxifloxacin and 131I-Moxifloxacin Against Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Demiroğlu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Moxifloxacin (MXF, radio (Na131I and cold (K127I iodinated MXF on methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556 (MSSA biofilms. Methods: MXF was labeled with Na131I using the iodogen method. The optimum radiodination conditions for 131I-MXF was determined by thin-layer radio chromatography studies. Thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC chromatograms were obtained by using Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System. The MICs of MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were determined using the microdilution broth method according to CLSI criteria. Time kill curves were performed over 24 h using an inoculum of 2×105 (CFU/mL. Biofilms were grown in microtitre plates, dyed with crystal violet and the mean optical density (OD630 was used for quantification. Biofilms were incubated MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF at various concentration (0.03 to 64 µg/mL. Results: MXF was labeled with 131I iodogen method. 131I-MXF was obtained with high a yield 95±3%. The MIC values for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was 0.06 µg/mL. Bactericidal activity was demonstrated at 0.25 µg/mL 4 hour for MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF. At MIC levels, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF was not showed a marked reduction of metabolic activity in the S. aureus biofilm. The ODs of biofilm after incubation with an increasing antibiotic concentration were significantly lower than the ODs of biofilms without antibiotic p≤005. The radiolabeled MXF was most effective than MXF, 127I-MXF in reducing the number of bacteria in biofilm. After 24 h incubation Log10 CFU/mL values for 32 µg/mL antibiotic concentration: Control, MXF, 127I-MXF and 131I-MXF were 9.5, 4.3, 4.8 and 3.1, respectively. Conclusion: 131I and 127I were used alone there was no penetration of the S. aureus biofilm and no damage. In contrast our results demonstrate that the radiolabeled Moxifloxacin (131I-MXF have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus

  18. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  19. Cadmium Impairs p53 Activity in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Urani, C.; Melchioretto, P.; M. Fabbri; Bowe, G.; Maserati, E.; Gribaldo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium and cadmium compounds are contaminants of the environment, food, and drinking water and are important constituents of cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has also been associated with airborne particulate CdO and with Cd-containing quantum dots in medical therapy. Adverse cadmium effects reported in the literature have stimulated during recent years an ongoing discussion to better elucidate cadmium outcomes at cell and molecular level. The present work is designed to gain an insight into the...

  20. Cadmium Stress Induced Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation and Hydrogen Peroxide Contents in Barley Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Alayat; Lynda Souiki; Mohammed Reda Djebar; Zine Eddine Boumedris; Ouissem Moumeni; Houria Berrebbah

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium pollution is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, nutritional and environmental reasons. Different plant species and varieties show a wide range of plasticity in Cadmium tolerance, from a high degree of sensitivity to the hyper-accumulating phenotype of some tolerant plants. To avoid Cadmium toxicity, plants adopt various defense strategies. The present study was undertaken to assess and investigate the antioxidant responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) L.) to cadmium t...

  1. A method for making a cadmium anode for a hermetically sealed alkaline storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Y.; Yosikhira, Y.

    1983-07-14

    Metallic cadmium powder and a glue solution are added to CdO powder. The compound is applied to a current tap and dried. The powder form metallic cadmium is prepared from a mixture of zinc and nickel powder which is dispersed in a solution of cadmium salts. As a result of the replacement reaction, a spongy metallic cadmium is produced which contains nickel. The sponge is ground. The obtained powder is used as an additive for the CdO.

  2. Clinical effect analysis of 127 cases of doula accompany delivery%导乐陪伴分娩127例的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫玉环; 吴红蕊; 曹欣欣; 吴玉坤

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨导乐陪伴分娩的临床效果.方法:采用导乐分娩产妇127例作为观察组,传统分娩产妇168作为对照组,分别 观察分娩方式、新生儿窒息、母乳喂养、产程时间、产后出血情况.结果:观察组剖宫产率明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),观察组新生儿窒息低于对照组,母乳喂养高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),观察组产程总时间、产后出血少于 对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:导乐陪伴分娩降低剖宫产率,降低新生儿窒息率,增加母乳喂养,缩短产程,减少产 后出血,利于母婴健康.

  3. Temporal behavior of lung motion assested by xenon-127 scintigraphy using temporal Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal Fourier Analysis (TFA) was applied to standard 127Xe ventilation studies to determine the time-activity curves up to the third harmonic for a single composite respiratory cycle. A global respiratory index, RI3, defined as the ratio of the amplitude for the first three harmonics. Three nonobstructed subjects, two subjects with only small airway disease, five subjects with chronic ostructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and onne subject with restrictive lung disease were studied. Geometric mean values of posterior and anterior images gave a closer relationship between RI3 and flow or volume parameters than either image alone. RI3 of the first three harmonics correlated linearly with the values of 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1)(r 0.783, p 3 values for the five COPD subjects were significantly lower (t = 2.582, p 127Xe ventilation data therefore appears to be a potentially useful, noninvasive, in vivo technique for evaluation of lung ventilation at the localized level. (author). 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals.

  5. Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Yong; Li, Lan; Dong, Hai-Qing; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Tian-Bin

    2013-07-01

    PKKKRKV (Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val, PV7), a seven amino acid peptide, has emerged as one of the primary nuclear localization signals that can be targeted into cell nucleus via the nuclear import machinery. Taking advantage of chemical diversity and biological activities of this short peptide sequence, in this study, Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality were successfully developed for intracellular drug delivery. These nanomicelles with the size ~100 nm were self-assembled from F127 polymer that was flanked with two PV7 sequences at its both terminal ends. Hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with inherent fluorescence was chosen as the model drug, which was found to be efficiently encapsulated into nanomicelles with the encapsulation efficiency at 72.68%. In comparison with the non-functionalized namomicelles, the microscopic observation reveals that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles display a higher cellular uptake, especially into the nucleus of HepG2 cells, due to the nuclear localization signal effects. Both cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies show that the DOX-loaded nanomicelles were more potent than drug nanomicelles without nuclear targeting functionality. It was thus concluded that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles could be a potentially alternative vehicle for nuclear targeting drug delivery.

  6. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  7. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  8. ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY RISK IN AN AMERICAN VEGETARIAN POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been postulated that nonvegetarians may be exposed to less cadmium than vegetarians because of the cadmium-poor meat in their diet. This study attempts to test this possibility by measuring the cadmium exposure and accumulation in a population subgroup that includes many v...

  9. 76 FR 57682 - Petition Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... cadmium in children's products, especially toy metal jewelry. On September 6, 2011, the Commission granted... cadmium in children's jewelry is published by ASTM International, Inc. (``ASTM'') within three months after September 16, 2011. If a voluntary standard for cadmium in children's jewelry is published by...

  10. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  12. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kulik; A. Anielska-Mazur; M. Bucholc; E. Koen; E. Szymańska; A. Żmieńko; E. Krzywińska; I. Wawer; F. McLoughlin; D. Ruszkowski; M. Figlerowicz; C. Testerink; A. Sklodowska; D. Wendehenne; G. Dobrowolska

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related

  13. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  14. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g-1, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  15. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM2.5, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  16. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnicki, Günter J K

    2005-07-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM(10), and PM(2.5) were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM(2.5), both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality.

  17. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  18. Cadmium in insects after ash fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Lodenius; Jussi Josefsson; Kari Heli(o)vaara; Esa Tulisalo; Matti Nummelin

    2009-01-01

    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH.but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota.Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects(Formica ants.carabids and Coleopteran larvac from decaying wood)were investigated in southern Finland where two plots were fertilized with wood ash,while two other plots represented anfertilized control plots.In ants,mean Cd concentration was 3.6±1.4 mg/kg.with nest workers having significantly higher concen-trations than workers trapped in pitfall traps.Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar.In carabid beetles,the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44±0.36 mg/kg.with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots.In another carabid beetle,Pterostichus niger,mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots.We conclude that the variation of Cd concentra-tions in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.

  19. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  1. Cadmium accumulation and subcellular distribution in relation to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship cadmium (Cd) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity. Twenty-four hour incubation with 0.1-10 μM Cd elicited 0-90% cytotoxicity. Fifty percent cytotoxicity was estimated to result from 0.8 μM Cd. A concentration-related Cd accumulation paralleled the cytotoxicity profile. The time-course for Cd accumulation was linear for the first 6 h of exposure and plateaued by 18 h post-exposure. When the degree of cytotoxicity was compared with the cellular Cd burden at 24 h post-treatment a least-squares linear regression analysis (r=0.93) indicated a direct relationship. Subcellular distribution studies indicated greater than 90% Cd recovery from the soluble supernatant (105,000 g) at all levels of cytotoxicity studied. Metallothionein sequestered less than 25% of the cellular Cd. As a result of the correlation of the degree of cytotoxicity with the cellular Cd burden and the independence of subcellular distribution from cytotoxicity, a cumulative mechanism of toxicity for Cd in MDBK cells was suggested. (author)

  2. A feedback inhibition between miRNA-127 and TGFβ/c-Jun cascade in HCC cell migration via MMP13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Yang

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is increasing in frequency in the U.S. The major reason for the low postoperative survival rate of HCC is widespread intrahepatic metastasis or invasion, and activation of TGFβ signaling is associated with the invasive phenotype. This study aims at determining the novel function of miR-127 in modulating HCC migration. Overexpression of miR-127 inhibits HCC cell migration, invasion and tumor growth in nude mice. MiR-127 directly represses matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13 3'UTR activity and protein expression, and diminishes MMP13/TGFβ-induced HCC migration. In turn, TGFβ decreases miR-127 expression by enhancing c-Jun-mediated inhibition of miR-127 promoter activity. In contrast, p53 transactivates miR-127 promoter and induces miR-127 expression, which is antagonized by c-Jun. The inhibition of miR-127 by c-Jun is through TGFβ-mediated ERK and JNK pathways. The lower miR-127 expression shows a negative correlation with the higher MMP13 expression in a subset of human HCC specimens. This is the first report elucidating a feedback regulation between miR-127 and the TGFβ/c-Jun cascade in HCC migration via MMP13 that involves a crosstalk between the oncogene c-Jun and tumor suppressor p53.

  3. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with triggered ultrasound does not cause premature ventricular complexes: evidence from PB127 MCE studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisinghani, Ajit; Wei, Kevin S; Crouse, Linda; Villanueva, Floredeliza; Feigenbaum, Harvey; Schiller, Nelson B; Weiss, James; Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Siegel, Robert; Monaghan, Mark; Goldman, Jonathan H; Demaria, Anthony

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that myocardial contrast echocardiography using high mechanical index triggered ultrasound can be associated with increased frequency of the premature ventricular complex (PVC). However, this association has not been systematically examined. PB127 (Point Biomedical Corp, San Carlos, Calif) is a novel microsphere designed for evaluation of myocardial perfusion with ultrasound. PB127 myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed with triggered harmonic power Doppler in early/mid diastole (mechanical index premature ventricular complex frequency at baseline, during, and after infusion of PB127 (dose premature ventricular complex were determined. PVC frequency did not increase with PB127 infusion in either cohort (P =.572, P =.263). Proportion of triggered intervals after QRS associated with PVC was similar to proportion of untriggered intervals in cohort A (P >.999) and was lower than untriggered intervals (P =.001) in B, suggesting that triggers do not cause PVC. PB127 does not cause increase PVC frequency during or after imaging with triggered ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.

  4. In vitro and in vivo CT imaging using bismuth sulfide modified with a highly biocompatible Pluronic F127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Meng, Yuan-Zheng; Huang, Huan-Huan; Qin, Meng-Yao; Yan, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Ma, Zhi-Ya

    2014-07-01

    Probe bismuth sulfide modified with Pluronic F127 (Bi2S3-PF127), which has high biocompatibility and dispersibility, is synthesized using triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 to modify hydrophobic Bi2S3 nanoparticles that are prepared by a hot injection method. TEM results show that most of the probe has a length of about 14.85 ± 1.70 nm and a breadth of about 4.79 ± 0.63 nm. After injected into the tail vein of a mouse, the probe has obvious CT contrast enhancement capability from x-ray CT imaging results. Meanwhile, the probe’s in vivo toxicity is also studied. It is found that hematoxylin and eosin stains of major organs have no change. A biochemical analysis (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) prove the probe has no adverse effects. The results of a blood analysis (white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and platelet count) are also normal. The biological distribution of Bi by ICP-AES shows that most of nanoparticles are cleaned out after injection 48 h, and the circulation half-life of the probe is 5.0 h, suggesting that Bi2S3-PF127 has a long circulation and indicating that the Bi2S3-PF127 probe has good biocompatibility and safety.

  5. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  6. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  7. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β2-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β2-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  8. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  9. Effects of macromolecular chelators on intestinal cadmium absorption in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.; Bulman, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of absorption by macromolecular chelators have been sucessful with several metals. In this paper a series of immobilized chelators ranging from DTPA to S-containing soft bases have been synthetized and investigated for ability to suppress intestinal uptake of /sup 109/Cd/sup 2+/ in mice. Dextran-O-ethyl-mercaptan, xanthates derived from polysaccharides and polyvinyl alcohol, dithiocarbamates of polyethylene imine and aminoethyl cellulose, and DTPA immobilized on aminopropyl silica were all ineffective. DTPA immobilized on aminoethyl cellulose even enhanced the intestinal uptake. The macromolecular chelators were without extensive effect on organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, except for dithiocarbamate immobilized on polyethylene imine, which enhanced the deposition of cadmium in several organs including the brain. Although the results are discouragign, they indicate that desing and synthesis of immobilized vicinal dithio compounds may represent an avenue for development of non-absorbable chelators with high affinity for cadmium.

  10. Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI YANG; JIAN-LONG WANG; ZHI XING

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by waste fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, originated from citric acid fermentation industry. Methods Batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. The Cd2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) HITACHI 180-80. Results The biosorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min. The adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich adsorption model, and the constants KF and 1/n were determined to be 2.07 and 0.18, respectively, and the correlation efficiency was 0.97. The optimal pH for Cd adsorption was 6.0. The cadmium-laden biomass could be effectively regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Conclusion The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, a by-product of fermentation industry, is a potential biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  11. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stroiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202 and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP and catalase (CAT was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT and AAP was observed and it comes from inactivation of enzymes by cadmium ions. A subsequent activity increase of the enzymes aroused earlier in tolerant tissues. It seems therefore, that tolerant tissues possess a more efficient antioxidative system.

  12. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  13. THE CADMIUM INTAKE OF SELECTED LEGUMES IN MODEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is to evaluate the extent of risk transfer of heavy metals from soil burdensome to their different levels of consumption of selected parts of the crop. The goal to be achieved in conditions of simulated vegetation pot experiments. To implement the experiment, we used the agricultural soil of land site Výčapy - Opatovce. The experiments use two types of leguminous plants: Faba beans (Faba vulgaris M., a variety MERLIN lentil dishes (Lens esculentum variety NELKA. In one experimental tank was weighed 5 kg of soil mixed with 1 kg of silica sand, and the bottom of the container we put a small drainage layer of gravel. Within each container, we applied the calculated dose of the basic fertilizer, as well as various amounts of soluble salts of cadmium observed. Crops are harvested when fully ripe and the  wet mineralization of plant samples was determined by heavy metals AAS method for device VARIAN 240FS. Significant ratio of cadmium is in the aboveground biomass of the legumes. Lentils take into aboveground biomass much more cadmium than  faba beans. The cadmium content in the first two variants is significantly lower than in the next two in both crops. We may conclude that the faba beans, and lentils to accumulate an increased amount of cadmium in soil in a relatively large amount of seeds. Although it is clear that Faba bean received cadmium content was compared with more lentils. Due to the significant accumulation of Cd by plants lentils and excessive production of the aboveground biomass is potentially usable lens as fytoremediation crop recovery for metalic polluted soils.doi:10.5219/221

  14. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (dinophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.-R.

    1980-03-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in unialgal 10-1 batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 µg l-1. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 µg Cd l-1 reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 µg Cd-1 does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and in the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 µg g-1 (dry weight) in controls to 500 µg g-1 (dry weight) in media containing 100 µg Cd l-1. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant (Series 1) or decreased only slowly during experimental time (Series 2). The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  15. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in 10-l batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 ..mu..g l/sup -1/. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in controls to 500 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in media containing 100 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant or decreased only slowly during experimental time. The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  16. Lead and Cadmium Content of Korbal Rice in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhtiarian

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Every year the entrance of factory wastes such as Shiraz Petrochemical Complex, Marvdasht sugar cube factory, and Charmineh factory, and other industrial units into the Kor and Sivand rivers and also the entrance of the Marvdasht and Zarghan city sewer system wastes into the Kor river and the use of their water in the cultivation of the rice has caused a significant increase in the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice. To study the effect of the Kor river's pollution on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice, 57 samples of 6 different types of rice were prepared in 19 different stations in Korbal region and also 18 samples of 6 different types of rice, cultivated with unpolluted water, were prepared in the National Institute of Rice Research (Gilan. A comparison of the pollution level of the Korbal and Gilan rice samples shows a significant difference and indicates the significant effect of the pollution of the river on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the hybrid, prolific, and late rice sample types were greater than that of unprolific and early types, such that the amount of these two elements were highest in the Hassani type (the lead content was 0.9625 ppm and the cadmium content was 0.0793 ppm, whereas the Gasroddashti type which blooms earlier and is long seeded has the lowest amount of these two elements.

  17. Antileukemic Activity of 1-Oxyphenazine Produced by Pseudomonas Aureofaciens Phz 127/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It`s known that some phenazines antibiotics possess an antitumor activity. For example bis(phenazine-1-carboxamide inhibits a panel of tumor cell lines including P388 leukemia, Lewis lung carcinoma and human Jurkat leukemia; XR5944 – phenazine compound – may be useful in breast cancer therapeutics.Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an oncologic pathology of myeloid hemopoiesis, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, its incidence increases with age.In this paper we described the synthesis of 1-oxyphenazine antibiotic by Pseudomonas aureofaciens phz 127/11 bacteria and characterized its ability to inhibit the growth AML cells Kasumi-1 line. These cells produce chimeric AML1-ETO protein modulating expression level of genes that are crucial for the appropriate differentiation of granulocytes. The cells are positive for myeloperoxidase showing a morphology of myeloid maturation.Isolation of bacterial phenazine antibiotics from the culture medium for P. aureofaciens phz 127/11 growth was carried out according to a scheme proposed by M. Levitch, E. Stadtman. Identification of phenazine compounds was performed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection LCMS-QP8000α ("Shimadzu" Japan.In order to study cytotoxic effect of the 1-oxyphenazine on Kasumi-1 line cells, phenazine antibiotic (0.5-12 mg/ml was added to the culture medium. Cells were counted in 72 hours after phenazine applying. 1-oxyphenazine was shown to suppress AML cell growth in dose dependent manner. At a rate of 10 mg/ml 1-oxyphenazine not only inhibited reproduction of cells Kasumi-1 line: percentage of alive cells fallen to 36.5% in comparison with untreated cells, but also had strong cytotoxic effect: it caused apoptotic death of 59.76% of cells.We have shown that 1-oxyphenazine synthesized by

  18. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    . Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined...

  19. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  20. Contribution of an Auxin to the Uptake of Nickel and Cadmium in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO DONG-SHENG; XI YU-YING; WANG AI-YING; ZHANG JUN; YUAN XIAO-YING

    1999-01-01

    Maize seedlings were cultured in nickel or cadmium contaminated sand treated with α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The effects of NAA on nickel and cadmium uptake in roots, shoots, and subcellular fractions (cell wall, nuclei and remained parts of seedling cells) were determined. The data showed growth promotion when NAA was applied at low concentrations and inhibition at high concentrations. Uptake of nickel and cadmium content increased concurrently in roots and shoots. In the subcellular fraction, nickel and cadmium was greatest in the cell wall. The changes in growth had greatest correlation with nickel and cadmium content in the subcellular fraction.

  1. Purification and characterization of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K L; Pedersen, S N; Højrup, P;

    1994-01-01

    Two metallothionein variants were purified from the midgut gland of crabs (Carcinus maenas) exposed to a high cadmium concentration (2 p.p.m.). One of the variants was purified from crabs exposed to a low cadmium concentration (0.5 p.p.m.). The purification method involved acetone precipitation...... from crabs exposed to the high cadmium concentration differed only by a single residue of methionine at the N-terminus. The single variant isolated from crabs exposed to the low cadmium concentration was the one without the N-terminal methionine, indicating that high cadmium concentrations either...

  2. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  3. Spectroscopic study of cadmium (II) complexes with heterocyclic dithiocarbamate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fontan, S. (Departamento de Quimica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)); Rodriguez-Seoane, P. (Departamento de Quimica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)); Casas, J.S. (Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)); Sordo, J. (Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)); Jones, M.M. (Department of Chemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1993-09-15

    Cadmium(II) dithiocarbamates Cd(dtc)[sub 2] (dtc=4-carboxamidopiperidine-1-carbodithioate, morpholine-1-carbodithioate or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate) and Cd(dtc)[sub 2].H[sub 2]O (dtc=4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carbodithioate)[r brace] have been prepared and characterized by thermal analysis and IR and NMR ([sup 13]C, [sup 113]Cd) spectrometry. Two of these ligands have previously been shown capable of removing cadmium from its aged in vivo storage sites. The use of solid state [sup 13]C NMR measurements to establish the coordination mode of the dithiocarbomate ligands is also examined and the difficulties which arise are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Alemi; H Sedghi; A R Mirmohseni; V Golsanamlu

    2006-02-01

    Cadmium doped lead–borate glasses were prepared from the melts in appropriate proportions of PbO2, H3BO3 and (15–40 mol%) CdO mixture in the temperature range 700–950°C. The infrared spectra of the glasses in the range 400–4000 cm-1 show their structures. No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed.

  5. Cadmium resistance from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadA gene results from a cadmium-efflux ATPase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nucifora, G; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium resistance specified by the cadA determinant of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 results from the functioning of a cadmium-efflux system. In the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the cadA determinant, two open reading frames were identified. The larger one, corresponding to a predicted polypeptide of 727 amino acid residues, is necessary and sufficient for expression of cadmium resistance. Comparison of the CadA amino acid sequence with known protein sequences sugg...

  6. Biosorption of cadmium by endophytic fungus (EF) Microsphaeropsis sp. LSE10 isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Shenglian; Zeng, Guangming; Wei, Wanzhi; Wan, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Hanjun; Cao, Zhe; Yang, Lixia; Chen, Jueliang; Xi, Qiang

    2010-03-01

    A novel technology to obtain highly efficient biosorbent from the endophytes of a hyperaccumulator is reported. This technology is more convenient than the traditional method of obtaining biosorbents by experimentally screening many types of biomass by trial and error. Using this technology, endophytic fungus (EF) LSE10 was isolated from the cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Microsphaeropsis sp. When cultured in vitro, the biomass yield of this EF was more than twice that of none-endophytic fungus (NEF) Rhizopus cohnii. Subsequently, it was used as a biosorbent for biosorption of cadmium from the aqueous solution. The results showed that the maximum biosorption capacity was 247.5mg/g (2.2 mmol/g) which was much higher than those of other adsorbents, including biosorbents and activated carbon. Carboxyl, amino, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups on EF LSE10 surface were responsible for the biosorption of cadmium. PMID:19854641

  7. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd. PMID:26267556

  8. Potentiation of cadmium nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Russis, R. de; Ouled Amor, A.; Lauwerys, R.R.

    1988-10-01

    The possible interactions between acetaminophen and cadmium (Cd) on the kidney were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetaminophen was administered in the food at an average dose of 900 mg/kg and Cd in drinking water at the concentration of 200 ppm. The treatment with acetaminophen and Cd lasted 2 and 10 months, respectively. No interaction between Cd and acetaminophen was observed during the period of their concomitant administration: the increase in albuminuria caused by Cd and acetaminophen was additive, while the tubular impairment caused by acetaminophen (increased ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria and decreased kidney concentrating ability) was not exacerbated by Cd. None of these treatments affected the glomerular filtration rate. Four months after the end of acetaminophen treatment, the renal changes had almost completely disappeared in the rats which had received the analgesic alone. Those continously exposed to Cd had developed slight tubular damage, as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin and ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase. By contrast, rats pretreated with acetaminophen for 2 months and exposed to Cd showed a marked increase in urinary excretion of albumin and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, suggesting an interaction between both treatments. At the end of the study, only the interaction with ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin excretion was still evident; that with the urinary excretion of ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase and albumin having been masked by the chronic progessive nephrosis affecting most animals at that stage. As acetaminophen had no effect on the renal accumulation of Cd, it may be concluded that pretreatment with this analygesic at a dose causing slight tubular dysfunction renders rat kidney more sensitive to the nephrotoxic action of Cd. This observation may be of clinical relevance for population groups occupationally or environmentally exposed to Cd.

  9. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake. PMID:26677685

  10. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  11. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure.

  12. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  13. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  14. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  15. Correlating nanoscale structural changes to macromolecular gel formation in Laponite containing Pluronic F127 photogeling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juggernauth, K. Anne; Love, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites has been a growing scientific field over the last 20 years. Recently, there has been increasing interest on nanocomposite systems with active responses to external stimuli such as heat, magnetic fields and light. The focus of this work is on a reversible thermoresponsive system, Pluronic F127 with added inorganic disk-shaped nanoparticles of Laponite. We further modify this system with the addition of a photoacid generator to enable photogelation. However, the nanoscale particle-particle and polymer-particle interactions within this Laponite/ block copolymer system are not well understood. We report on the photogelation kinetics of this system and further probe the interactions and rearrangement kinetics with heat and light exposure using in-situ synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering.

  16. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Phuc Pham, Van; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Hanh Le, Thi; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy.

  17. The heterogeneity of human CD127(+) innate lymphoid cells revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Åsa K; Forkel, Marianne; Picelli, Simone; Konya, Viktoria; Theorell, Jakob; Friberg, Danielle; Sandberg, Rickard; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as important participants in homeostasis and inflammation. Substantial plasticity and heterogeneity among ILC populations have been reported. Here we have delineated the heterogeneity of human ILCs through single-cell RNA sequencing of several hundreds of individual tonsil CD127(+) ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells. Unbiased transcriptional clustering revealed four distinct populations, corresponding to ILC1 cells, ILC2 cells, ILC3 cells and NK cells, with their respective transcriptomes recapitulating known as well as unknown transcriptional profiles. The single-cell resolution additionally divulged three transcriptionally and functionally diverse subpopulations of ILC3 cells. Our systematic comparison of single-cell transcriptional variation within and between ILC populations provides new insight into ILC biology during homeostasis, with additional implications for dysregulation of the immune system.

  18. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. (paper)

  19. Final report for tank 241-BX-104 push mode core 126 and 127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final sample analysis report for tank 241-BX-104 (BX-104), cores 126 and 127. Two segments from each core yielded a total of 11 samples which were analyzed. The data quality objectives (DQOs) applicable to this sampling event were the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow et al. 1995) and the Organic Safety DQO (Turner et al. 1995). The samples were received, extruded and analyzed at PNNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL). The analyses were performed in accordance with the Sample Analysis Plan (Gretsinger 1996) and indicated that the tank is safe with respect to the criteria in the Safety Screening and Organic DQO. Detailed analytical results were described in the analytical laboratory 45-day Report (Attachment 1, WHC-SD-WM-DP-171, REV. 0) and final report (Attachment 2, PNL-BX-104 REV.1) prepared by PNNL, 325 Laboratory. Corrections and/or exceptions to the PNNL final report are provided

  20. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  1. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (115Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  2. In situ coronary stent paving by Pluronic F127-alginate gel blends: Formulation and erosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental protocol to perform the in situ gel-paving of coronary stent is presented. Biocompatible aqueous blends of Pluronic F127 and sodium alginates are used as potential drug dosage system for pharmacological in situ treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. Pluronic F127/alginate aqueous blend has the unique characteristic to be liquid at room condition and to form gel at physiological temperature. The proposed protocol is based on the blend injection on stent wall previously implanted in a flexible silicon pipe mimicking the coronary artery. Injected blend is warmed up until human body temperature achieving a soft gel, then it is reticulated by copper bivalent ions to obtain an hard gel. To test the gel paving resistance to erosion phenomena when it is exposed to fluid flux (i.e. blood flux) a dedicated device, (the Simulated Artery Device, SAD), was built to simulate the human circulatory apparatus. The SAD is an hydraulic circuit in which a buffer solution (at pH 7.4) was fluxed by a peristaltic pump through the pipe hosting the covered stent. Erosion tests were performed monitoring, by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods, the residual mass anchored to stent mesh after given times. The obtained results showed that the in situ gel-paving developed protocol was efficacious and reliable. The gel-paving was completely eroded in a time of the same order of magnitude of the physiological period required to restore the coronary lesion (subsequent to the atheroma removal) and of a pharmacological therapy to inhibit the in-stent-restenosis pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1013-1022, 2016. PMID:25997168

  3. Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong-Yong; Li, Lan; Dong, Hai-Qing, E-mail: inano_donghq@tongji.edu.cn; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Tian-Bin, E-mail: rentianbin@yeah.net

    2013-07-01

    PKKKRKV (Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val, PV7), a seven amino acid peptide, has emerged as one of the primary nuclear localization signals that can be targeted into cell nucleus via the nuclear import machinery. Taking advantage of chemical diversity and biological activities of this short peptide sequence, in this study, Pluronic F127 nanomicelles engineered with nuclear localized functionality were successfully developed for intracellular drug delivery. These nanomicelles with the size ∼ 100 nm were self-assembled from F127 polymer that was flanked with two PV7 sequences at its both terminal ends. Hydrophobic anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) with inherent fluorescence was chosen as the model drug, which was found to be efficiently encapsulated into nanomicelles with the encapsulation efficiency at 72.68%. In comparison with the non-functionalized namomicelles, the microscopic observation reveals that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles display a higher cellular uptake, especially into the nucleus of HepG2 cells, due to the nuclear localization signal effects. Both cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies show that the DOX-loaded nanomicelles were more potent than drug nanomicelles without nuclear targeting functionality. It was thus concluded that PV7 functionalized nanomicelles could be a potentially alternative vehicle for nuclear targeting drug delivery. - Highlights: ► A new nuclear targeted drug delivery system based on micelles is developed. ► This micellar system features a core-shell structure with the size peaked at 100 nm. ► PV7, a short peptide sequence, is adopted as a nuclear targeting ligand. ► PV7 functionalized drug loaded micelles are more potent in killing tumor cells.

  4. PF127修饰的石墨烯复合材料的制备及其载药系统研究%Preparation and study of drug delivery system of pluronic PF127 modified graphene nanosheet composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙姣; 张阳德; 申玉璞; 申玉坤

    2014-01-01

    The PF127/GN nanohybrid was made to be capable of effectively encapsulating doxorubicin ( DOX) , and modified with gra-phene nanosheet as PF 127/GN.The drug release behavior and the delivery process in the cell and cell toxicity were assayed .Result showed that the particle size of PF 127/GN was about 80μm, the distribution was relatively uniform , and the thickness increased to a-bout 9.646 μm.The load effect increased with the increase of drug concentration after doxorubicine equipped nanomedicine , the re-lease of doxorubicine could improve by adjusting the pH values of the external environment .The modified pluronic PF 127 graphene nanosheet is stable dispersion under physiological conditions and has good biocompatibility .%实验制备负载阿霉素的PF127修饰的还原态石墨烯复合材料,并对其性能进行研究和评价。其方法是首先制备由弗朗尼克F127非共价功能化修饰的还原氧化石墨烯材料,记为PF127/GN,然后将该复合物对药物阿霉素进行负载,记为PF127/GN/DOX,并与未经阿霉素负载的纳米药物载体( PF127/GN)进行对比分析。观察其药物释放行为,细胞内递送过程和细胞毒性。研究发现,PF127/GN粒子大小为80μm左右,且粒子分布较均匀,厚度约增加至9.646μm;利用阿霉素对纳米载体进行负载之后,负载效果随药物浓度的增加而不断提高,负载在氧化石墨烯表面的阿霉素的释放行为可通过改变体系的pH值进行调节。负载了阿霉素的纳米药物载体能够发挥良好的释放作用,具有相对较强的生物毒性。因此经过阿霉素负载的PF127修饰的还原态石墨烯复合材料性能良好,具有广阔的应用前景。

  5. Preparation of Folate-Conjugated Pluronic F127/Chitosan Core-Shell Nanoparticles Encapsulating Doxorubicin for Breast Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chawan Manaspon; Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat; Nuttaporn Pimpha

    2012-01-01

    A targeting drug delivery system using folate-conjugated pluronic F127/chitosan core-shell nanoparticles was developed to deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to the target cancer cells. First, DOX was encapsulated in pluronic F127 micelle cores in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by a self-assembly method. To form a shell, a layer of either chitosan or folate-conjugated chitosan was deposited onto the pluronic micelles. The encapsulation efficiency was approximately 58.1±4.7%. The average s...

  6. Remote monitoring of 129I and 127I isotopes in the atmosphere using the laser-induced fluorescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Suganeev, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the experimental and calculation research of the development of the remote laser-induced fluorescence method for the detection of 129I and 127I molecular iodine isotopologues in atmospheric air in real time. As an excitation source we used a frequency-doubled neodymium laser (~532 nm). We estimated the sensitivity of 127I129I and 129I2 detection in the atmosphere. Detection sensitivity of molecular iodine is 4 · 1013 cm-3 for a sensing distance of 6 km.

  7. Remote monitoring of 129I and 127I isotopes in the atmosphere using the laser-induced fluorescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.; Suganeev, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the experimental and calculation research of the development of the remote laser-induced fluorescence method for the detection of 129I and 127I molecular iodine isotopologues in atmospheric air in real time. As an excitation source we used a frequency-doubled neodymium laser (~532 nm). We estimated the sensitivity of 127I129I and 129I2 detection in the atmosphere. Detection sensitivity of molecular iodine is 4 · 1013 cm‑3 for a sensing distance of 6 km.

  8. A New Klebsiella planticola Strain (Cd-1) Grows Anaerobically at High Cadmium Concentrations and Precipitates Cadmium Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Balkwill, David L.; Frenkel, Anatoly; Vairavamurthy, Murthy A.

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metal resistance by bacteria is a topic of much importance to the bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. We report here the isolation of a highly cadmium-resistant Klebsiella planticola strain, Cd-1, from reducing salt marsh sediments. The strain grows in up to 15 mM CdCl2 under a wide range of NaCl concentrations and at acidic or neutral pH. In growth medium amended with thiosulfate, it precipitated significant amounts of cadmium sulfide (CdS), as confirmed by x-absorption...

  9. Changes in Tissue Metals After Cadmium Intoxication and Intervention With Chlorpromazine in Male Rats 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAO-FANG; WANGSHU-YI; 等

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd),one of the most dangerous heavy metals,has a very similar ionic radius to calcium(Ca),The interference of cadmium in calcium homeostasis may play an important role in cadmium toxicity.Recent reports indicate that calmodulin(CaM) inhibitors such as trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine(CPZ) could protect rodents against cadmium toxicity,It was also reported that pretreatment of mice with zine(Zn)could reduce the adverse effects induced by cadmium.The aim of this study is to determine whether Cd changes the balance of other essential metals such as Zn and copper(Cu) in rat tissues,and whether CPZ can reverse these changes which are induced by cadmium intoxication.Adult male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally(ip) with cadmium chloride(CdCl2)(0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg body wight) alone and 0.4mg Cd/kg in association with CPZ(5mg/kg) daily for a week.The control animals were injected with normal saline only.The results showed that the cadmium content in the liver,kidney,and testis increased significantly with a dose-response relationship.Cadmium treatment markedly increased the Zn and Ca content in some of the tissues,Hepatic and renal metallothionein(MT) increased significantly after cadmium intoxication,CPZ treatment,howerver,reduced cadmium content in liver,but not blood and kidney.CPZ seemed to decrease the content of MT in liver and significantly increase the amounts of MT in kidney.These data suggest that the intervention of cadmium with tissue essential metals may play a role in cadium toxicity in rats,and calmodulin inhibitors to some extent can reduce the adverse effect of cadmium by decreasing the cadmium load in tissues and reversing the unbalance of essetial metals.

  10. Thin films and solar cells of cadmium telluride and cadmium zinc telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this dissertation are to investigate (1) the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (Cd(1-x)Zn(z)Te) films and junctions, and their potential application to solar cells, and (2) the fabrication and characterization of CdTe solar cells by the close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. CdTe and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te films have been deposited by MOCVD on a variety of substrates at 300-400 C.The effect of the deposition parameters and post deposition heat treatments on the electrical, optical, and structural properties have been investigated. Heterojunctions of the configuration CdTe/transparent conducting semiconductor (TCS) and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te/TCS have been prepared and characterized. CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te(E sub g = 1.65eV)/Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S solar cells with efficiencies of 9.9 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively have been fabricated. The as-deposited CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS junctions exhibited high dark current densities due to deflects at the interface associated with small grain size. No effective post-deposition heat treatment has been developed. CdTe/CdS solar cells have also been fabricated by the close spaced sublimation (CSS). Significant improvements in material and processing have been made, and in collaboration with fellow researchers an AM1.5 conversion efficiency of 13.4 percent has been demonstrated, the highest efficiency ever measured for such devices. The highest conversion efficiency for the CdTe(CSS)/CdS solar cell was achieved by reaching high open-circuit voltages and fill factors, while the short-circuit current densities were moderate. These results indicate that further improvements to increase the short-circuit current densities can result in conversion efficiencies over 15 percent.

  11. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes.

  12. Analysis on 127 dead cases of suicidal teenagers%127例青少年自杀死亡案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏禕瑾; 季锦毅; 吉解民

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析自杀死亡青少年的社会人口学资料和自杀原因及自杀方式的特点.方法 收集1996年~2007年上海市某中心城区15~34岁青少年自杀死亡案例,使用自编调查问卷与死者亲友、同事进行访谈,从中获得相关资料,加以整理分析.结果 自杀死亡青少年127例,男女比例1:1.27,死者年龄集中在21~30岁(65.4%),以低文化、无稳定职业、未婚、与家人同居者居多.在26~30岁年龄段(P<0.05)、与家人同居(P<0.01)、稳定工作(P<0.05)方面男女存在差异.自杀原因及自杀方式列前三位的分别是:婚恋纠纷(37.0%)、就业学业压力(19.7%)、家庭矛盾(17.3%);服药服毒(32.3%)、跳楼(24.4%)、煤气中毒(22.8%);在自杀原因中婚恋纠纷(P<0.01)、学业就业压力(P<0.01)和自杀方法中跳楼(P<0.05)、自缢(P<0.01)上男女具有差异.结论 目前青少年死亡的首要原因是自杀,全社会要积极行动起来,结合青少年特点进行有效干预.

  13. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  14. Nickel cadmium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, fabrication, components, testing, and assembly of nickel cadmium batteries are covered in the bibliography. The majority of these citations deal with the development of power supplies for aircraft and spacecraft. This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  15. A method for partitioning cadmium bioaccumulated in small aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardena, S.N.; Rana, K.J.; Baird, D.J. [Univ. of Stirling (United Kingdom). Institute of Aquaculture

    1995-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to evaluate bioaccumulation and surface adsorption of aqueous cadmium (Cd) by sac-fry of the African tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first experiment, the design consisted of two cadmium treatments: 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in dilution water and a Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex at 15 {micro}m{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}, and a water-only control. There were five replicates per treatment and 40 fish per replicate. It was found that EDTA significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of cadmium by tilapia sac-fry by 34%. Based on the results, a second experiment was conducted to evaluate four procedures: a no-rinse control; rinsing in EDTA; rinsing in distilled water; and rinsing in 5% nitric acid, for removing surface-bound Cd from exposed sac-fry. In this experiment, 30 fish in each of five replicates were exposed to 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for 72 h, processed through the rinse procedures, and analyzed for total Cd. The EDTA rinse treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) Cd concentrations of the exposed fish relative to those receiving no rinse. It was concluded that the EDTA rinse technique may be useful in studies evaluating the partitioning of surface-bound and accumulated cadmium in small aquatic organisms.

  16. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha;

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and...

  17. GEMAS: Geochemical Distribution of Cadmium in European Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Demetriades, Alecos; Dinelli, Enrico; Halamić, Josip; Rauch, Uwe; Gosar, Mateja; Ladenberger, Anna; Klos, Volodymyr; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium concentrations are reported for the urbanisation and use of fertilisers. The median value of Cd in the mobile metal ion (MMI®) extraction of Ap soil samples is 0.054 mg/kg. The Cd distribution pattern of MMI® extracts shows a zone of relatively high values throughout central Europe, which can be linked to agricultural land use (input of Cd via fertlisers).

  18. Plant science: the key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Thomine, S.; Verbruggen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Practically all human populations are environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd), mostly through plant-derived food. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no margin of safety between current Cd exposure levels and the threshold for adverse health effects and, hence, there is

  19. The cadmium content in bone of osteoporotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 50 elements in the human body. A half of them is the essential elements in the organism. The residual elements except main constituents are called the essential trace elements for the organism. Trace elements in human body are very important for physical reactions of life. There is an osteoporosis that is one of the old person's disease. The osteoporosis happened by changing some physical nature of bone with aging. Or hormone imbalance and deficiency of calcium intake degenerated the bone in quality, too. The trace elements in human organ tissues and human bone tissues were determined to make clear distribution of trace elements in the human body by neutron activation analysis. Very much cadmium was found in human bones of osteoporotic patients. Why the high concentration of cadmium present in the bone tissues? Cadmium accumulates in it for long term of years. The Cd rich bone easily damaged by very weak impact. The normal bone mainly formed by Ca-hydroxyapatite with some connective protein tissues. Cadmium containing one formed by the hydroxyapatite, too. There is no apparent change in the nature and crystalline change. (author)

  20. Separator Qualification for Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milden, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development plans for a new separator for nickel cadmium (NiCd) cells is described. Research includes acceptance testing, operation in a charge/discharge characterization matrix, and life testing in low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbit under real time and accelerated conditions.

  1. Cadmium and zinc relationships in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Piscator, M.; Linnman, L.

    1977-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium have been determined in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas from 292 subjects autopsied in Stockholm, Sweden. In the liver and pancreas zinc was found to have a normal frequency distribution, average 45.3 ..mu..g/g and 26.9 ..mu..g/g wet wt, respectively. The concentrations of zinc in these two organs were constant regardless of age at death. Zinc was shown to accumulate with age in the kidney cortex in a way similar to cadmium, and had a log-normal distribution. The calculation of the regression line between individual cadmium concentrations below 60 ..mu..g/g and zinc concentrations gave a slope constant of 0.61 (Y/sub Zn/ = 0.61 X/sub Cd/ + 24.4), which corresponds to a nearly equimolar increase of zinc. The concentrations of ''physiological zinc,'' i.e., total zinc minus the zinc related to cadmium, were normally distributed (anti x = 24.6 ..mu..g Zn/g) and did not change with age. Furthermore, data on dry weight/wet weight ratios and ash weight/dry weight ratios in relation to age are presented.

  2. Tribological performance of organic cadmium compound as lubricant additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-qiang; XIE Feng; ZHU Huan-qin; ZHEN Fa-zheng; YAO Jun-bing

    2004-01-01

    The oil-soluble cadmium dipropyldithiophosphate additive was synthesized. A four-ball tester was used to evaluate the tribological performance of the additive in a mineral oil under different loads and lubricant grease synthesized compared with some commercial additives. The results show that it exhibits excellent antiwear and load-carrying capacities and is better than other additives. The surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) were used to investigate the topography, the compositions, and chemical states of some typical elements on the rubbing surface of worn scar.Smooth and light topography of worn scar further confirms that the additive shows good antiwear capacities. The results of EDX and XPS analyses indicate that tribochemical mixed protective films consisting of atomic cadmium, sulphides, sulphates and phosphates are formed on the rubbing surface, which contribute to improving the tribological properties of lubricant and grease. Particularly, the soft cadmium film formed plays an important role in improving antiwear properties of oils. Finally, antiwear mechanism of the additive and formation scheme of atomic cadmium was proposed.

  3. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal c

  4. Nuclear toxicology file: the cadmium: mechanisms to elucidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spread in the environment by the human activities, the cadmium is a toxic and mutagen metal and its mechanisms of toxicity are still badly understood. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the transport, the toxicity and the detoxication of this metal by relying us on the cellular model of baker's yeast. (N.C.)

  5. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  6. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  7. Determination of lead and cadmium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling techniques and experience, and decomposition methods are presented. The processes used in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (including the method using automatic insertion of samples), pulse polarography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are described. Finally, the results of lead and cadmium measurements in bovine liver, blood, urine and hair samples are reported and discussed with a comparison of methods in some cases

  8. A major gene for grain cadmium accumulation in oat

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan; Kiviharju, Elina

    2008-01-01

    A population of 150 F2 plants was derived from a cross between two spring oat individuals, one from cv. Aslak (Boreal Plant Breeding LTd., Finland) and the other from cv. Salo (Svalöf-Weibull AB, Sweden). Cadmium was tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method.

  9. Calculation and experimental validation of 127I transmutation rate in Xi' an pulsed reactor%西安脉冲堆127I嬗变计算方法与实验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立鹏; 江新标; 赵柱民; 李雪松; 吴宏春

    2013-01-01

    为了开展129I的热中子嬗变的研究,在西安脉冲堆上开展了127I靶件辐照实验.以探索实验条件,对127I靶件的嬗变率进行了蒙特卡罗计算,并与实验测量值进行了比对.利用NJOY程序,以ENDF/BⅦ.0库为基础,制作了127I在西安脉冲堆堆芯辐照温度下的MCNP格式截面库,与MCNP自带库(ENDF/BⅥ.2)同温度下截面库进行了比较,在不可分辨共振区做了改进,使用新制的截面库,利用MCNP程序对ORIGEN2数据库中的127I辐射俘获截面进行了修正,结合ORIGEN2程序分析了127I靶件在西安脉冲堆实际辐照后的嬗变率和核素的变化,研究了中子能谱和辐照时间对靶件嬗变计算的影响.使用MCNPX自带的燃耗模块CINDER' 90对127I靶件的嬗变情况进行模拟,结果与ORIGEN2基本一致,与实验数值有2%~3%的偏差,主要原因是MCNP计算中子通量密度存在误差.%In order to develop the research on 129I transmutation in the thermal reactor, 127I target was irradiated in Xi'an pulsed reactor(XAPR) to explore the condition for experiment in XAPR. The Monte Carlo method was used in the calculation of 127I target transmutation rate, and the results were compared with the experimental data. The NJOY software was used to generate 137 I ace format neutron cross section at XAPR operating temperature based on ENDF/B VII. 0 library. New cross section was compared with old ENDF/B VI library and developed in the unresolved resonance region. MCNP was used to modify the 127 I cross section of ORIGEN2 by adopting a new cross section, then transmutation of 127 I target was calculated to analyze changes of transmutation rate and nuclides, also the influence of neutron spectrum and irradiating time on transmutation was studied. The CINDER'90 software, a depletion mode of MCNPX, was also used to model the transmutation condition, the analytical result was consistent with ORIGEN2, but was a little different from the experimental data (2%-3% error

  10. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  11. Uptake of cadmium by Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magela Paula Casiraghi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata was used for the removal of the cadmium in liquids. The accumulations of metal ions by the alga occur in two stages: a very fast absorption (passive adsorption proceeded by a slower absorption (activate absorption. A mathematical model based on the surface absorption and on the transport into the interior of the cellular membrane was developed. The simulation model kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained. Through the results observed, the mathematical model was shown to be suitable when compared to the experimental results, confirming the validation of the mathematical model.Neste trabalho utilizou-se a microalga Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata para a remoção do cádmio em líquidos. A metodologia consistiu de três conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro conjunto teve como objetivo a avaliação do crescimento da alga, o segundo foi à avaliação da remoção de cádmio e o terceiro a avaliação do crescimento da alga sendo adicionado o cádmio junto com o inóculo no tempo igual a zero, também foi avaliada a remoção de cádmio neste terceiro experimento. O acúmulo de íons metálicos pela alga ocorre em duas etapas: uma absorção muito rápida (adsorção passiva seguida por uma absorção mais lenta (absorção ativa Desenvolveu-se um modelo matemático baseado na absorção da superfície e no transporte para o interior da membrana celular. A obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos do modelo de simulação foi obtida experimentalmente. Pelos resultados observados o modelo matemático proposto mostrou-se adequado quando comparado aos resultados experimentais, confirmando a validação do modelo matemático proposto.

  12. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  13. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  14. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiwen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  15. Physiological characterization of cadmium-exposed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Anja; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Thondorf, Iris; Wesenberg, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a common model organism for investigation of metal stress. This green alga produces phytochelatins in the presence of metal ions. The influence of cadmium is of main interest, because it is a strong activator of phytochelatin synthase. Cell wall bound and intracellular cadmium content was determined after exposition to 70 µm CdCl(2), showing the main portion of the metal outside the cell. Nevertheless, imported cadmium was sufficient to cause significant changes in thiolpeptide metabolism and its transcriptional regulation. Modern analytical approaches enable new insights into phytochelatin (PC) distribution. A new rapid and precise UPLC-MS method allowed high-throughput PC quantification in algal samples after 1, 4, 24 and 48 h cadmium stress. Initially, canonic PCs were synthesized in C. reinhardtii during cadmium exposition, but afterwards CysPCs became the major thiolpeptides. Thus, after 48 h the concentration of the PC-isoforms CysPC(2-3) and CysGSH attained between 105 and 199 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (FW), whereas the PC(2-3) concentrations were only 15 nmol g(-1) FW. The relative quantification of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) mRNA suggests the generation of CysPCs by glutamate cleavage from canonic PCs by γ-GT. Furthermore, a homology model of C. reinhardtii phytochelatin synthase was constructed to verify the use of crystal structures from Anabaena sp. phytochelatin synthase (PCS) for docking studies with canonical PCs and CysPCs. From the difference in energy scores, we hypothesize that CysPC may prevent the synthesis of canonical PCs by blocking the binding pocket. Finally, possible physiological reasons for the high abundance of CysPC compared with their canonic precursors are discussed.

  16. AVERAGE REACTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR 74-MEV TO 112-MEV ALPHA-PARTICLES ON I-127 AND CS-133

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; WILSCHUT, HW; RULLA, WF; FELDER, GN

    1991-01-01

    The average reaction cross section for 74- to 112-MeV alpha particles on I-127 and Cs-133 was measured by a new method using a magnetic spectrograph and a CsI scintillation detector. The result, sigma-R = 2220+/-50 mb, is in good agreement with optical model calculations and finite-range microscopic

  17. Melatonin-loaded chitosan/Pluronic® F127 microspheres as in situ forming hydrogel: An innovative antimicrobial wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romić, Marieta Duvnjak; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Lovrić, Jasmina; Pepić, Ivan; Cetina-Čižmek, Biserka; Filipović-Grčić, Jelena; Hafner, Anita

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop melatonin-loaded chitosan based microspheres as dry powder formulation suitable for wound dressing, rapidly forming hydrogel in contact with wound exudate. Microspheres were produced by spray-drying method. Fractional factorial design was employed to elucidate the effect of formulation and process parameters (feed flow rate, inlet air temperature, chitosan concentration, chitosan/melatonin ratio and chitosan/Pluronic® F127 ratio) on the product characteristics related to process applicability (production yield, entrapment efficiency and product moisture content) and microsphere performance in biological environment (microsphere mean diameter and surface charge). Appropriate formulation and process parameters for the establishment of efficient drying process resulting in fine-tuned chitosan and chitosan/Pluronic® F127 microspheres (efficient melatonin encapsulation, small diameter positive surface charge and low moisture content) were identified. Microspheres were characterized by appropriate flowability and high rate and extent of fluid uptake. Incorporation of Pluronic® F127 in microsphere matrix resulted in high melatonin amorphization and consequent higher melatonin release rate. Entrapment of melatonin in chitosan/Pluronic® F127 microspheres has potentiated chitosan antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and five clinical isolates S. aureus MRSA strains. Microspheres were shown to be biocompatible with skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts at concentrations relevant for antimicrobial activity against planktonic bacteria. PMID:27329001

  18. 13 CFR 127.506 - May a joint venture submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB requirement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a joint venture submit an... Assistance § 127.506 May a joint venture submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB requirement? A joint venture may submit an offer on an EDWOSB or WOSB contract if the joint venture meets all of the...

  19. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.127... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  20. 127sup>I and 129sup>I Species and Transformation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.;

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence of anthropogenic 129I in seawater has provided invaluable information about water circulation and exchange rates, but results on 129I species (iodide and iodate) are limited and only available for surface water. We here present the first extensive results on 129I and 127I species in sa...

  1. Evaluation of hydrogel composing of Pluronic F127 and carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan as injectable scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Lie-Sian; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrated a novel hydrogel system composing of Pluronic F127, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan (CA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for encapsulating fibroblasts (L-929). The thermal behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated using TGA, the swelling behavior of the hydrogel was evaluated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and the mechanical properties were determined through dynamic mechanical analysis. Cells were encapsulated by simple mixing, and the viability of encapsulated cells was determined using alamar blue cell viability assay and the cells morphology was examined using fluorescent imaging. The results indicated that the Tgel of this system was around 30°C, where sol-gel transformation occurred within 90s. Although the addition of CA and GA reduced the shear moduli slightly, the F127/CA/GA gel was able to remain in gelling state in the medium for more than 1 month. In vitro cell culture study revealed that F-127/CA/GA hydrogels were non-cytotoxic. Moreover, the viability of encapsulated L929 was 106% after incubation for 5 days. Based on these results, these F127/CA/GA hydrogels can be used to encapsulate cells for tissue engineering applications. PMID:27318966

  2. 29 CFR 500.127 - Limitations on cancellation of insurance or liability bond of registered farm labor contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Insurance § 500.127 Limitations on cancellation of...

  3. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  4. Flow of Cadmium from Rechargeable Batteries in the United States, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium metal has been found to be toxic to humans and the environment under certain conditions; therefore, a thorough understanding of the use and disposal of the metal is warranted. Most of the cadmium used in the United States comes from imported products. In 2007, more than 83 percent of the cadmium used in the United States was contained in batteries, mostly in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in popular consumer products such as cordless phones and power tools. The flow of cadmium contained in rechageable nickel-cadmium batteries used in the United States was tracked for the years 1996 to 2007. The amount of cadmium metal contained in imported products in 2007 was estimated to be about 1,900 metric tons, or about 160 percent higher than the reported cadmium production in the United States from all primary and secondary sources. Although more than 40,000 metric tons of cadmium was estimated to be contained in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that became obsolete during the 12-year study period, not all of this material was sent to municipal solid waste landfills. About 27 percent of the material available for recovery in the United States was recycled domestically in 2007; the balance was discarded in municipal solid waste landfills, exported for recycling, retained in temporary storage, or thrown away.

  5. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  6. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  7. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  8. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  9. Speciation of iodine (I-127) in the natural environment around Canadian CANDU sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G.; Chant, L.A

    2001-06-01

    In Canada, very little data is available regarding the concentrations and chemical speciation of iodine in the environment proximal and distal to CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS). In the immediate vicinity of CANDU reactors, the short-lived iodine isotope {sup 131}I (t{sub 1/2} = 8.04 d), which is produced from fission reactions, is generally below detection and yields little information about the environmental cycling of iodine. Conversely, the fission product {sup 129}I has a long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 1.57x10{sup 7} y) and has had other anthropogenic inputs (weapons testing, nuclear fuel reprocessing) other than CANDU over the past 50 years. As a result, the concentrations of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) have been used as a proxy. In this study, a sampling system was developed and tested at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to collect and measure the particulate and gaseous inorganic and organic fractions of stable iodine ({sup 127}I) in air and associated organic and inorganic reservoirs. Air, vegetation and soil samples were collected at CRL, and at Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations (NPGS) at OPG's (Ontario Power Generation) Pickering (PNGS) and Darlington NPGS (DNGS) in Ontario, as well as at NB Power's Pt. Lepreau NPGS in New Brunswick. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air at CRL were extremely low, and were often found to be below detection. The concentrations are believed to be at this level because the sediments in the CRL area are glacial fluvial and devoid of marine ionic species, and the local atmospheric conditions at the sampling site are very humid. Concentrations of a gaseous organic species were comparable to worldwide levels. The concentrations of particulate and inorganic iodine in air were also found to be low at PNGS and DNGS, which may be attributed to reservoir effects of the large freshwater lakes in southern Ontario, which might serve to dilute the atmospheric iodine

  10. 含镉粉尘治理前后工人尿镉与血镉水平分析%Analysis of urine cadmium and blood cadmium of workers before and after the cadmium dust control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继猛; 皮嵩云; 张玉莲; 李娟萍; 朱洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the urinary cadmium, blood cadmium and urinary β2-MG of workers in a zinc powder processing plant before and after the cadmium dust control, and to explore the effects of dust control on the prevention and treatment of cadmium hazards.Methods The on-site occupational hazard survey was used to investigate the changes of urine cadmium, blood cadmium and 32-MG of 84 workers exposed to cadmium before and after the treatment by self-control analysis for evaluating the effects of dust control measures in a zinc powder processing plant.Results After treatment of the cadmium dust, the geometric mean of zinc dust in the workplace significantly decreased from 3.38 mg/m3 to 2.2 2mg/m3 (P<0.01).The geometric mean concentration of blood cadmium [(2.19±1.19) μg/L] and urine cadmium [(1.96±0.74) μg/g Cr] before treatment were significantly higher than those of one year [(1.63±0.83) μg/L] and [(1.25±0.83) μg/g Cr] and two years [( 1.36±0.95) μg/L] and [(0.94±0.72) μg/g Cr] after the cadmium dust control (P<0.01), respectively.The positive correlations analysis between urine cadmium and blood cadmium concentration of one and two years before and afterthe cadmium dust treatment implied that there was significant difference ( r=0.466, P<0.01).Conclusion Dust treatment could reduce the impact of low concentration cadmium on the urine cadmium and blood cadmium concentrations of the workers exposed to cadmium, and effectively prevent the cadmium poisoning.%目的 分析某锌粉加工厂含镉粉尘治理前后作业工人尿镉、血镉和尿β2-微球蛋白的变化.方法 对锌粉加工厂粉尘进行治理,对粉尘治理前后84名镉作业工人尿镉、血镉、β2-微球蛋白水平进行自身对照分析.结果 治理后,作业场所锌尘几何均数由3.38mg/m3降至2.22mg/m3,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治理前调查对象的血镉、尿镉几何均数浓度[血镉(2.19±1.19)μg/L,尿镉(1.96±0.74)μg

  11. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    . Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  12. 转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9 PCR定量检测研究%Quantitative Detection of Genetically Modified Soybean BPS-CV127-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 赵蕾; 孙红炜; 李凡; 杨淑珂; 路兴波

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative method to detect the transgenic soybean BPS-CV-127-9 by using real-time PCR technique based on fluorescence dye SYBR Green I was investigated in this study. The endogenous lectin gene and the 5' flanking sequences of BPS-CV-127-9 were amplified through the specific primers,and the transgenic content was then calculated according to the standard curve equation. Meanwhile the specificity of PCR amplification was analyzed by corresponding melting curves. The results showed that the standard curves of lectin and the 5' flanking sequences of BPS-CV-127-9 genes have good linear relationship, and their R values were 0. 999 and 0. 998, respectively. The coefficient of variance was 1. 50%-18. 51% and standard deviation was 0.02-0.07. Four mixed samples with genetically modified contents of BPS-CV-127-9 was 0.05% ,0.1% ,0.5% and 1% respectively were detected,and the detection results agreed well with actual value. In conclusion,this method was fast, sensitive, simple, accurate, specific and of high throughput, and could be used to detect transgenic soybean BPS-CV-127-9 quantificationally.%采用SYBR Green实时荧光定量PCR技术,建立转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9的定量检测方法.通过设计特异引物,扩增内标准基因lectin和BPS-CV127-9的5’侧翼序列,建立2种基因的拷贝数-CT标准曲线,根据标准曲线方程计算样品中的转基因含量,并且通过熔解曲线分析扩增反应特异性.结果表明,lectin基因和侧翼序列标准曲线线性关系良好,R2值分别为0.999和0.998,变异系数(CV) 1.50%~18.51%、标准偏差(SD)0.02 ~0.07.检测4个已知BPS-CV127-9含量(1%、0.5%、0.1%、0.05%)的转基因混合样品,实测值与实际值接近.该检测方法具有快速、灵敏、准确、特异、高通量等优点,可以作为转基因大豆BPS-CV127-9的定量检测方法.

  13. Determination of Ultralow Level 129I/127I in Natural Samples by Separation of Microgram Carrier Free Iodine and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Chen, Ning;

    2010-01-01

    of 129I/127I, and a detection limit of this method for 129I is calculated to be 105 atoms. This will allow us to accurately determine 129I in prenuclear geological samples of low iodine concentration with 129I/127I of 10−12, such as loess, soil, coral, rock, sediment, and groundwater. Some samples...

  14. Assimilation of labelled carbon substrates by Streptomyces thermovulgaris strain 127 variants obtained following gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a mutagenic gamma-irradiation treatment (dose rate 23,25 Gy/min and intensity 1x103 - 1.2x104) of a parent strain of S. thermovulgaris 127, high (+) and low glucose isomerase activity (-) variants have been obtained by screening in liquid media. A comparative study is conducted of the two variants relative to the control strain on cultivation for 12 to 66 hours in a liquid nutritional medium. The biomass level and the changes in the level of specific glucose isomerase activity (SGIA) has been determined. Results indicate that the maximum SGIA in the (+) var. is higher by 14.3% than the SGIA in the initial strain, and in the (-) var. - considerably lower (by 77%). A simmilar pattern has been observed with biomass accumulation. The kinetics of respiratory activity and the assimilation and dissimilation of radioactive sustrates 14C-glucose, 14C-xylose and 14C-xylitol and thier combimation have been studied as well. The results obtained witness the differences in the oxidation rates of the individual substrates. Radioactive carbon incorporation in cell biomass and the level of 14CO2 released are determined radiorespirometrically. An almost twofold enhancement of assimilation and dissimilation with respect to 14C-xylose in the (+) var. and their sharp reduction in the (-) var. is observed. It is concluded that demonstrained differences in the extends of assimilation and dissimination is important for undustrial cultivation of the discussed mutant forms. 4 fig., 6 refs

  15. Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol/ Pluronic F127 Blended Nanofibers Containing Titanium Dioxide for Antibacterial Wound Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; El-Deeb, Nehal M; Hassan, H Shokry; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an antibacterial electrospun nanofibers for wound dressing application was successfully prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Pluronic F127 (Plur), polyethyleneimine (PEI) blend solution with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). PVA-Plur-PEI nanofibers containing various ratios of TiO2 NPs were obtained. The formation and presence of TiO2 in the PVA-Plu-PEI/ TiO2 composite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical measurement, and antibacterial activity were undertaken in order to characterize the PVA-Plur-PEI/TiO2 nanofiber morphology and properties. The PVA-Plu-PEI nanofibers had a mean diameter of 220 nm, and PVA-Plur-PEI/TiO2 nanofibers had 255 nm. Moreover, the antimicrobial properties of the composite were studied by zone inhibition against Gram-negative bacteria, and the result indicates high antibacterial activity. Results of this antibacterial testing suggest that PVA-Plur-PEI/TiO2 nanofiber may be effective in topical antibacterial treatment in wound care; thus, they are very promising in the application of wound dressings. PMID:26686499

  16. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  17. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette. PMID:6617614

  18. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:26675819

  19. Assessment of Cadmium Contamination of Soils in Sewage Disposal Areasof Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinu Radha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a naturally occurring minor element, one of the metallic components in the earth’s crust and oceans and present everywhere. Agricultural soils may also be enriched by cadmium which causes it’s accumulation in plants and pose a potential threat to human health. Also high concentrations of cadmium in soil have detrimental effects on ecosystem as it enters the food chain. Soil samples were collected from different places near sewage disposal areas in Coimbatore where the source of cadmium is likely to be threatening the public. Twenty six samples were collected, their physiochemical properties and total cadmium content were determined. Five soil samples that showed high levels of more than 3 mg kg-1of cadmium were identified as hotspots and their Arbuscularmycorrhizal spore count were assessed.

  20. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress.

  1. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  2. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l-1) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l-1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l-1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  3. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S. A.; Abu Shawish, K.Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  4. Lead, cadmium and nickel contents of some medicinal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilatun Nessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead.

  5. Radiation and cadmium induced histological alteration in the mice liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) were procured from CCS Agricultural University, Hissar and maintained at 20-25 degree celcius. The animals were housed in polypropylene cages and maintained on balanced mice feed and tap water ad libitum. Cobalt gamma radiotherapy source (Thearton, Canada) was used to irradiate the animals.The animals were irradiated at the dose rate of 0.97 Gy/Min. The aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (20 ppm) was administered orally in drinking water. For the purpose the animals were divided into the following groups. Group-I included sham irradiated animals and served as normal.The animal of Group-II were treated with cadmium chloride through out the experiment. The mice of group-Ill were irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of group-IV were treated with cadmium chloride and also exposed to 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Five animals were autopsied by cervical dislocation from every set of experiment and each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The weight of animals was recorded. For histopathological studies pieces of liver were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hrs. The tissues were washed in water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Section were cut at 5 micrometer and stained in Harris heametoxylene and alcoholic eosin. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vaculation, pycnotic nuclei, giant cells, binucleated cells and enucleation. Hyperaemia and leucocytic infilteration were also noticed. The changes were more marked on day 7 but on day 14 the sign of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better hepatic architecture were observed. The synergistic additive changes were seen in the liver after the combined treatment of gamma radiation and cadmium chloride. From present finding it could de deduced that the liver of Swiss albino mice suffered with

  6. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of cadmium with iodide and methyl violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selective spectrophotometric method based on the interaction of an anionic iodo complex of cadmium with methyl violet has been described for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium. The developed method is precise, accurate and has been applied to determination of cadmium at trace levels (25 ppb) in sea water and high purity sample of indium and zinc materials. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C P Almenara

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the

  9. Determination of cadmium in water samples by co-precipitation and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the determination of cadmium in sea water, a neutron activation analysis method involving a preconcentration step has been developed. Preconcentration is achieved by co-precipitation of cadmium dibenzyldithiocarbamate with phenolphthalein. The precipitate is collected on 0.45 μm membrane filters and cadmium is determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A 115mCd radio tracer was used to establish optimum conditions and to evaluate the chemical yield. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig. ; 2 tabs

  10. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, E.; G. de Candia; E. Bonerba

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy) and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw ...

  11. Cephalopods as a key of the transfer of cadmium to top marine predators

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Caurant, Florence; Fowler, Scott; Miramand, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    International audience Cephalopods of 11 species differing in their geographic distribution (French , Irish and faroese waters) and feeding habitats, were analysed for their cadmium contents. When comparing the cadmium levels of these cephalopods, it show that the squid Todarodes sagittatus and the octopus Eledone cirrhosa coming from the Faroe Islands contain respectively 17 and 18 times more than the animals from the French Atlantic coast. High cadmium levels in cephalopods from sub-pola...

  12. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. eleg...

  13. Dietary Cadmium Intake and the Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ae Cho; Jeongseon Kim; Hae Dong Woo; Moonsu Kang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet is a major source of cadmium intake among the non-smoking general population. Recent studies have determined that cadmium exposure may produce adverse health effects at lower exposure levels than previously predicted. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine and analyze the results of previous studies that have investigated the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE database for case-control and cohort studies th...

  14. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SHEEP INDUCED BY CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY, WITH THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Hussien Ali NAJI; Mohammad Mushgil ZENAD

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy toxic metal, with harmful effects on animals and public health. Recently the risk of cadmium toxicity is substantially regarded; the environmental pollution is increased due to multi- uses of this element in various industries. This study was performed to clarify the effects of acute cadmium toxicity in sheep with trail of using alpha lipoic acid as an antioxidant therapeutic substance. Fifteen male lambs aged from 5-to-7 months were divided equally in to three groups,...

  15. Activation of Methanogenesis by Cadmium in the Marine Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Lira-Silva; M Geovanni Santiago-Martínez; Viridiana Hernández-Juárez; Rodolfo García-Contreras; Rafael Moreno-Sánchez; Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2) to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes) with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cel...

  16. Low cadmium (LCD), a novel gene related to cadmium tolerance and accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Hugo; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; An, Gynheung; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-11-01

    The contamination of food crops by cadmium (Cd) is a major concern in food production because it can reduce crop yields and threaten human health. In this study, knockout rice plants (Oryza sativa) tagged with the gene trap vector pGA2707 were screened for Cd tolerance, and the tolerant line lcd was obtained. The lcd mutant showed tolerance to Cd on agar plates and in hydroponic culture during early plant development. Metal concentration measurements in hydroponically grown plants revealed significantly less Cd in the shoots of lcd plants compared with wild-type (WT) shoots. When cultured in the field in soil artificially contaminated with low levels of Cd, lcd showed no significant difference in the Cd content of its leaf blades; however, the Cd concentration in the grains was 55% lower in 2009 and 43% lower in 2010. There were no significant differences in plant dry weight or seed yield between lcd and wild-type plants. LCD, a novel gene, is not homologous to any other known gene. LCD localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, and was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues in the roots and phloem companion cells in the leaves. These data indicate that lcd may be useful for understanding Cd transport mechanisms and is a promising candidate rice line for use in combating the threat of Cd to human health.

  17. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  18. Role of dissolved and particulate cadmium in the accumulation of cadmium in cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekhi, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: anka.lekhi@ubc.ca; Cassis, D. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Pearce, C.M. [Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, BC V9T 6N7 (Canada); Ebell, N. [Odyssey Shellfish Ltd., Nanoose Bay, BC V0R 9G0 (Canada); Maldonado, M.T. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Orians, K.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected on the coast of British Columbia, Canada have occasionally shown cadmium (Cd) concentrations at or above 2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (wet weight), which has resulted in the loss of some international markets. This study investigated the source and transfer of Cd to oysters by focusing on the role of dissolved and particulate Cd in seawater. Parameters monitored for 1 year at two oyster farm sites on Vancouver Island included: oyster tissue mass and shell length, Cd in oysters, dissolved Cd, particulate Cd, temperature and salinity. Results show that dissolved Cd was the main source of Cd to the oysters and that Cd was mainly concentrated in the gut tissues. A seasonal trend was observed in Cd in oysters, in which levels were lowest during periods of higher temperatures. Results also indicate that the local oceanographic inputs and sediment diagenesis directly affect dissolved Cd and thereby influence the Cd levels in oysters. Particulate matter was not found to be a source of Cd in oysters, and was actually negatively correlated. This was likely due to the uptake of dissolved Cd by phytoplankton and the effect of phytoplankton on oyster tissue mass.

  19. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upa Kukongviriyapan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd.

  20. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  1. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  2. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  3. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain were divided into four groups of five (n=5 mice each. A set of mice (Nic received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg while a separate set (Cd was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous. For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n=5; control received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56. At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory.

  4. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  5. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Zweibel, K. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N.; Der, R.; Ross, G.; Fahim, M.

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg lead acetate and 0.5 mg cadmium chloride. The lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  7. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  8. Protective role of carnosine in mice with cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Al-Melhim, Walid N

    2009-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine was investigated against cadmium-induced acute liver injury in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (6.5mg/kg). Carnosine treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for three consecutive days, starting one day before cadmium administration. Carnosine significantly decreased the cadmium-induced elevations in serum aminotransferases. Carnosine suppressed lipid peroxidation and restored the deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) in liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, the reductions in hepatic nitric oxide and zinc ion levels, and the increases in hepatic cadmium ion concentration, and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities following cadmium exposure were significantly attenuated by carnosine treatment. In addition, carnosine markedly ameliorated cadmium-induced liver tissue damage as evidenced by light and electron microscopic examinations. It was concluded that carnosine can be considered a potential candidate to protect the liver against the deleterious effect of acute cadmium intoxication. PMID:19748544

  9. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  10. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  11. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L-1) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L-1). Exposure to 50 ng L-1 cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L-1 surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L-1 cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters

  12. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilly, Karine [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Gagnaire, Beatrice [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Bonnard, Marc [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Renault, Tristan [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Miramand, Pierre [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Lapegue, Sylvie [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France)]. E-mail: slapegue@ifremer.fr

    2006-06-15

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L{sup -1}) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L{sup -1}). Exposure to 50 ng L{sup -1} cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L{sup -1} surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L{sup -1} cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters.

  13. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC mutant strain which proved to be hypersensitive to cadmium. Both the human and bacterial MDR genes conferred cadmium resistance to E. coli up to 0.4 mM concentration. Protection was abolished by 10...

  14. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  15. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  16. LUMINESCENCE OF CADMIUM SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS IN FLUOROPHOSPHATE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. O. Lipatova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide quantum dots are perspective materials in optics, medicine, biology and optoelectronics. Fluorophosphate glasses, doped with cadmium sulfide quantum dots, were examined in the paper. Heat treatment led to the formation of quantum dots with diameters equal to 2.8 nm, 3.0 nm and 3.8 nm. In view of such changes in the quantum dots size the fundamental absorption edge shift and the luminescence band are being displaced to the long wavelengths. Luminescence lifetime has been found to be dependent on the registration wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm. Obtained fluorophosphate glasses with CdS quantum dots can find their application as fluorescent materials with intensive luminescence band and long excited-state natural lifetime.

  17. Remote sensing applications in evaluation of cadmium pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma-Bognar, Veronika; Martin, Gizella; Berke, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    According to the 21st century developments in information technology the remote sensing applications open new perspectives to the data collection of our environment. Using the images in different spectral bands we get more reliable and accurate information about the condition, process and phenomena of the earth surface compared to the traditional aircraft image technologies (RGB images). The effects of particulate pollution originated from road traffic were analysed by the research team of Department of Meteorology and Water Management (University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty) with the application of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing aircraft images. In the scope of our research was to detect and monitor the effects of heavy metal contamination in plant-atmosphere system under field experiments. The testing area was situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely (Hungary), where maize crops were polluted once a week (0,5 M concentration) by cadmium. In our study we simulated the effects of cadmium pollution because this element is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. During two growing seasons (2011, 2012) time-series analyses were carried out based on the remote sensing data and parallel collected variables of field measurement. In each phenological phases of plant we took aerial images, in order to follow the changes of the structure and intensity values of plots images. The spatial resolution of these images were under 10x10 cm, which allowed to use a plot-level evaluation. The structural and intensity based measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research activities also focused on the examination of the influence of the irrigation and the comparison of aerial and terrain parameters. As conclusion, it could be determined the quantification of cadmium pollution effects is possible on maize plants by using remote

  18. Persistent neurotoxicity from a battery fire: is cadmium the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, K H; McKinley, K L

    1996-07-01

    Two train conductors had chest tightness, painful breathing, muscle cramps, and nausea after fighting a fire in a battery box under a passenger coach. Shortly thereafter, they became anosmic and had excessive fatigue, persistent headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, unstable moods, and hypertension. Urinary cadmium and nickel levels were elevated. Neurobehavioral testing showed, in comparison to referents, prolonged reaction times, abnormal balance, prolonged blink reflex latency, severely constricted visual fields, and decreased vibration sense. Test scores showed that immediate verbal and visual recall were normal but delayed recall was reduced. Scores on overlearned information were normal. Tests measuring dexterity, coordination, decision making, and peripheral sensation and discrimination revealed abnormalities. Repeat testing 6 and 12 months after exposure showed persistent abnormalities. Cadmium and vinyl chloride are the most plausible causes of the neurotoxicity, but fumes from the fire may have contained other neurotoxic chemicals.

  19. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T Ali; J V Rao; K S Varma; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried out in an efficient high-yield vacuum distillation system designed and fabricated for purifying 3N+ purity indigenous cadmium to 5N+ (99.999%). Analysis confirmed the reduction of total impurity content from 134 ppm (3N7) for raw Cd to 3 ppm (5N7) upon vacuum distilled Cd. The present study shows that the analysis of impurities such as Fe, Mg and Ca are contributed from environmental effect, whereas impurities such as Pb, Bi, Ag, Ni, Cu, Zn and Tl require adaptation of elemental analysing technique to counter dilution effect. The Hg trace analysis can however be carried out by hydride generation techniques.

  20. Synthesis and Structure of Bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) Cadmium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The title complex, bis(4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) cadmium iodide (C16H16CdI2N8O4S2) crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1 with a=9.632(2), b=11.227(2), c=14.031(3), α= 67.50(3), β= 86.99(3), γ= 66.64(3)°, V=1278.13, Z = 2, Dc = 2.117gcm-3, F(000) = 772, μ =3.472mm-1 MoKα radiation (λ=0.71073), R = 0.0443, wR= 0.1425 for 4529 observed reflections [I>2σ(I)] of 4731 independent reflections. The result shows that the structure contains CdL2I2 (where L = 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) distorted tetrahedral units in which the two ligands are S-bonded as monodentate to cadmium ion; the two iodide ions are also coordinated to Cd(II).