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Sample records for cadmium 124

  1. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  2. Three zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes containing 4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole and polynitrile ligands: synthesis, molecular and supramolecular structures, and photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setifi, Zouaoui; Zambon, Daniel; Setifi, Fatima; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Mahiou, Rachid; Glidewell, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Three photoluminescent complexes containing either ZnII or CdII have been synthesized and their structures determined. Bis[4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N1,N5]bis(dicyanamido-κN1)zinc(II), [Zn(C12H10N6)2(C2N3)2], (I), bis[4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N1,N5]bis(dicyanamido-κN1)cadmium(II), [Cd(C12H10N6)2(C2N3)2], (II), and bis[4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N1,N5]bis(tricyanomethanido-κN1)cadmium(II), [Cd(C12H10N6)2(C4N3)2], (III), all crystallize in the space group P-1, with the metal centres lying on centres of inversion, but neither analogues (I) and (II) nor CdII complexes (II) and (III) are isomorphous. A combination of N-H...N and C-H...N hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions generates three-dimensional framework structures in (I) and (II), and a sheet structure in (III). The photoluminescence spectra of (I)-(III) indicate that the energies of the π-π* transitions in the coordinated triazole ligand are modified by minor changes of the ligand geometry associated with coordination to the metal centres.

  3. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    using for commercial applications Other zinc alloys Zinc cobalt , tin zinc, zinc iron Passivation Cadmium, ZnNi, SnZn, ZnCo, ZnFe, and...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  4. Cadmium-binding proteins from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) environmentally exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedow, M.A.; Kneip, T.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1982-06-01

    Two heat-stable (90/sup 0/C) cadmium-binding proteins were isolated from the hepatopancreas of Hudson River blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. These proteins have molecular weights of 10,600 and 9,400, and ultraviolet absorbance ratios at 250/280 nm of 12.4 and 5.4, respectively. Repeated freezing and thawing and prolonged (3-6 weeks) storage resulted in protein degradation or loss of Cd-binding activity. These proteins were induced by laboratory injection of CdCl/sub 2/ in blue crabs from pristine (Chesapeake Bay) areas; however, injection of CdCl/sub 2/ into Hudson River animals yielded anomalous chromatography profiles. Cadmium-binding proteins were also identified in blue crab thoracic muscle and gill. The possibility is discussed that these proteins are a type of metallothionein and could contribute to the human toxicity of this cadmium-contaminated edible crustacean.

  5. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  6. NATO IST 124 Experimentation Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-10

    company (24 nodes) from the NATO-IST-124 experimentation scenario in the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system hosted in the US...Army Research Laboratory’s Network Science Research Laboratory. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering, DAVC, network emulation...9 Fig. 18 Host file with experiment scenario hosts .............................................10 Fig

  7. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  8. 124

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-03-03

    Mar 3, 2001 ... Background: Acute gastroenteritis associated with fish has been reported since 1951 but is gaining importance with increase in fish consumption in Kenya. The causative agent is Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The importance of this organism is increasing due to the rise in the incidence of outbreaks of food ...

  9. I-124 Imaging and Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Kuker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although radioactive iodine imaging and therapy are one of the earliest applications of theranostics, there still remain a number of unresolved clinical questions as to the optimization of diagnostic techniques and dosimetry protocols. I-124 as a positron emission tomography (PET radiotracer has the potential to improve the current clinical practice in the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The higher sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET/computed tomography (CT compared to standard gamma scintigraphy can aid in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease and provide more accurate measurements of metabolic tumor volumes. However the complex decay schema of I-124 poses challenges to quantitative PET imaging. More prospective studies are needed to define optimal dosimetry protocols and to improve patient-specific treatment planning strategies, taking into account not only the absorbed dose to tumors but also methods to avoid toxicity to normal organs. A historical perspective of I-124 imaging and dosimetry as well as future concepts are discussed.

  10. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  11. 22 CFR 225.124 - Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions. 225.124 Section 225.124 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency head may impose...

  12. 15 CFR 27.124 - Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions. 27.124 Section 27.124 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.124 Conditions. With respect to any research project or any class of research projects the department or agency...

  13. 36 CFR 13.124 - Emergency use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency use. 13.124 Section 13.124 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.124 Emergency use. During an emergency...

  14. 10 CFR 600.124 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.124 Section 600.124 Energy DEPARTMENT... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.124 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1260.124 Section 1260.124..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 1260.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.124 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1221.124 Section 1221.124 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Reports, Books, and Records § 1221.124 Reports. (a) Each first handler, on a State-by-State basis, will be required to provide to the Board...

  17. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4280.124 Section 4280.124 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.124 Interest rates. (a) The interest rate for the... in similar circumstances in the ordinary course of business. The interest rate charged is subject to...

  19. 42 CFR 124.8 - Grantee accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 124.8 Section 124.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT... and Modernization § 124.8 Grantee accountability. (a) Records requirements. (1) Applicants who have...

  20. 18 CFR 401.124 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction. 401.124 Section 401.124 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.124 Construction. This part is...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.124 - Consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decisions regarding the purchasing, preparing, and use of beef and beef products. ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1260.124 Section 1260.124... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.124 Consumer information. Consumer information means...

  2. Toxicity of cadmium to grapevine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, D.; Ruehl, E.; Alleweldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Cuttings of the cv. Riesling were cultivated in nutrient solutions with different amounts of cadmium. Cadmium inhibited the growth of shoot and of leaf area and produced chlorosis, necroses and leaf deformations. Old leaves showed no symptoms at all, but with high cadmium levels leaf fall occurred. The threshold of cadmium damage was beneath a level of 0.1 ppm Cd of the nutrient solution. The dry matter production of the plants was reduced by cadmium: 0.66 mg Cd/l of nutrient solution caused an inhibition of 50%. Cadmium reduced the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The transport of iron from roots to leaves was inhibited nearly completely by medium to high levels of cadmium (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 ppm). Iron was accumulated in the roots. Thus cadmium may have caused an iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevines. The uptake of cadmium showed a clear dependence on the amount of cadmium in the nutrient solution. Within the plants, decreasing amounts of cadmium were found following the pattern roots - stem - leaves.

  3. Global assessment of cadmium concentrations in the skin of free-ranging sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savery, Laura C; Chen, Tânia Li; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Buonagurio, John; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential, toxic metal found accumulated in the organs of stranded cetaceans. Currently, there is no baseline cadmium concentration reported in a free-ranging, pelagic cetacean. The aim was to determine cadmium concentrations in the skin of free-ranging sperm whales (n=340) collected from 16 regions around the world during the voyage of the Odyssey (2000-2005) considering region, gender, and age in males. Cadmium was detected in 81% of skin biopsies with a mean of 0.3±0.04μg/g ww (0.02 to 12.4μg/g ww). These concentrations were higher than reported in literature in toothed whale skin (0.002-0.1μg/g ww). Concentrations by region were significantly different (pcadmium concentration by gender (p=0.42). Cadmium is known to have a long biological half-life, and cadmium concentrations in males were significantly higher in adults with a mean of 0.3μg/g ww compared to subadults with 0.2μg/g ww (p=0.03). Selenium, an element that binds to cadmium inhibiting its toxicity, had a moderately positive correlation with cadmium (r=0.41). Mercury, a toxic metal that positively correlates with cadmium in cetacean tissue, had a weakly positive relationship (r=0.20). The regional baselines reported in this study may be used to develop residue criteria for prediction of toxicological risk in sperm whale skin. Additionally, this study shows the extent of cadmium exposure in a pelagic cetacean that has global distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would...

  5. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below.

  6. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  7. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in writing by the Administrator, including internal instructions, no interpretation of the meaning of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section...

  8. 7 CFR 948.124 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 948.124 Section 948.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... point; destination; consignee; the inspection certificate number when inspection is required; and any...

  9. 7 CFR 945.124 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 945.124 Section 945.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... address of the shipper; the car or truck identification; the loading point; destination; consignee; the...

  10. 7 CFR 959.124 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 959.124 Section 959.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...; destination; consignee; the inspection certificate number when inspection is required; and any other...

  11. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  12. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L; Giwercman, A; Toft, G; Jönsson, B A G; Specht, I O

    2016-06-01

    Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum-AMH. The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum-AMH was 17.3pmol/L. No association between lead and AMH was detected. In the cadmium analysis the adjusted mean AMH level (95% CI) in the highest exposure tertile was 12.4 (6.4;23.8) compared to 5.6 (2.7;11.4) in the lowest exposure tertile (p=0.06). The study provides suggestive evidence that environmental exposure to cadmium, but not lead, may alter the level of AMH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  14. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  15. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSF124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSF124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14703-1 SSF124Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSF124Z 517 - - - - Show SSF124 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSF124 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSF1-A/SSF124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSF12...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSF124 (SSF124Q) /CSM/SS/SSF1-A/SSF124Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...ces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value SSF124 (SSF124Q) /CSM/SS/SSF1-A/SSF1

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHB124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16597-1 VHB124P (Link to Original site) VHB...124F 619 VHB124Z 722 VHB124P 1321 - - Show VHB124 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHB...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHB1-A/VHB124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHB...124P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHB124 (VHB124Q) /CSM/VH/VHB1-A/VHB...NKXINLKITIN Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHB124 (VHB124Q) /CSM/VH/VHB1-A/VHB

  18. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  19. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLB124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB124 (Link to dictyBase) - G01902 DDB0232962 Contig-U14679-1 SLB...124E (Link to Original site) SLB124F 1447 SLB124Z 567 SLB124P 2004 SLB124E 1550 Show SLB124 Library SL (...Link to library) Clone ID SLB124 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01902 dictyBase ID DDB0232962 Link ...to Contig Contig-U14679-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB1-A/SLB...124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB124E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB124 (SLB

  1. Distribution of /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 124/Sb in organs of lactating cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Gerber, G.B.; Colard, J.; Vankerkom, J. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1983-05-01

    Lactating cows were given /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 60/Co, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 124/Sb together with maize silage. The animals were slaughtered 97 days later and the distribution of the isotopes in the body was determined. With some notable exceptions, the isotopes accumulated in the large parenchymal organs (liver, kidney and spleen), but substantial amounts, particularly of cadmium and chromium, were also found in the intestine. Manganese concentrated in the pancreas and brain.

  2. Dicty_cDB: SLC124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15154-1 SLC124Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC124Z 658 - - - - Show SLC124 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC124 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLC1-A/SLC124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLC12...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLC124 (SLC124Q) /CSM/SL/SLC1-A/SLC124Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...s) Frame A: ---qfrccqqfqnrslpn*rnesncqlcsillfswllfnrftrlccslg*trr*k**tip lrfsrsiln*fll**sf*tppir*yrfcq*k*srh

  3. High spin properties of 124 Ba

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 124Ba nucleus is investigated on the basis of the method of statistical mechanics by assuming the nucleons to move in triaxially deformed Nilsson potential. The variation in the Fermi energies of protons and neutrons is studied as a function of spin and temperature. The Fermi energies determined as a function of ...

  4. 124 Prevalence of Henneguya Chrysichthys (Flagellated Protozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Protozoa: Cyst) and Haematological Changes Due to the. Infection in Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus (Pp. 124-134). Abraham, J. T. - Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, P. M.B. 1123 Calabar, Cross River State. Akpan, P. A. - Department of Biological Sciences, Cross River University of.

  5. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  6. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  7. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  8. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.

    1985-01-08

    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  9. Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109 at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

  10. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... P. chrysosporium was used to biosorp cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and the adsorption capacities reached 23.04, 69.77 and 20.33mg/g dry biomass, respectively (Say et al. 2001). The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of L. sajur-caju were found ...

  11. 9 CFR 124.40 - Request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for hearing. 124.40 Section 124.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Diligence Hearing § 124.40 Request for hearing. (a) Any interested person may request, within 60 days...

  12. 15 CFR 12.4 - Report to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report to the Congress. 12.4 Section 12.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING § 12.4 Report to the Congress. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination under § 12.3(b)(4...

  13. 4 CFR 28.124 - Review of arbitration awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of arbitration awards. 28.124 Section 28.124... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Special Procedures; Unfair Labor Practices § 28.124 Review of arbitration awards. (a) Filing an exception. (1) Either party to arbitration, conducted pursuant to a grievance procedure under a...

  14. 32 CFR 935.124 - Release from custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release from custody. 935.124 Section 935.124... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Peace Officers § 935.124 Release from custody. The Chief Judge may authorize the Clerk to issue pro forma orders of the Court discharging any person from custody, with or without bail...

  15. 38 CFR 59.124 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 59.124 Section 59.124 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.124 Inspections, audits, and...

  16. 37 CFR 2.124 - Depositions upon written questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions upon written questions. 2.124 Section 2.124 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.124...

  17. 28 CFR 0.124 - United States Parole Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Parole Commission. 0.124 Section 0.124 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.124 United States Parole Commission. The U.S. Parole Commission is composed of nine Commissioners of whom one is...

  18. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  19. Coordination Polymers and Metal Organic Frameworks Derived from 1,2,4-Triazole Amino Acid Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceptible appearance of biomolecules as prospective building blocks in the architecture of coordination polymers (CPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are redolent of their inclusion in the synthon/tecton library of reticular chemistry. In this frame, for the first time a synthetic strategy has been established for amine derivatization in amino acids into 1,2,4-triazoles. A set of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatized amino acids were introduced as superlative precursors in the design of 1D coordination polymers, 2D chiral helicates and 3D metal-organic frameworks. Applications associated with these compounds are diverse and include gas adsorption-porosity partitioning, soft sacrificial matrix for morphology and phase selective cadmium oxide synthesis, FeII spin crossover materials, zinc-b-lactamases inhibitors, logistics for generation of chiral/non-centrosymmetric networks; and thus led to a foundation of a new family of functional CPs and MOFs that are reviewed in this invited contribution.

  20. Temporomandibular disorders: a report of 124 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, Reynaldo Leite; Palma, Antônio José Garcia; Marquardt, Emilio Jose; Gondin, Thais Monteiro de Barros; Kerber, Florence de Carvalho

    2010-10-14

    This study aims to present both the features of 124 consecutive patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the results of a reversible, conservative, and low-tech treatment. One hundred fifty-eight records of consecutive patients treated in School of Dentistry at the Univag-University Center in Várzea Grande-MT, Brazil, 124 of whom were considered TMD patients, were examined. The following data were obtained: gender, age, main complaint, diagnosis, co-morbidities, type of treatment performed, and treatment results. The patients who received a successful treatment were contacted for reevaluation four to six years after the conclusion of treatment. Pain was the main complaint for 92.7 percent of the patients. The majority of patients were female (female:male ratio of 4.1:1), with a peak age range between 20 and 30 years. Roughly 59.7 percent of the patients were diagnosed as having a muscular TMD, 12.9 percent as an articular TMD, and 27.4 percent as a mixed TMD. The success rate for treatment was 91.7 percent, and there was a tendency toward the long-term maintenance of good results. The features of the 124 TMD patients treated were similar to those reported in the literature with regard to gender, age, and diagnostic prevalence. Most of the disorders were of a muscular origin, and there was a predominance of women between 20 and 30 years of age. The conservative, reversible, and low-tech treatment success rate for TMD can reach values above 90 percent. Therefore, there is no need for invasive, irreversible, expensive, or high-tech treatments for the majority of patients. The majority of TMD patients can benefit from reversible, conservative, and low-tech treatments such as parafunction control and therapeutic exercises that can be performed by any clinician once an accurate diagnosis has been made.

  1. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  4. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  5. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  6. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H. J.; Davison, A G; Wright, A. L.; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium bu...

  7. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. [Effects of cadmium on testis function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  9. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of remed......A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  10. Interplay of calcium and cadmium in mediating cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2014-03-25

    The environmentally important toxic metal, cadmium, exists as the Cd(2+) ion in biological systems, and in this state structurally resembles Ca(2+). Thus, although cadmium exerts a broad range of adverse actions on cells by virtue of its propensity to bind to protein thiol groups, it is now well appreciated that Cd(2+) participates in a number of Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, attributable to its actions as a Ca(2+) mimetic, with a central role for calmodulin, and the Ca(2+)/calmodlin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) that mediates effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and apoptotic cell death. Cadmium interacts with receptors and ion channels on the cell surface, and with the intracellular estrogen receptor where it binds competitively to residues shared by Ca(2+). It increases cytosolic [Ca(2+)] through several mechanisms, but also decreases transcript levels of some Ca(2+)-transporter genes. It initiates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and activates calpains, contributing to mitochondria-independent apoptosis. However, the recent discovery of the role CaMK-II plays in Cd(2+)-induced cell death, and subsequent implication of CaMK-II in Cd(2+)-dependent alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics, has opened a new area of mechanistic cadmium toxicology that is a focus of this review. Calmodulin is necessary for induction of apoptosis by several agents, yet induction of apoptosis by Cd(2+) is prevented by CaMK-II block, and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of CaMK-II has been linked to increased Cd(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Calmodulin antagonism suppresses Cd(2+)-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and the Akt survival pathway. The involvement of CaMK-II in the effects of Cd(2+) on cell morphology, and particularly the actin cytoskeleton, is profound, favouring actin depolymerization, disrupting focal adhesions, and directing phosphorylated FAK into a cellular membrane. CaMK-II is also implicated in effects of Cd(2+) on microtubules and cadherin junctions. A key question for

  11. A probability of synthesis of the superheavy element Z = 124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H.C. [Government College for Women, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India); Sridhar, K.N. [Government First Grade College, Department of Physics, Kolar, Karnataka (India)

    2017-10-15

    We have studied the fusion cross section, evaporation residue cross section, compound nucleus formation probability (P{sub CN}) and survival probability (P{sub sur}) of different projectile target combinations to synthesize the superheavy element Z=124. Hence, we have identified the most probable projectile-target combination to synthesize the superheavy element Z = 124. To synthesize the superheavy element Z=124, the most probable projectile target combinations are Kr+Ra, Ni+Cm, Se+Th, Ge+U and Zn+Pu. We hope that our predictions may be a guide for the future experiments in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei Z = 124. (orig.)

  12. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  13. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  14. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  15. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  16. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  17. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  18. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  19. Association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in community dwelling women: the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Se Young; Kim, Suyeon; Lee, Kiheon; Kim, Ju Young; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Keehyuck; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah

    2015-07-16

    To assess the association between secondhand smoke exposure and blood lead and cadmium concentration in women in South Korea. Population-based cross-sectional study. South Korea (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V). 1490 non-smoking women who took part in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), in which blood levels of lead and cadmium were measured. The primary outcome was blood levels of lead and cadmium in accordance with the duration of secondhand smoke exposure. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium in women who were never exposed to secondhand smoke was 1.21 (0.02) µg/L. Among women who were exposed less than 1 h/day, the mean cadmium level was 1.13 (0.03) µg/L, and for those exposed for more than 1 h, the mean level was 1.46 (0.06) µg/L. In particular, there was a significant association between duration of secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace and blood cadmium concentration. The adjusted mean level of blood cadmium concentration in the never exposed women's group was less than that in the 1 h and more exposed group, and the 1 h and more at workplace exposed group: 1.20, 1.24 and 1.50 µg/L, respectively. We could not find any association between lead concentration in the blood and secondhand smoke exposure status. This study showed that exposure to secondhand smoke and blood cadmium levels are associated. Especially, there was a significant association at the workplace. Therefore, social and political efforts for reducing the exposure to secondhand smoke at the workplace are needed in order to promote a healthier working environment for women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. 42 CFR 124.603 - Provision of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of services. 124.603 Section 124.603 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT... determined in accordance with accepted cost accounting principles; and (ii) Federal governmental third-party...

  1. 9 CFR 124.41 - Notice of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of hearing. 124.41 Section 124.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the requesting party, the applicant, the petitioner, and any other interested person of the date, time...

  2. 9 CFR 124.33 - Standard of due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of due diligence. 124.33 Section 124.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... predecessor in interest of the marketing applicant shall be imputed to the applicant for patent term...

  3. 7 CFR 400.124 - Disclosure to credit reporting agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure to credit reporting agencies. 400.124...-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.124 Disclosure to credit reporting agencies. (a) In accordance with guidelines established by the Manager, FCIC, the Comptroller or designated manager of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1726.78-1726.124 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1726.78-1726.124 Section 1726.78-1726.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities §§ 1726.78-1726...

  5. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the...

  6. 10 CFR 51.124 - Commission duty to comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission duty to comment. 51.124 Section 51.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND... environmental impact statements prepared by other Federal agencies, consistent with the provisions of 40 CFR...

  7. 13 CFR 124.107 - What is potential for success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is potential for success? 124... Requirements for Participation in the 8(a) Business Development Program § 124.107 What is potential for success? The applicant concern must possess reasonable prospects for success in competing in the private sector...

  8. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  9. 13 CFR 124.103 - Who is socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Decision. In making a final decision that a group should be considered presumptively disadvantaged, SBA... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is socially disadvantaged? 124.103 Section 124.103 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS...

  10. 49 CFR 572.124 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.124...-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.124 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax (upper torso) assembly. The thorax consists of the part of the torso assembly shown in drawing 127-2000. (b...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.124 - Dockboards (car and bridge plates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dockboards (car and bridge plates). 1917.124 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Terminal Facilities § 1917.124 Dockboards (car and bridge... and across openings. (b) (c) Dockboards (car and bridge plates). (1) Dockboards shall be strong enough...

  12. 40 CFR 417.124 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 417.124 Section 417.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sulfamic Acid...

  13. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  14. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  15. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  16. [Cadmium and selenium interaction in mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium occurs in the environment naturally and as a pollutant. Its exposure is inevitable and may produce toxic effects in many organs and organ systems through binding to biological structures, accumulation in internal organs or induction of free radical production. Another important aspect of Cd toxicity is its interaction, often anthagonistic, with essential elements. Vice versa, additional intake of the essential elements may have beneficial influence on distribution and toxic effects of cadmium. Selenium is an essential microelement and a constituent of many selenoproteins with antioxidant properties that bind cadmium (and other toxic elements such as mercury or arsenic). This review summarizes results, to date, of cadmium toxicokinetics and toxicodinamics, selenium biokinetics and biodinamics, as well as mechanisms of cadmium-selenium interaction and their impact on the oxidative status derived from the studies based upon mainly on animal experiments and on limited number of human studies. The wide variety of different doses, dose ratios, element administration modes and exposure lenghts of cadmium and selenium often yielded contradictory results. Future studies should be focused on assessment of effects of cadmium and selenium interaction in sensitive population groups and mechanisms of that interaction. Regarding animal studies, doses and exposure should be adjusted to long-term low exposure levels that are usually found in human population.

  17. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  18. Low level determinations of environmental cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.R.

    1976-06-24

    An isotope dilution technique has been developed to measure the concentration of cadmium in aqueous solutions with a sensitivity of 0.003 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of cadmium in two river systems in Western Australia has been measured to establish an accurate set of low level reference determinations in a region which is relatively free of sources of industrial pollution. The results of the study demonstrate that the cadmium content in the two major river systems in western Australia is about 100 times lower than the World Health Organization limits. The data indicate that the cadmium content tends to decrease upstream from the mouth of the river, and that in the reservoir areas the content is as low as 0.02 micrograms per liter. These values are substantially lower than waterways in other parts of the world. 13 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content.

  20. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  1. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  2. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  3. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  4. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  5. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  6. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  7. Toxicity of cadmium to the developing lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daston, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on the developing lung and pulmonary surfactant were studied. Pregnant rats received subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride on days 12 to 15 of gestation and were sacrificed throughout late gestation. The treatment resulted in high embryonic mortality and growth regardation. Fetal lung weight was reduced 20 to 30% due to hypoplasia, as the number of lung cells (DNA/lung) but not cell size (protein/cell) was lowered. The ultrastructural development of alveolar epithelium was altered; cytodifferentiation was delayed; and the cytoplasmic inclusions which contain pulmonary surfactant, were reduced in the term fetus. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was diminished in the lungs of treated fetuses. The immediate cause of this lowered accumulation was a decreased rate of synthesis of PC from choline. Carbohydrates probably represent a major source of PC precursors and are present in large quantities in the fetal lung as glycogen. The pulmonary glycogen content of cadmium-exposed fetuses was diminished. It is postulated that this is a reason for the lowered rate of PC synthesis. Maternally administered cadmium did not pass through the placenta; thus, the mechanism of fetotoxicity was indirect. Maternal cadmium exposure did result in lowered fetal zinc levels. Coadministration of zinc with cadmium raised fetal zinc concentration to control values and alleviated all fetotoxicity. Fetal zinc deficiency is a possible mechanism for the toxic effects on the developing lung. Several dams were allowed to give birth and their offspring were observed for respiratory problems. Cadmium treatment delayed parturition by about a day. Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were observed in 11% of the treated neonates. All but one of these individuals died and had lungs with hyaline membranes. This is the only known case of an environmental agent causing neonatal RDS.

  8. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  9. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  10. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATZ), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Nitrate (NO3) have both estrogenic activity and carcinogenic potential. Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. Arsenic and Cadmium ...

  11. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  12. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  13. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  14. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-10-29

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  15. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  16. Verification of the ASTM G-124 Purge Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Katherine E.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    ASTM G-124 seeks to evaluate combustion characteristics of metals in high-purity (greater than 99%) oxygen atmospheres. ASTM G-124 provides the following equation to determine the minimum number of purges required to reach this level of purity in a test chamber: n = -4/log10(Pa/Ph), where "n" is the total number of purge cycles required, Ph is the absolute pressure used for the purge on each cycle and Pa is the atmospheric pressure or the vent pressure. The origin of this equation is not known and has been the source of frequent questions as to its accuracy and reliability. This paper shows the derivation of the G-124 purge equation, and experimentally explores the equation to determine if it accurately predicts the number of cycles required.

  17. Excitation functions of 124Te(d,xn)124,125I reactions from threshold up to 14 MeV: comparative evaluation of nuclear routes for the production of 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T H; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-09-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 124Te(d,xn)124-125I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 14.0 MeV via the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.8% enriched 124Te on Ti-backing. The excitation function of the 124Te(d,n)125I reaction was measured for the first time. The present data for the 124Te(d,2n)124I reaction are by an order of magnitude higher than the literature experimental data but are in good agreement with the results of a hybrid model calculation. From the measured cross sections, integral yields of 124,125I were calculated. The energy range Ed = 14 --> 10 MeV appears to be the best compromise between 124I-yield and 1251-impurity. The calculated 124I-yield amounts to 17.5 MBq/microA h and the 125I-impurity to 1.7%. A critical evaluation of the three nuclear routes for the production of 124I, viz. 124Te(d,2n)-, 124Te(p,n)- and 125Te(p,2n)-processes, is given. The reaction studied in this work proved to be least suitable. The 124Te(p,n)-reaction gives 124I of the highest radionuclidic purity, and a small-sized cyclotron is adequate for production purposes. The 125Te(p,2n)-reaction is more suitable at a medium-sized cyclotron: the yield of 124I is four times higher than in the other two reactions but the level of 0.9% 125I-impurity is relatively high.

  18. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  19. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  20. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  1. Clinical experience summary of bacterial conjunctivitis treatment in 124 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Zhan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the clinical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis, and summarize the treatment experiences. METHODS: Totally, 124 cases with bacterial conjunctivitis in the department of ophthalmology from October 2012 to April 2014 were selected as the research objects. According to the diagnosis points, they were classified. After symptomatic drug treatment, the efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. RESULTS: The total effective rate of 124 cases after treatment was 96.8%, after treatment, patients with tears, conjunctival congestion, secretions and pain scores were significantly lower than those before treatment(PCONCLUSION: The efficacy of classification symptomatic treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis is significant and worthy of clinical reference.

  2. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  3. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  4. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  6. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Cd destroyed the balance of free radical metabolisms, which resulted in increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the relative cell membrane permeability (RMP). The kernel yield and kernel rate per pot showed significant decrease under cadmium stress (P < 0.05). The varieties FengHua3 ...

  7. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  8. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay

  9. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  10. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  11. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  12. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 μmol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping. Keywords. Cadmium sulphide; combustion synthesis; anion doping; water splitting; ...

  13. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on reproduction in adult animals previously exposed in ovo or as hatchlings. Adults were raised either from eggs produced during a two week exposure to 0, 1, 5, o...

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  15. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  16. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the ..... accessory sex tissues atrophy such as the prostate. (Waalkes et al 1997a).

  17. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  18. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  19. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which are... inspection shall be made, and all rabbits found to be, or which are suspected of being, affected with the...

  20. Making sense out of suffering: James 1:2-4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The logic of James 1:2-4 is examined. The argument is viewed as a syllogism, with the demonstrandum: 'The believer who experiences trials must be happy.' The proof of the argument runs as follows: If there are trials, then there is testing ( = refining) of faith. If there is testing ( = refining) of faith, then there is.

  1. Imaging brain tumor proliferative activity with [I-124]iododeoxyuridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasberg, RG; Roelcke, U; Weinreich, R; Beattie, B; von Ammon, K; Yonekawa, Y; Landolt, H; Guenther, [No Value; Crompton, NEA; Vontobel, P; Missimer, J; Maguire, RP; Koziorowski, J; Knust, EJ; Finn, RD; Leenders, KL

    2000-01-01

    Iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) uptake and retention was imaged by positron emission tomography (PET) at 0-48 min and 24 h after administration of 28.0-64.4 MBq (0.76-1.74 mCi) of [I-124]IUdR in 20 patients with brain tumors, including meningiomas and gliomas, The PET images were directly compared with

  2. 13 CFR 124.303 - What is termination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other requested information or data within 30 days of the date of request. (8) Cessation of business... activity targets under § 124.507 or failure to report changes that adversely affect the program eligibility... standards and obligations. (19) Material breach of any terms and conditions of the 8(a) BD Program...

  3. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... optimize performance. (b) Zero the carbon dioxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its...

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  7. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  8. [Hydrogen bis(1,2,4-triazole] 1,2,4-triazolium bis(3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate 1,2,4-triazole disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-qiang Qiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H4N3+·[H(C2H3N32]+·2C7H5O6S−·2C2H3N3, consists of two types of 1,2,4-triazole monocation, one protonated at the 2-site lying across a twofold axis and the other protonated at the 4-site with the H atom disordered over a center of symmetry, a 5-sulfosalicylate anion and a neutral 1,2,4-triazole molecule. The component ions are linked into a three-dimensional network by a combination of N—H...O, N—H...N, O—H...O, O—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds. In addition, benzene–benzene π–π interactions of 3.942 (2 Å [interplanar spacing = 3.390 (2 Å] and C—O...π (3.331 Å interactions are observed.

  9. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Robert O Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  10. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  12. Inactivation of cadmium in contaminated soils using synthetic zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, B

    1992-01-01

    The addition of synthetic zeolite pellets to soils contaminated with cadmium significantly reduced the concentrations of cadmium in the roots and shoots of a range of crop plants. Use of synthetic foyazite group zeolites types 4A and 13X, at application rates of 1% by soil weight, caused reductions in cadmium concentrations of up to 86% in leaves of lettuce grown in pots, compared to controls with no added zeolites. The potential of these substances to reduce cadmium entry into the food chain, and as a clean up method, is noted.

  13. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  14. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R

    1999-01-01

    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  15. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  17. Acute fatal occupational cadmium poisoning by inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Ueda, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Hattori, H.; Hiraoka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A 43-year-old male smelter was admitted to a hospital on account of severe dyspnea about 2 days after exposure to brownish-yellow smoke produced by melting of ''copper'' scrap. On admission pronounced hypoxemia was revealed, and an oxygen-enriched gas was administered after intubation. Although inspired oxygen concentration was gradually increased, hypoxemia progressed and he died on day 11 in hospital. The principal autopsy finding was chiefly confined to the lungs. Both lungs were heavy (the left weighing 1,470 g; the right 1,710 g) and firm to the touch. Histologically, no normal alveoli were found throughout the entire lung. Some alveolar spaces were occupied by pneumocytes, others by organized exudate with fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was present. Patchy areas of inflammatory cell infiltrations as well as intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed. On the basis of the above findings a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar damage was made. Based on the available evidence (presence of cadmium in the ''copper'' scrap, feature of the smoke, clinical signs with latent time, and high cadmium concentration of the lung), the diffuse alveolar damage was considered to have been caused by inhaled cadmium. The pulmonary change of the present case was more advanced in pathologic stage in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  18. 9 CFR 124.30 - Filing, format, and content of petitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing, format, and content of petitions. 124.30 Section 124.30 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RESTORATION Due Diligence Petitions § 124.30 Filing, format, and content of petitions. (a) Any interested...

  19. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... Requirements § 300.124 Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. The State must... programs assisted under Part C of the Act, and who will participate in preschool programs assisted under...

  20. 31 CFR 12.4 - Distribution of free samples of tobacco products prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution of free samples of tobacco products prohibited. 12.4 Section 12.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.4 Distribution of free samples of...

  1. 13 CFR 124.402 - How does a Participant develop a business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business plan? 124.402 Section 124.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.402 How does a Participant develop a business plan? (a) General. In order to assist the SBA... Participant must develop a comprehensive business plan setting forth its business targets, objectives, and...

  2. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  3. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  4. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  5. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3′-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  6. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  7. Biosorption of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of cadmium and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto the unmodified compact biomass of microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus DESM. was studied in the concentration range of 0.25 – 100 mg.l-1. The experimental biosorption results for arsenic and cadmium followed well the Freundlich ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed. Keywords. Cadmium; lead borate glasses. 1. Introduction.

  9. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  10. Levels of cadmium in cigarette brands found in Zamfara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium were determined in some cigarette brands found in Zamfara state, North-west Nigeria. The solutions of the samples were prepared using the dry-ash method. The levels of cadmium in the solution were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance readings of the elements were ...

  11. Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Oreochromis Niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels in Oreochromis niloticus, aquatic plants, water and sawdust were collected and analyzed for Lead, Cadmium and Chromium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained showed that sawdust had the highest Lead and Chromium contents of 32.0 + 0.99 μg/g ...

  12. Evaluation of serum levels of cadmium and Lead in occupationally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium and Lead are extremely toxic metals found in industrial workplaces. They are also found in some industrial paints and may represent hazards when sprayed.Exposure to Cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever and muscle ache sometimes reffered to as "the cadium blues." Occupational ...

  13. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly.

  14. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  15. Elevated cadmium exposure may be associated with periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Dillon, Charles F

    2010-06-01

    Association of environmental cadmium exposure with periodontal disease in US adults. Arora M, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Wright RO. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:739-44. Bruce A. Dye, DDS, MPH, Charles F. Dillon, MD, PhD. Is environmental cadmium associated with periodontal disease? Information not available. Cross-sectional study. Level 3: Other evidence. Not applicable.

  16. Cadmium, an Environmental Pollutant: A Review | Adedapo | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and is considered to be an environmental pollutant. Cadmium levels in the environment vary widely. Several sources of human exposure to Cd, including employment in primary metal industries, production of certain batteries, foods, soil and cigarette smoke, are known. Its inhalation has ...

  17. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Studies indicate that liver function is impeded particularly with respect to protein synthesis, detoxification processes and the cellular integrity of the organ is damaged in the group that cadmium and lead were added (p<0.05). But the water sample from the mining pond, though containing higher cadmium and ...

  18. Effect of cadmium stress on antioxidative enzymes during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the influence of high cadmium concentrations on percentage germination, specific activities and isoenzyme patterns of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) during the germination of Serbian spruce [Picea omorika (Pan..) Purkynĕ] was studied. Cadmium chloride concentrations ...

  19. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March ...

  20. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Malaysia. 27.74. Spain. 0.85. Philippines. 20.14. USA. 7.43. Dietary intake of Cadmium: The intake of Cd was estimated by multiplication of daily consumption ... cereals such as rice. JECFA has set PTWI for the. Cadmium at 7 µg/kg of body weight (WHO., 2004). According to the published papers, daily consumption of rice ...

  1. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of S. cerevisiae (Inouhe et al 1989) were used for under- standing the molecular genetics of cadmium toxicity and ... The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6⋅4 before autoclaving. Cadmium-resistant mutants after isolation ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Biochem. Biophys. Acta 993 51–55. Kimura M, Otaki N and Imano M ...

  2. induced by cadmium using random amplified polymorphic DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    darya

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Jin YH, Clark AB, Slebos, RJC, Al-Refai H, Taylor JA, Kunkel TA,. Resnick MA, Gordenin DA (2003). Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nat. Genet. 34(3):326-329. Joseph P (2009). Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238:272-279. Azimi et al.

  3. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of varying doses of cadmium on bone and kidney alkaline phosphatase and on testis and prostate acid phosphatase after 4 weeks of administration to separate groups of rats. Relative to the cadmium-free control rats femur bone alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly (P<0.05) ...

  4. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  5. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  6. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het

  7. International exercise on {sup 124}Sb photon emission intensities determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, M.-M., E-mail: mmbe@cea.f [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chauvenet, B.; Amiot, M.-N.; Bobin, C.; Lepy, M.-C.; Branger, T.; Laniece, I. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Luca, A.; Sahagia, M.; Waetjen, A.C. [Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Kossert, K.; Ott, O.; Naehle, O. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dryak, P.; Sochorova, J.; Kovar, P.; Auerbach, P. [Czech Metrological Institute (CMI), Radiova 1, CZ 10200 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Altzitzoglou, T.; Pomme, S.; Sibbens, G. [Institute for Reference Material and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of {sup 124}Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories, six of which sent results for photon emission intensities both in absolute and in relative terms. From these results and including previous published values, a consistent decay scheme was worked out, proving that problems in activity measurements have not been due to decay scheme data.

  8. Cadmium content in soil at Heirisson Island, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosie, D.J.; Bogoiais, A.; De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the cadmium level of soil samples from Heirisson Island, western Australia. Cadmium is a particularly toxic element considered harmful to humans and vegetation. Experimental methods and materials are described. Results indicate that cadmium concentrations decrease markedly with distance from road edges, where the cadmium is thought to originate from automobile tires. Other results are detailed. Despite the fact that the amount of cadmium fallout from vehicular traffic is considerably smaller in Australia than was expected on the basis of overseas studies, it is still apparent that the accession rate in soil adjoining busy highways is sufficiently large to demand that care is taken to avoid growing vegetation for human consumption too close to such roadside locations. (3 graphs, 8 references)

  9. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  10. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  12. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  13. Biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, N M; Suvarnakhandi, S S; Mulgund, G S; Ratageri, R H; Taranath, T C

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on biochemical responses of Spirodela polyrhiza to cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for twelve days exposure. Spirodela showed visible symptoms like withering of roots and chlorosis at higher concentration (2.0 ppm), however the plant showed normal growth at lower concentration (0.1 ppm). The estimation of biochemical parameters (total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) of test plants showed a significant increase at lower concentration (0.1 ppm) of cadmium. The biochemical changes decrease with increase in exposure concentration and duration. The toxic effect of cadmium is directly proportional to its concentration and duration. The accumulation of cadmium by Spirodela polyrhiza was maximum at four days exposure duration and gradually decreases.

  14. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  15. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-02-13

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  16. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1–xCdxTe) for infrared (IR) sensor applications, but etch pit density ( EPD ) measurements are required to measure...dislocations that affect device performance. No EPD solutions have been reported for Hg1–xCdxSe, and standard EPD solutions for Hg1–xCdxTe have proved...ineffective. Thus, a new etching solution is required for EPD measurements of Hg1–xCdxSe. Samples were etched in various solutions and the resulting pits

  17. The Effect of Selenium and +(-)Catechin on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione in Cadmium Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Semra; Dursun, Şefik

    2007-04-01

    Cadmium performs its effect on living organisms by accumulating in various tissues and effects tissue antioxidant enzyme systems. The testes are critical target organ following cadmium exposure. The present study was planned to determine the possible protective roles of selenium and +(-) catechin against the toxic effects of cadmium. The study has been performed in Wistar Albino rats which divided into four groups as control, cadmium, cadmium+selenium and cadmium+ catechin received groups. Each experimental group consisted of ten rats. The experimental group rats have received cadmium sulphate, sodium selenite and +(-) catechin via there drinking water for thirty days. Cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation and glutathione were measured in the homogenate of testes and blood. As a result of the study it may be said that: The cadmium accumulates in testes and its concentration increases in blood and possibly selenium administration is helpful against cadmium but not +(-)catechin.

  18. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  19. How Does Oyster Shell Immobilize Cadmium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Owens, Vance N; Park, Sungkyun; Kim, Jiwoong; Hong, Chang Oh

    2018-01-01

    The exact mechanism of cadmium (Cd) immobilization by oyster shell (OS) has not been reported. The effect of OS on Cd immobilization and the exact mechanism should be known before applying remediation technology using OS to Cd contaminated soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cd immobilization by OS. Three grams of OS (< 0.84 mm) was reacted with 30 mL of 0-3.56 mg Cd L-1 solution at 25 °C for 48 h. Cadmium adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration of Cd in solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly demonstrated that precipitation of CdCO3 did not take place in suspensions of OS after reacting with up to 3.56 mol Cd L-1. Interestingly, we found formation of Ca0.67Cd0.33CO3 crystalline in suspension of OS after reacting with maximum initial Cd concentrations. Precipitation and chemisorption might contribute to Cd immobilization together. However, we feel confident that chemisorption is the major mechanism by which Cd immobilization occurs with OS. In conclusion, OS could be an effective bioadsorbent to immobilize Cd through formation of geochemically stable Cd mineral.

  20. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cadmium-Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, R; Cobbett, C S

    1992-09-01

    A screening procedure for identifying Cd-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is described. With this procedure, two Cd-sensitive mutants were isolated. These represent independent mutations in the same locus, referred to as CAD1. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Crosses of the mutant to marker strains showed that the mutation is closely linked to the tt3 locus on chromosome 5. In addition to Cd, the mutants are also significantly more sensitive to mercuric ions and only slightly more sensitive to Cu and Zn, while being no more sensitive than the wild type to Mn, thus indicating a degree of specificity in the mechanism affected by the mutation. Undifferentiated callus tissue is also Cd sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. Both wild-type and mutant plants showed increased sensitivity to Cd in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the cadmium-binding (gamma-glutamylcysteine)(n)-glycine peptides, suggesting that the mutant is still able to synthesize these peptides. However, the effects of a cad1 mutation and buthionine sulfoximine together on cadmium sensitivity are essentially nonadditive, indicating that they may affect different aspects of the same detoxification mechanism. Assays of Cd uptake by intact plants indicate that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester Cd.

  2. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  4. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  6. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  7. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.

    2003-05-01

    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  8. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  9. Isospin Character of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in Sn124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Litvinova, E.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2010-11-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the proton-magic nucleus Sn124 with the (α, α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV. The comparison with results of photon-scattering experiments reveals a splitting into two components with different structure: one group of states which is excited in (α, α'γ) as well as in (γ, γ') reactions and a group of states at higher energies which is only excited in (γ, γ') reactions. Calculations with the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle phonon model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and predict a low-lying isoscalar component dominated by neutron-skin oscillations and a higher-lying more isovector component on the tail of the giant dipole resonance.

  10. International exercise on {sup 124}Sb activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvenet, B., E-mail: bruno.chauvenet@cea.f [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Be, M.-M.; Amiot, M.-N.; Bobin, C.; Lepy, M.-C.; Branger, T.; Laniece, I. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), CEA, LIST, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Luca, A.; Sahagia, M.; Waetjen, A.C. [Horia Hulubei, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Kossert, K.; Ott, O.; Naehle, O. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D 38 116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dryak, P.; Sochorova, J.; Kovar, P.; Auerbach, P. [Czech Metrological Institute (CMI), Radiova 1, CZ 10200 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Altzitzoglou, T.; Pomme, S.; Sibbens, G. [Institute for Reference Material and Measurements (IRMM), European Commission, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2010-07-15

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of {sup 124}Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4{pi}{gamma} counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.

  11. Evaluation of {sup 124}I PET/CT and {sup 124}I PET/MRI in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercle, Laurent; Deandreis, Desiree; Terroir, Marie; Leboulleux, Sophie; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    The work of Binse and colleagues points out that there are probably some research perspectives for the use of {sup 124}I PET/ CT and PET/MRI in patients with DTC. It shows that there is no substantial advantage of {sup 124}I PET/MRI over {sup 124}I PET/CT for the detection of tumour lesions in the neck when using similar PET devices. It confirms the superiority of {sup 124}I PET over CT and MRI for the detection of iodine-positive lesions. It demonstrates that the use of a more sensitive PET device and a longer acquisition time leads to the detection of more lesions. {sup 124}I PET is a promising research tool for pretherapy dosimetry, the evaluation of response to {sup 131}I treatment and the staging of recurrent or residual disease. The recognized advantages of MRI are the evaluation of aerodigestive tract lesions and suprahyoid region lesions. The coregistration of MRI and {sup 124}I PET/CT might thus be more convenient than {sup 124}I PET/ MRI (shorter time of acquisition, better cost-effectiveness and more accurate attenuation correction). The benefits of these procedures in terms of patient outcome, and for the clinician and the healthcare system remain to be determined.

  12. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  13. Cadmium free lead alloy for reusable radiotherapy shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, C R; Amundson, K D

    1990-01-01

    A low melting point cadmium free fusible lead alloy suitable for custom radiotherapy shielding blocks is described. The alloy, referred to here as Alloy-203, differs in composition from the more common Lipowitz's metal (Cerrobend) by being cadmium free, having a slightly higher lead content and a 203 degrees F melting temperature. Attenuation properties have been studied for 4-18 MV X-rays. Alloy-203 has lower transmission than Lipowitz's metal, primarily due to the higher content of lead and bismuth. Daily use for the past 2 years at Mayo Clinic has not indicated any major problems associated with the use of this cadmium free alloy for custom shield fabrication.

  14. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal ...

  15. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  16. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in 124Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2012-06-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of this resonance is still under discussion.Purpose: We present an experimental and theoretical study of the isospin character of the pygmy dipole resonance and investigation of a splitting of the electric dipole strength previously observed in experiments on N=82 nuclei.Method: The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the semi-magic Z=50 nucleus 124Sn by means of the (α,α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV using the Big-Bite Spectrometer at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands.Results: A splitting of the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength was identified in 124Sn by comparing the differential cross sections measured in (α,α'γ) to results stemming from (γ,γ') photon-scattering experiments. While an energetically lower-lying group of states is observed in both kinds of experiments, a higher-lying group of states is only excited in the (γ,γ') reaction. In addition, theoretical calculations using the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle-phonon model have been performed. Both calculations show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data and predict a low-lying isoscalar component that is dominated by neutron-skin oscillations as expected for the pygmy dipole resonance. Furthermore, the states at higher energies show a pronounced isovector component and a different radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities as expected for the tail of the giant dipole resonance.Conclusions: An experimental signature of the neutron-skin oscillation of the pygmy dipole resonance has been corroborated. The combination of the presented reactions might make it

  17. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  18. Studies on growth and nucleation kinetics of cadmium thiourea sulphate and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mekala [Quaid-e-Milleth College, Chennai 600002 (India)], E-mail: mekaladaniel@rediffmail.com; Malliga, M. Jeyarani [Bharathi Women College, Chennai 600108 (India); Sankar, R. [Kings Engineering College, Irungatukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Chennai 602105 (India); Jayaraman, D. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 004 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Semiorganic materials, in general possess high non-linear coefficient and mechanical strength which will be more applicable for device fabrication. Cadmium thiourea sulphate (CTS) and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate (MCTS) are better semiorganic materials which find applications in the field of optoelectronics. Single crystals of CTS and MCTS have been successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique using predetermined solubility data. The basic growth parameters of the crystal nuclei of the grown crystals of CTS and MCTS were evaluated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. The classical nucleation theory makes use of capillarity approximation which has certain limitations. A correction has to be applied for it and the classical nucleation theory has been suitably modified in order to calculate the critical nucleus parameters.

  19. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  20. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  1. MicroRNA-124 controls human vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic switch via Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yangfeng; Yu, Shangyi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jiajun; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-09-01

    Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and aortic dissection. However, the mechanisms of phenotypic modulation are still unclear. MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulators of VSMC function. We recently found that microRNA-124 (miR-124) was downregulated in proliferative vascular diseases that were characterized by a VSMC phenotypic switch. Therefore, we speculated that the aberrant expression of miR-124 might play a critical role in human aortic VSMC phenotypic switch. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that miR-124 was dramatically downregulated in the aortic media of clinical specimens of the dissected aorta and correlated with molecular markers of the contractile VSMC phenotype. Overexpression of miR-124 by mimicking transfection significantly attenuated platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced human aortic VSMC proliferation and phenotypic switch. Furthermore, we identified specificity protein 1 (Sp1) as the downstream target of miR-124. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm direct miR-124 targeting of the 3'-untranslated region of the Sp1 gene and repression of Sp1 expression in human aortic VSMCs. Furthermore, constitutively active Sp1 in miR-124-overexpressing VSMCs reversed the antiproliferative effects of miR-124. These results demonstrated a novel mechanism of miR-124 modulation of VSMC phenotypic switch by targeting Sp1 expression.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-124 is involved in the proliferation of a variety of cell types. However, miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. We first identified miR-124 as a critical regulator in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, proliferation, and phenotype switch by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of specificity protein 1. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Interactive effects of cadmium and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacterium) on the growth, antioxidative responses and accumulation of cadmium and microcystins in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiaolin; Gu, Ji-Dong; Tie, BaiQing; Yao, Bangsong; Shao, Jihai

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium pollution and harmful cyanobacterial blooms are two prominent environmental problems. The interactive effects of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria on rice seedlings remain unknown. In order to elucidate this issue, the interactive effects of cadmium(II) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 on the growth and antioxidant responses of rice seedling were investigated in this study, as well as the accumulation of cadmium(II) and microcystins. The results showed that the growth of rice seedlings was inhibited by cadmium(II) stress but promoted by inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905. cadmium(II) stress induced oxidative damage on rice seedlings. Inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905 alleviated the toxicity of cadmium(II) on rice seedlings. The accumulation of cadmium(II) in rice seedlings was decreased by M. aeruginosa FACHB905, but the translocation of cadmium(II) from root to shoot was increased by this cyanobacterium. The accumulation of microcystins in rice seedlings was decreased by cadmium(II). Results presented in this study indicated that cadmium(II) and M. aeruginosa had antagonistic toxicity on rice seedlings. The findings of this study throw new light on evaluation of ecological- and public health-risks for the co-contamination of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-Producing Biocontrol Bacterium, Lysobacter antibioticus HS124

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lysobacter antibiocus HS124 is a chitinase-producing rhizobacterium with proven capacities to suppress plant diseases. Bacterial cultures of L. antibioticus HS124 showed strong biocontrol efficacies against various plant diseases compared to those of bacterial cultures of Bacillus subtilis QST713 which is an active ingredient of a commercial biopesticide, Serenade. Here, we report the draft genome sequence and automated annotation of strain HS124. This draft genome sequence indicates the novelty of L. antibiocus HS124 and a subset of gene functions that may be related to its biocontrol activities

  4. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  5. Integrated photovoltaics in nickel cadmium battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This research report presents Connecticut Department of Transportations (ConnDOTs) : evaluation of preproduction prototype nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery-powered electric : vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative-fuel (alt-fuel) option for local trips...

  6. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    –234. Cieslinski G, Van Rees KCJ, Szmigielska AM, Krishnamurti GSR,. Huang PM (1998). Lowmolecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere soils of durum wheat and their effect on cadmium bioaccumulation. Plant Soil, 203: ...

  7. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats and their fetuses at morphological, physiological and molecular level. Ashraf El-Sayed, Salem M Salem, Amany A El-Garhy, Zeinab A Rahman, Asmaa M Kandil ...

  8. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHAR HABIBAR CHOWDHURY SUSHOVAN KONER SUBHASIS ROY BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 1377- ...

  9. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in plants growing in abandoned mining-district area. HK Chakroun, F Souissi, JL Bouchardon, R Souissi, J Moutte, O Faure, E Remon, S Abdeljaoued ...

  10. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  11. Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran. E Rahimi, M Hajisalehi, HR Kazemeini, A Chakeri, A Khodabakhsh, M Derakhshesh, M Mirdamadi, AG Ebadi, A Rezvani, FM Kashkahi ...

  12. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  13. Cadmium-binding in the pregnant and fetal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, B.J.; Ozga, J.A.; Walter, B.K.; Sasser, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    A cadmium-binding moiety with properties in common with adult cadmium-thionein was identified in the livers of fetal rats at day 18 of gestation. Pregnant rats (approx. 200 g) were subcutaneously injected with 50 ..mu..g of radiolabeled cadmium in the form of /sup 115m/CdCl/sub 2/ daily from days 11 through 15 of gestation. Maternal liver contained 14 to 18 ..mu..g Cd/g tissue; fetal liver contained 44 to 70 ng Cd/g tissue. A soluble (aqueous), heat stable, cadmium-binding molecule(s) was found which had an apparent molecular weight of approx. 10,000 in adult livers and 6000 in fetal livers by gel filtration chromatography. Both fetal and adult proteins absorbed maximally at 254 but not 280 nm.

  14. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  15. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  16. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame absorption ... known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low ... Changes in. pH and electrode potential (Eh) can mobilise heavy.

  17. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  18. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  19. Ground Temperatures from Deep Boreholes in the Ob River Valley, Russia (VK-1615 and ZS-124/124a), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil temperature data from three deep boreholes in the Ob River valley in Russia. Boreholes were drilled in 1967 (VK-1615), 1977 (ZS-124), and...

  20. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Stroiński; Monika Kozłowska

    2014-01-01

    Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202) and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP) and catalase (CAT) was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dism...

  1. Protective effect of pre-supplementation with selenium on cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the antioxidant nutrient selenium, Se, on biologic response to cadmium-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was investigated in rats pretreated with Se prior to exposure to mild doses of Cd. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water ...

  2. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Toman; Svätoslav Hluchý; Jozef Golian; Michal Cabaj; Mária Adamkovičová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group). Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluatio...

  3. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 103 μg g-1 usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g-1, was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g-1 and 8 μg g-1, respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  6. Human seminal plasma cadmium: comparison with fertility and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, M; Kantola, M; Saarikoski, S; Vanha-Perttula, T

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium, selenium and zinc were determined in seminal plasma and serum of 64 men by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The mean (+/- SD) cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma and serum were 0.22 +/- 0.22 micrograms and 0.28 +/- 0.10 micrograms, respectively, but they did not correlate with each other. Smokers (n = 31) had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher serum cadmium concentrations than non-smokers (n = 31). Also seminal plasma cadmium in smokers was elevated, but a significant difference to non-smokers was only found if more than 20 cigarettes were consumed daily. No differences were found in semen quality and fertility between smokers and non-smokers. The seminal plasma cadmium had no correlation to selenium or zinc which, however, displayed a positive correlation (r = 0.852, p less than 0.001) to each other. It is concluded that smoking increases the exposure to cadmium. Although no obvious reproductive suppression was observed, heavy smoking may possibly enhance toxic effects in men under other detrimental exposures.

  7. Influence of combined antioxidants against cadmium induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuturk, Meral; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tunali, Sevim

    2006-05-01

    Acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and combined antioxidants were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rat testes. The rats were subdivided into four groups. Cadmium chloride (2mg/kgday) injected intraperitoneally during 8 days. Vitamin C (250mg/kgday), vitamin E (250mg/kgday) and sodium selenate (0.25mg/kgday) were pretreated by gavage in both of control and cadmium injected rats. Testis lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were determined by spectrophotometrically. In Cd treated rats, lipid peroxidation levels were increased and glutathione levels were decreased and combined antioxidants treatment was effective in preventing of lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione. In Cd treated animals, the degenerative changes were observed, but not observed in the administrated rats with Cd and antioxidants under the light microscope. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein and caspase-3 activities were evaluated by immunohistochemically. Proliferation activity was not seen in the spermatogonial cells of cadmium treated testis. Treatment with antioxidants in cadmium administrated testis leads to pronounced increase in proliferation activity. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity was determined in the spermatogenic cells but not spermatogonia in treatment of antioxidants with Cd. In control and treated with antioxidants animals, metallothionein expressions were localized in the cells of seminiferous tubules, although the expression only was observed in the interstitial cells of cadmium treated rats. Results demonstrated beneficial effects of combined vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium treatment in Cd toxicity.

  8. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2001-08-01

    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  10. A MicroRNA-124 Polymorphism is Associated with Fracture Healing via Modulating BMP6 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: miR-124-3p has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases by modulating a variety of signaling pathways. In this study, we aimed to understand the impact of miR-124-3p expression level on the fracture healing in the patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, who received minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis. Methods: We firstly collected 195 patients of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and the genotype of rs531564 was determined: GG (n=124 and GC+CC (n=71. We collected information of the participants including age, gender, total in-hospital time, smoking and alcohol consumption. Subsequently, we searched the miRNA database online to identify the possible binding sequence of miR-124-3p located within the 3’-UTR of the target gene. We did correlation analysis and luciferase to understand the regulatory relationship between miR-124-3p and BMP6. Meanwhile, we also conducted real time PCR and western blotting analysis to study the mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 in different genotype groups. We then treated the cells with scramble control, miR-124-3p mimics, BMP6 siRNA and miR-124-3p inhibitors to investigate the influence of miR-124-3p on the expression of BMP6, viability and apoptosis of cells. Results: Total in-hospital time was significantly longer in GC+CC group than GG group. MiR-124-3p was up-regulated in GG group than GC and CC groups. BMP6 was virtual target of miR-124-3p. There existed negative regulatory relationship betweenmiR-124-3p and BMP6. The mRNA and protein expression level of BMP6 decreased in GG group. MiR-124-3p decreased the expression of BMP6. MiR-124-3p negatively interfered with the viability of cells and BMP6 positively interfered with the viability of cells. MiR-124-3p reduced apoptosis and BMP6 promoted apoptosis. Conclusion: These data proved the expression of miR-124-3p was associated with the healing of metaphyseal fracture of distal tibia, and

  11. The Effect of MicroRNA-124 Overexpression on Anti-Tumor Drug Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play critical roles in regulating various physiological processes, including growth and development. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-124 (miR-124 participates not only in regulation of early neurogenesis but also in suppression of tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-124 was associated with reduced DNA repair capacity in cultured cancer cells and increased sensitivity of cells to DNA-damaging anti-tumor drugs, specifically those that cause the formation of DNA strand-breaks (SBs. We then examined which DNA repair-related genes, particularly the genes of SB repair, were regulated by miR-124. Two SB repair-related genes, encoding ATM interactor (ATMIN and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1, were strongly affected by miR-124 overexpression, by binding of miR-124 to the 3¢-untranslated region of their mRNAs. As a result, the capacity of cells to repair DNA SBs, such as those resulting from homologous recombination, was significantly reduced upon miR-124 overexpression. A particularly important therapeutic implication of this finding is that overexpression of miR-124 enhanced cell sensitivity to multiple DNA-damaging agents via ATMIN- and PARP1-mediated mechanisms. The translational relevance of this role of miR-124 in anti-tumor drug sensitivity is suggested by the finding that increased miR-124 expression correlates with better breast cancer prognosis, specifically in patients receiving chemotherapy. These findings suggest that miR-124 could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy with DNA-damaging agents.

  12. Gene expression analysis in cadmium-stressed roots of a low cadmium-accumulating solanaceous plant, Solanum torvum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirotaka Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Fukuoka; Tomohito Arao; Akio Ohyama; Tsukasa Nunome; Koji Miyatake; Satomi Negoro

    2010-01-01

    Solanum torvum Sw. cv. Torubamubiga (TB) is a low cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the Cd acclimation process in TB roots, transcriptional regulation was analysed in response to mild Cd treatment...

  13. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasim Babaknejad; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Kahin Shahanipour; Somaye Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    .... Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties...

  14. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  15. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengue, Yves; Steiman, Régine; Garrel, Catherine; Lefèbvre, Emmanuel; Guiraud, Pascale

    2008-01-14

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 microM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 microM lead to 30% mortality after 24h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 microM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium.

  16. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  17. 9 CFR 124.22 - Revision of regulatory review period determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of regulatory review period determination. 124.22 Section 124.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... interested person may request a revision of the regulatory review period determination within the 30 day...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.124 - Sale with inventory real estate (chattel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale with inventory real estate (chattel). 1955.124... Property Chattel Property § 1955.124 Sale with inventory real estate (chattel). Inventory chattel property may be sold with inventory real estate if a higher aggregate price can be obtained. Proceeds from a...

  19. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must make...

  20. The influence of different rates of new synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAZWA UŻYTKOWNIKA

    Keywords: Amidrazone derivative, antioxidant status, FRAP, Index of rearing effectiveness ... newly-synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazyne and 1,2,4-triazole derivative have a multidirectional pharmacological activity. .... determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry on a UNICAM 939 spectrometer and the method of.

  1. 13 CFR 124.403 - How is a business plan updated and modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporated into its business plan. The transition management strategy must describe: (1) How the Participant... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is a business plan updated and modified? 124.403 Section 124.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a...

  2. 22 CFR 124.4 - Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be notified in writing and be kept informed of the status of the agreement until the requirements of... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposit of signed agreements with the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 124.4 Section 124.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...

  3. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still in...

  4. 13 CFR 124.702 - What types of assistance are available through the 7(j) program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., marketing, and operation of small business concerns; and (b) The identification and development of new... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What types of assistance are available through the 7(j) program? 124.702 Section 124.702 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  5. 7 CFR 762.124 - Interest rates, terms, charges, and fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates, terms, charges, and fees. 762.124..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.124 Interest rates, terms, charges, and fees. (a) Interest rates. (1) The interest rate on a guaranteed loan or line of credit may be...

  6. Endothelial GPR124 Exaggerates the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis by Activating Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endothelial cell dysfunction is the principal pathological process underlying atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. G protein-coupled receptor 124 (GPR124, an orphan receptor in the adhesion GPCR subfamily, promotes angiogenesis in the brain. In the present study, we explored the role of endothelial GPR124 in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in adult mice. Methods: Using tetracycline-inducible transgenic systems, we generated mice expressing GPR124 specifically under control of the Tie-2 promoter. The animal model of atherosclerosis was constructed by intravenously injecting AAV-PCSK9DY into tetracycline-regulated mice and feeding the mice a high-fat diet for 16 consecutive weeks. Biochemical analysis and immunohistochemistry methods were used to address the role and mechanism of GPR124 in the pathological process of atherosclerosis. Results: Higher TC (total cholesterol and LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum and greater lipid deposition in the aortic sinus were found in atherosclerotic mice with GPR124 overexpression, coincident with the elevated proliferation of smooth muscle cells. We observed an elevation of ONOO- in the aortic sinus in this model by using immunofluorescence, and the experiments showed that the specific overexpression of GPR124 in the endothelium induced the up-regulation of CD68, NLRP3 and caspase-1 levels in the aortic sinus. Conclusion: The above results indicate that manipulating GPR124 in the endothelium may contribute to delayed pathological progression of atherosclerosis.

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YLR291C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YPL124W SPC29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the central p...rey (0) Prey ORF YPL124W Prey gene name SPC29 Prey description Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links

  8. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  10. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  11. (3)He-particle-induced reactions on (nat)Sb for production of (124)I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, K F; Qaim, S M; Saleh, Z A; Coenen, H H

    2006-04-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Sb((3)He,xn)(124,123,121)I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 35 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the medically important radionuclide (124)I. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used. From the experimental data the theoretical yields of the three investigated radionuclides were calculated. The yield of (124)I over the energy range E9(30He) = 35 --> 13 MeV amounts to 0.95 MBq/microA h. The radionuclidic impurities are discussed. A comparison of (3)He- and alpha-particle-induced reactions on antimony for production of (124)I is given. The alpha-particle-induced reaction on enriched (121)Sb and the (3)He-particle-induced reaction on enriched (123)Sb would lead to comparable (124)I yields, but the level of impurities in the latter case would be somewhat higher.

  12. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  13. 77 FR 36295 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cadmium in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... cadmium, to provide medical surveillance, to train workers about the hazards of cadmium in the workplace... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of...

  14. Epigenetic inactivation of the miR-124-1 in haematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yeung Wong

    Full Text Available miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR. Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, MM, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (p<0.001. Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study.

  15. Effect of selenium on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and esterase activity in rat organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Dzobo; Yogeshkumar S. Naik

    2013-01-01

    Metal toxicity is a threat mainly in the industrialised world where industry discharges many toxic metals into the environment. We investigated the effects of two metals cadmium and selenium on the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and esterases in the liver, kidneys and testes of rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) were divided equally into four groups: control, cadmium, selenium and cadmium/selenium. Salts of the metals were administered intraperitoneally for 15 days. In the liver, cadmium tr...

  16. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyang Hu; Xing Lu; Xiang Cen; Xiaohua Chen; Feng Li; Shan Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively in...

  17. The effect of betaine administration on rat sperm quality following cadmium toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    arash Kheradmand; masoud Alirezaei; omid Dezfoulian

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to survey the protective effects of betaine against cadmium and on sperm quality including progressive motility, sperm membrane integrity, concentration as well as testicular weight. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats were allocated to the following three groups (n=10 in each group): control-saline, cadmium-saline and cadmium-betaine. Induction of testicular injury was achieved by a single injection of cadmium chloride intraperotoneally, and bet...

  18. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igura, Masato, E-mail: mst_igr@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g{sup -1}, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  19. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  1. Biosynthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum semiconductor crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, C. T.; Reese, R. N.; Mehra, R. K.; Kortan, A. R.; Carroll, P. J.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Brus, L. E.; Winge, D. R.

    1989-04-01

    NANOMETRE-SCALE semiconductor quantum crystallites exhibit size-dependent and discrete excited electronic states which occur at energies higher than the band gap of the corresponding bulk solid1-4. These crystallites are too small to have continuous energy bands, even though a bulk crystal structure is present. The onset of such quantum properties sets a fundamental limit to device miniaturization in microelectronics5. Structures with either one, two or all three dimensions on the nanometer scale are of particular interest in solid state physics6. We report here our discovery of the biosynthesis of quantum crystallites in yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cultured in the presence of cad-mium salts. Short chelating peptides of general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly control the nucleation and growth of CdS crystallites to peptide-capped intracellular particles of diameter 20 Å. These quantum CdS crystallites are more monodisperse than CdS par-ticles synthesized chemically. X-ray data indicate that, at this small size, the CdS structure differs from that of bulk CdS and tends towards a six-coordinate rock-salt structure.

  2. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L.; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M.; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  3. Cadmium neurotoxicity to a freshwater planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Lee, Hui-Ling; Li, Mei-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Although freshwater planarians are evolutionarily primitive, they are some of the simplest bilateral animals possessing integrated neural networks similar to those in vertebrates. We attempted to develop planarian Dugesia japonica as a model for investigating the neurotoxicity of environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). This study was therefore designed to study the effects of Cd on the locomotor activity, neurobehavior, and neurological enzymes of D. japonica. After planarians were exposed to Cd at high concentrations, altered neurobehavior was observed that exhibited concentration-dependent patterns. Morphological alterations in Cd-treated planarians included irregular shape, body elongation, screw-like hyperkinesia, and bridge-like position. To study the direct effects of Cd on neurological enzymes, tissue homogenates of planarians were incubated in vitro with Cd before their activity was measured. Results showed that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activities were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. MAO-B activity was significantly induced by Cd at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Changes in the in vivo activity of AChE and ATPase were also found after planarians were treated with Cd at a sublethal concentration (5.56 μM). These observations indicate that neurotransmission systems in planarians are disturbed after Cd exposure.

  4. Teratogenic effect of cadmium on the foetal development of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foetus of pregnant rats exposed to single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg body weight cadmium sulphate on eighth gestational days; were compared with control (saline injected) fetuses to assess the effects of cadmium sulphate on foetal growth and ossification. Cadmium sulphate caused significant reduction in body ...

  5. Various cadmium compounds in the feed for broilers and laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezel, K.; Matthes, S.; Vogt, H.

    1981-06-01

    The influence of various cadmium compounds on the performance and health of broilers and laying hens and on the residues in tissues and eggs has been investigated. The easily soluble cadmium acetate, cystein cadmium and the low-soluble cadmium sulfide in the doses of 0-20-40 ppm cadmium were compared. Eight x 12 male Lohmann broiler chickens in cages for every ration in the 42-/49-days broiler test and 32 LSL-hens (Leghorn type) in single cages for every ration in the 336-days laying test have been used. Parameters tested in both tests were: mortality, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, pathological-anatomical changes as well as cadmium contents in the test rations and in the pectoral muscle, the thigh muscle, the liver, the kidneys and the bones. In the laying test, also the laying rate, egg weight, daily egg output, egg shell stability and cadmium contents in egg white, yolk and in the tissues were tested. In both age groups the negative effect of cadmium acetate and cystein-cadmium employment on performance and health of the birds were similar; comparable concentrations were found in the tissues. Cadmium sulfide had no effect on the performance of the birds and cadmium contents in the tissues were only slightly raised. In the eggs, no cadmium enhancement was noticed.

  6. Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of lead and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala. Seed were grown under laboratory conditions at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of metal ions of lead and cadmium. Both lead and cadmium treatments showed toxic ...

  7. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  8. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  9. One-Dimensional Fast Transient Simulator for Modeling Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da

    Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

  10. Micro RNA-124a Regulates Lipolysis via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Comparative Gene Identification 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K. Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of cellular triacylglycerol (TG. Lipolytic TG breakdown is a central metabolic process leading to the generation of free fatty acids (FA and glycerol, thereby regulating lipid, as well as energy homeostasis. The precise tuning of lipolysis is imperative to prevent lipotoxicity, obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders. Here, we present our finding that miR-124a attenuates RNA and protein expression of the major TG hydrolase, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2 and its co-activator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58/ABHD5. Ectopic expression of miR-124a in adipocytes leads to reduced lipolysis and increased cellular TG accumulation. This phenotype, however, can be rescued by overexpression of truncated Atgl lacking its 3'UTR, which harbors the identified miR-124a target site. In addition, we observe a strong negative correlation between miR-124a and Atgl expression in various murine tissues. Moreover, miR-124a regulates the expression of Atgl and Cgi-58 in murine white adipose tissue during fasting as well as the expression of Atgl in murine liver, during fasting and re-feeding. Together, these results point to an instrumental role of miR-124a in the regulation of TG catabolism. Therefore, we suggest that miR-124a may be involved in the regulation of several cellular and organismal metabolic parameters, including lipid storage and plasma FA concentration.

  11. Foxp1/2/4 regulate endochondral ossification as a suppresser complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Wenrong; Yao, Zhengju; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Li, Baojie; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Zhenlin; French, Catherine A; Dekker, Joseph D; Yang, Yingzi; Fisher, Simon E; Tucker, Haley O; Guo, Xizhi

    2015-02-15

    Osteoblast induction and differentiation in developing long bones is dynamically controlled by the opposing action of transcriptional activators and repressors. In contrast to the long list of activators that have been discovered over past decades, the network of repressors is not well-defined. Here we identify the expression of Foxp1/2/4 proteins, comprised of Forkhead-box (Fox) transcription factors of the Foxp subfamily, in both perichondrial skeletal progenitors and proliferating chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Mice carrying loss-of-function and gain-of-function Foxp mutations had gross defects in appendicular skeleton formation. At the cellular level, over-expression of Foxp1/2/4 in chondroctyes abrogated osteoblast formation and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, single or compound deficiency of Foxp1/2/4 in skeletal progenitors or chondrocytes resulted in premature osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium, coupled with impaired proliferation, survival, and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Foxp1/2/4 and Runx2 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp1/2/4 repressed Runx2 transactivation function in heterologous cells. This study establishes Foxp1/2/4 proteins as coordinators of osteogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing long bones and suggests that a novel transcriptional repressor network involving Foxp1/2/4 may regulate Runx2 during endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 20 CFR 632.124 - Theft or embezzlement from employment and training funds; improper inducement; obstruction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 632.124 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud and Program Abuse § 632.124 Theft or...

  13. A computer simulation study of lithium diffusion in the 123 and 124 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G. [Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (United Kingdom)]|[Kent Univ., Canterbury (United Kingdom). Chemical Lab.; Alario-Franco, M.A. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Quimica Inorg.; Moran, E. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Quimica Inorg.; Chadwick, A.V. [Kent Univ., Canterbury (United Kingdom). Chemical Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Atomistic computer modelling has been applied to the structure of the YBCO family of superconductors, and the diffusion profiles of Li{sup +} ions through the barium channels. The calculated structures agree well with the experimental data for both the 123 and 124 structures. However a slight modification to the 124 structure is suggested which we believe is consistent with experimental evidence. The calculated activation energy for Li{sup +} diffusion {approx}0.8 eV in the 124 agrees well with experimental measurements. An hypothesis is suggested for the difficulty encountered in synthesising the 125 structure. (orig.)

  14. Blood Cadmium Concentrations in Women with Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Abdullah; Tuncay, Gorkem; Tanrikut, Emrullah; Ozgul, Onur

    2017-10-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the blood level of cadmium and the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Forty-one (41) case patients with ectopic pregnancy and 41 uncomplicated intrauterine pregnant patients as controls were recruited. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd) were measured from blood samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cases and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and smoking habits. The median blood level of Cd was 0.32 μg/l (interquartile range [IQR] 0.00-0.71) in the women with ectopic pregnancies and 0.34 μg/l (IQR 0.09-0.59) in the controls. There was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and ectopic pregnancy.

  15. Study on removal of cadmium by hybrid liquid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H; Mandanipour, Valiollah

    2010-05-15

    Removal of cadmium as a hazardous heavy metal is studied by applying a new design of hybrid cell for liquid membrane process. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) is used as the carrier in the organic phase. The concentration of cadmium in the samples is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of various parameters including type of supporting membrane, pH of feed and stripping phases, initial concentration of cadmium, carrier concentration, solvent nature, and also organic film resistance on mass transfer rate and removal efficiency are studied. The effect of temperature on mass transfer flux is studied by proposing a prediction model. The optimum carrier concentration is found to be about 0.05 M. The appropriate values of pH for feed and stripping phases are about 3 and 13, respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cadmium toxicity: a possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Shittu, Olayiwola B; Anetor, John I

    2006-03-01

    Serum and seminal plasma cadmium (Cd) concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 60 infertile adult male Nigerians (40 oligozoospermics and 20 azoospermics). The results were compared with Cd level in 40 normozoospermic subjects (matched age, with proven evidence of fertility). The relationship between Cd levels and spermatograms or the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) -axis was investigated by correlating serum and seminal plasma Cd levels with semen characteristics and hormone levels. The seminal plasma Cd level was significantly higher than those of serum in all studied groups (pcadmium as a cause of infertility in male Nigerians as well as extend and support previous findings concerning cadmium toxicity and male infertility. The strong deleterious effect of cadmium on spermatogenesis may be due to the systemic and cellular toxicity. A possible relationship between this element and the HPG axis is also suggested.

  17. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stroiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202 and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP and catalase (CAT was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT and AAP was observed and it comes from inactivation of enzymes by cadmium ions. A subsequent activity increase of the enzymes aroused earlier in tolerant tissues. It seems therefore, that tolerant tissues possess a more efficient antioxidative system.

  18. Removal of cadmium by pleurotus sajor-caju basidiomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihangir, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Saglam, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Education

    1999-11-01

    The bioaccumulation of cadmium by the white rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju onto dry biomass was investigated using aqueous media with concentrations in the range of 0.125 mM-1.0 mM. The highest cadmium uptake (between 88.9 and 91.8%) was observed with aerobic fungal biomass from the exponential growth phase. Up to 1.0 mM cadmium gradually inhibited mycelium development, but never blocked it completely. Freeze-dried, oven-dried and non-metabolizing live Pleurotus sajor-caju biomass types were tested for their capacity to adsorb the test ion Cd{sup 2+} within the pH range of 4.5 to 6.0. Freeze-dried biomass proved to be the most efficient biomass type for Cd{sup 2+} metal adsorption. Therefore, Pleurotus sajor-caju may be used for heavy metal removal and bioremediation. (orig.)

  19. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  20. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals; Producao de I-124 com uso de nanomateriais e sua biodistribuicao em animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghirolli, Ana Maria Silveira

    2014-07-01

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 124}I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of {sup 124}I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of {sup 124}I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of {sup 124}I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of {sup nat}TeO{sub 2}. These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl{sub 4} as precursor and water as solvent. The produced {sup 124}I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The {sup 124}I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na{sup 124}I showed high quality PET imaging of the

  2. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  3. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms Export...

  4. 46 CFR 171.124 - Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than 100 gross tons. 171.124 Section 171.124 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Integrity Above the Margin Line § 171.124 Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than...

  5. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  6. A Model of Cadmium Uptake and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, T N; Senyavina, N V; Anisimov, N U; Tonevitskaya, S A

    2016-05-01

    We created a physiologically substantiated kinetic model of cadmium transport and toxicity in intestinal cell model (Caco-2 cells). Transcriptome profiling of Caco-2 cells revealed high content of transporter DMT1 and ZIP14 and intensive expression of some calcium channels of the CACN family. The mathematical model describing three types of transporters, as well as intracellular cadmium binding with metallothionein and excretion through the basolateral membrane allowed us to construct cadmium uptake and transport curves that approximated the previously obtained experimental data. Using the proposed model, we determined toxic intracellular cadmium concentration leading to cell death and impairing the integrity of cell monolayer and described cadmium transport in this case.

  7. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  8. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  10. Potentiation of cadmium nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Russis, R. de; Ouled Amor, A.; Lauwerys, R.R.

    1988-10-01

    The possible interactions between acetaminophen and cadmium (Cd) on the kidney were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetaminophen was administered in the food at an average dose of 900 mg/kg and Cd in drinking water at the concentration of 200 ppm. The treatment with acetaminophen and Cd lasted 2 and 10 months, respectively. No interaction between Cd and acetaminophen was observed during the period of their concomitant administration: the increase in albuminuria caused by Cd and acetaminophen was additive, while the tubular impairment caused by acetaminophen (increased ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria and decreased kidney concentrating ability) was not exacerbated by Cd. None of these treatments affected the glomerular filtration rate. Four months after the end of acetaminophen treatment, the renal changes had almost completely disappeared in the rats which had received the analgesic alone. Those continously exposed to Cd had developed slight tubular damage, as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin and ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase. By contrast, rats pretreated with acetaminophen for 2 months and exposed to Cd showed a marked increase in urinary excretion of albumin and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, suggesting an interaction between both treatments. At the end of the study, only the interaction with ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin excretion was still evident; that with the urinary excretion of ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase and albumin having been masked by the chronic progessive nephrosis affecting most animals at that stage. As acetaminophen had no effect on the renal accumulation of Cd, it may be concluded that pretreatment with this analygesic at a dose causing slight tubular dysfunction renders rat kidney more sensitive to the nephrotoxic action of Cd. This observation may be of clinical relevance for population groups occupationally or environmentally exposed to Cd.

  11. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  12. C30F12.4 influences oogenesis, fat metabolism, and lifespan in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Fei; Wang, Guishuan; Wang, Xiaorong; Liang, Ajuan; Huang, Hefeng; Sun, Fei

    2016-10-01

    Reproduction, fat metabolism, and longevity are intertwined regulatory axes; recent studies in C. elegans have provided evidence that these processes are directly coupled. However, the mechanisms by which they are coupled and the reproductive signals modulating fat metabolism and lifespan are poorly understood. Here, we find that an oogenesis-enriched gene, c30f12.4, is specifically expressed and located in germ cells and early embryos; when the gene is knocked out, oogenesis is disrupted and brood size is decreased. In addition to the reproductive phenotype, we find that the loss of c30f12.4 alters fat metabolism, resulting in decreased fat storage and smaller lipid droplets. Meanwhile, c30f12.4 mutant worms display a shortened lifespan. Our results highlight an important role for c30f12.4 in regulating reproduction, fat homeostasis, and aging in C. elegans, which helps us to better understand the relationship between these processes.

  13. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some [1,2,4]-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimagouda S. Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel [1,2,4]-triazolo piperidine (8, [1,2,4]-triazolo piperazine (9a-c, [1,2,4]-triazolo phenylether (10a-e, and [1,2,4]-triazolo aniline (11a-c derivatives have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and LCMS. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. Among all the compounds tested, 11b (R4=4-MeO– showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and 9a (R1 and R2=Cl showed the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  14. Synthesis and biological activities of 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols with various aromatic carboxylic acids by cyclization in the presence of phosphorous oxychloride. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy and ...

  15. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL203C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SPC29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the central plaque c...RF YPL124W Prey gene name SPC29 Prey description Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the c

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR166C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SPC29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the central plaque c... ORF YPL124W Prey gene name SPC29 Prey description Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the

  17. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YLR347C, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as prey (0) YPL124W SPC29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links ...e pole body (SPB) component, links the central plaque component Spc42p to the inner plaque component Spc110p

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDL155W, YPL124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bait as prey (0) YPL124W SPC29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component, links...que spindle pole body (SPB) component, links the central plaque component Spc42p to the inner plaque compone

  19. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  20. Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

    2012-09-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or β-estradiol (200 μg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and β-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats.

  1. New decay modes of the high-spin isomer of {sup 124}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radich, A.J.; Garrett, P.E.; Bianco, L.; Bildstein, V.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Demand, G.A.; Diaz Varela, A.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Hadinia, B.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Laffoley, A.T.; Leach, K.G.; McGee, E.; Michetti-Wilson, J.; Rand, E.T.; Svensson, C.E.; Wong, J. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph, ON (Canada); Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S.; Starosta, K. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Chemistry, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ball, G.C.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Hackman, G.; Rajabali, M.M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Orce, J.N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of the Western Cape, Department of Physics, Bellville (South Africa); Sumithrarachchi, C.S. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph, ON (Canada); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Triambak, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of the Western Cape, Department of Physics, Bellville (South Africa); iThemba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Wang, Z.M. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Chemistry, Burnaby, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Williams, S.J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wood, J.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yates, S.W. [University of Kentucky, Departments of Chemistry and Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-15

    A new β{sup +}/EC branch of 0.11 ± 0.02 % from the (7){sup +} isomer of {sup 124}Cs was identified in a measurement of the decay of {sup 124}Cs using the 8 π spectrometer at TRIUMF. Combinations of γ-γ, γ-e{sup -}, and e{sup -}-e{sup -} coincidence data were used to further investigate the isomeric decay. Six new transitions were observed and their branching ratios were measured. (orig.)

  2. The production of [{sup 124}I]iodine and [{sup 86}Y]yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Jochen [University Hospital Essen, Nuclear Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Essen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The use of paired tracers such as {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y allows pretherapy PET imaging with positron emitting radioisotopes of the same element as used for therapy. Whereas nowadays most therapy nuclides are produced by reactors or generators, the production of the corresponding PET isotopes requires the irradiation of adequate targets using particle accelerators such as cyclotrons. This paper describes the production routes for {sup 124}I and {sup 86}Y. (orig.)

  3. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  4. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, G.; Klavis, G.; Schaller, K. H.; Haas, T.

    1969-01-01

    Lehnert, G., Klavis, G., Schaller, K. H., and Haas, T. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 156-158. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in the urine and serum of 18 workers exposed to cadmium dust and fume in a zinc smelting plant. In all cases the concentrations of cadmium in the serum were within the normal range, but those in the urine were elevated. The elevated urine concentrations showed that the exposed group had taken up more cadmium than normal, although they showed no clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning. Analysis of urine for cadmium is therefore of value in preventive medicine, and should be used for periodic check-ups on those occupationally exposed. PMID:5780108

  5. Antagonism between cadmium and magnesium: a possible role of magnesium in therapy of cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matović, Vesna; Plamenac Bulat, Zorica; Djukić-Cosić, Danijela; Soldatović, Danilo

    2010-03-01

    One of the important mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) toxicity is its interactions with bioelements, including magnesium (Mg). Exposure to Cd leads to disturbances in Mg metabolism in the organism, while Mg supplementation has an adverse effect on Cd absorption, accumulation and toxicity. According to the available results, which indicate a protective role of Mg against Cd toxicity, it remains to be seen whether magnesium may influence the important unsolved problem of Cd intoxication therapy. In this review, the interactions between the toxic metal Cd and the bioelement Mg are discussed on the basis of the available literature and our own results. We discuss these interactions mainly based on experimental data because data from human studies are scarce.

  6. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activities of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Lu, Yi-Hui; Gan, Lin-Ling; Zhou, Cheng-He; Wu, Jun; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Yi

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel 1,2,4-triazolium derivatives was synthesized starting from commercially available 1H-1,2,4-triazole, 2,4-dichlorobenzyl chloride, or 2,4-difluorobenzyl bromide. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus proteus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans ATCC 76615, and Aspergillus fumigatus. All structures of the new compounds were confirmed by NMR, IR, and MS spectra, and elemental analyses. The antimicrobial tests showed that most of synthesized triazolium derivatives exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro. 1-(2,4-Difluorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium bromide and 1-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyl)-4-dodecyl-1H-1,2,4- triazol-4-ium bromide were the most potent compounds against all tested strains with the MIC values ranging from 1.05 to 8.38 microM. They exhibited much stronger activities than the standard drugs chloramphenicol and fluconazole which are in clinical use. The results also showed that the antimicrobial activities of triazolium derivatives depend upon the type of substituent, the length of the alkyl chain, and the number of triazolium rings.

  7. Cadmium and cadmium-tolerant soil bacteria in cacao crops from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Pardo-Díaz, S; Benavides-Erazo, J; Rengifo-Estrada, G; Braissant, O; Leon-Moreno, C

    2018-01-18

    This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3·74 mg kg -1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2·76 and 1·16 mg kg -1 , respectively). Coefficient of determination between total soil Cd and CFU of CdtB was high (R 2  = 0·83) for the farm in Boyacá. Moreover, a pool of 129 CdtB was isolated, and phylogeny of 21 CdtB was discussed. Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Nothing is known about soil CdtB in cacao. Our data showed that CdtB such as Enterobacter sp. has high immobilization capacity. Furthermore, the otavite found in situ might be mineralized due to the bacterial metabolic activity of CdtB. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shute, Tracy [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Macfie, Sheila M. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)]. E-mail: smacfie@uwo.ca

    2006-12-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  10. Effect of 1,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the growth of human keratinocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matsumoto, K

    1990-02-01

    The effect of 1,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,24R(OH)2D3), a synthetic analogue of a biologically active form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3), on the growth of human keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium was investigated. The growth of cultured normal human keratinocytes was inhibited by 65% by 10(-8)M 1,24R(OH)2D3 and by 90% by 10(-7)M 1,24(OH)2D3. It inhibited cell growth almost completely at 10(-6)M. The DNA synthesis of keratinocytes was also inhibited with 1,24R(OH)2D3 by 27% at 10(-8)M, 59% at 10(-7)M, and 92% at 10(-6)M. The inhibition of cell growth and DNA synthesis were more remarkable by 1,24R(OH)2D3 than by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,24R(OH)2D3 also inhibited the growth of keratinocytes derived from patients with psoriasis vulgaris; the growth inhibitory effect was again more remarkable with 1,24R(OH)2D3 than with 1,25(OH)2D3. The viability and protein synthesis of keratinocytes were not affected by 1,24R(OH)2D3, suggesting that the growth inhibitory effect is due to its biological activity, not to cytotoxicity. The binding of [3H]-labeled 1,25(OH)2D3 to its receptor in the cytosolic fraction of cultured keratinocytes was competitively substituted by unlabeled 1,24R(OH)2D3 as well as 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that 1,24R(OH)2D3 binds to the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor. It was found that the affinity of 1,24R(OH)2D3 for the receptor was slightly higher than that of 1,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrate that 1,24R(OH)2D3 functions as a potent growth inhibitor in vitro in human keratinocytes from both normal and psoriatic epidermis, and it possesses a higher affinity for the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor in cultured human keratinocytes. The difference in affinity of 1,24R(OH)2D3 for the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor correlates with its greater inhibition of keratinocyte growth than 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,24R(OH)2D3 may be useful in the treatment of psoriasis.

  11. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried ...

  12. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  13. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  14. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  15. Homogeneity and Magnetic Susceptibility in Some Substituted Cadmium Spinels,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-25

    the excess cadmium was removed. Analysis of the rhodium complex precursor was performed by reduction under flowing 85% argon/1S% hydrogen at 500C...Acta Cryst. B25, 925 (1969). 11. P.W. Selwood, " Magnetochemistry " 2nd ed., Interscience: New York, 1956, p. 78. *l m .. .. ...- 5 -10- TABLE I

  16. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed ...

  17. Effects of cadmium on the growth and physiological characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf ...

  18. Monitoring the distribution of cadmium in sediment samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of cadmium species in sediments of different depths from Obajana stream was investigated by sequential extraction procedure and flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Index of geoaccumulation was used to assess the level of sediment pollution and it was found not to be polluted. However, the ...

  19. Copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead contamination of soil at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed heavy metals such as coppper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the soil collected from three sites from the solid waste dumping ground at Kureepuzha, very close to Ashtamudi Lake. Also, control samples were collected and analyzed for the said heavy metals. The levels of all ...

  20. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHARa, HABIBAR CHOWDHURYb,∗, SUSHOVAN KONERa, SUBHASIS ROYa and BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSHa,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry, The University of ...

  1. Effect of exposure to cadmium on the tropical freshwater prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) on mortality, resistance and bioaccumulation in the tropical freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Egypt were studied. Survival of prawns exposed to Cd doses over 60 μg l-1 were sig nificantly lower than that of prawns exposed to lower doses. After 96 h prawns ex posed to >40 μg ...

  2. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum). Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light ...

  3. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally ...

  4. Biosorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Using A local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) (II) resistant strain of a marine fungus, named Aspergillus cristatus was isolated from heavy metals polluted area in the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria, Egypt during autumn, 2009. It could tolerate up to 100 mg l–1. Optimization of culture conditions for production of fungal biomass fortifying maximum Cd (II) ...

  5. The Determination of Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium Contents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of sixty samples per variety of fish used in this study was prepared for analysis by processes of homogenization and digestion of the whole fish (after their intestines have been removed); after which their individual lead, cadmium, arsenic and chromium contents were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  6. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  7. Fertility of male workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennart, J P; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Ghyselen, P; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R

    1992-06-01

    The effect of exposure to cadmium, lead, or manganese on male reproductive function was examined in 1988-1989 in Belgian blue-collar workers. The workers were exposed to cadmium in two smelters (n = 83; geometric mean urinary cadmium level = 6.94 micrograms/g of creatinine; mean duration of exposure = 24 years), to lead in a battery factory (n = 74; mean blood lead level = 46.3 micrograms/dl; mean duration of exposure = 10.7 years), or to manganese (manganese dioxide) in a dry alkaline battery plant (n = 70; median atmospheric concentration of total manganese dust = 0.71 mg/m3; mean duration of exposure = 6.2 years). Fertility in these workers and in an unexposed population (n = 138) was assessed by examining the birth experiences of their wives through a logistic regression model. The probability of a live birth was not different between the unexposed workers and the cadmium- or manganese-exposed workers before or after the onset of exposure. While the fertility of the lead-exposed workers was somewhat greater than that of the unexposed before the onset of exposure, a significant decrease in fertility was observed during the period of exposure to the metal (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.98).

  8. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Lead accumulation in plant tissue impairs various morphological, physiological, and biochemical functions .... chlorophyll meter (based on light transmittance through leaves) was used as a non-destructive tool for .... of cadmium on the photosynthetic system cause several structural and functional disorders.

  9. Biosorption of cadmium (ii) ion from aqueous solution by Afzelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The batch adsorption of cadmium (II) ion from aqueous solution using low-cost adsorbent of biological origin, Afzelia africana shell under different experimental conditions was investigated in this study. The influences of initial Cd (II) ion concentration, initial pH, contact times and temperature were reported. Adsorption of Cd ...

  10. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  11. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  12. Operational speciation of lead, cadmium, and zinc in farmlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the geochemical fractions and risk potential of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in farmlands around a polluted goldmine in Dareta, northern Nigeria. The total heavy metal concentrations were obtained through a mixed acid digestion. A modified sequential extraction procedure ...

  13. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  14. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  15. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  16. The biosorption of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption potentiality of Musa paradisiaca stalk at removing cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The biosorption experiment was carried out as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dose. Adsorption equilibria were obtained from batch ...

  17. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  18. Cadmium distribution in coastal sediments and mollusks of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeti, Dennis A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Riedel, Gerhardt F

    2009-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the coastal United States were assessed using the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Mussel Watch dataset, which is based on the analysis of sediments and bivalves collected from 280 sites since 1986. Using the 1997 sediment data, Pearson correlation (r=0.44, pmollusk Cd content were not well correlated.

  19. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan | Bamgbose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the kinetics and capacity of chitosan to trap lead and cadmium ions in aqueous solution was carried out at 25oC using concentration and contact time as parameters. The experiments were done as batch process. Our results show that the adsorption process is concentration-driven with high capacity of ...

  20. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry) and Populus alba L. (white poplar) seedlings were investigated using a 2-year pot experiment. The results indicated that P. alba and M. azedarach are tolerant to contaminated soil by Cd or Pb ...

  1. Hydrogen bonding in thiobenzamide synthon and its Cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1403. 3.4 Thermal behavior of [Cd(TBA)Cl2]. Several complexes of Cadmium with sulfur- contain- ing ligands have been used as precursors to synthesize. CdS nanoparticules.37,38 Accordingly, thermal stability of [Cd(TBA)Cl2] complex (Figure S9) was carried out in the temperature range 0–900. ◦. C under nitrogen atmo-.

  2. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... the metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil), translocation factor (TF, the metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to .... pH (1:2.5 soil to water). 4.62 ..... with high levels of CdSo4 (50 µM) in hydroponic culture. Cadmium ...

  3. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  4. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables viz Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils on which they were grown from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, in Nigeria, were determined using ...

  5. Impact of cadmium on the ecdysteroids production in Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sondes; Abbaci, Khedidja Tair; Geffard, Olivier; Boumaiza, Moncef; Dumet, Adeline; Garric, Jeanne; Mondy, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism which is currently used as a bio-indicator as well as in ecotoxicological tests. Nevertheless, data on ecdysteroids in endocrine toxicity test are not yet available for these species, despite its crucial role in molting and reproduction. In the present paper, ecdysteroids concentrations were studied during the molt cycle (in females) and embryonic development in G. fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in order to propose an ecdysteroids toxicity test. Ecdysteroids levels in G. fossarum showed a single peak during premolt at stage Dl-D2. In embryos, ecdysteroids levels progressively increased over stages 3 and 4, with peak levels at stage 4. A Cadmium toxicity test was proposed to examine if the molting and embryogenesis disturbances previously observed after cadmium exposure (Geffard et al. 2010) could be attributed to changes in ecdysteroids titers. Exposure to the different cadmium concentrations (3; 9; 300; 900 µg/l) increased ecdysteroids secretion by Y-organs in vitro, but it had no significant effect on exposed embryos (in vivo). Based on previous findings, we are led to conclude that the molting impairments in cadmium-exposed females of G. fossarum is connected to the changes in ecdysteroids concentrations.

  6. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  7. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... species such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cabbage. (Brassica oleracea L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. L.) with ability to accumulate high concentrations of Cd in leaves rather than roots (Jadia and Fulekar, 2008a). Total cadmium concentration in the plant. Total plant Cd concentration varied under ...

  8. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    phenomena linked to the natural medium complexity and to evaluate the interactions between two heavy metals cadmium, (Cd) and copper (Cd), and a fungicide, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). The choice of these three chemicals was based on the fact that Cd and Cu are common and worrying environmental pollutants ...

  9. Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study quantifying the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd bioaccumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora was conducted. The experiment consisted of three levels of exogenous Cd2+ concentrations: 0, 50, and 200 mg/kg. Total Cd and water-soluble Cd were determined. Plant height, tiller number ...

  10. Concentration and bioavailability of cadmium by some plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the existing level of cadmium in three plant species within and around a refuse site at Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. Concentration ranged from background levels to levels well in excess of the maximum tolerable limit in agricultural soils. In the leaves, the least (highest in bracket) of ...

  11. Extraction of cadmium(II) from acidic medium with macroporous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction of cadmium(II) from acidic medium with macroporous resin impregnated with bis(2-ethylhexyl) ammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithiocarbamate. I Fall, M Diaw, S A Ndiaye, R N Mendoza, M A Rodriguez, T I Saucedo Medina ...

  12. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell-associated biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been reported to be rather slow and costly. In this study, we report on a rapid and low cost biosynthesis of CdS using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T.

  13. Lead and Cadmium Levels of Five Commonly and Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Corchorus olitorius, and Corchorus tridens) consumed by Kano inhabitants were investigated and found to be at concentration below the environmental lead action level set by US EPA/WHO. Cadmium was not detected in the samples. Low concentration of Pb and absence of Cd in all the plant samples analyzed are clear ...

  14. Effects of Cadmium on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum.

  15. Purification of cadmium by selective volatilization in vacuum in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    experiments were conducted at the level of nearly 1·5 kg a batch to study the impurities behaviour due to upscaling. The detailed chemical analysis of 58 impurity elements in Cd in presence and absence of oxide layer was carried out by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Keywords. High purity; cadmium; selective ...

  16. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Group one received distilled water and served as control. The other three groups were exposed to 100, 200 ...

  17. Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6±0.72 and 7 ±Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40mg/kg of CD. Furthermore Cadmium also caused positively correlated dose- and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, ...

  18. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  19. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  20. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    pesticides, as plant nutrients and as a constituent of waste products. These heavy metals may include cadmium, zinc ... effluent might contain non-biodegradable matter, toxic heavy metals, organic matter and also might ..... (2003) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and. Reuse, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing.

  1. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were given chow (('lu.inca Feed, Nig. Plc) and water ad Iibitum and left to acclimatisc for at period of two weeks before the experiment was commenced. Clremicals and Reagents: Cadmium sulphate. (3CdS().,.8ll2()), chloroform, sodium chloride (E. Merck, Darmstadt, W. Germany). Acid and alkaline phosphatase assay kits ...

  2. Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Hattink, J.; Polanen, van A.; Oostrom, van J.J.; Verbunt, J.T.; Traag, W.A.; Kan, K.A.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Boeck, de G.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the

  3. Cadmium uptake by Telfaria Occidentalis Hook F.(cucurbitaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anova tests showed that the differences between cadmium levels accumulated for control and treatment plants were significant (no overlap in standard error) at 5% level of probability. There were no such significant differences (P 0.05) for the amount of crude protein yields when the control was compared to the treatments.

  4. Physiological and molecular characterisation of cadmium stress in Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusquin, Michelle; Stevens, An-Sofie; Van Belleghem, Frank; Degheselle, Olivier; Van Roten, Andromeda; Vroonen, Jessica; Blust, Ronny; Cuypers, Ann; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a well-studied model organism for developmental research, because of its stem cell system. This characteristic also provides a unique opportunity to study stress management and the effect of stress on stem cells. In this study, we characterised the stress signature at different levels of biological organization. The carcinogenic metal cadmium was used as a model chemical stressor. We focused on stem cell activity and its interaction with other known stress parameters. Here, we have found that S. mediterranea is able to cope with high internal levels of cadmium. At endpoints such as size and mobility, cadmium-related stress effects were detected but all of these responses were transient. Correspondingly, cadmium exposure led to an elevated mitotic activity of the neoblasts, at the same time points when the other responses disappeared. At the molecular level, we observed redox-related responses that can be linked with both repair as well as proliferation mechanisms. Together, our results suggest that these animals have a high plasticity. The induction of stem cell activity may underlie this 'restoring' effect, although a carcinogenic outcome after longer exposure times cannot be excluded.

  5. Cadmium, lead and zinc contents of sporocarps of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc, cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in sporocarps of Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.ex Wallr.), Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Fr., Heteroporus biennis (Bull.exFr.), Lycoperdon molle (Pers.: Pers), Lycoperdon pyriforme (Schaeff.ex Pers.), Peniophora incarnata (Fr.) Karst.syn, Pisolithus tinctorius (Mich.ex ...

  6. Phosphate-induced cadmium adsorption in a tropical savannah soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of phosphate (P) on cadmium (Cd) adsorption was examined in a savanna soil with long history of different fertilizer amendment. The soil was incubated with P at 0, 250 and 500 mg P kg-1 soil and left to equilibrate for 2 weeks. Cd was added to the P-incubated soil at concentrations ranging from 27, 49 and ...

  7. Phytoextraction trials of cadmium and lead contaminated soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) artificially contaminated soil using 3 weed species (Ageratum conyzoides, Syndrella nodiflora and Cleome rutidosperma) was carried out at the Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt. A Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of 2 sets of ...

  8. Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Niraj; Kumar, G; Upadhyay, A D; Patel, D K; Gupta, Y K; Chaturvedi, P K

    2014-09-01

    Environmental toxicants viz lead or cadmium and phthalate esters (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], dibutyl phthalate [DBP], and diethyl phthalate [DEP]) widely found in different environmental strata are linked to deteriorating male reproductive health. The objective was to assess the relationships between the seminal lead, cadmium, and phthalate (DEHP, DBP, DEP) concentrations at environmental level and serum hormone levels and semen quality in non-occupationally exposed men and specify the effect of individual and combined exposure of toxicants on semen quality. A study of 60 male partners of couples attending the Andrology Laboratory of the Reproductive Biology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India for semen analysis to assess their inability to achieve a pregnancy was selected for the study. The results of univariate and stepwise multiple regression analysis in the unadjusted model showed a significant correlation between lead or cadmium and phthalates DEHP/DBP/DEP and sperm motility, sperm concentration, and DNA damage. After adjusting for potential confounders, an association with lead or DEHP was only observed. The present data shows that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) or phthalates might independently contribute to decline in semen quality and induce DNA damage. Phthalates might influence reproductive hormone testosterone. These findings are significant in light of the fact that men are exposed to a volley of chemicals; however, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed in a larger population.

  9. miR-124 Regulates the Phase of Drosophila Circadian Locomotor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Lamba, Pallavi; Guo, Peiyi; Emery, Patrick

    2016-02-10

    Animals use circadian rhythms to anticipate daily environmental changes. Circadian clocks have a profound effect on behavior. In Drosophila, for example, brain pacemaker neurons dictate that flies are mostly active at dawn and dusk. miRNAs are small, regulatory RNAs (≈22 nt) that play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation. Here, we identify miR-124 as an important regulator of Drosophila circadian locomotor rhythms. Under constant darkness, flies lacking miR-124 (miR-124(KO)) have a dramatically advanced circadian behavior phase. However, whereas a phase defect is usually caused by a change in the period of the circadian pacemaker, this is not the case in miR-124(KO) flies. Moreover, the phase of the circadian pacemaker in the clock neurons that control rhythmic locomotion is not altered either. Therefore, miR-124 modulates the output of circadian clock neurons rather than controlling their molecular pacemaker. Circadian phase is also advanced under temperature cycles, but a light/dark cycle partially corrects the defects in miR-124(KO) flies. Indeed, miR-124(KO) shows a normal evening phase under the latter conditions, but morning behavioral activity is suppressed. In summary, miR-124 controls diurnal activity and determines the phase of circadian locomotor behavior without affecting circadian pacemaker function. It thus provides a potent entry point to elucidate the mechanisms by which the phase of circadian behavior is determined. In animals, molecular circadian clocks control the timing of behavioral activities to optimize them with the day/night cycle. This is critical for their fitness and survival. The mechanisms by which the phase of circadian behaviors is determined downstream of the molecular pacemakers are not yet well understood. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are important regulators of circadian outputs. We found that miR-124 shapes diurnal behavioral activity and has a striking impact on the phase of circadian locomotor behavior

  10. Recent developments in cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, D. E.

    1982-09-01

    A II-VI compound, cadmium mercury telluride, has dominated recent advances in the detection of infrared radiation. Although the main application is in thermal imaging, other applications include instrumentation and guidance. In this paper we describe the history of the development of cadmium mercury telluride as a detector material, with emphasis on the importance of material parameters and the role of the material scientist. High purity material, free from defects and of good crystal quality, is needed in order to ensure good minority carrier lifetime. Because of the segregation of impurities during solidification, material produced by the Bridgman technique offers considerable advantages over material produced by cast recrystallize techniques. Detectors based on a principle established by C.T. Elliott of the RSRE, Malvern, have led to families of thermal imagers that produce near perfect imagery. These detectors incorporate signal processing in the element by providing the time delay and integration functions that are normally performed off the focal plane in conventional serial scanned systems. A particular requirement of these SPRITE detectors is for long minority carrier lifetime. This has called for improvements in both material and fabrication technology which have led to an advanced technology that has benefited all aspects of the manufacture of cadmium mercury telluride detectors. Near background limited performance will be described in both the 8-14 and the 3-5 μm atmospheric transmission bands. There is, however, more image blurring in the 3-5 μm band than occurs in the 8-14 μm band. The direction of present work is towards detectors combining cadmium mercury telluride elements with advanced integrated circuits to provide more complex signal processing in the focal plane. This has been driven by the need to improve the sensitivity of thermal imaging systems where the scan rates are too low to allow useful time delay and integration in SPRITE detectors

  11. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  12. Uptake of cadmium by Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magela Paula Casiraghi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata was used for the removal of the cadmium in liquids. The accumulations of metal ions by the alga occur in two stages: a very fast absorption (passive adsorption proceeded by a slower absorption (activate absorption. A mathematical model based on the surface absorption and on the transport into the interior of the cellular membrane was developed. The simulation model kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained. Through the results observed, the mathematical model was shown to be suitable when compared to the experimental results, confirming the validation of the mathematical model.Neste trabalho utilizou-se a microalga Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata para a remoção do cádmio em líquidos. A metodologia consistiu de três conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro conjunto teve como objetivo a avaliação do crescimento da alga, o segundo foi à avaliação da remoção de cádmio e o terceiro a avaliação do crescimento da alga sendo adicionado o cádmio junto com o inóculo no tempo igual a zero, também foi avaliada a remoção de cádmio neste terceiro experimento. O acúmulo de íons metálicos pela alga ocorre em duas etapas: uma absorção muito rápida (adsorção passiva seguida por uma absorção mais lenta (absorção ativa Desenvolveu-se um modelo matemático baseado na absorção da superfície e no transporte para o interior da membrana celular. A obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos do modelo de simulação foi obtida experimentalmente. Pelos resultados observados o modelo matemático proposto mostrou-se adequado quando comparado aos resultados experimentais, confirmando a validação do modelo matemático proposto.

  13. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  14. Toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minling; Zhang, Ze; Lv, Mengting; Song, Wenhua; Lv, Yuhua

    2018-02-01

    Chemical immobilization technologies involving the use of chemical absorbents such as nanomaterials have been recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated water and soil. The impact of nanomaterials or nanomaterials coexisting with other contaminants on aquatic organisms has been reported, but information on the toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium (Nano-Cd) on aquatic organisms is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Nano-Cd on Daphnia magna by using a method developed based on the standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 202 guidelines. The toxicity of cadmium chloride (Cd 2+ ), nano-manganese dioxide-cadmium (nMnO 2 -Cd), 20nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 20 -Cd), and 40nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 40 -Cd) to D. magna was in the following order: Cd 2+ > nMnO 2 -Cd > nHAP 20 -Cd > nHAP 40 -Cd. Further, nMnO 2 -Cd, nHAP 20 -Cd, and nHAP 40 -Cd showed acute toxicity to D. magna of level II grade according to the Commission of the European Communities and OECD standards. Exposure to low and medium, but not high, Nano-Cd concentrations increased the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and anti-superoxide anion. Thus, Nano-Cd, particularly at high concentrations, could exert oxidative damage in D. magna. An increase in Cd 2+ and Nano-Cd concentrations gradually increased the malondialdehyde content, indicating cell membrane damage caused by the production of excessive O 2 - . Thus, the use of nanomaterials after adsorption of Cd is associated with a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health effects of cadmium exposure--a review of the literature and a risk estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järup, L; Berglund, M; Elinder, C G; Nordberg, G; Vahter, M

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a review of the cadmium exposure situation in Sweden and updates the information on health risk assessment according to recent studies on the health effects of cadmium. The report focuses on the health effects of low cadmium doses and the identification of high-risk groups. The diet is the main source of cadmium exposure in the Swedish nonsmoking general population. The average daily dietary intake is about 15 micrograms/day, but there are great individual variations due to differences in energy intake and dietary habits. It has been shown that a high fiber diet and a diet rich in shellfish increase the dietary cadmium intake substantially. Cadmium concentrations in agricultural soil and wheat have increased continuously during the last century. At present, soil cadmium concentrations increase by about 0.2% per year. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys. Human kidney concentrations of cadmium have increased several fold during the last century. Cadmium in pig kidney has been shown to have increased by about 2% per year from 1984-1992. There is no tendency towards decreasing cadmium exposure among the general nonsmoking population. The absorption of cadmium in the lungs is 10-50%, while the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is only a few percent. Smokers have about 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations (about 1.5 micrograms/l), and twice as high kidney cortex cadmium concentrations (about 20-30 micrograms/g wet weight) as nonsmokers. Similarly, the blood cadmium concentrations are substantially elevated in persons with low body iron stores, indicating increased gastrointestinal absorption. About 10-40% of Swedish women of child-bearing age are reported to have empty iron stores (S-ferritin body iron stores, and people habitually eating a diet rich in cadmium. According to current knowledge, renal tubular damage is probably the critical health effect of cadmium exposure, both in the general population and in occupationally exposed

  16. Ozonometer M-124 calibration for the Ukrainian network: method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytsai, A.; Milinevsky, G.; Evtushevsky, O.; Sosonkin, M.; Kravchenko, V.; Danylevsky, V.

    2016-12-01

    M-124 filter ozonometers are used for total ozone measuring in Ukraine since 1970s. Recently the need to calibrate several M-124 instruments of the Ukrainian filter ozonometer network is raised to continue ozone observations. The calibration became possible owing to the accurate ozone measurements by Dobson spectrophotometer started in 2010 at the Kyiv-Goloseyev WMO station located at the Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. For calibration purposes the simultaneous M-124 and Dobson Direct Sun measurements were carried out during the 2013-2016 period by researchers from Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and Main Astronomical Observatory. The M-124 instrument has two spectral channels: first is 305 nm and second is 325 nm. Outgoing signal from M-124 is determined by transparency of the terrestrial atmosphere and filter characteristics. Theoretical description of the solar radiation propagation through the atmosphere is determined by the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law taking into account ozone absorption, Rayleigh and aerosol scattering. Parameters of the aerosol scattering have been determined from observations with the CIMEL sunphotometer of Aerosol Robotic Network which is also located at the Kyiv-Goloseyev station. The ozonometers optical characteristics were studied after M-124 refurbishment and modernization at the Central Geophysical Observatory of Ukraine that includes a significant part of the whole calibration work. Knowing the spectral dependence of each filter is necessary to calculate signal ratios in two channels. This information allowed solving the inverse problem of determining total ozone content in the terrestrial atmosphere. Comparison of these results with Dobson spectrophotometer data shows their good quality even without an additional correction. These results open a possibility to calibrate M-124 filter ozonometers for future ozone measurements at the observation sites of the Ukraine ozonometer network.

  17. Nuclear toxicology file: the cadmium: mechanisms to elucidate; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: le cadmium: des mecanismes a elucider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarre, J. [CEA Saclay, IbiTec-S, Lab. de Biologie Integrative, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Forestier, C. [CEA Cadarache, IBEB, Lab. des Echanges Membranaires et Signalisation, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2008-09-15

    Spread in the environment by the human activities, the cadmium is a toxic and mutagen metal and its mechanisms of toxicity are still badly understood. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the transport, the toxicity and the detoxication of this metal by relying us on the cellular model of baker's yeast. (N.C.)

  18. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  20. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  1. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  2. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  3. The association between urinary kidney injury molecule 1 and urinary cadmium in elderly during long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewitte Harrie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 is a recently discovered early biomarker for renal damage that has been proven to be correlated to urinary cadmium in rats. However, so far the association between urinary cadmium and kidney injury molecule 1 in humans after long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure has not been studied. Methods We collected urine and blood samples from 153 non-smoking men and women aged 60+, living in an area with moderate cadmium pollution from a non-ferrous metal plant for a significant period. Urinary cadmium and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 as well as other renal biomarkers (alpha1-microglobulin, beta2-microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen, urinary proteins and microalbumin were assessed. Results Both before (r = 0.20; p = 0.01 and after (partial r = 0.32; p Conclusions We showed that urinary kidney injury molecule 1 levels are positively correlated with urinary cadmium concentration in an elderly population after long-term, low-dose exposure to cadmium, while other classical markers do not show an association. Therefore, urinary kidney injury molecule 1 might be considered as a biomarker for early-stage metal-induced kidney injury by cadmium.

  4. Single or combined cadmium and aluminum intoxication of mice liver and kidney with possible effect of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we planned to test toxic effects of cadmium, aluminum either alone or combined with each other on sensitive organs as kidney and liver. The cadmium alone decreased the animal’s body weight. Meanwhile, aluminum did not affect the changes in body weight of cadmium treated animals; adding the zinc significantly reduced the loss of body weight. Serum creatinine and urea were significantly lower in treated group than in control group. Cadmium aluminum or combination of them resulted in a significant increase in serum GPT and GOT activity. Zinc did not prevent the changes caused by aluminum, however, the changes resulted by cadmium intoxication were almost healed or ameliorated by zinc. Treating with Zn alone resulted in drastic effects on kidney tissues more than either cadmium or aluminum. Treating with cadmium or aluminum resulted in infiltration of the liver parenchyma with lymphocytes, fibrosis, micro vesicular steatosis of the hepatocytes for both and appearance of many phagocytic cells, pyknotic cells and vacuolation for cadmium. Combined cadmium and aluminum treatment resulted in less damage than cadmium alone with exception of fatty degeneration. Unexpectedly, zinc induced acute cell vacuolation and steatosis. Cadmium and aluminum combined together did not worsen the situation as expected but was less damaging than cadmium alone, which suggests a possible synergistic effect of combination. Meanwhile, zinc failed to protect kidney from aluminum intoxication, which strengthens the suggestion of two different pathways of cadmium and aluminum intoxication. This finding meant that cadmium is more hepatotoxic than aluminum.

  5. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  6. Effect of filters and reconstruction algorithms on I-124 PET in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of filtering and reconstruction on Siemens I-124 PET data. Methods: A Siemens Inveon PET was used. Spatial resolution of I-124 was measured to a transverse offset of 50 mm from the center FBP, 2D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM2D), 3D re-projection algorithm (3DRP), and maximum a posteriori (MAP) methods were tested. Non-uniformity (NU), recovery coefficient (RC), and spillover ratio (SOR) parameterized image quality. Mini deluxe phantom data of I-124 was also assessed. Results: Volumetric resolution was 7.3 mm3 from the transverse FOV center when FBP reconstruction algorithms with ramp filter was used. MAP yielded minimal NU with β =1.5. OSEM2D yielded maximal RC. SOR was below 4% for FBP with ramp, Hamming, Hanning, or Shepp-Logan filters. Based on the mini deluxe phantom results, an FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or a 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible I-124 PET data.Conclusions: Reconstruction algorithms and filters were compared. FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible data for quantifying I-124 PET.

  7. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined...... or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not particularly vulnerable......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...

  8. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  10. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  11. Methylation-mediated silencing and tumour suppressive function of hsa-miR-124 in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    le Sage Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of microRNAs (miRNAs is subject to epigenetic silencing in cancer. Although epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an important feature of cervical cancer, little is known about epigenetic silencing of miRNAs. Since DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 occurs in various human cancers, we studied the frequency and functional effects of hsa-miR-124 methylation in cervical carcinogenesis. Results Quantitative MSP analysis of all 3 loci encoding the mature hsa-miR-124 (hsa-miR-124-1/-2/-3 showed methylation in cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, CaSki and HeLa as well as in late passages of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 or 18 immortalised keratinocytes. Treatment of SiHa cells with a demethylating agent reduced hsa-miR-124 methylation levels and induced hsa-miR-124 expression. In HPV-immortalised keratinocytes increased methylation levels were related to reduced hsa-miR-124 expression and higher mRNA expression of IGFBP7, a potential hsa-miR-124 target gene. Ectopic hsa-miR-124 expression in SiHa and CaSki cells decreased proliferation rates and migratory capacity. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 139 cervical tissue specimens showed an increasing methylation frequency from 0% in normal tissues up to 93% in cervical carcinomas. Increased methylation levels of hsa-miR-124-1 and hsa-miR-124-2 were significantly correlated with reduced hsa-miR-124 expression in cervical tissue specimens. Combined hsa-miR-124-1 and/or hsa-miR-124-2 methylation analysis of 43 cervical scrapes of high-risk HPV positive women was predictive of underlying high-grade lesions. Conclusions DNA methylation-based silencing of hsa-miR-124 is functionally involved in cervical carcinogenesis and may provide a valuable marker for improved detection of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions.

  12. N-Carbethoxy-N′-(3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiourea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Dolzhenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: ethyl N-[N-(3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylcarbamothioyl]carbamate}, C12H13N5O2S, exists in the 3-phenyl-5-thioureido-1H-1,2,4-triazole tautomeric form stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the endocyclic NH H atom and the thioureido S atom. The molecular structure is also stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds arranged in an S(6 graph-set motif within the carbethoxythiourea moiety. The mean planes of the phenyl and 1,2,4-triazole rings make a dihedral angle of 7.61 (11°. In the crystal, the molecules form two types of inversion dimers. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are arranged in R22(6 and R22(8 graph-set motifs, together forming a network parallel to (111.

  13. Low cadmium (LCD), a novel gene related to cadmium tolerance and accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Hugo; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; An, Gynheung; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-11-01

    The contamination of food crops by cadmium (Cd) is a major concern in food production because it can reduce crop yields and threaten human health. In this study, knockout rice plants (Oryza sativa) tagged with the gene trap vector pGA2707 were screened for Cd tolerance, and the tolerant line lcd was obtained. The lcd mutant showed tolerance to Cd on agar plates and in hydroponic culture during early plant development. Metal concentration measurements in hydroponically grown plants revealed significantly less Cd in the shoots of lcd plants compared with wild-type (WT) shoots. When cultured in the field in soil artificially contaminated with low levels of Cd, lcd showed no significant difference in the Cd content of its leaf blades; however, the Cd concentration in the grains was 55% lower in 2009 and 43% lower in 2010. There were no significant differences in plant dry weight or seed yield between lcd and wild-type plants. LCD, a novel gene, is not homologous to any other known gene. LCD localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, and was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues in the roots and phloem companion cells in the leaves. These data indicate that lcd may be useful for understanding Cd transport mechanisms and is a promising candidate rice line for use in combating the threat of Cd to human health.

  14. Cadmium accumulation and metallothionein biosynthesis in cadmium-treated freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of cadmium (Cd and the protein level of metallothionein (MT and examined the relationship of Cd accumulation and the MT concentration in different tissues of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana following Cd treatment. The mussels were exposed to Cd (4.21, 8.43, 16.86, 33.72 and 67.45 mg L-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. After Cd treatment, the gills, mantle, foot, visceral mass and digestive gland tissues were collected for analysis. We found that, in the controls, Cd distributed in all tissues in the concentration order of gills>mantle>foot>visceral mass>digestive gland. Upon Cd treatment, Cd concentration significantly increased in all tissues. The highest Cd accumulation was found in the digestive gland, which was 0.142 mg g-1 (P<0.05. MT levels in the gills and mantle of the mussels increased significantly (P<0.05, which were in positive correlation with Cd accumulation in the tissues (P<0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a correlation between Cd accumulation and MT up-regulation in gills and mantle of the mussels after Cd treatment. It is suggested that the protein level of MT in gills and mantle of Anodonta woodiana is a good biomarker for Cd contamination.

  15. Cadmium Uptake by Cuttings of Impatiens walleriana in Response to Different Cadmium Concentrations and Growth Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Lam, Chun-Ming; Wang, Wei-Zhe; Ji, Ya-Jhu

    2017-03-01

    Impatiens walleriana (I. walleriana), a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, can propagate by cuttings, which are less expensive to grow than seedlings. Different growth periods for cuttings, however, may lead to different physiological characteristics. In this study, I. walleriana cuttings were hydroponically grown in Cd-containing solutions (1.0-10.0 μM) for various growth periods (10-60 days). Experimental results showed that the Cd treatments had negative effects on growth compared to the controls that were not spiked with Cd. The extension of the growth period promoted most of the growth exhibitions of I. walleriana, except for SPAD readings for cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The accumulation of Cd also increased over time, except in the roots of the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd showed that I. walleriana developed better tolerance and detoxification capacities in the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions than in the cuttings grown in the other two Cd treatments.

  16. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  17. Crystal structure, vibrational spectra and DFT studies of hydrogen bonded 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Thirunarayanan, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2017-10-01

    The new hydrogen bonded molecular complex 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate (THS) is prepared by the reaction of 1H-1,2,4-triazole and selenic acid. This complex is stabilised by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attractive forces between 1H and 1,2,4-triazolium cations and hydrogen selenate anions. The XRD studies revealed that intermolecular proton transfer occur from selenic acid to 1H-1,2,4-triazole molecule, results in the formation of 1,2,4-triazolium hydrogenselenate which contains 1,2,4-triazolium cations and hydrogenselenate anions. The molecular structure of THS crystal has also been optimised by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and B3LYP/6-311++G** methods in order to find the whole characteristics of the molecular complex. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle determined by DFT methods are well agreed with the XRD parameters. The atomic charges and thermodynamic properties are also calculated and analysed. The energies of frontier molecular orbitals HOMO, LUMO, HOMO-1, LUMO+1 and LUMO-HUMO energy gap are calculated to understand the kinetic stability and chemical reactivity of the molecular complex. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) has been performed in order to study the intramolecular bonding interactions and delocalisation of electrons. These intra molecular charge transfer may induce biological activities such as antimicrobials, antiinflammatory, antifungal etc. The complete vibrational assignments of THS have been performed by using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra.

  18. High miR-124-3p expression identifies smoking individuals susceptible to atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Maurice W J; Kok, Maayke G M; Moerland, Perry D; Van den Bossche, Jan; Neele, Annette E; Halliani, Amalia; van der Made, Ingeborg; de Winther, Menno P J; Meijers, Joost C M; Creemers, Esther E; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan

    2017-08-01

    The risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is twice as high among smoking individuals compared to non-smokers. Monocytes are involved in smoking-related atherosclerotic plaque formation. In this study, we investigated whether smokers with an increased risk of developing CVD can be identified on the basis of monocyte-derived miRNA expression levels. We performed a miRNA microarray experiment on isolated monocytes from smoking, former smoking and non-smoking individuals in a cohort of patients with premature CVD and healthy controls (Cohort I, n = 76). We found miR-124-3p to be heterogeneously expressed among all smoking individuals, whereas expression was low in non-smokers. Subsequently, RT-qPCR measurements on whole blood showed that among smoking individuals an increase in miR-124-3p is associated with an increased risk for advanced atherosclerotic disease (cohort II, n = 24) (OR 11.72 95% CI 1.09-126.53) and subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium score ≥ 80(th) percentile, cohort III n = 138) (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-7.01). This was not observed among former smokers or non-smoking individuals. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that high miR-124-3p expression was associated with upregulation of the monocyte surface markers CD45RA, CD29 and CD206, indicating an altered monocyte phenotype. Finally, overexpression of miR-124-3p resulted in an upregulation of CD206 surface expression on monocytes. High miR-124-3p expression is associated with an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in smoking individuals and with an altered monocyte phenotype. This may suggest that miR-124-3p identifies which smoking individuals are susceptible to the atherogenic effects of smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  20. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piscator, M

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, bu...

  1. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hercília M. L. Rolim; Rita C.C. Maia; da Silva, Carlos A. A.; do Nascimento, Aline E.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; Franco, Luciana O.; Marcos A. B. de Lima; Takaki, Galba M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109) growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium du...

  2. Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P.; Imamura, Yorishige; シマダ, ヒデアキ; ハシグチ, タカシ; ヤスタケ, アキラ; イマムラ, ヨリシゲ; 島田, 秀昭; 橋口, 敬志; 安武 章; 今村, 順茂

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals.Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) ratswith the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility tocadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmiumtoxicity. In the present study, weattempted to furtherelucidate the mechanism for sexdifferencesin cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium(5.0 mg Cd/kg, s.c.)...

  3. Crystal Structures of Two 1,4-Diamino-1,2,4-triazolium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium sulfate (1 was obtained from the corresponding chloride by ion metathesis using Ag2SO4. Further metathesis with barium 5,5′-azotetrazolate yielded bis(1,4-diamino-1,2,4-triazolium 5,5′-azotetrazolate (2. Numerous NH···N and NH···O interactions were identified in the crystal structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds undergo exothermal decomposition upon heating.

  4. Synthesis and Selective Functionalization of [1,2,4]Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles Sylvain; Jorgensen, Morten; Kehler, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A new tactic for the synthesis and selective functionalization of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines has been developed using an oxidative cyclization as key step. Furthermore, novel strategies for introducing diverse substituents in all positions of the heterocycle were identified.......A new tactic for the synthesis and selective functionalization of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines has been developed using an oxidative cyclization as key step. Furthermore, novel strategies for introducing diverse substituents in all positions of the heterocycle were identified....

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Substituted Urea and Thiourea Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    of novel thiourea and urea derivatives containing 1,2,4- triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity ...containing 1,2,4- triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity . Triazole derivatives 3a?e and 4a?e were...reported that γ-aryl-1H-1,2,4- triazole derivatives showed potent antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea

  6. Remote sensing applications in evaluation of cadmium pollution effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma-Bognar, Veronika; Martin, Gizella; Berke, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    According to the 21st century developments in information technology the remote sensing applications open new perspectives to the data collection of our environment. Using the images in different spectral bands we get more reliable and accurate information about the condition, process and phenomena of the earth surface compared to the traditional aircraft image technologies (RGB images). The effects of particulate pollution originated from road traffic were analysed by the research team of Department of Meteorology and Water Management (University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty) with the application of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared remote sensing aircraft images. In the scope of our research was to detect and monitor the effects of heavy metal contamination in plant-atmosphere system under field experiments. The testing area was situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely (Hungary), where maize crops were polluted once a week (0,5 M concentration) by cadmium. In our study we simulated the effects of cadmium pollution because this element is one of the most common toxic heavy metals in our environment. During two growing seasons (2011, 2012) time-series analyses were carried out based on the remote sensing data and parallel collected variables of field measurement. In each phenological phases of plant we took aerial images, in order to follow the changes of the structure and intensity values of plots images. The spatial resolution of these images were under 10x10 cm, which allowed to use a plot-level evaluation. The structural and intensity based measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research activities also focused on the examination of the influence of the irrigation and the comparison of aerial and terrain parameters. As conclusion, it could be determined the quantification of cadmium pollution effects is possible on maize plants by using remote

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of poplar clones (Populus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipovic, A.; Orlovic, S.; Petrovic, N. [Faculty of Agriculture, Inst. of Lowland Forestry and Environment, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia); Nikolic, N.; Krstic, B. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Dept. of Biology and Ecology, Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2005-04-01

    Biomass production, leaf number and area, photosynthetic and dark respiration rates, leaf concentration of photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity, as well as cadmium concentrations in leaves, stem, and roots were measured in poplar clones PE 4/68, B-229, 665, and 45/51. Plants were grown hydroponically under controlled conditions and treated with two different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (10{sup -5} and 10{sup -7} M) in the same background solution (Hoagland's solution). The presence of Cd did not cause serious disturbance of growth and physiological parameters in the studied poplar clones. Cd concentrations in plant tissues reflected external concentrations. In treated plants, root contents increased from 38.57 to 511.51 ppm, leaf contents from 0.91 to 7.50, while stem contents ranged from 1.37 to 9.50 ppm. (orig.)

  8. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  9. Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Piadé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397 ng/g respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8 ng/cig. under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7 ng/cig. under Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regime respectively. In the case of cigarettes with activated carbon, a selective retention of cadmium but not lead or arsenic was observed. This effect was more pronounced under ISO than under HCI smoking regimes. Cadmium selective retention by activated carbon was confirmed by testing specially designed prototype cigarettes and the causes for this selective filtration were investigated. The differences between cadmium, arsenic and lead in terms of their speciation in tobaccos and in cigarette smoke could be related to their distribution in the ash, butt, mainstream (in gas-phase and particulate-phase and sidestream smoke of a smoked cigarette. The possible formation of organometallic cadmium derivatives in the smoke gas-phase is discussed, the presence of which could adequately explain the observed cadmium selective filtration.

  10. Functional characterization of Gram-negative bacteria from different genera as multiplex cadmium biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza-Malcolm, Lara; Aracic, Sanja; Kannan, Ruban; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E

    2017-08-15

    Widespread presence of cadmium in soil and water systems is a consequence of industrial and agricultural processes. Subsequent accumulation of cadmium in food and drinking water can result in accidental consumption of dangerous concentrations. As such, cadmium environmental contamination poses a significant threat to human health. Development of microbial biosensors, as a novel alternative method for in situ cadmium detection, may reduce human exposure by complementing traditional analytical methods. In this study, a multiplex cadmium biosensing construct was assembled by cloning a single-output cadmium biosensor element, cadRgfp, and a constitutively expressed mrfp1 onto a broad-host range vector. Incorporation of the duplex fluorescent output [green and red fluorescence proteins] allowed measurement of biosensor functionality and viability. The biosensor construct was tested in several Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Enterobacter. The multiplex cadmium biosensors were responsive to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10µgml -1 , as well as several other heavy metals, including arsenic, mercury and lead at similar concentrations. The biosensors were also responsive within 20-40min following exposure to 3µgml -1 cadmium. This study highlights the importance of testing biosensor constructs, developed using synthetic biology principles, in different bacterial genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilly, Karine [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Gagnaire, Beatrice [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Bonnard, Marc [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Renault, Tristan [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Miramand, Pierre [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Lapegue, Sylvie [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France)]. E-mail: slapegue@ifremer.fr

    2006-06-15

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L{sup -1}) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L{sup -1}). Exposure to 50 ng L{sup -1} cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L{sup -1} surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L{sup -1} cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters.

  13. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  14. Link between low-dose environmentally relevant cadmium exposures and asthenozoospermia in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoff, Susan; Auborn, Karen; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R

    2008-02-01

    To define the mechanism(s) underlying an association between asthenozoospermia and elevated blood, seminal plasma, and testicular cadmium levels in infertile human males using a rat model of environmentally relevant cadmium exposures. University medical center andrology research laboratory. Male Wistar rats (n = 60), documented to be sensitive to the testicular effects of cadmium. Rats were given ad libitum access to water supplemented with 14% sucrose and 0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 50 mg/L, or 100 mg/L cadmium for 1, 4, or 8 weeks beginning at puberty. Testicular cadmium levels were determined by atomic absorption, cauda epididymal sperm motility by visual inspection, and testicular gene expression by DNA microarray hybridization. Chronic, low-dose cadmium exposures produced a time- and dose-dependent reduction in sperm motility. Transcription of genes regulated by calcium and expression of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel mRNA splicing variants were altered by cadmium exposure. Expression of calcium binding proteins involved in modulation of sperm motility was unaffected. A causal relationship between elevated testicular cadmium and asthenozoospermia was identified. Aberrrant sperm motility was correlated with altered expression of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel isoforms found on the sperm tail, which regulate calcium and cadmium influx.

  15. [The genetic action of ammonium molybdate and cadmium chloride and iodide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopikashvili, L V; Bobyleva, L A; Shapiro, A N

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium molybdate cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride have been studied in test for their genotoxic effect on induction of DNA-cellular bonding, extrasynthesis of DNA in spermatozoa of mice as well as in test to estimate a fertility criterion of Drosophila males. Ammonium molybdate, cadmium iodide and cadmium chloride are stated to be able to induce injuries of native DNA in test on induction of DNA-cellular bonding and DNA-sex cells of mice and Drosophila melanogaster in dominant-lethal test and in experiments on estimation of a fertility coefficient of Drosophila males, respectively.

  16. Effect of speciation on uptake and toxicity of cadmium to shrimp Crangon Crangon (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes Goncalves, M.L.S.; Vilhena, M.F.C.; Machado, L.M.V.F.; Pescada, C.M.R.; Legrand de Moura, M. (Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal))

    1989-08-01

    A study is presented on speciation of seawater with shrimps Crangon Crangon (L.) contaminated with cadmium in the presence and absence of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (a rough model of a chelate group of humic acids). Ultrafiltration and ion exchange Chelex columns were associated with atomic absorption (AA) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The uptake and toxicity of cadmium were studied and the organs where this heavy metal accumulated were examined. It was noticed that the cadmium complex with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic was not available to the shrimps and that during the 5 days of the experiment cadmium was preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas and carapace.

  17. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    sedimentation, the sediments are expected to be a sink for nanoparticles. Both in the water phase and in sediments they will mix and interact with other environmental pollutants, including heavy metals. In this study the toxicity of cadmium to three relevant freshwater species, green algae Pseudokirchneriella...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  18. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  19. Simple method to reduce interference from excess magnesium in cadmium immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Oguma, Shinichi; Glass, Thomas; Namiki, Yukie; Sugiyama, Hideo; Ohmura, Naoya; Blake, Diane A

    2008-09-10

    In order to develop a rapid inexpensive test for cadmium in rice, we identified an antibody specific for cadmium-EDTA complexes; this antibody binds to cadmium-EDTA with a Kd of approximately 10(-8) M. Although the antibody's cross reactivity to magnesium was minimal (Kd approximately 10(-5) M), the high toxicity of cadmium coupled with the high natural occurrence of magnesium in rice resulted in a situation where magnesium interfered with cadmium determination and resulted in falsely elevated estimates of cadmium. Fortunately, the formation constant of EDTA for cadmium is approximately 5 x 10(7) times higher (at pH 7) than the formation constant of EDTA for magnesium, and we were able to eliminate the magnesium interference by judicious selection of the EDTA concentration used in the assay. The resulting equilibria are complex, but we show that a relatively simple two-step model in which cadmium and magnesium compete for EDTA followed by cadmium-EDTA and magnesium-EDTA competing for antibody provided a good fit to the measured data. These analyses enabled appropriate selection of the optimum EDTA concentration for an immunoassay with improved selectivity.

  20. Cadmium stress disrupts the endomembrane organelles and endocytosis during Picea wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available As one of the most severe pollutants, cadmium has been reported to be harmful to plant cells, but the effects of cadmium on gymnosperm pollen germination and tube growth and the mechanism of this involvement are still unclear. Here, we report that cadmium not only strongly inhibited P. wilsonii pollen germination and tube growth, but also significantly altered tube morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Time-lapse images obtained with a laser scanning confocal microscope revealed that endocytosis was dramatically inhibited by cadmium stress. Further investigation with ER-Tracker dye indicated that cadmium stress reduced the number of the Golgi apparatus, and induced dilation of ER. Additionally, Lyso-Tracker staining showed that cadmium distinctly promoted the formation of acidic organelles in pollen tubes, likely derived from the dilated ER. Taken together, our studies indicated that P. wilsonii pollens were highly susceptible to cadmium stress, and that cadmium stress strongly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth by disrupting the endomembrane organelles, inhibiting endo/exocytosis, and forming acidic vacuoles, resulting in swollen tube tips and irregularly broadened tube diameters. These findings provide a new insight into the effects of cadmium toxicity on the tip growth of pollen tubes.

  1. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  2. Accumulation and Transfer of Cadmium, by Indica Rice Cultivars Fujian Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, B.; Wang, G.

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the accumulating ability of cadmium (Cd) by different Indica rice varieties and to understand the differences in transfer factor in the soil-to-rice grain. A total of 189 crop samples and 189 corresponding soil samples were collected for treatment and chemical analysis. Sixteen (16) Indica rice varieties were selected for this study. Our preliminary results showed that there exist significant differences (pindica rice cultivars).The TFstem-grain among the variety revealed that significant differences (pindica rice variety and cadmium decreases in the pattern: root>stem>leaf>grain in the four cultivars except Te -you 009 that showed similar cadmium content in root and stem. Among the hybrid cultivars Yi -you 673 accumulated the most Cadmium in root, stem, leaf and grain, while Te- you 009 accumulated the least Cadmium in root, whereas the conventional cultivar Jia-fu-zhan accumulated the lowest Cadmium in leaf and grain. Our findings also revealed that the Cadmium concentrations in rice grains were more significantly correlated with the Cadmium in stem, followed by leaf, which reveals that the transfer from stem and leaf to grain may be the determinant steps for Cadmium accumulation in the grains.

  3. Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Rat Testis and Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hoe Saeng; Han, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Ran; Sim, Jae Chul

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium is known to exert toxic effects on multiple organs, including the testes. To determine if ?-Tocopherol, an antioxidant, could protect testicular tissues and spermatogenesis from the toxic effects of cadmium, six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive cadmium at doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route (Group A) or ?-tocopherol for 5 days before being challenged with cadmium (Group B) in an identical dose-dependent manner. When both gr...

  4. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Revis, N W; Osborne, T R

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observe...

  5. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3: Effect of Cadmium on Rat Prostate Gland Acid Phosphatase and Scrum Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities. Cd Dose Enzyme Activity (U/l.,, Mean 35 SD; n 2 3). (mg/kg bd wt) x 104. Prostate ACPC Serum ACP Serum AP. Total Nonprostatic Prostatic "l'otal Nonprostatic Prostatic. 0.0 (control) 263.4 :1: 2.0 31.7 ...

  6. Protein synthesis in cadmium- and pentachlorophenol-tolerant Euglena gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barque, J.P.; Abahamid, A.; Chacun, H. [Laboratoire de Metabolism Cellulaire et Xenobiotiques, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    This work is a preliminary characterization of two adapted Euglena gracilis cell lines, one to cadmium and the other to pentachlorophenol. Growth curve analysis indicate that tolerance to one pollutant did not protect against the second pollutant. These suggest that metabolic pathways that are induced by one pollutant are specific for this pollutant. This specificity is detectable at the level of gene expression. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAT MYOCARDIUM IN CADMIUM TOXICOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on lungs, testicles and prostate are well known, so as cumulative and toxic effects on kidney, liver and bones; however, there have not been many published articles about the effects of cadmium on myocardium. The aim of this study was to estimate the morphological changes in rat myocardium chronically treated by cadmium. The study was carried out on male albino Wistar rats (n=30, age=35-37 days, body mass 120g +/- 10g. The animals were raised in controlled laboratory conditions and provided with standard laboratory rat food and tap water ad libitum. The rats were divided into two groups: ten animals composed the control group and did not undergo any treatment. The 20 experimental rats were exposed to 10mg of CdCl2 /L drinking water for 90 days. After 90 days, all animals were victimized and after the macroscopic inspection of the heart, myocardial tissue was routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. Sections 5 micrometers thick were stained by HE method and histochemical PAS-AB (pH 2, 5, Masson trichrome method for demonstrating collagen fibers and Toluidine blue for mast cells identification. Cross-striated banding pattern of cardiac cells was ruined. Noticeable atrophy and hydropic degeneration of subendocardial localized cardiac cells were found, with the focal presence of myocytolysis. Endothelial cell hyperplasia and edema of the intima were present on arteriolar type blood vessels causing the focal subocclusion. Fibrocytes, histiocytes and mast cells were numerous, perivascularly localized. Mast cells were polymorphic, larger than normal, oval and mostly degranulated. Instead of scanty endomysium, there is a noticeable interstitial fibrillar fibrosis with few fields of collagen in all myocardium layers between cardiac cells, which is particularly prominent around the larger blood vessels. Cadmium has pronounced vasculotropic properties causing morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, myocardial

  8. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  9. The protective role of honey against cytotoxicity of cadmium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to investigate the honey (HY) protective role in opposition to cadmium (Cd) induced chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow and sperm abnormalities. Forty five (45) adult male albino mice were caged into six groups. Mice were injected, i.p, 300 mg HY/kg and/or 0.67 mg CdCl2/kg b.w for 96 h, ...

  10. Effects of vitamins C and E pretreatments on cadmium- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Animals were given single doses of vitamins C (1.5 mg/kg) and E (50 mg/kg) per oral and (0 - 8 mg Cd/kg ip) for 24 h. Animals were sacrificed and the serum ... effects of pretreatments with vitamins C and E on Cd-induced serum levels of the parameters were ... Furthermore, cadmium-induced toxicity is.

  11. Effect of Cadmium on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Hernandez-Villagran, D.; Neria-Gonzalez, M. I.; Rios-Leal, E.; Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.

    2009-07-01

    The removal of heavy metal by microorganisms can occur through several mechanisms, such as simple adsorption, absorption, enzymatic synthesis or through the production of extracellular polymers. Cadmium (CD), a metal released in most mining and metallurgical processes, is one of the main agents responsible for water pollution. In spite of the increasing amount of research published on the interaction of microorganisms with heavy metals, few work describe this interaction with cyanobacteria. (Author)

  12. Effect of cadmium on the morphology and anatomy of Salvinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the morphological and anatomical changes of Salvinia auriculata exposed to different concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM of cadmium (Cd) and its effect on plant growth. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Plant Anatomy of the IF Goiano/Rio Verde Campus, Goiás. Cd free ...

  13. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S.; Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  14. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L

    2015-01-01

    ), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1µg/L for Cd, and 0.8µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level...... between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old...... girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further...

  16. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  17. Cytogenetic effects of cadmium accumulation on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, I; Carbajal, M E; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Belmont, R; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1984-04-01

    Cadmium was bioassayed to observe cytogenetic effects in the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Plants were exposed for 96 hr to freshwater containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 1.5, and 10 mg/liter of cadmium. Metal concentrations in tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest level was found in roots, thus root-tip cells were used for cytogenetic studies; after 24 hr of exposure, micronuclei, c-mitotic effects, and pycnosis were detected and after 48 hr polyploidy was observed. A linear relationship between frequencies of micronuclei and cadmium concentrations was found: at 1.5, and 10 mg/liter micronuclei numbers were always the lowest. The inhibition of cell proliferation. shown by the low mitotic index, was proportional to the concentration and time of exposure. From the results presented in this paper it may be concluded that water hyacinth is a good sensor, due to its fast rate of metal accumulation, which allows an easy way to determine the presence of potential mutagenic compounds in water.

  18. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  19. Comparative effects of repeated administration of cadmium chloride during pregnancy and lactation and selenium protection against cadmium toxicity on some organs in immature rats' offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheet, Souad H M

    2011-12-01

    This research comprises studies on the transfer of cadmium (CdCl(2)) from the lactating dam to the pup via milk and absorbed in the suckling, showing that cadmium is transferred to the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland during development. The present studies were carried out in order to assess the protective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in pregnant rats. On the sixth day of gestation, the females were dosed subcutaneously either with cadmium or with cadmium and selenium in the following doses (mg/kg of body weight): 0, 1 Cd, 1 Cd + 1 Se, 2 Cd, 2 Cd + 2 Se. In groups treated with cadmium, no maternal or embryonic toxicities were observed; however, an increase in testes diameters of seminiferous tubules, a progressive sloughing of germ cells, vacuolization of Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells hyperplasia were noted. The reduction in the ovary size and inhibited folliculogenesis resulted in diminution of the numbers of primordial, growing, and tertiary follicles. The pathological change in the cerebellum, the migration of granular cells from the external germinal layer to the internal granular layer, was strongly retarded. Also, the formation of many microfollicles in the thyroid gland which mimic the changes was seen in thyrotoxicosis. It also appears that selenium used at a low-enough dose could be a very effective protection against cadmium-induced developmental toxicity in the testes, ovary, cerebellum, and thyroid gland but not in the higher dose in the ovary and cerebellum.

  20. Integumentary L-histidine transport in a euryhaline polychaete worm: Regulatory roles of calcium and cadmium in the transport event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahearn, Heather Rae Hammers; Ahearn, Gregory A.; Gomme, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal......Epithelial transport, integument, polychaete worm, Nereis succinea, Annelida, transport regulation, calcium, cadmium, heavy metal...

  1. Cadmium sensitivity, uptake, subcellular distribution and thiol induction in a marine diatom: Recovery from cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mengjiao [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Section of Marine Ecology and Biotechnology, Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-25

    Studies in the recovery from metal stress and the tolerance development to metal exposure of aquatic organisms are important for the understanding of epidemic pollution. In this study, the responses of a marine diatom, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, following recovery from environmental cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated. The diatoms were exposed to different concentrations of Cd for 7 days, and were then allowed different periods of time to recover. The Cd sensitivity increased after recovery from Cd stress, followed by a gradual restoration. The extent of restoration depended on both the recovery time and the environmental Cd stress during the exposure period. A complete restoration of Cd tolerance proved to be impossible for cells pre-exposed to High-Cd. The Cd cellular burden and subcellular Cd concentration decreased to the control level within the first day of recovery, indicating that the elevated sensitivity may have been due to the accumulation of functional damage caused by Cd exposure instead of a result of physical Cd accumulation. The rapid change in phytochelatins (PC) to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress made it a good quantitative bioindicator of environmental Cd contamination. However, the relationships between Cd distribution in the metal sensitive fraction (MSF-Cd) or intracellular Cd to thiol ratio (intra-Cd/PC-SH) and the relative change in the median inhibition [Cd{sup 2+}] ([Cd{sup 2+}]-based-IC{sub 50}, i.e., Cd sensitivity) differed for the various exposure and recovery periods tested. Our study suggests that more attention should be given to the recovery of aquatic organisms from episodic metal exposure.

  2. Effects of biochar amendment on relieving cadmium stress and reducing cadmium accumulation in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Zhao, Ye; Zhou, Huaidong; Gao, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is widely used in agricultural soils or heavy metal-polluted soils to improve the quality of the soils, which would affect the growth of the plant. However, the information of biochars' effect on the plant growth was still lacking, especially for the physiological response of the plant. Pot experiments were used to examine the effect of willow-derived biochars at two temperatures (450 and 600 °C) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in pepper and to reveal the response of physiological parameters to exogenous Cd stress (1 and 5 mg/kg). The results showed that the accumulation of Cd in pepper roots was higher than that in pepper shoots. For low level of Cd treatments, high additional rates of the biochars could obviously reduce the accumulation of Cd in the pepper roots. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the C content of the biochar-amended soils and the Cd content of the pepper root, suggesting that the application of biochar to the soil decreased the Cd accumulation in the root. A positive relationship between the H/C ratios of biochar-amended soils and their corresponding Cd concentrations in pepper root indicated that low thermal temperature-derived biochar could play an important role in immobilizing Cd in the soil. Furthermore, on the condition of low Cd level of treatments, the malondialdehyde content decreased in biochar-amended soils, especially at high biochar application rate. The chlorophyll content increased with increasing the rates of the biochar application. The physiological parameters indirectly proved that the application of biochar did not always alleviate the toxic effects of Cd on pepper leaves at high Cd concentration.

  3. Integration of Cadmium Accumulation, Subcellular Distribution, and Physiological Responses to Understand Cadmium Tolerance in Apple Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential and highly toxic element causing agricultural problems. However, little information is available about the variation in Cd tolerance among apple rootstocks and its underlying physiological regulation mechanisms. This study investigated Cd accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms as well as physiological changes among four apple rootstocks exposed to either 0 or 300 μM CdCl2. The results showed that variations in Cd tolerance existed among these rootstocks. Cd exposure caused decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll and biomass in four apple rootstocks, which was less pronounced in M. baccata, indicating its higher Cd tolerance. This finding was corroborated with higher Cd tolerance indexes (TIs of the whole plant in M. baccata than those in the other three apple rootstocks. Among the four apple rootstocks, M. baccata displayed the lowest Cd concentrations in roots, wood, and leaves, the smallest total Cd amounts as well as the lowest BCF. In apple rootstocks, it was found that to immobilize Cd in cell wall and soluble fraction (most likely in vacuole and to convert it into pectate- or protein- integrated forms and undissolved Cd phosphate forms may be the primary strategies to reduce Cd mobility and toxicity. The physiological changes including ROS, carbohydrates and antioxidants were in line with the variations of Cd tolerance among four apple rootstocks. In comparison with the other three apple rootstocks, M. baccata had lower concentrations of ROS in roots and bark, H2O2 in roots and leaves and MDA in roots, wood and bark, but higher concentrations of soluble sugars in bark and starch in roots and leaves, and enhanced antioxidants. These results indicate that M. baccata are more tolerant to Cd stress than the other three apple rootstocks under the current experiment conditions, which is probably related to Cd accumulation, subcellular partitioning and chemical forms of Cd and well

  4. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  5. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Hong, Chwan-Yang

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 μM Cd Cl(2)) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg(-1) DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 μM Cd Cl(2), respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 μM Cd Cl(2). Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 μM) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 μM Cd treatment but not 10 μM Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium absorption and growth of various plant species as influenced by solution cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, A.L.; Bingham, F.T.; Nelson, C.

    1972-01-01

    Solution culture techniques were used to study the response of corn, turnips, beets, beans, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, green peppers, and barley to Cd levels in solution in the range of 0.1 to 10 ..mu..g/ml. Tolerance of the plants to Cd varied. Growth of beets, beans, and turnips was reduced by 50% at Cd solution concentrations of 0.2 ..mu..g/ml. Similar growth reductions for corn and lettuce occurred where the solution concentration level was about 1 ..mu..g/ml. Tomatoes and barley were somewhat more tolerant with levels of about 5 ..mu.. Cd/ml required to produce 50% growth reduction. Cabbage, the most tolerant plant species tested, showed 50% growth reduction at Cd solution concentrations of 9 ..mu..g/ml. Cadmium concentrations of plant leaves increased as the amount of Cd added to the substrate solution increased. Amounts accumulated when the solution concentration was 0.1 ..mu..g/ml and varied between 9 ..mu..g/g (bean leaves) and 90 ..mu..g/g (corn leaves). At solution concentrations of 1.0 ..mu..g Cd/ml the range was 35 ..mu..g/g (bean leaves) to 469 ..mu..g/g (turnip leaves). Similarly at 10 ..mu.. Cd/ml the range was 175 ..mu..g/g (barley) to 112 ..mu..g/g (tomato leaves). The results presented show that plants vary in their tolerance to Cd solution levels and their leaves are capable of accumulating excessive Cd amounts when the solution concentration is of the order of a few tenths of a ..mu..g/ml.

  7. Preparation and Antibacterial Properties of Substituted 1,2,4-Triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Ledeţi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Both 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles are nowadays incorporated in numerous antibacterial pharmaceutical formulations. Aim. Our study aimed to prepare three substituted 1,2,4-triazoles and to evaluate their antibacterial properties. Materials and Methods. One disubstituted and two trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles were prepared and characterised by physical and spectroscopic properties (melting point, FTIR, NMR, and GC-MS. The antibacterial properties were studied against three bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, by the agar disk diffusion method and the dilution method with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration determination. Results. The spectroscopic characterization of compounds and the working protocol for the synthesis of the triazolic derivatives are described. The compounds were obtained with 15–43% yields and with high purities, confirmed by the NMR analysis. The evaluation of biological activities showed that the compounds act as antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, while being inactive against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Conclusions. Our results indicate that compounds containing 1,2,4-triazolic moiety have great potential in developing a wide variety of new antibacterial formulations.

  8. A new one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles from aryl nitriles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by esterification in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and cycliza- tion/dehydration in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to give 1,2,4-oxadiazole (scheme 1). In general, there is no need to remove THF after esterification and both cyclizations/dehydrations are facilitated in high tempe- ratures by addition of DMSO, and therefore these three.

  9. 40 CFR 124.31 - Pre-application public meeting and notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to RCRA Permits § 124.31 Pre... the following forms: (i) A newspaper advertisement. The applicant shall publish a notice, fulfilling... county or equivalent jurisdiction that hosts the proposed location of the facility. In addition, the...

  10. The pygmy quadrupole resonance and neutron-skin modes in Sn-124

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieker, M.; Tsoneva, N.; Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lenske, H.; Pietralla, N.; Popescu, L.; Scheck, M.; Schlueter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an extensive experimental study of the recently predicted pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR) in Sn isotopes, where complementary probes were used. In this study, (alpha,alpha 'gamma) and (gamma,gamma ') experiments were performed on Sn-124. In both reactions, J(pi)=2(+) states below an

  11. 22 CFR 124.2 - Exemptions for training and military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and techniques needed to translate a detailed design into a qualified, finished defense article. (5... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for training and military service... AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.2 Exemptions for training and military...

  12. The influence of different rates of new synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAZWA UŻYTKOWNIKA

    Influence of a newly-synthesised 5-oxo-1,2,4-triazyne derivative on antioxidant ... However, stress factors such as low or high ambient temperatures, transportation .... in plasma, as the last product of lipid peroxidation, was measured according ...

  13. 49 CFR 393.124 - What are the rules for securing concrete pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing concrete pipe? 393... Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.124 What are the rules for securing concrete pipe? (a) Applicability. (1) The rules in this section apply to the transportation of concrete pipe on...

  14. 76 FR 21702 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 124B; Application for Expansion; North American Shipbuilding, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Shipbuilding, LLC (Shipbuilding), Houma, LA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board... Shipbuilding, LLC (NAS), operator of Subzone 124B at NAS' shipbuilding facilities in Larose, Houma, and Port... subzone was subsequently expanded to include two additional shipbuilding facilities: Site 2 (27 acres...

  15. 22 CFR 124.14 - Exports to warehouses or distribution points outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., sporting firearms for commercial resale, cryptographic devices and software for financial and business... subchapter. (2) A detailed statement of the terms and conditions under which the defense articles will be... same extent required in licensing agreements under § 124.9(b). (c) Required statements. The following...

  16. miR-124 attenuates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by targeting DNM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songbai; Pei, Yue; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-06-21

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes acute viral encephalitis in humans. Pigs are important amplifier hosts of JEV. Emerging evidence indicates that host microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating viral infection and pathogenesis. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of miRNAs in regulating host-JEV interactions remain scarce. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-124 inhibited JEV replication in porcine kidney epithelial PK15 cells. Furthermore, using bioinformatics tools, we identified dynamin2 (DNM2), a GTPase responsible for vesicle scission, as a target of miR-124. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies inicated that dynamin2 was required for efficient JEV replication. We also demonstrated that upregulation of miR-124 expression corresponded to decreased expression of its target, DNM2, in the JEV-infected PK15 cells. Overall, these results suggest the importance of miR-124 in modulating JEV replication and provide a scientific basis for using cellular miRNAs in anti-JEV therapies.

  17. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bektaş

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some novel 4,5-disubstituted-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (3, 6, 8, 9 derivatives and or 3-(4-methylphenyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3]benzoxazole (5 were synthesized from the reaction of various ester ethoxycarbonylhydrazones (1a-e with several primary amines. The synthesis of 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylmethyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (13 was performed starting from 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (2 by four steps; then 13 was converted to the corresponding Schiff base (14 by using 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Finally, two Mannich base derivatives of 14 were obtained by using morpholine or methyl piperazine as amine component. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities and some of which were found to possess good or moderate activities against the test microorganisms.

  18. 24 CFR 943.124 - What elements must a consortium agreement contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What elements must a consortium... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY CONSORTIA AND JOINT VENTURES Consortia § 943.124 What elements must a consortium agreement contain? (a) The consortium agreement among the participating PHAs...

  19. Silver complexes of 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SMe2)CuBr indicated the silver complexes, 1b and 2b, to be good transmetallating agents. Keywords. Carbenes; silver; 1,2,4-triazole; crystal structure; reactivity. 1. Introduction. With the imidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbenes. (NHCs)1 showing ...

  20. 124Sb-Be photo-neutron source for BNCT: Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Rajabi, Ali Akbar; Kasesaz, Yaser

    2016-11-01

    In this research a computational feasibility study has been done on the use of 124SbBe photo-neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. For this purpose, a special beam shaping assembly has been designed to provide an appropriate epithermal neutron beam suitable for BNCT. The final result shows that using 150 kCi of 124Sb, the epithermal neutron flux at the designed beam exit is 0.23×109 (n/cm2 s). In-phantom dose analysis indicates that treatment time for a brain tumor is about 40 min which is a reasonable time. This high activity 124Sb could be achieved using three 50 kCi rods of 124Sb which can be produced in a research reactor. It is clear, that as this activity is several hundred times the activity of a typical cobalt radiotherapy source, issues related to handling, safety and security must be addressed.

  1. {sup 124}Sb–Be photo-neutron source for BNCT: Is it possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golshanian, Mohadeseh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Shahrood University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this research a computational feasibility study has been done on the use of {sup 124}SbBe photo-neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. For this purpose, a special beam shaping assembly has been designed to provide an appropriate epithermal neutron beam suitable for BNCT. The final result shows that using 150 kCi of {sup 124}Sb, the epithermal neutron flux at the designed beam exit is 0.23×10{sup 9} (n/cm{sup 2} s). In-phantom dose analysis indicates that treatment time for a brain tumor is about 40 min which is a reasonable time. This high activity {sup 124}Sb could be achieved using three 50 kCi rods of {sup 124}Sb which can be produced in a research reactor. It is clear, that as this activity is several hundred times the activity of a typical cobalt radiotherapy source, issues related to handling, safety and security must be addressed.

  2. Quantitative performance evaluation of 124I PET/MRI lesion dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierts, R.; Jentzen, W.; Quick, H. H.; Wisselink, H. J.; Pooters, I. N. A.; Wildberger, J. E.; Herrmann, K.; Kemerink, G. J.; Backes, W. H.; Mottaghy, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the quantitative performance of 124I PET/MRI for pre-therapy lesion dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Phantom measurements were performed on a PET/MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare) using 124I and 18F. The PET calibration factor and the influence of radiofrequency coil attenuation were determined using a cylindrical phantom homogeneously filled with radioactivity. The calibration factor was 1.00  ±  0.02 for 18F and 0.88  ±  0.02 for 124I. Near the radiofrequency surface coil an underestimation of less than 5% in radioactivity concentration was observed. Soft-tissue sphere recovery coefficients were determined using the NEMA IEC body phantom. Recovery coefficients were systematically higher for 18F than for 124I. In addition, the six spheres of the phantom were segmented using a PET-based iterative segmentation algorithm. For all 124I measurements, the deviations in segmented lesion volume and mean radioactivity concentration relative to the actual values were smaller than 15% and 25%, respectively. The effect of MR-based attenuation correction (three- and four-segment µ-maps) on bone lesion quantification was assessed using radioactive spheres filled with a K2HPO4 solution mimicking bone lesions. The four-segment µ-map resulted in an underestimation of the imaged radioactivity concentration of up to 15%, whereas the three-segment µ-map resulted in an overestimation of up to 10%. For twenty lesions identified in six patients, a comparison of 124I PET/MRI to PET/CT was performed with respect to segmented lesion volume and radioactivity concentration. The interclass correlation coefficients showed excellent agreement in segmented lesion volume and radioactivity concentration (0.999 and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it is feasible that accurate quantitative 124I PET/MRI could be used to perform radioiodine pre-therapy lesion dosimetry in DTC.

  3. 124-134Xe Izotopları için Triaxiall RMF Hesaplamaları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay BAYRAM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Bu çalışmada çift-çift 124-134Xe çekirdekleri için Relativistik Ortalama Alan (RMF Modeli kullanılarak taban durum nükleer özellik hesaplamaları yapılmıştır. Bu çekirdekler için RMF+DDM2 etkileşmesi ile taban durum bağlanma enerjileri için deneysel değerlere çok yakın sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Triaxiall simetriye dayalı hesaplamalar yapılarak 124-134Xe izotop zincirinde izotopların taban durum şekilleri üzerine bir analizde sunulmaktadır. Özellikle deneysel olarak 130Xe çekirdeğinin E(5 simetrisine sahip kritik nokta çekirdeği olduğu iddia edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda Xe izotopları için RMF modeli çerçevesinde elde edilen potansiyel enerji yüzeyleri (PES kullanılarak E(5 simetrili çekirdek taraması yapılmıştır. Çift-çift 124-134Xe izotopları için izotop zinciri boyunca şekil evrimi detaylıca tartışılmıştır.Anahtar kelimeler: RMF modeli, Bağlanma enerjisi, Xe izotopları, PES, E(5 simetrisi Abstract. In this study, ground-state nuclear properties of even-even 124-134Xe nuclei have been calculated by using Relativistic Mean Field (RMF model. By using RMF+DDM2 interaction the ground-state binding energies of these nuclei have been predicted as very close to experimental values. Also, an analizing on the ground-state shape of 124-134Xe isotopes is presented by using calculations based on triaxiall symmetry. In particular, 130Xe nuclei has been pointed out as possible critical point nuclei with E(5 symmetry from experimental studies. For this reason, by using potential energy surfaces (PES of 124-134Xe nuclei obtained from RMF model, scanning for E(5 symmetry in this isotopic chain has been done. For even-even 124-134Xe nuclei, shape evolution has been discussed in detail.Keywords: RMF model, Binding energy, Xe isotopes, PES, E(5 symmetry

  4. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P nano-zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P nano-zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  5. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Osborne, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observed between these two diets. When cysteine was added to the low-protein diet to the level observed in the high-protein diet and fed to rats receiving 25 ppm cadmium in the drinking water, significant dietary differences in liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were not observed. The importance of dietary protein to cadmium-induced toxicity was also assessed in these studies. The activity of catechol-o-methyltransferase was used as a measure of cadmium-induced toxicity. The activity of this enzyme in the lung, liver and heart was significantly lower in rats fed a low-protein diet than those fed the high-protein diet and 50 ppm cadmium. Metallothionein concentration in the lung and liver from low-protein-fed rats was approximately half the level observed in rats fed the high-protein diet, which suggests a relationship between cadmium-induced toxicity and metallothionein concentrations. These results illustrate the importance of considering dietary protein (and possibly cysteine) when studying cadmium metabolism in experimental animals. 22 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  6. MiR-124 down-regulation is critical for cancer associated fibroblasts-enhanced tumor growth of oral carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia, E-mail: dentistlx@163.com [Department of Stomatology, School of Stomatology and medicine, Foshan Stomatology Hospital, Foshan University, Foshan 528000 (China); Fan, Qinqiao [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Cancer Center, Chenzhou No.1 People' s Hospital, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Li, Jinyun [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Center South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Song, Jing; Gu, Yangcong [Department of Stomatology, School of Stomatology and medicine, Foshan Stomatology Hospital, Foshan University, Foshan 528000 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are known to be involved in initiation, progression and metastasis of various cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of how CAFs affects the biological function of oral cancer (OC) has not been fully-addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-124 was downregulated in oral CAFs and oral cancer cells (OCCs) when compared with matched normal fibroblasts (NFs). Hypermethylation in the promoter region of miR-124 genes was accounted for its downregulation. Interestingly, CAFs but not NFs exerted promotion effect on OCCs cell proliferation, migration and tumor growth in CAFs/NFs-OCCs co-culture. Furthermore, we identified Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) as two direct targets of miR-124. Over-expression of miR-124 in CAFs-OCCs co-culture abrogated CAFs-promoted OCCs cell growth and migration, and this inhibitory effect can be rescued by addition of CCL2 and IL-8. Finally, we showed that restoration of miR-124 expression by lentiviral infection or formulated miR-124 injection inhibited oral tumor growth in vivo suggesting miR-124 rescue could be a potential rationale for therapeutic applications in oral cancer in the future. - Highlights: • miR-124 was downregulated in oral cancer cells and cancer associated fibroblasts. • Hypermethylation in the promoter region was accounted for miR-124 downregulation. • CCL2 and IL-8 are two direct targets of miR-124. • miR-124 rescue could be a potential rationale for oral cancer therapy.

  7. The electronic states of 1,2,4-triazoles: A study of 1H- and1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Camp, Philip J.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The first vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of a 1,2,4-triazole has been obtained and analyzed in detail, with assistance from both an enhanced UV photoelectron spectroscopic study and ab initio multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction procedures. For both 1H- and 1-methyl-1,2,4-...

  8. A recommendation for revised dose calibrator measurement procedures for 89Zr and 124I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Beattie

    Full Text Available Because of their chemical properties and multiday half lives, iodine-124 and zirconium-89 are being used in a growing number of PET imaging studies. Some aspects of their quantitation, however, still need attention. For (89Zr the PET images should, in principle, be as quantitatively accurate as similarly reconstructed 18F measurements. We found, however, that images of a 20 cm well calibration phantom containing (89Zr underestimated the activity by approximately 10% relative to a dose calibrator measurement (Capintec CRC-15R using a published calibration setting number of 465. PET images of (124I, in contrast, are complicated by the contribution of decays in cascade that add spurious coincident events to the PET data. When these cascade coincidences are properly accounted for, quantitatively accurate images should be possible. We found, however, that even with this correction we still encountered what appeared to be a large variability in the accuracy of the PET images when compared to dose calibrator measurements made using the calibration setting number, 570, recommended by Capintec. We derive new calibration setting numbers for (89Zr and (124I based on their 511 keV photon peaks as measured on an HPGe detector. The peaks were calibrated relative to an 18F standard, the activity level of which was precisely measured in a dose calibrator under well-defined measurement conditions. When measuring (89Zr on a Capintec CRC-15R we propose the use of calibration setting number 517. And for (124I, we recommend the use of a copper filter surrounding the sample and the use of calibration setting number 494. The new dose calibrator measurement procedures we propose will result in more consistent and accurate radioactivity measurements of (89Zr and (124I. These and other positron emitting radionuclides can be accurately calibrated relative to 18F based on measurements of their 511 keV peaks and knowledge of their relative positron abundances.

  9. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 124}Sb by the LNE-LNHB, France for the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres Cedex, (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, (France)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 124}Sb to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The activity was about 5.3 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include this new value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity for the three participants measured in the SIR and the KCRV are presented in a table and graphically. (authors)

  10. A novel kinetic method for the speciation of cadmium in river water by micro solvent extraction with dithizone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tokuo; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Miyuki; Uehara, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium species in river water were kinetically extracted with dithizone by varying the extraction time. The obtained extraction curve showed a three-stage stepwise profile that reflected the rate of the ligand substitution reaction between the dithizone and cadmium species. Corresponding to each stage, we divided these extracted cadmium species into three groups: "highly labile", "moderately labile" and "slowly labile" species.

  11. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The

  12. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced endogenous salicylic acid and overexpression of this gene enhances tolerance to cadmium stress in Arabidopsis. Plant. Cell Rep. 34, 871–884. Guan C., Ji J., Wu D., Li X., Jin C., Guan W. et al. 2015b The glutathione synthesis may be regulated by cadmium-induced endogenous ethylene in Lycium chinense, and ...

  13. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M Henson

    Full Text Available Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata. We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules.

  15. Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerjian, L

    2010-01-15

    Untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and metal concentration on sorption efficiency. The favorable pH for maximum cadmium adsorption was at 9.0. For the investigated cadmium concentrations (1-50mg/L), maximum adsorption rates were achieved almost in the 10-20 min of contact. An adsorbent dose of 10 g/L was optimum for almost complete cadmium removal within 30 min from a 5mg/L cadmium solution. For all contact times, an increase in cadmium concentration resulted in decrease in the percent cadmium removal (100-87%), and an increase in adsorption capacity (0.11-5.36 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm (R(2)=0.960). The kinetics of cadmium adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2)>0.999).

  16. Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semerjian, L., E-mail: ls07@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2010-01-15

    Untreated Pinus halepensis sawdust has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and metal concentration on sorption efficiency. The favorable pH for maximum cadmium adsorption was at 9.0. For the investigated cadmium concentrations (1-50 mg/L), maximum adsorption rates were achieved almost in the 10-20 min of contact. An adsorbent dose of 10 g/L was optimum for almost complete cadmium removal within 30 min from a 5 mg/L cadmium solution. For all contact times, an increase in cadmium concentration resulted in decrease in the percent cadmium removal (100-87%), and an increase in adsorption capacity (0.11-5.36 mg/g). The equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm (R{sup 2} = 0.960). The kinetics of cadmium adsorption was very well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R{sup 2} > 0.999).

  17. [Elution of lead and cadmium from imported gold-decorated glassware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogai, T; Ito, S; Sakurai, H; Tada, Y; Satou, Y; Shiomi, Y; Takeda, M; Ishiwata, H; Sugita, T; Yamada, T

    1993-01-01

    Lead and cadmium were known to be eluted from some imported gold-decorated glassware, which was bonded at a quarantine station. Elution of lead and cadmium was confirmed to be occurred from the gold-decorated portion, but not from glass itself. No elution of these heavy metals was observed from gold-decorated glassware in the market.

  18. Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring. Methods: From gestation day 10 to day 19, pregnant rat dams were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93G diet containing 39% energy from fat (baseline diet, or the baseline diet containing moderate (75 μg/kg of feed or high (150 μg/kg cadmium levels. Some dams were injected with 10 μg 17β-estradiol (E2 daily between gestation days 10 and 19. Results: Rats exposed to a moderate cadmium dose in utero were heavier and exhibited accelerated puberty onset. Both moderate and high cadmium dose led to increased circulating testosterone levels and reduced the expression of androgen receptor in the mammary gland. The moderate cadmium dose mimicked the effects of in utero E2 exposure on mammary gland morphology and increased both the number of terminal end buds and pre-malignant hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HANs, but in contrast to the E2, it did not increase 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Conclusions: The effects of in utero cadmium exposure were dependent on the dose given to pregnant dams: Moderate, but not high, cadmium dose mimicked some of the effects seen in the in utero E2 exposed rats, such as increased HANs in the mammary gland.

  19. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  20. Dosage du plomb et du cadmium dans le sperme des sujets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absorption Atomique le plomb et le cadmium dans 10 échantillons de sperme de volume supérieur à 2 g. Les résultats ont montré que 7 des 10 échantillons de sperme ont accumulé le cadmium à des concentrations différentes. Par contre, les teneurs ...