WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium 124

  1. Synthesis and crystal structures of the first cadmium complexes of 3,5,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Farzin; Jangholi, Mona; Hakimi, Mohammad; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Bruno, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Three new cadmium(II) complexes, [Cd2(TPT)2(SCN)4]·H2O (1), [Cd(TPT)I2] (2) and [Cd(TPT)Br2] (3) ("TPT" is the abbreviation of 3,5,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and studied by thermal gravimetric as well as X-ray single crystal diffraction. Two anions of four thiocyanate anions bridge two CdII ions to form a dinuclear complex, 1, and iodide and bromide ions produce two halide-coordinated [Cd(TPT)X2] complexes (X = I for 2 and Br for 3). Cadmium(II) in 1 is six coordinate, CdN4S2 and in 2 and 3 is five coordinate, CdN3I2 and CdN3Br2. The supramolecular features in these complexes are guided/controlled by N⋯O hydrogen bonding (in 1) and weak directional intermolecular Csbnd H⋯N, Cg⋯I, Csbnd H⋯Br and π-π interactions.

  2. Diaquabis-(thio-cyanato-κN)bis[6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-κN(1))pyridin-2-amine]-cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Pan; Ding, Bin

    2012-08-01

    In the title compound, [Cd(NCS)(2)(C(7)H(7)N(5))(2)(H(2)O)(2)], the Cd(II) cation lies on an inversion center and is coordinated by the N atoms of two thiocyanate anions, by N atoms of two 6-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-amine ligands and by the O atoms of two water molecules in a distorted N(4)O(2) octa-hedral geometry. The dihedral angle between the triazole and pyridine rings is 23.15 (12)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds. Offset π-π stacking between parallel pyridine rings of adjacent mol-ecules is also observed, the centroid-centroid distance being 3.6319 (14) Å. PMID:22904754

  3. Poly[dibromidobis[μ-1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N:N′]cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title coordination polymer, [CdBr2(C8H8N42]n, arose from a layer-separated diffusion synthesis at room temperature. The title compound is isotypic with the I and Cl analogues. The Cd atom, located on an inversion center, is coordinated by two bromide ions and four N atoms (two from triazole rings and two from pyridyl rings in a distorted trans-CdBr2N4 octahedral arrangement. The bridging 1-(4-pyridylmethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole ligands are twisted [dihedral angle between the triazole and pyridine rings = 72.56 (13°], affording a two-dimensional 44 sheet structure in the crystal.

  4. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  5. 14 CFR 1264.124 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 1264.124 Section 1264.124 Aeronautics... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.124 Fees. The party requesting a supoena shall pay the cost of the fees and... United States District Court. A check for witness fees and mileage shall accompany the subpoena...

  6. 10 CFR 600.124 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.124 Section 600.124 Energy DEPARTMENT... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  7. 14 CFR 1260.124 - Program income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1260.124 Section 1260.124..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 1260.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects...

  8. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is...

  9. 47 CFR 69.124 - Interconnection charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection charge. 69.124 Section 69.124... Computation of Charges § 69.124 Interconnection charge. (a) Until December 31, 2001, local exchange carriers not subject to price cap regulation shall assess an interconnection charge expressed in dollars...

  10. 36 CFR 13.124 - Emergency use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency use. 13.124 Section 13.124 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins General Provisions § 13.124 Emergency use. During an...

  11. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  12. 42 CFR 124.503 - Compliance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance level. 124.503 Section 124.503 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.503 Compliance level. (a) Annual compliance level. Subject to the provisions of this... persons unable to pay if it provides for the fiscal year uncompensated services at a level not less...

  13. 18 CFR 401.124 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction. 401.124 Section 401.124 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.124 Construction. This part...

  14. Cadmium toxicity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoft, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Bernhoft

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established protocols.

  16. Cadmium Toxicity and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhoft, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity with destructive impact on most organ systems. It is widely distributed in humans, the chief sources of contamination being cigarette smoke, welding, and contaminated food and beverages. Toxic impacts are discussed and appear to be proportional to body burden of cadmium. Detoxification of cadmium with EDTA and other chelators is possible and has been shown to be therapeutically beneficial in humans and animals when done using established proto...

  17. Mid-rapidity emission in 124Sn, 124Xe + 124Sn, 112Sn reactions at 28 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light charged particle, (Z = 2), and intermediate-mass fragments, (2 124Sn, 124Xe + 124Sn, 112Sn reactions at 28 MeV/nucleon. With increasing centrality, the heavier 6He isotope is found to be emitted closer to mid-rapidity than the lighter 3He isotope. The emission becomes increasingly favorable for particles with higher charge, Z, indicating mid-rapidity region to be not only neutron rich, but also a rich source of heavy fragment (cluster) formation

  18. Synthesis and characterization of chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes of 4(2-pyridyl)-1-(2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde)-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and dioxouranium(VI) with 4(2-pyridyl)-1-(2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde)-3-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesised and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, electronic NMR, and magnetic moment data. An octahedral structure is proposed for the Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(H3PBT)2 Cl2.2H2O complexes; a tetrahedral structure for the Mn(II) and Ni2(PBT)OAc.H20 complexes and a square planar structure for the Cu(II) complexes. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of H3PBT and of its metal(II) complexes are investigated. The results reveal that H3PBT exhibits greater antimicrobial activities than its complexes. (author). 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COOH (H/sub 2/Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC/sub 6/H/sub 4/COO) and products of their thermal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure.

  20. 7 CFR 1221.124 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 1221.124 Section 1221.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  1. 24 CFR 882.124 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.124 Audit. PHAs receiving financial assistance under this part are subject to audit requirements in 24 CFR part 44. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 882.124 Section...

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16439-1 CHS124P (Link to Original site) CHS1...24F 587 CHS124Z 771 CHS124P 1338 - - Show CHS124 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...24P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS124 (CHS124Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1...nificant alignments: (bits) Value CHS124 (CHS124Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS124Q.Seq.d/ 2565 0.0 SHD220 (SHD220Q) /

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSC124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16354-1 SSC124E (Link... to Original site) - - - - - - SSC124E 422 Show SSC124 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC124 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSC1-A/SSC124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSC12...4E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSC124 (SSC124Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-A/SSC124Q.Seq.d/ CCCAC...lignments: (bits) Value SSC124 (SSC124Q) /CSM/SS/SSC1-A/SSC124Q.Seq.d/ 729 0.0 SSM673 (SSM673Q) /CSM/SS/SSM6

  4. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  5. Structure of doubly-even cadmium nuclei studied by {beta}decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinta-Antila, S.; Wang, Y.; Dendooven, P.; Huikari, J.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Nummela, S.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Szerypo, J.; Wang, J.C. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, (YFL), Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Jokinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, (YFL), Jyvaeskylae (Finland); University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-01

    We have studied the structure of even-even cadmium isotopes via beta decay of ground and excited isomeric states of parent silver isotopes. Measurements of mass A=116, 118 and 120 cadmium nuclides were carried out at an ion guide isotope separation on-line facility at the University of Jyvaeskylae. Decay schemes of {sup 116m}Ag, {sup 118m}Ag, {sup 120g}Ag and {sup 120m}Ag are considerably extended. Obtained data have enabled extension of available systematics of the three-phonon states to more neutron-rich cadmium nuclei. As a continuation we have conducted an experiment at ISOLDE, CERN to study heavier A=122, 124, and 126 cadmium nuclides, the analysis of the collected data is underway. (orig.)

  6. Plausible Mechanisms of Cadmium Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium is a transition metal and an ubiquitous environmental and industrial pollutant. Laboratory animal studies and epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cadmium is associated with various organ toxicities and carcinogenic effects. Several national and internation...

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLB124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB124 (Link to dictyBase) - G01902 DDB0232962 Contig-U14679-1 SLB...124E (Link to Original site) SLB124F 1447 SLB124Z 567 SLB124P 2004 SLB124E 1550 Show SLB124 Library SL (...Link to library) Clone ID SLB124 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID G01902 dictyBase ID DDB0232962 Link ...to Contig Contig-U14679-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB1-A/SLB...124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB124E (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLB124 (SLB

  8. Cadmium absorption inhibitors for soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.

    1974-05-25

    Cadmium absorption by soil is one cause of soil pollution. Cadmium adsorption inhibitors were prepared by mixing alginic acid which contained brown algae (Ascophyllum nodosum) and an inorganic material, shell fossils. This mixture was highly effective in preventing cadmium absorption by the soil.

  9. 49 CFR 571.124 - Standard No. 124; Accelerator control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.124 Standard No. 124; Accelerator control systems. S1. Scope.... S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S4. Definitions. S4.1Driver-operated accelerator control system means all...

  10. High spin properties of 124Ba

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilangovan; N Arunachalam

    2002-03-01

    The 124Ba nucleus is investigated on the basis of the method of statistical mechanics by assuming the nucleons to move in triaxially deformed Nilsson potential. The variation in the Fermi energies of protons and neutrons is studied as a function of spin and temperature. The Fermi energies determined as a function of angular momentum is used to study the dependence of shell correction on angular momentum using the Strutinsky smoothing procedure. The most important observation is that the shell correction is almost the same for all spins for 124Ba. The spin cutoff parameter and the single particle level density parameter are studied as a function of spin and temperature. Constant entropy lines drawn by plotting the excitation energy against angular momentum are found to be roughly at constant energy above the yrast line and are almost equally spaced. It is observed that no yrast traps are present for 124Ba.

  11. 17 CFR 256.124 - Other investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Investments § 256.124 Other investments. This account shall include the cost or current value of investments, whichever is less, in securities, club memberships, associations, life... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other investments....

  12. 24 CFR 884.124 - Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., receiving financial assistance under this part, the audit requirements in 24 CFR part 44 shall apply. (b... this part, the audit requirements in 24 CFR part 45 shall apply. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit. 884.124 Section...

  13. 124In levels populated in the β decay of 124Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Gross, C. J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Karny, M.; Fijalkowska, A.; Liu, S. H.; Miernik, K.; Padgett, S. W.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Ramayya, A. V.; Stracener, D. W.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.

    2016-08-01

    The β decay of 124Cd into levels in 124In was reinvestigated at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. Fifty-MeV protons were bombarded on uranium targets and the induced fission products were mass separated and deposited on a moving tape in the center of an array of γ detectors. The resulting γ -γ coincidences revealed appreciable disagreement with previous work and has resulted in a revised ordering of the low-energy states in 124In. The resulting partial decay scheme has four energy levels, three of which are new.

  14. Isotope yields from central 112,124Sn+112,124Sn collisions, dynamical emission?

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T X; Van Goethem, M J; Lynch, W G; Shomin, R; Tan, W P; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Wagner, A; Xi Hong Fei; Xu, H S; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M; Zielinska-Pfabé, M; Wolter, H H; Beaulieu, L; Davin, B; Larochelle, Y; Lefort, T; De Souza, R T; Yañez, R; Viola, V E; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G

    2004-01-01

    Isotopic yields for light particles and intermediate mass fragments have been measured for 112Sn+112Sn, 112Sn+124Sn, 124Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn central collisions at E/A=50 MeV and compared with predictions of stochastic mean field calculations. These calculations predict a sensitivity of the isotopic distributions to the density dependence of the asymmetry term of the nuclear equation of state. However, the secondary decay of the excited fragments modifies significantly the primary isotopic distributions and these modifications are rather sensitive to theoretical uncertainties in the excitation energies of the hot fragments. The predicted final isotope distributions are narrower than the experimental data and the sensitivity of the predicted yields to the density dependence of the asymmetry term is reduced.

  15. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  16. CADMIUM – ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers, sewage sludge and industrial uses of Cd are the major source of widespread of this metal at trace levels into the general environment and human foodstuffs. It is well known that high cadmium (Cd exposure causes renal damage, anemia, enteropathy, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, whereas the dose-response relationship at low levels exposure is less established. During the last decade an increasing number of studies have found an adverse health effects due to low environmental exposure to Cd. Many authors try to determine the relationship between Cd intake and Cd toxicity indicators, especially dealing renal tubular damage. The level of b2-microglobulin in urine is regarded as the most sensitive biomarker of renal disfunction due to low environmental Cd concentrations.

  17. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  18. 7 CFR 987.124 - Nomination and polling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination and polling. 987.124 Section 987.124... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Nominations § 987.124 Nomination and polling. (a... individuals to serve on the Committee. For this purpose, the Committee shall, no later than June 15 of...

  19. 42 CFR 124.706 - Calculation of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of interest. 124.706 Section 124.706 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.706 Calculation of...

  20. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the...

  1. 5 CFR 185.124 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 185.124 Section 185.124 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.124 Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. (a) A party wishing to...

  2. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. 4.124 Section 4.124 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by...

  3. 29 CFR 570.124 - Delivery of newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of newspapers. 570.124 Section 570.124 Labor... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.124 Delivery of newspapers... provisions for employees engaged in the delivery of newspapers to the consumer. This provision applies...

  4. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  5. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 19

  6. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  8. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  9. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  10. {sup 124}I production for PET imaging at a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ensaf, Mohammadreza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School; Enferadi, Milad [North Khorasan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Iranian Applied Research Center for Public Health and Sustainable Development

    2012-03-15

    We here present a method for the production of Iodine-124 using a cyclotron. With this method, it will be possible to produce clinically relevant amounts of {sup 124}I with high chemical and radionuclidic purity for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The electroplated TeO{sub 2} targets were irradiated with 29.5 MeV protons at current of 39.5 {mu}A for 3.8 h. The separation of the produced Iodine activity from the bulk target material was performed by ion exchange chromatography method. {sup 124}I positron emitter excitation functions via {sup 124}Te(p,n){sup 124}I, {sup 125}Te(p,2n){sup 124}I, {sup 126}Te(p,3n){sup 124}I, {sup 124}Te(d,2n){sup 124}I, {sup 121}Sb(a,n){sup 124}I and {sup nat}Te(p,xn){sup 124}I reactions were calculated by ALICE/ASH 0.1 (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.2 codes and compared to existing data. Theoretical calculation of production yield and calculation of target thickness requirement were obtained by TALYS-1.2 and SRIM codes for each reaction. (orig.)

  11. 124I production for PET imaging at a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We here present a method for the production of Iodine-124 using a cyclotron. With this method, it will be possible to produce clinically relevant amounts of 124I with high chemical and radionuclidic purity for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The electroplated TeO2 targets were irradiated with 29.5 MeV protons at current of 39.5 μA for 3.8 h. The separation of the produced Iodine activity from the bulk target material was performed by ion exchange chromatography method. 124I positron emitter excitation functions via 124Te(p,n)124I, 125Te(p,2n)124I, 126Te(p,3n)124I, 124Te(d,2n)124I, 121Sb(a,n)124I and natTe(p,xn)124I reactions were calculated by ALICE/ASH 0.1 (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.2 codes and compared to existing data. Theoretical calculation of production yield and calculation of target thickness requirement were obtained by TALYS-1.2 and SRIM codes for each reaction. (orig.)

  12. Properties of superheavy nuclei with Z = 124

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, M S; Kumar, Bharat; Patra, S K

    2015-01-01

    We employ Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) model with NL3 parametrization to investigate the ground state properties of superheavy nucleus, Z = 124. The nuclei selected (from among complete isotopic series) for detailed investigation show that the nucleon density at the center is very low and therefore, these nuclei can be treated as semi-bubble nuclei. The considerable shell gap appears at neutron numbers N = 172, 184 and 198 showing the magicity corresponding to these numbers. The results are compared with the macro-microscopic Finite Range Droplet Model (FRDM) wherever possible.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  15. Coordination Polymers and Metal Organic Frameworks Derived from 1,2,4-Triazole Amino Acid Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceptible appearance of biomolecules as prospective building blocks in the architecture of coordination polymers (CPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are redolent of their inclusion in the synthon/tecton library of reticular chemistry. In this frame, for the first time a synthetic strategy has been established for amine derivatization in amino acids into 1,2,4-triazoles. A set of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatized amino acids were introduced as superlative precursors in the design of 1D coordination polymers, 2D chiral helicates and 3D metal-organic frameworks. Applications associated with these compounds are diverse and include gas adsorption-porosity partitioning, soft sacrificial matrix for morphology and phase selective cadmium oxide synthesis, FeII spin crossover materials, zinc-b-lactamases inhibitors, logistics for generation of chiral/non-centrosymmetric networks; and thus led to a foundation of a new family of functional CPs and MOFs that are reviewed in this invited contribution.

  16. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  17. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  19. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    ) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected environmental......Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...

  20. I-124 and its applications in nuclear medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4.15-d 124I decays simultaneously by positron emission (25.6 %) and by electron capture (74.4 %). This dualistic decay allows in principle to use 124I in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In some high-current measurements, 124I was produced via the nuclear reaction 124Te(p,n)124I using 12.6 MeV protons in yields 25% below those of the mainly used reaction 124Te(d,2n)124I, but with a very much lower contamination by long-lived 125I and 126I. The minimum obtained value for the sum of all impurities was 0.14% of the 124I activity, at 6 days after end of bombardment, using 99.8% enriched 124TeO2 as target material. This yield/purity ratio also permits the production of 124I by low-energy ''baby'' cyclotrons which could considerably increase the general availability of this nuclide. [124]IUdR was synthesized by direct electrophilic labelling in good yield (45-65 %), high radiochemical purity (>95%) and high specific activity for functional PET imaging of brain tumours. One day after administration to patients and after completion of the ''washout'', the only remaining activity was that in tumour structures. The comparison with the tumour labelling index showed that PET with [124]IUdR introduces a novel imaging approach: tumour diagnostics by the measurement of cell proliferation. [124]IodoHoechst 33258 was synthesized by direct electrophilic labelling in yields of 70 % and in a radiochemical purity of 99 %. In cell culture experiments using HTB-40 (human adenocarcinoma line), it was shown to be taken up by the DNA as well as the unlabelled fluorescence dye H 33258. Furthermore, its radiobiological activity was equal to that of the 125I-labelled H 33258, but markedly stronger than that of the 131I-labelled derivative. This suggests a mechanism for Auger-electron induced radiobiological activity as a novel therapeutical approach. p-[124]Iodophenylalanine and [124]iodo-α-methyltyrosine are two other compounds labelled with 124I that show potential for functional

  1. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  2. 13 CFR 124.107 - What is potential for success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... its business plan as a Participant; (iv) The applicant has a record of successful performance on... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is potential for success? 124.107 Section 124.107 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a)...

  3. 28 CFR 12.4 - Inquiries concerning application of act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inquiries concerning application of act. 12.4 Section 12.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF CERTAIN PERSONS... submitted, including the identity of the person on whose behalf the inquiry is made, the facts which...

  4. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971,...

  5. 42 CFR 411.124 - Administrator's review of hearing decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 411.124 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Payment for Services Covered Under Group Health Plans: General Provisions § 411.124 Administrator's...

  6. 42 CFR 417.124 - Administration and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to organize, plan, control and evaluate the financial, marketing, health services, quality assurance... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and management. 417.124 Section 417.124 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 42 CFR 483.124 - FFP for specialized services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for specialized services. 483.124 Section 483... Screening and Annual Review of Mentally Ill and Mentally Retarded Individuals § 483.124 FFP for specialized services. FFP is not available for specialized services furnished to NF residents as NF services....

  8. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  9. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and antihaemostatic activity of 1,2,4-triazoles incorporating 1,2,4-triazine rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra R Kamble; Belgur S Sudha

    2006-03-01

    A simple and high yielding method for the integration of a 1,2,4-triazole ring with 1,2,4-triazine- 5-one (4a-j) has been developed starting from 3-arylsydnones (1a-d). The structures were proved by their spectral data and screened for antihaemostatic activity.

  11. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  12. Arsenic-cadmium interaction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barriga, F; Llamas, E; Mejía, J J; Carrizales, L; Santoyo, M E; Vega-Vega, L; Yáñez, L

    1990-11-01

    Simultaneous exposure to cadmium and arsenic is highly probable in the urban area of San Luis Potosi, Mexico due to common localization of copper and zinc smelters. Therefore, in this work, rats were intraperitoneally exposed either to cadmium or arsenic alone, or simultaneously to both metals. The effects of these treatments on three different toxicological parameters were studied. Cadmium modified the LD50 of arsenic and conversely arsenic modified the LD50 for cadmium. At the histopathological level, arsenic appeared to protect against the cadmium effects, especially on testes. This protective effect seemed to be related to the glutathione levels found in this tissue: rats exposed to both arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values intermediate to those observed after exposure to either metal alone; arsenic had the highest value and cadmium the lowest. In liver, rats exposed to arsenic, cadmium or arsenic and cadmium, presented glutathione values below those in the saline group, with the lowest value corresponding to the arsenic and cadmium treatment. The results appear to support the proposed interaction between arsenic and cadmium and coexposure to both metals seems to alter certain effects produced by either metal alone. PMID:2219140

  13. Determination of cadmium in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Katrin; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Drexler, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of cadmium concentrations in biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), but also electrochemical methods, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The predominant sample matrices include blood, plasma, serum, and urine, as well as hair, saliva, and tissue of kidney cortex, lung, and liver. While cadmium in blood reveals rather the recent exposure situation, cadmium in urine reflects the body burden and is an indicator for the cumulative long term exposure.After chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the human body and causes kidney diseases, especially lesions of proximal tubular cells. A tubular proteinuria causes an increase in urinary excretion of microproteins. Excretions of retinol binding protein (RBP), β2-microglobulin (β2-M), and α1-microglobulin are validated biomarkers for analyzing cadmium effects. For this purpose, immunological procedures such as ELISA, and radio- and latex-immunoassays are used.However, proteinuria is not specific to cadmium, but can also occur after exposure to other nephrotoxic agents or due to various kidney diseases. In summary, cadmium in urine and blood are the most specific biomarkers of cadmium exposure. A combination of parameters of exposure (cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine) and parameters of effect (e.g., β2-M, RBP) is required to reveal cadmium-induced nephrological effects. PMID:23430771

  14. Iodine-124: A Promising Positron Emitter for Organic PET Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Koehler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in vivo has evolved into an important diagnostic tool in modern nuclear medicine and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET is currently the most sophisticated molecular imaging methodology, mainly due to the unrivalled high sensitivity which allows for the studying of biochemistry in vivo on the molecular level. The most frequently used radionuclides for PET have relatively short half-lives (e.g. 11C: 20.4 min; 18F: 109.8 min which may limit both the synthesis procedures and the time frame of PET studies. Iodine-124 (124I, t1/2 = 4.2 d is an alternative long-lived PET radionuclide attracting increasing interest for long term clinical and small animal PET studies. The present review gives a survey on the use of 124I as promising PET radionuclide for molecular imaging. The first part describes the production of 124I. The second part covers basic radiochemistry with 124I focused on the synthesis of 124I-labeled compounds for molecular imaging purposes. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook on the future prospective of using the long-lived positron emitter 124I in the field of organic PET chemistry and molecular imaging.

  15. Iodine-124: a promising positron emitter for organic PET chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Lena; Gagnon, Katherine; McQuarrie, Steve; Wuest, Frank

    2010-04-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in vivo has evolved into an important diagnostic tool in modern nuclear medicine and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is currently the most sophisticated molecular imaging methodology, mainly due to the unrivalled high sensitivity which allows for the studying of biochemistry in vivo on the molecular level. The most frequently used radionuclides for PET have relatively short half-lives (e.g. 11C: 20.4 min; 18F: 109.8 min) which may limit both the synthesis procedures and the time frame of PET studies. Iodine-124 (124I, t1/2 = 4.2 d) is an alternative long-lived PET radionuclide attracting increasing interest for long term clinical and small animal PET studies. The present review gives a survey on the use of 124I as promising PET radionuclide for molecular imaging. The first part describes the production of 124I. The second part covers basic radiochemistry with 124I focused on the synthesis of 124I-labeled compounds for molecular imaging purposes. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook on the future prospective of using the long-lived positron emitter 124I in the field of organic PET chemistry and molecular imaging. PMID:20428073

  16. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  17. 47 CFR 76.124 - Requirements for invocation of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.124 Requirements for invocation of protection. For a television broadcast station licensee or distributor of syndicated programming to be eligible to invoke the provisions of §...

  18. 1,2,4-triazine derivatives: Synthesis and biological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arshad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,4-Triazines are the six membered heterocyclic compounds possessing three nitrogen in its structure with general formula C3H3N3. 1,2,4-Triazines and its derivatives have been found to exhibit the variety of biological applications such as antifungal, anti-HIV, anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic and antihypertensive, cardiotonic, neuroleptic, nootropic, antihistaminergic, tuberculostatic, antiviral, anti-protozoal, estrogen receptor modulators, antimalarial, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities.

  19. 1,2,4-triazine derivatives: Synthesis and biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Arshad; Taki Ahmed Khan; Meraj Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazines are the six membered heterocyclic compounds possessing three nitrogen in its structure with general formula C3H3N3. 1,2,4-Triazines and its derivatives have been found to exhibit the variety of biological applications such as antifungal, anti-HIV, anticancer, antiinflammatory, analgesic and antihypertensive, cardiotonic, neuroleptic, nootropic, antihistaminergic, tuberculostatic, antiviral, anti-protozoal, estrogen receptor modulators, antimalarial, cyclin-dependent kinase inh...

  20. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Cosson, Richard; Gallien, Isabelle; Caurant, Florence; Miramand, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience The high concentrations of cadmium recorded in the digestive gland of cephalopods from various temperate and subpolar waters suggest that these molluscs have developed efficient cadmium detoxification mechanisms. The subcellular distribution of cadmium in the digestive gland cells was investigated in seven cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (France) and the Faroe Islands. In most species, cadmium was mainly found in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive glan...

  1. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Brian G.; L. Joseph Su; Rood, Jennifer C.; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney c...

  3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  4. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...... of remediation. Further removal of cadmium could be possible with longer remediation time or a higher current density...

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium ...

  6. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  7. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  8. Production of iodine-124 and its applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, iodine-124 was not considered to be an attractive isotope for medical applications owing to its complex radioactive decay scheme, which includes several high-energy gamma rays. However, its unique chemical properties, and convenient half-life of 4.2 days indicated it would be only a matter of time for its frequent application to become a reality. The development of new medical imaging techniques, especially improvements in the technology of positron emission tomography (PET), such as the development of new detectors and signal processing electronics, has opened up new prospects for its application. With the increasing use of PET in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics, and drug metabolism, 124I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are now becoming one of the most useful tools for PET imaging, and owing to the convenient half-life of I-124, they can be used in PET scanners far away from the radionuclide production site. Thus far, the limited availability of this radionuclide has been an impediment to its wider application in clinical use. For example, sodium [124I]-iodide is potentially useful for diagnosis and dosimetry in thyroid disease and [124I]-M-iodobenzylguanidine ([124I]-MIBG) has enormous potential for use in cardiovascular imaging, diagnosis, and dosimetry of malignant diseases such as neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and carcinoids. However, despite that potential, both are still not widely used. This is a typical scenario of a rising new star among the new PET tracers. - Highlights: • Improve the discussion and disseminate the knowledge of recent advances in nuclear medicine. • Stimulate the offer of alternative ways using the recent developed positron emitters. • Contribute to democratize the use of radiopharmaceuticals in developing countries. • Promote social benefit, starting a new era in diagnostic imaging in developing countries

  9. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  10. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 124I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of 124I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of 124I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of 124I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of natTeO2. These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl4 as precursor and water as solvent. The produced 124I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The 124I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na124I showed high quality PET imaging of the thyroid, with the maximum uptake at 6 h after injection. (author)

  11. Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, Dunwei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Jing 411, Jinmai 30 and Yangmai 10 were exposed to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 μM of CdCl2 in a solution culture experiment. The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on wheat growth, leaf photon energy conversion, gas exchange, and Cd accumulation in wheat...... parameters were generally depressed by Cd stress, especially under the high Cd concentrations. Cd concentration and accumulation in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd concentrations. Relationships between corrected parameters of growth, photosynthesis and fluorescence and corrected...

  12. Immunoassay for Cadmium Detection and Quantification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG-LIANG LIU; JU-FANG WANG; ZHI-YONG LI; SHI-ZHONG LIANG; XIAO-NING WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect cadmium in environmental and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Methods An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) was developed based on a cadmium-specific monoclonal antibody.IC-ELISA for cadmium in environmental and food samples was evaluated. Results IC-ELISA showed an IC50 of 45.6 μg/L with a detection limit of 1.95 μg/L for cadmium,and showed a mean recovery ranging 97.67%-107.08%.The coefficient of variations for intra- and iuterassay was 3.41%-6.61% and 4.70%-9.21%,respectively.The correlation coefficient between IC-ELISA and GFAAS was 0.998. Conclusion IC-ELISA can detect and quantify cadmium residue in environmental or food samples.

  13. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The ef

  14. Peculiarities of preparation of cadmium isotopes of high enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade equipped by gas centrifuges with regard for requirements to structural materials operating with chemically active compounds (dimethylcadmium) was devised for preparation of high-enriched cadmium isotopes. Solutions of such problems as overcoming of isotope memory, compensation of the effect of isotope overlapping, operative analytical accompanying permitted to optimize separation process and to obtain cadmium isotopes of high enrichment degree: cadmium-116 ∼98.9 %, cadmium-114 ∼98.7 %, cadmium-113 ∼93.3 %, cadmium-112 ∼99.1 %, cadmium-110 ∼95.8 %

  15. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation....

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  17. Bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yldisulfane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C4H4N6S2, was synthesized by the reaction of 3-mercapto-1H-1,2,4-triazole with sodium hydroxide in ethanol. The molecule possesses a crystallographically imposed twofold axis. Intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains along the c axis.

  18. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  19. Ozone Depletion Potentials of HCFC-123 and HCFC-124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepe, E. L.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Montreal Protocol has phased out most chlorinated and brominated compounds because of their great efficiency in depleting ozone in the stratosphere. Compounds such as CHCl2CF3 (HCFC-123) and CHClFCF3 (HCFC-124) are being used in commercial refrigeration units and have much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than the chlorofluorocarbons they replace. Despite their small resulting Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs), these compounds are still currently expected to be eliminated under the existing Protocol, but there remain questions about finding suitable replacements that would not have other environmental effects. The HCFC-123 and HCFC-124 model-calculated atmospheric lifetimes of 1.3 years and 5.8 years are much shorter compared to the 45 years of CCl3F (CFC-11). In this study, we have reevaluated these compounds with an updated version of the UIUC two-dimensional chemical transport model and with the MOZART (version 3) three-dimensional chemical-transport model. The new version of the two-dimensional model gives ODPs of 0.012 and 0.0125 for HCFC-123 and HCFC-124, respectively. The ODP for HCFC-123 agrees well with previously reported values while the ODP for HCFC-124 is much smaller than earlier estimates. These analyses along with those from the three-dimensional modeling studies will be discussed in the presentation.

  20. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  1. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  2. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain......Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...

  3. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  4. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that generalpopulations may...

  5. Some Aspects of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cell system is termed till today as the most reliable power pack for electronic apparatus specially in low temperature use. This paper brings out the development and production of sealed nickel cadmium cells of pocket plate construction. The author who has gained experience in production of Ni-Cd cells in East Germany discusses also the major problems faced by the battery manufactures of to-day.

  6. Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room temperature gamma-ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented

  7. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  8. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 oC), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO3 (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 oC was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples

  9. 13 CFR 124.1010 - What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What procedures apply to disadvantaged status protests? 124.1010 Section 124.1010 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS..., Certification, and Protests Relating to Federal Small Disadvantaged Business Programs § 124.1010 What...

  10. 31 CFR 12.4 - Distribution of free samples of tobacco products prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution of free samples of tobacco products prohibited. 12.4 Section 12.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.4 Distribution of free samples of tobacco products prohibited....

  11. 13 CFR 124.402 - How does a Participant develop a business plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business plan? 124.402 Section 124.402 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a... Development § 124.402 How does a Participant develop a business plan? (a) General. In order to assist the SBA... Participant must develop a comprehensive business plan setting forth its business targets, objectives,...

  12. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  13. Synthesis of new functionalized derivatives of indolo[2,3-e][1,2,4]-triazolo-[4,5-b]-1,2,4-triazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomha Sobhi M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New functionalized 1,2,4-triazolo-[4,3-b]-1,2,4-triazino-[5,6-b]indole derivatives were synthesized via reaction of the hydrazonoyl halides with 5H-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-3-thione or its 3-methylthio derivative. The mechanism and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions have been discussed.

  14. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  15. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  16. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator. PMID:24933906

  17. Neurophysiological defects and neuronal gene deregulation in Drosophila mir-124 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiang Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available miR-124 is conserved in sequence and neuronal expression across the animal kingdom and is predicted to have hundreds of mRNA targets. Diverse defects in neural development and function were reported from miR-124 antisense studies in vertebrates, but a nematode knockout of mir-124 surprisingly lacked detectable phenotypes. To provide genetic insight from Drosophila, we deleted its single mir-124 locus and found that it is dispensable for gross aspects of neural specification and differentiation. On the other hand, we detected a variety of mutant phenotypes that were rescuable by a mir-124 genomic transgene, including short lifespan, increased dendrite variation, impaired larval locomotion, and aberrant synaptic release at the NMJ. These phenotypes reflect extensive requirements of miR-124 even under optimal culture conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of cells from wild-type and mir-124 mutant animals, purified on the basis of mir-124 promoter activity, revealed broad upregulation of direct miR-124 targets. However, in contrast to the proposed mutual exclusion model for miR-124 function, its functional targets were relatively highly expressed in miR-124-expressing cells and were not enriched in genes annotated with epidermal expression. A notable aspect of the direct miR-124 network was coordinate targeting of five positive components in the retrograde BMP signaling pathway, whose activation in neurons increases synaptic release at the NMJ, similar to mir-124 mutants. Derepression of the direct miR-124 target network also had many secondary effects, including over-activity of other post-transcriptional repressors and a net incomplete transition from a neuroblast to a neuronal gene expression signature. Altogether, these studies demonstrate complex consequences of miR-124 loss on neural gene expression and neurophysiology.

  18. MicroRNA-124 suppresses growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting STAT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yanxin [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Yue, Xupeng [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Jufeng, E-mail: jfzhang111@163.com [Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Wang, KeWei, E-mail: wangkw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Neurobiology, Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Guangdong Province, Shenzhen 518036 (China); Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •miR-124 is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. •Over-expression of miR-124 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. •miR-124 inhibits xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. •STATs function as a novel target of miR-124 in HCC HepG2 cells. -- Abstract: The aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with development and progression of cancers. Down-regulation of miR-124 has been demonstrated in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanism by which miR-124 suppresses tumorigenesis in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-124 suppresses the tumor growth of HCC through targeting the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-124 binding to the 3′-UTR region of STAT3 inhibited the expression of STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins in HepG-2 cells. Knockdown of STAT3 by siRNA in HepG-2 cells mimicked the effect induced by miR-124. Overexpression of STAT3 in miR-124-transfected HepG-2 cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice implanted with HepG-2 cells by reducing STAT3 expression. Taken together, our findings show that miR-124 functions as tumor suppressor in HCC by targeting STAT3, and miR-124 may therefore serve as a biomarker for diagnosis and therapeutics in HCC.

  19. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  20. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  1. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  2. Estimation of cadmium exposure level for the residents in metal contaminative area%重金属污染区人群镉暴露水平的估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文丽; 韩京秀; 孙嘉龙; 姚丹成; 尚琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate situation of environmental cadmium pollution and exposure level of cadmium in general population.Methods Local self-seeded grain and vegetable sample were collected and detected for cadmium content.Dietary survey was carried out in the local resident at the same time.Results 833 samples and 124 samples were collected respectively from polluted area and control area.Three days diet survey were conducted in 546 residents.Cd contents of grains from polluted area are higher than that from control area.corn,rape,potato and kidney bean(dry) are the main food.Rape is the major source of dietary cadmium intake.Average daily Cd intake and cumulative Cd intake of residents in polluted area exceeded the limitation of the cadmium from food recommended by WHO,while control area is under the limit.Conclusion Self-seeded vegetable is the main media of cadmium intake for the local resident in cadmium contaminated area,cumulative Cd intake for male ≥ 55 years old and for female ≥ 65 years old had reached 2000mg,which is the threshold for health hazard recommended by WHO.%目的 了解环境镉污染状况和人群镉暴露水平.方法 采集当地自产粮食和蔬菜样品进行镉含量检测,同时开展人群膳食调查.结果 采集污染区样品833份,对照区样品124份,共完成546人的三日膳食调查.污染区农作物镉含量整体高于对照区.玉米、青菜、土豆和红芸豆是当地居民主要消费食物,青菜是膳食摄入镉的主要来源,污染区高年龄组居民日均摄镉量和累积镉摄入量均已超过WHO建议的允许最大限值,对照区居民未超过限值要求.结论 污染区居民镉暴露的主要介质是当地产蔬菜,男性55岁以上(女性65岁以上)人群累积镉暴露已达到WHO建议的健康危害阈值2000mg水平.

  3. On the effect of thallium additions on cadmium amalgam potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the influence of additives of thallium on potentials of cadmium amalgams with thallium contents of 10, 20, 30, and 40 at.% at 20, 40, 60, and 80 deg C. Additives of thallium have been found to shift the potential of cadmium amalgams towards the range of negative values which indicates an increase in the activity of cadmium. A possibility of calculation of the potential shift for heterogeneous cadmium amalgams on introducing thallium has been shown

  4. Fusion reactions of 58,64Ni+124Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtarossa, F.; Jiang, C. L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Esbensen, H.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz Calderon, S.; Avila, M. L.; Back, B. B.; Bourgin, D.; Corradi, L.; Courtin, S.; Fioretto, E.; Goasduff, A.; Haas, F.; Mazzocco, M.; Montanari, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Mijiatovic, T.; Sagaidak, R.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Scarlassara, F.; Strano, E.; Szilner, S.

    2016-05-01

    In order to better understand the influence of transfer in sub-barrier nuclear reactions, cross sections for the system 58,64Ni+124Sn have been measured down to 0.5-1 µb and compared to detailed coupledchannel calculations. In agreement with a phenomenological Q-value systematics, calculations show the importance of including the coupling to the transfer channel for these heavy systems. No clear evidence of fusion hindrance is observed, probably due to the fact that the cross sections measured in this experiment are not low enough for the appearance of that phenomenon.

  5. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  6. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  7. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell. PMID:26349455

  8. Cadmium-113m as a biogeochemical tracer for cadmium in Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lake Michigan watershed has been sampled for 113mCd. This long-lived metastable isotope of cadmium allowed independent evaluation of cadmium distribution in this dynamic ecosystem. 113mCd analysis was not hampered by contamination or loss. These are problems which have plagued stable cadmium measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were necessary concerns. 113mCd has been preconcentrated from large samples in order to obtain sufficient activity for quantification. Specificity for the gross beta activity measured was secured in a rigorous ion exchange decontamination. Confirmation of the suspected 113mCd beta source was checked by reverse tracer analysis and modified Feather analysis range-energy relationships. The 113mCd activities confirm the expected semiconservative behavior for cadmium. This behavior manifests itself in a long residence time for cadmium in Lake Michigan. The inefficiency of outflow removal, the low sedimentation rate and the unquantified sediment resuspension and release of cadmium are factors contributing to this residence time. Steady state concentration of cadmium in Lake Michigan will increase if present input rates persist

  9. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  10. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  11. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  12. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  13. Banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S I Torgova; T A Geivandova; O Francescangeli; A Strigazzi

    2003-08-01

    3,5-Disubstituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a new type of liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with asymmetrical five-membered heterocycle as a central unit. They have a bent shape and are very convenient model-compounds for studying the dependence of the LC properties on the molecular design. We have also synthesized and investigated ‘banana-shaped’ 1,2,4-oxadiazoles using the ester groups as the linkage units. The new compounds exhibit spontaneous polarization in the smectic phase, even if there is no chiral group in the molecules. Preliminary experimental data suggest the presence of spontaneous polarization in the nematic phase as well. In order to study the structural properties of the LC phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements on powder samples have been carried out. Based on the XRD data, a model of the structural arrangement of the bent molecules in the smectic phase is provided, which accounts for the macroscopic spontaneous polarization as well as the ferroelectric switching behavior.

  14. MicroRNA-124 loaded nanoparticles enhance brain repair in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C; Paiva, J; Santos, T; Ferreira, L; Bernardino, L

    2016-08-10

    Modulation of the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic niche can enhance brain repair in several disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, we used biocompatible and traceable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) containing perfluoro-1,5-crown ether (PFCE) and coated with protamine sulfate to complex microRNA-124 (miR-124), a neuronal fate determinant. The ability of NPs to efficiently deliver miR-124 and prompt SVZ neurogenesis and brain repair in PD was evaluated. In vitro, miR-124 NPs were efficiently internalized by neural stem/progenitors cells and neuroblasts and promoted their neuronal commitment and maturation. The expression of Sox9 and Jagged1, two miR-124 targets and stemness-related genes, were also decreased upon miR-124 NP treatment. In vivo, the intracerebral administration of miR-124 NPs increased the number of migrating neuroblasts that reached the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb, both in healthy and in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mouse model for PD. MiR-124 NPs were also able to induce migration of neurons into the lesioned striatum of 6-OHDA-treated mice. Most importantly, miR-124 NPs proved to ameliorate motor symptoms of 6-OHDA mice, monitored by the apomorphine-induced rotation test. Altogether, we provide clear evidences to support the use of miR-124 NPs as a new therapeutic approach to boost endogenous brain repair mechanisms in a setting of neurodegeneration. PMID:27269730

  15. Preparation and Imaging of [{sup 124}I]IPT, [{sup 124}I]{beta}-CIT, [{sup 124}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyo Chul; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    half-life radioisotope developed for PET such as I-124 (t{sub 1/2} = 4.18 days). Therefore, our interest in applying I-124 labeling dopamine transporter instead of I-123 labeled for solving problem with the quantity of using SPECT dopamine transporter imaging agent and the kinetics of short half-life positron emission radioisotope for PET.

  16. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  17. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  18. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of cadmium in lead amalgam dilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of thermodynamic properties of cadmium dilute solutions in lead amalgam is carried out by means of electromotive force technique within 453-523 K temperature range. Cadmium thermodynamic functions are calculated: activity, activity ratio, Libbs partial energy and its excess value and integral characteristics, respectively. When changing cadmium content from 0.01 up to 0.1 χcd at T=473 K, logarithm of activity ratio does not depend on alloy composition, that is, Heury's law is fulfilled. Increase of cadmium content in amalgam results in the essential reduction of mercury and cadmium reaction

  20. Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Kjellstrom, T.; Linnman, L.; Pershagen, G.

    1978-06-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the urine of 132 Swedes, including 50 pairs of identical twins, were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry procedures were developed for the analysis. Cadmium concentration increased with age and was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Estimated 24-hr excretion of cadmium among nonsmokers increased from about 0.25 to 0.40 ..mu..g in persons from 20 to 70 years old. The 24-hr cadmium excretions among nonsmokers in different age-groups fitted better to total kidney burden than to daily cadmium intake from food. Zinc excretion, on the other hand, decreased after the age of 20.

  1. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  2. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton".......Posteren viser resultater fra elektrokemiske rensningsforsøg på bioasker udført i forbindelse med PSO projekt 5205 "Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker i pilotskala og vurdering af mulighederne for nyttiggørelse af behandlet aske i beton"....

  3. Cadmium exposure and pancreatic cancer in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; Su, L Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  4. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  5. Study of cadmium electrochemical deposition in sulfate medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, T.; Solorza, O.; Sanchez, H.

    2000-03-01

    The cadmium electrochemical deposition process from sulfate medium was studied by means of different electrochemical techniques in both stationary and nonstationary diffusion regimes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reduction of cadmium on solid cadmium electrodes was examined and the kinetic parameters are presented, as well as the diffusion coefficient derived from the different techniques. Temperature has an important effect on the cadmium reduction kinetics, and the activation energy of the process was evaluated. The electrochemical deposition of cadmium is a complex process due to the coexistence of adsorption and nucleation processes; the adsorbed electroactive species appears to be Cd{sup +2}, and a mechanism for cadmium electrodeposition on solid cadmium electrodes is proposed.

  6. Evaluation of {sup 124}I PET/CT and {sup 124}I PET/MRI in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercle, Laurent; Deandreis, Desiree; Terroir, Marie; Leboulleux, Sophie; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy and University Paris Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    The work of Binse and colleagues points out that there are probably some research perspectives for the use of {sup 124}I PET/ CT and PET/MRI in patients with DTC. It shows that there is no substantial advantage of {sup 124}I PET/MRI over {sup 124}I PET/CT for the detection of tumour lesions in the neck when using similar PET devices. It confirms the superiority of {sup 124}I PET over CT and MRI for the detection of iodine-positive lesions. It demonstrates that the use of a more sensitive PET device and a longer acquisition time leads to the detection of more lesions. {sup 124}I PET is a promising research tool for pretherapy dosimetry, the evaluation of response to {sup 131}I treatment and the staging of recurrent or residual disease. The recognized advantages of MRI are the evaluation of aerodigestive tract lesions and suprahyoid region lesions. The coregistration of MRI and {sup 124}I PET/CT might thus be more convenient than {sup 124}I PET/ MRI (shorter time of acquisition, better cost-effectiveness and more accurate attenuation correction). The benefits of these procedures in terms of patient outcome, and for the clinician and the healthcare system remain to be determined.

  7. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  8. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  9. Urinary cadmium and estimated dietary cadmium in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Sabah M; Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin; Meliker, Jaymie R; Li, Wenjun; Luo, Juhua; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal dispersed in the environment as a result of industrial and agricultural applications, has been implicated in several human diseases including renal disease, cancers, and compromised bone health. In the general population, the predominant sources of cadmium exposure are tobacco and diet. Urinary cadmium (uCd) reflects long-term exposure and has been frequently used to assess cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies; estimated dietary intake of cadmium (dCd) has also been used in several studies. The validity of dCd in comparison with uCd is unclear. This study aimed to compare dCd, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, to uCd measured in spot urine samples from 1,002 participants of the Women's Health Initiative. Using linear regression, we found that dCd was not statistically significantly associated with uCd (β=0.006, P-value=0.14). When stratified by smoking status, dCd was not significantly associated with uCd both in never smokers (β=0.006, P-value=0.09) and in ever smokers (β=0.003, P-value=0.67). Our results suggest that because of the lack of association between estimated dCd and measured uCd, dietary estimation of cadmium exposure should be used with caution in epidemiologic studies.

  10. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucio Cascini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 124Iodine (124I with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  11. Isospin Character of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in 124Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, J; Savran, D; Butler, P A; Harakeh, M N; Harissopulos, S; Herzberg, R -D; Krücken, R; Lagoyannis, A; Pietralla, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Popescu, L; Ring, P; Scheck, M; Sonnabend, K; Stoica, V I; Wörtche, H J; Zilges, A; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.212503

    2010-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the proton-magic nucleus 124Sn with the (a,a'g) coincidence method at E=136 MeV. The comparison with results of photon-scattering experiments reveals a splitting into two components with different structure: one group of states which is excited in (a,a'g) as well as in (g,g') reactions and a group of states at higher energies which is only excited in (g,g') reactions. Calculations with the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle phonon model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and predict a low-lying isoscalar component dominated by neutron-skin oscillations and a higher-lying more isovector component on the tail of the giant dipole resonance.

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR CADMIUM IN PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction occurred where subsistence rice farmers produced their lifetime dietary rice on Zn-mine waste contaminated soils in Japan and other Asian countries. Research has shown that polished rice Cd is greatly increased while grain Zn is not incre...

  13. Field scale behaviour of cadmium in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhold, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Although total heavy metal contents of soil are often used to express the degree of contamination, they are of little value to judge environmental effects. The main objective of this thesis was to develop and test methodologies with which environmental risks of cadmium pollution of field soils can b

  14. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay content).The adsorption ap

  15. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  16. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  17. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  19. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  20. 34 CFR 300.124 - Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transition of children from the Part C program to preschool programs. 300.124 Section 300.124 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 22 CFR 124.12 - Required information in letters of transmittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 124.12 Section 124.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS... scope of the agreement. (3) A statement identifying the U.S. Government contract under which the... approval as constituting either approval or disapproval of any of the business terms or conditions...

  2. 13 CFR 124.501 - What general provisions apply to the award of 8(a) contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Pursuant to section 8(a) of the Small Business Act, SBA is authorized to enter into all types of contracts... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What general provisions apply to the award of 8(a) contracts? 124.501 Section 124.501 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  3. 13 CFR 124.403 - How is a business plan updated and modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business growth and promote profitable business operations after the expiration of its program term. (d... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is a business plan updated and modified? 124.403 Section 124.403 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  4. Synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolines and triazoles utilizing oxazolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rahman Shah Zaib; Tepe, Jetze J

    2010-06-18

    We describe herein a convenient method for the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolines using oxazolones and azodicarboxylates. Subsequent treatment of these 1,2,4-triazolines with NaOH provides efficient access to the corresponding triazoles. PMID:20481587

  5. 7 CFR 1955.124 - Sale with inventory real estate (chattel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale with inventory real estate (chattel). 1955.124 Section 1955.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM...

  6. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.124 - What are coach-class Seating Upgrade Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Seating Upgrade Programs? 301-10.124 Section 301-10.124 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Seating Upgrade Programs? Sometimes these programs are called “Coach Elite,” “Coach Plus,” “Preferred... upgrade options are not considered a new or higher class of accommodation since the seating is still...

  8. 29 CFR 794.124 - Computations on a fiscal year basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computations on a fiscal year basis. 794.124 Section 794... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS PARTIAL OVERTIME EXEMPTION... of Sales § 794.124 Computations on a fiscal year basis. Some enterprises operate on a fiscal...

  9. 22 CFR 124.9 - Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing license agreements. 124.9 Section 124.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements. (a) Clauses for all manufacturing license agreements. The following clauses must be included only in manufacturing license agreements:...

  10. 13 CFR 124.108 - What other eligibility requirements apply for individuals or businesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... crime involving business integrity. (5) If, during the processing of an application, SBA determines that... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other eligibility requirements apply for individuals or businesses? 124.108 Section 124.108 Business Credit and Assistance...

  11. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  12. Study on electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-xin; CUI Chong-wei; YU Shui-li; FENG Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    Kaolinite from a lead-zinc mining district, which was spiked with cadmium, has been treated by electrokinetics to investigate effects of treatment time and applied voltage gradient. The results showed that the increased test duration had induced a higher removal rate of cadmium. Being treated for 7 days, cadmium was removed from kaolinite dramatically. It was also found that higher removal rate happened when a higher voltage gradient was applied and cadmium accumulated near the cathode because pH increased. Increase of pH near the cathode caused accumulation of cadmium. Moreover, it was observed that cation exchange membrane which was placed between kaolinite and cathode could make pH lower than the initial value and avoid the higher pH near the cathode. As a result, the high concentration accumulation of cadmium near the cathode was avoided.

  13. Research and Development of Cadmium Sulphoselenide Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Kun; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; XU Xiaoyang; LAO Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphoselenide was synthesized continuous substitution solid solution and the only known pigment to yield bright red color on ceramic decoration. Encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide pigments could yield abundant hues from yellow to red with high opacity at high temperature. The color generation has a linear function relation with the substitution rate. The encapsulation formation process of zirconium silicate encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide was shown. Insufifcient encapsulation efifciency and potential hazard to human and environment had limited the industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment. Ink-jet printing decoration required ifne size cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment on ceramic decoration. The review mainly focused on the synthesis techniques and industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment.

  14. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  15. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  16. Oral cadmium exposure of adults in Germany. 1: Cadmium content of foodstuffs and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Anke, M; Hartmann, E; Illing-Günther, H

    1996-04-01

    The cadmium contents of 94 and 105 foodstuffs bought in six-fold repetition in 1988 and in nine-fold repetition in 1991, respectively were analysed within the framework of a market-basket study. These foodstuffs were typical of German eating habits. Additionally, 170 samples of drinking water were investigated. The cadmium concentrations of the foodstuffs were comparable with results of recent studies carried out in Europe and North America. Fruit, milk and dairy products, sugar and sugar-rich foodstuffs as well as beverages showed mean cadmium contents cakes and pastries as well as farinaceous products were within the range of 20-40 ng/g. The most important bread, cakes and pastries (wheat and rye bread, toasted bread, rolls) contained 25-35 ng/g. A median cadmium concentration of 0.2 micrograms/l was found in the drinking water. As expected, liver and kidneys showed the highest cadmium levels of 73 and 204 ng/g, respectively on average. PMID:8718751

  17. Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity, due to these reports this study reviewed relevant literature on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity with emphasis on doses, route of administration, salt forms (cadmium compounds and the roles of mitigating agents. Reports have shown that continuous exposure of the liver to cadmium has led to hepatotoxicity. Humans are generally exposed to cadmium by two main routes, inhalation and ingestion. In this study, evaluation of relevant literature showed that irrespective of route of administration and salt forms cadmium hepatotoxicity is dose and time dependent. Cadmium associated hepatotoxicity manifested through impaired functions of hepatic biomarkers (transaminases, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological damage to liver architecture manifested as swelling of hepatocytes, focal necrosis, hepatocytes degeneration, dilatation of ribosomes, damage of membrane-bounded lysosomes, nuclear pyknosis and cytoplasm vacuolization. Deterioration of mitochondrial cristae, deposition of collagen fibrils, hypertrophy of kuffer cells, congestion in central veins and sinusoids, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage also occurred. Hepatotoxic effect of cadmium was mitigated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Manganese (11 Chloride, N-acetylcysteine and Selenium. Extracts of plant origin including Solanum tuberosum, Calycopteris floribunda Hibiscus sabdariffa mitigated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. Chemical substances of animal origin including honey and camel milk were reported to have ameliorated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms of cadmium induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be associated with the up regulation of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress which caused oxidative damage to lipid contents of membranes and direct liver injury. Conclusion cadmium is dose and time dependently hepatotoxic irrespective of route of administration

  18. Effect of pH of spray solution on the electrical properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis technique on glass at 375 °C substrate temperature. The pH of the spray solution was varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid in the spray solution. The XRD pattern showed cubic phase. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10−4 Ω cm (with carrier concentration (n) = 5.1 × 1020 cm−3, mobility (µ)=12.4 cm2/Vs) is observed for pH ∼12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70 %. Thus, without any doping, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of spray solution without compromising the transparency and keeping the other deposition parameters fixed

  19. Effect of pH of spray solution on the electrical properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodlur, R. M.; Gunnagol, Raghu M.; Rabinal, M. K., E-mail: mkrabinal@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka (India)

    2015-06-24

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis technique on glass at 375 °C substrate temperature. The pH of the spray solution was varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid in the spray solution. The XRD pattern showed cubic phase. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm (with carrier concentration (n) = 5.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, mobility (µ)=12.4 cm{sup 2}/Vs) is observed for pH ∼12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70 %. Thus, without any doping, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of spray solution without compromising the transparency and keeping the other deposition parameters fixed.

  20. Extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, A.N.; Malyarova, M.A.; Zhulenko, V.N.

    1986-06-01

    As a result of industrial discharges, burning of solid and liquid fuels, and recycling of metal scrap, cadmium compounds enter the atmosphere and drop into the water and soil causing contamination. In this paper, a method was developed for determining cadmium in meat products. It involves wet ashing the sample, extractive separation of the cadmium as the diethyldithiocarbamate, reextraction, and determination as cadmium dithizonate or as a complex with 2,2'-dipyridyl. The detection limit with dithizone is 0.005 mg/kg and with 2,2'-dipyridyl 0.05 mg/kg. An analysis is shown to take less than 60 minutes.

  1. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  2. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Effects of Cadmium on BMP Induced Bone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 徐顺清

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the direct effects of cadmium on activities of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a complex containing BMP and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was implanted beneath the abdominal skin of young male Wistar rats. The activity of BMP was studied by observing the histological changes, and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) and calcium content of the implants at different time points. Our results showed that during bone formation induced by BMP, cadmium inhibited the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and slowed the deposition of calcium. It is concluded that cadmium can directly affect biological activities of BMP directly.

  4. β—Correction Spectrophotometric Determination of Cadmium with Cadion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜洪文

    1995-01-01

    Cadmium has been determined by β-correction spectrophotometry with cadion,p-nitrobenzenediazoaminoaz-obenzone,and a non-ionic surfactant,tuiton X-100.The real absorbance of a Cd-cadion chelate in the colored solution can be accurately determined and the complex-ratio of cadion with Cd(II) has been worked out to be 2.Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0-0.20mg/1 cadmium and the detec-tion limit for cadmium is only 0.003mg/1.Satisfactory experimental results are presented with respect to the determination of trace cadmium in wastewaters.

  5. Toroidal, compression, and vortical dipole strengths in 124Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Kvasil, J; Repko, A; Kleinig, W; Reinhard, P -G; Iudice, N Lo

    2012-01-01

    The toroidal, compression and vortical dipole strength functions in semi-magic $^{124}$Sn (and partly in doubly-magic $^{100,132}$Sn) are analyzed within the random-phase-approximation method with the SkT6, SkI3, SLy6, SV-bas, and SkM* Skyrme forces. The isoscalar (T=0), isovector (T=1), and electromagnetic ('elm') channels are considered. Both convection $j_c$ and magnetization $j_m$ nuclear currents are taken into account. The calculations basically confirm the previous results obtained for $^{208}$Pb with the force SLy6. In particular, it is shown that the vortical and toroidal strengths are dominated by $j_c$ in T=0 channel and by $j_m$ in T=1 and 'elm' channels. The compression strength is always determined by $j_c$. It is also shown that the 'elm' strength (relevant for (e,e') reaction) is very similar to T=1 one. The toroidal mode resides in the region of the pygmy resonance. So, perhaps, this region embraces both irrotational (pygmy) and vortical (toroidal) flows.

  6. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 124Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanal Vandana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mass and nature of neutrinos play an important role in theories beyond the standard model. The nuclear β decay and double beta decay can provide the information on absolute effective mass of the neutrinos, which would represent a major advance in our understanding of particle physics. At present, neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0νββ, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. An essential criterion for detector design is the high energy resolution for a precision measurement of the sum energy of two electrons emitted in 0νββ decay. The low temperature bolometric detectors are ideally suited for this purpose. In India, efforts have been initiated to search for 0νββ in 124Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO. A custom built cryogen free dilution refrigerator has been installed at TIFR, Mumbai for the development of Sn prototype bolometer. A base temperature of 10 mK has been achieved in this setup. This paper gives a brief description of efforts towards Sn bolometer development.

  7. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    Hosliggende rapport formidler resultaterne fra PSO-projektet: ”Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker” (PSO-F&U 3206), finansieret af Elkraft System og Energi E2 A/S. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden 01.05.2003 – 30.06.2004, og partnerne var Energi E2 A/S, BYG-DTU og Krüger A/S, med...... BYG-DTU som den primært udførende part. Projektets formål var at undersøge, om den elektrodialytiske rensningsmetode kunne bruges til at reducere indholdet af cadmium i asker fra biobrændsel (f.eks. træflis og halm) med henblik på nyttiggørelse af askerne. Projektet havde nær sammenhæng med det...

  8. 老年癫痫124例临床研究%Clinical study on 124 cases of elderly epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪利; 李剑

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment methods of elderly epilepsy.Methods:124 patients with elderly epilepsy were selected from January 2013 to August 2014.As the clinical study objects,the patients were divided into the primary epilepsy group in 32 cases and the secondary epilepsy group in 92 cases according to the etiology.The patients in two groups were given antiepileptic drug monotherapy.The treatment effects of two groups were compared.Results:The treatment total effective rate of the primary epilepsy group was 78.13%,and the treatment total effective rate of the secondary epilepsy group was 89.13%.The treatment effect of the secondary epilepsy group was much better than that of the primary epilepsy group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Secondary epilepsy is the main disease type of elderly epilepsy,at the same time as the etiology is definite,so the treatment effect is better when giving antiepileptic drug monotherapy.%目的:探讨老年癫痫病的临床特点及治疗方法。方法:2013年1月-2014年8月收治老年癫痫患者124例,作为临床研究对象,根据病因将患者分为原发性癫痫组32例和继发性癫痫组92例。给予两组患者抗癫痫药物单药治疗,比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果:原发性癫痫组治疗总有效率78.13%,继发性癫痫组治疗总有效率89.13%,继发性癫痫组治疗效果明显优于原发性癫痫组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:继发性癫痫是老年癫痫的主要发病类型,同时由于病因明确,因此在给予抗癫痫药物单药治疗时取得的治疗效果更好。

  9. High-spin {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khatib, Ali

    2008-08-18

    rotational bands loose collectivity and, finally, when all nucleons outside the core have their spins aligned, the bands terminate. In the framework of this thesis, extensive spectroscopic investigations of three nuclei of the A {proportional_to}125 region, {sup 124}Ba, {sup 124}Xe and {sup 125}Xe, have been performed. These nuclei have been studied with the largest spectrometers available, Euroball and Gammasphere. The previously known level schemes of these nuclei have been extended substantially, both in the low- and high-spin regions. Many new rotational bands could be established. Lifetimes have been measured for several of the long large-deformation bands. The rotational structures, shape co-existence and band termination at high spins have been investigated. (orig.)

  10. Electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A previously developed program, which includes all electronic interactions thought to be important, does not correctly predict the value of electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride particularly near room temperature. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the way screening is handled. It seems likely that there are a number of contributors to errors in the calculation. The objective is to survey the calculation, locate reasons for differences between experiment and calculation, and suggest improvements.

  11. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; A. Gopala Reddy; G S Rao; Ravi Kumar, P.; D Srinivas Kumar; P Prabhu Prasadini

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods : A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed wi...

  12. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; Srivastava, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  13. Epigenetic inactivation of the miR-124-1 in haematological malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yeung Wong

    Full Text Available miR-124-1 is a tumour suppressor microRNA (miR. Epigenetic deregulation of miRs is implicated in carcinogenesis. Promoter DNA methylation and histone modification of miR-124-1 was studied in 5 normal marrow controls, 4 lymphoma, 8 multiple myeloma (MM cell lines, 230 diagnostic primary samples of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, MM, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, and 53 MM samples at stable disease or relapse. Promoter of miR-124-1 was unmethylated in normal controls but homozygously methylated in 4 of 4 lymphoma and 4 of 8 myeloma cell lines. Treatment of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine led to miR-124-1 demethylation and re-expression of mature miR-124, which also associated with emergence of euchromatic trimethyl H3K4 and consequent downregulation of CDK6 in myeloma cells harboring homozygous miR-124-1 methylation. In primary samples at diagnosis, miR-124-1 methylation was absent in CML but detected in 2% each of MM at diagnosis and relapse/progression, 5% ALL, 15% AML, 14% CLL and 58.1% of NHL (p<0.001. Amongst lymphoid malignancies, miR-124-1 was preferentially methylated in NHL than MM, CLL or ALL. In primary lymphoma samples, miR-124-1 was preferentially hypermethylated in B- or NK/T-cell lymphomas and associated with reduced miR-124 expression. In conclusion, miR-124-1 was hypermethylated in a tumour-specific manner, with a heterochromatic histone configuration. Hypomethylation led to partial restoration of euchromatic histone code and miR re-expression. Infrequent miR-124-1 methylation detected in diagnostic and relapse MM samples showed an unimportant role in MM pathogenesis, despite frequent methylation found in cell lines. Amongst haematological cancers, miR-124-1 was more frequently hypermethylated in NHL, and hence warrants further study.

  14. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  15. Cadmium biosorption rate in protonated Sargassum biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Biosorption of the heavy metal ion Cd{sup 2+} by protonated nonliving brown alga Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake of cadmium and the release of proton matched each other throughout the biosorption process. The end-point titration methodology was used to maintain the constant pH 4.0 for developing the dynamic sorption rate. The sorption isotherm could be well represented by the Langmuir sorption model. A mass transfer model assuming the intraparticle diffusion in a one-dimensional thin plate as a controlling step was developed to describe the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption mathematical model equations were solved numerically yielding the effective diffusion coefficient D{sub e} about 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. This value matches that obtained for the desorption process and is approximately half of that of the molecular diffusion coefficient for cadmium ions in aqueous solution.

  16. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  17. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  18. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Siswanto; Parinda Suksabye; Paitip Thiravetyan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N), Cd soils (Cds), and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP), coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm) and corncob (CC) under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatm...

  19. Influence of a high level of dietary cadmium on cadmium content in milk, excretion, and cow performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Lampp, B.; Powell, G.W.; Salotti, C.A.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1967-01-01

    Three Holstein cows were each given 3.0 g of cadmium daily (two equal doses) for two weeks by gelatin capsules. There was a sharp drop in concentrate consumption for the first few days of cadmium administration but, by the second week, consumption returned to normal. Milk production declined sharply for several days and then increased appreciably, but to a level still substantially lower than that of controls during the last five days cadmium was given. When cadmium treatments ceased, milk production increased by 50%. Fat content of milk was elevated considerably during the week when production was most reduced. Cows given cadmium lost considerable weight. There were no other clinical manifestations of toxicity. As determined by the chromic oxide indicator method and twice-daily grab samples, fecal excretion of cadmium for the second week averaged 82% of that given. The cadmium level in the urine was below the limits of detectability of the method (0.5 ppm of urine). The cadmium content of the milk was less than 0.1 ppm of the milk, which was the lower reliability limit of the procedure used. On this basis less than 0.22% of the amount administered appeared in the milk. In vitro studies demonstrated that cadmium combines with the casein and whey protein fractions of the milk readily, with the amount combined being linear when levels from 1.0 to 25.0 ppm are added to milk. Smaller amounts were present in the lactose and mineral fractions.

  20. Cadmium sulfate complexing with thiourea during preparation of cadmium sulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of complexes deposited from cadmium sulfate and thiourea(TU) aqueous solution is studied. Its influence on cadmium sulfide film deposition during solution spraying is ascertained. It is shown that with increase of TU concentration in aqueous solution gradual substitution of TU molecules for the first sphere SO42- ions takes place. As a result CdS deposition from these solutions is initiated when the ratio of CdSO4:TU concentrations is 1:2 and for prepartation of uniform films a five-fold TU excess as a minimum is necessary

  1. Micro RNA-124a Regulates Lipolysis via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Comparative Gene Identification 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K. Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of cellular triacylglycerol (TG. Lipolytic TG breakdown is a central metabolic process leading to the generation of free fatty acids (FA and glycerol, thereby regulating lipid, as well as energy homeostasis. The precise tuning of lipolysis is imperative to prevent lipotoxicity, obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders. Here, we present our finding that miR-124a attenuates RNA and protein expression of the major TG hydrolase, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2 and its co-activator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58/ABHD5. Ectopic expression of miR-124a in adipocytes leads to reduced lipolysis and increased cellular TG accumulation. This phenotype, however, can be rescued by overexpression of truncated Atgl lacking its 3'UTR, which harbors the identified miR-124a target site. In addition, we observe a strong negative correlation between miR-124a and Atgl expression in various murine tissues. Moreover, miR-124a regulates the expression of Atgl and Cgi-58 in murine white adipose tissue during fasting as well as the expression of Atgl in murine liver, during fasting and re-feeding. Together, these results point to an instrumental role of miR-124a in the regulation of TG catabolism. Therefore, we suggest that miR-124a may be involved in the regulation of several cellular and organismal metabolic parameters, including lipid storage and plasma FA concentration.

  2. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  3. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  4. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  5. MicroRNA-124 inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion by targeting Ets-1 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Zang, Wenqiao; Liu, Pei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yuwen; Chen, Xiaonan; Deng, Meng; Sun, Wencong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhai, Baoping

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that, by targeting certain messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or cleavage, can regulate the expression of these genes. In addition, miRNAs may also function as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, as the abnormal expression of miRNAs is associated with various human tumors. However, the effects of the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer remain unclear. The present study was conducted to study the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer, paying particular attention to miR-124's relation to the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to identify miR-124 that was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. We also showed E26 transformation specific-1 (Ets-1) and miR-124 expression levels in breast cancer tissues that were associated with lymph node metastases. With transfected synthetic miR-124 agomir into MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, a significant reduction (P Ets-1 as a potential major target gene of miR-124, and the result showed that miR-124 can bind to putative binding sites within the Ets-1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) to reduce its expression. Based on these findings, we propose that miR-124 and Ets-1 may serve as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer.

  6. An image quality approach for optimizing {sup 124}I PET imaging on Siemens Inveon PET Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, A Ram; Kim, Jin Su; An, Gwang Il; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Park, Ji Ae; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Joung [College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    {sup 124}I has a long half life of 4.2 days that is suitable for imaging over several days during the biological uptake and washout of radioiodine. However {sup 124}I has a low positron branching ratio (23%). High-energy {gamma}- photons (602 keV to 1,326 keV) are emitted in cascade with the positrons. These cascade {gamma}- photons degrade the image quality. To find optimal parameter, image quality of the Inveon {sup 124}I PET scanner with various energy window settings was measured based on the NEMA NU4-standars and compared with those of {sup 18}F PET

  7. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  8. 13 CFR 124.513 - Under what circumstances can a joint venture be awarded an 8(a) contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... joint venture be awarded an 8(a) contract? 124.513 Section 124.513 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...) Business Development Contractual Assistance § 124.513 Under what circumstances can a joint venture be... the purpose of performing one or more specific 8(a) contracts. (2) A joint venture agreement...

  9. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  10. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., migrant health centers and certain National Health Service Corps sites. 124.515 Section 124.515 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and... migrant health center under section 329 of the Act is in substantial compliance with the terms...

  11. Drikkevands optagelse af cadmium og bly fra armaturer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.

    Notatet omfatter rapporter fra to forsøgsrækker vedr. brugsvands optagelse af bly og cadmium. Den første omhandler brugsvandsarmaturers afgivelse af bly og cadmium til syntetisk brugsvand med en sammensætning svarende til en sur, blød vandtype. Forsøgene omfatter 10 armaturer og armaturdele...

  12. Cadmium-induced ectopic apoptosis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Po Kwok; Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cadmium-induced developmental toxicity was mediated via ectopic occurrence of apoptosis during embryonic development. We employed confocal microscopy to acquire images of whole-mount staining of apoptotic cells in zebrafish embryo exposed to 100 {mu}M cadmium from 5 hours post fertilisation (hpf) to 28 hpf. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the images was performed and the spatial and temporal distributions of apoptotic cells in the embryos were compared. In cadmium-treated embryos with varying degrees of gross developmental malformations, significantly higher numbers of apoptotic cells were detected with this method. In order to detect the precise locations of apoptotic cells, we performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay in sectioned embryos. In the degenerating neural tube of cadmium-treated embryos apoptotic cells were detected, while in the healthy neural tube of the untreated controls no apoptotic cells were found. We then employed flow cytometry to investigate whether cadmium exposure would affect the dynamics of apoptosis or induce any abnormalities in cell-cycle progression. It appeared that cadmium did not induce cell-cycle arrest. The percentages of apoptotic cells did not differ in the two groups at 13, 16 or 19 hpf. At 28 hpf, however, a significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells were found in the cadmium-treated group. Exposure to cadmium, therefore, induced ectopic apoptosis at 28 hpf without affecting the dynamics of apoptosis at earlier developmental stages. (orig.)

  13. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  14. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...

  15. Electrolytic indium refining from cadmium in glycerine electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations directed on development of electrochemical indium cleaning from cadmium in glycerine base electrolyte are presented. Optimal operational conditions, specific consumption of reactants and electric power are determined. Relationship between variation of concentration of cadmium impurity in refined metal and duration of electrolysis is revealed. The method for determination of cleaning time is proposed. Developed process was put into commercial operation

  16. Method of making a thin film cadmium telluride solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for making a photovoltaic cell is described comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a transparent or semi-transparent conductive window layer onto a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of cadmium telluride including phosphorus onto the window layer; (c) depositing a layer of lead telluride onto the layer of cadmium telluride; and (d) depositing a metallic electrode onto the lead telluride layer

  17. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  18. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  19. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure to Cadmium on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezanzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds andObjectives:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of environmental exposure to toxic metal (cadmium on pregnancy outcome and fetal growth."nMaterials and Methods: 330 normal pregnant women were randomly selected from vali-e-asr hospital, from July 2003 through Feb. 2005. Cadmium was measured in umbilical cord blood and mother whole blood of postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry"nResult: Whole blood cadmium and cord blood cadmium ranged from 0/00 to 6/30 μg/L ,respectivly. in the group higher level of maternal blood cadmium (> 0.40 μg/L 1cm decrease was seen in neonatal birth height. (p = 0.007 There was a significant association between cadmium exposure and birth weight.Mann-whitney test showed that, maternal blood cadmium level, was significantly negatively associated with neonatal birth weight (z = -1.83, P < 0.06."nConclusion: It was concluded that environmental exposure to cadmium significantly reduces neonatal birth height.

  1. Risk of overestimation of urinary cadmium concentrations: interference from molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas A.I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show here that the selection of analytical method is critical when measuring low levels of cadmium in human urine. Cadmium is today usually analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, which has a higher sensitivity than Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. ICP-MS cadmium measurements show interference from tin (114Sn and molybdenum oxides, which can result in an overestimation of cadmium levels. The 114Sn interference is stable and can be mathematically corrected. Molybdenum concentrations in urine are variable and different from individual to individual. We have estimated the degree of error which molybdenum interference introduces in the measurement of cadmium in urine by conventional ICP-MS. 268 urine samples from mothers and their children were measured. Removal of the molybdenum oxide interference (DRC-ICP-MS method reduced urinary cadmium concentrations significantly (47.8%. The urinary molybdenum concentration in children was higher than in their mothers, resulting in greater overestimation. Our results clearly show that the DRC method is essential for reliable measurements of urinary cadmium concentrations, particularly in children. Furthermore, care should be taken when comparing Human Biomonitoring data for cadmium in urine and attention should be paid to which analytical method has been used (e.g. AAS and ICP-Ms, and especially if the measurements have been corrected for molybdenum interference.

  2. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. I-124 production using nanomaterials and its biodistribution in animals; Producao de I-124 com uso de nanomateriais e sua biodistribuicao em animais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braghirolli, Ana Maria Silveira

    2014-07-01

    Iodine-124 is a positron emitter with physical half-life of 4.2 days. Its decay occurs by positron emission (23.3%) and electron capture (76.7%). Their physical and chemical characteristics make it an attractive isotope for medical applications. The development of new imaging techniques, improvements in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), the development of new detectors and computational methods of signal processing, open new perspectives for its application. The increasing use of PET technology in medical oncology, pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism, make the radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 124}I a tool of great interest and usefulness. The use of {sup 124}I - labeled molecules stands out particularly due to the convenient half-life of {sup 124}I. This feature enables diagnostic imaging in PET centers far away from the radionuclides producing center. Within this context, this work presents a method for the production and separation of {sup 124}I. This method is innovative and pioneering in the country. It is based on the development and use of nanostructured targets of {sup nat}TeO{sub 2}. These targets are irradiated in a charged particles accelerator, with variable energy, the IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. The irradiations are performed with 24 MeV, initial energy, proton beams. In the preparation of nanoparticulated targets the highlight was the simplicity of the method that uses the sol-gel technique for obtaining nanoparticles, TeCl{sub 4} as precursor and water as solvent. The produced {sup 124}I was separated from the target material by dry distillation and trapped in a NaOH solution (0.02 M), in an automated system. The thick target yield was 6.81 MBq/μAh, and the synthesis yield was 90%. The {sup 124}I obtained was then used in preliminary biodistribution studies. These studies were performed on a micro PET, model Lab PET 4 of the CDTN, in Swiss type mice. The results of the application of Na{sup 124}I showed high quality PET imaging of the

  4. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het cadmiumgehalt

  5. SORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF BIOSOLIDS AND CADMIUM SALT AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosolids and Cd salt-amended soils were collected from a long-term field experiment established in 1976. Cadmium sorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with biosolids, Cd salt, and unamended soils (control). The organic carbon (OC) of soils ...

  6. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium metallothionein in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.In short, the main source of environmental exposure to cadmium for no

  7. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  8. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  9. Cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite as affected by glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; LUO Xiao-san; SUN Rui-juan; CHEN Huai-man

    2004-01-01

    Behaviors of soil heavy metals are often affected by coexisting herbicides due to their physical and chemical interaction. Effect of glyphosate, an herbicide containing -PO32- and -COOH groups, on cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite was studied in detail. The results showed that cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite increased with increasing soil solution pH and cadmium concentration as usual, but decreased with glyphosate, which is due to the formation of a low affinity complex of Cd and glyphosate and decreasing solution pH induced by glyphosate addition. When the equilibrium solution pH was below 6.7, glyphosate has little effect on cadmium adsorption, but when the equilibrium solution pH was above 6.7, glyphosate significantly decreased cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite. In addition, the adding order of Cd and glyphosate also influenced Cd adsorption quantity in montmorillonite.

  10. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the cadmium and copper content inherent to metallothionein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspor, B.; Kozar, S.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research Zagreb, P.O.B. 1016, HR-10 001 Zagreb (Croatia)

    1998-05-01

    The reliability of the voltammetric determination of the cadmium and copper content (at pH 1.0), inherent to metallothionein (MT) isolated from the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis, was investigated. An artifact signal enhancement of copper, caused by the cupric-thionein complex adsorption at the mercury electrode, was established. This artifact was removed by UV-digestion of the sample for 15-20 h prior to analysis. A similar artifact was not detected for cadmium, because at this pH the cadmium-thionein complex has dissociated, and cadmium exists in the ionic form. Therefore, the voltammetric analysis of the cadmium content can be performed directly at pH 1.0, without prior UV-digestion of the sample. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  12. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  13. 1,2,4-Triazine N-oxides and their annelated derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the synthesis and properties of 1,2,4-triazine N-oxides and their annelated derivatives. Methods for the incorporation of the N-oxide group in the 1,2,4-triazine ring by direct oxidation and cyclisation involving nitro, nitroso, and isonitroso groups are discussed. Reactions of 1,2,4-triazine N-oxides with electrophiles, nucleophiles, and dienophiles are considered. The effect of the N-oxide group on the chemical shifts in the 1H, 13C, and 14N NMR spectra and the specific features of decomposition of 1,2,4-triazine N-oxides under electron impact are analysed. The bibliography includes 107 references.

  14. Expression of miR-124 inhibits growth of medulloblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Silber, Joachim; Hashizume, Rintaro; Felix, Tristan; Hariono, Sujatmi; Yu, Mamie; Berger, Mitchel S.; Huse, Jason T.; VandenBerg, Scott R.; James, C. David; Hodgson, J Graeme; Gupta, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, and a substantial number of patients die as a result of tumor progression. Overexpression of CDK6 is present in approximately one-third of medulloblastomas and is an independent poor prognostic marker for this disease. MicroRNA (miR)-124 inhibits expression of CDK6 and prevents proliferation of glioblastoma and medulloblastoma cells in vitro. We examined the effects of miR-124 overexpression on medulloblastoma cells both in...

  15. Dual monitoring using 124I-FIAU and bioluminescence for HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is the most common reporter gene and is used in cancer gene therapy with a prodrug nucleoside analog, ganciclovir (GCV). The aim of this study is to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of suicide gene therapy with 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-[124I] iodouracil (124I - FIAU) and bioluminescence in retrovirally HSV -tk and firefly luciferase transduced hepatoma model. The HSV -tk and firefly luciferase (Luc) was retrovirally transduced and expressed in MCA rat Morris hepatoma cells. Nude mice with subcutaneous tumors, MCA and MCA-TK-Luc, were subjected to GCV treatment (50mg/Kg/d intraperitoneally) for 5 day. PET imaging and biodistribution with (124I-FIAU) were performed at before and after initiation of therapy with GCV. Bioluminescent signal was also measured during GCV treatment. Before GCV treatment, no significant difference in tumor volume was found in tumors between MCA and MCA-TK-Luc. After GCV treatment, tumor volume of MCA-TK-Luc markedly reduced compared to that of MCA. In biodistribution study, 124I-FIAU uptake after GCV therapy significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels (34.8 13.67 %ID/g vs 7.6 2.59 %ID/g) and bioluminescent signal was also significantly decreased compared with pretreatment levels. In small animal PET imaging, 124I-FIAU selectively localized in HSV -tk expressing tumor and the therapeutic efficacy of GCV treatment was evaluated by 124I-FIAU PET imaging. 124I-FIAU PET and bioluminescence imaging in HSV-tk suicide gene therapy were effective to evaluate the therapeutic response. 124I-FIAU may serve as an efficient and selective agent for monitoring of transduced HSV1-tk gene expression in vivo in clinical trials

  16. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  17. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  18. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  19. Experimental study of the astrophysical gamma-process reaction 124Xe(alpha,gamma)128Ba

    CERN Document Server

    Halász, Z; Gyürky, Gy; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Zs; Szücs, T; Kiss, G G; Szegedi, N; Rauscher, T; Görres, J; Wiescher, M

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of heavy, proton rich isotopes in the astrophysical gamma-process proceeds through photodisintegration reactions. For the improved understanding of the process, the rates of the involved nuclear reactions must be known. The reaction 128Ba(g,a)124Xe was found to affect the abundance of the p nucleus 124Xe. Since the stellar rate for this reaction cannot be determined by a measurement directly, the aim of the present work was to measure the cross section of the inverse 124Xe(a,g)128Ba reaction and to compare the results with statistical model predictions. Of great importance is the fact that data below the (a,n) threshold was obtained. Studying simultaneously the 124Xe(a,n)127Ba reaction channel at higher energy allowed to further identify the source of a discrepancy between data and prediction. The 124Xe + alpha cross sections were measured with the activation method using a thin window 124Xe gas cell. The studied energy range was between E = 11 and 15 MeV close above the astrophysically relevant...

  20. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Fels-Klerx, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this

  1. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  2. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  3. Effect of 1,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the growth of human keratinocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matsumoto, K

    1990-02-01

    The effect of 1,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,24R(OH)2D3), a synthetic analogue of a biologically active form of vitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3), on the growth of human keratinocytes cultured in serum-free medium was investigated. The growth of cultured normal human keratinocytes was inhibited by 65% by 10(-8)M 1,24R(OH)2D3 and by 90% by 10(-7)M 1,24(OH)2D3. It inhibited cell growth almost completely at 10(-6)M. The DNA synthesis of keratinocytes was also inhibited with 1,24R(OH)2D3 by 27% at 10(-8)M, 59% at 10(-7)M, and 92% at 10(-6)M. The inhibition of cell growth and DNA synthesis were more remarkable by 1,24R(OH)2D3 than by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,24R(OH)2D3 also inhibited the growth of keratinocytes derived from patients with psoriasis vulgaris; the growth inhibitory effect was again more remarkable with 1,24R(OH)2D3 than with 1,25(OH)2D3. The viability and protein synthesis of keratinocytes were not affected by 1,24R(OH)2D3, suggesting that the growth inhibitory effect is due to its biological activity, not to cytotoxicity. The binding of [3H]-labeled 1,25(OH)2D3 to its receptor in the cytosolic fraction of cultured keratinocytes was competitively substituted by unlabeled 1,24R(OH)2D3 as well as 1,25(OH)2D3, suggesting that 1,24R(OH)2D3 binds to the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor. It was found that the affinity of 1,24R(OH)2D3 for the receptor was slightly higher than that of 1,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrate that 1,24R(OH)2D3 functions as a potent growth inhibitor in vitro in human keratinocytes from both normal and psoriatic epidermis, and it possesses a higher affinity for the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor in cultured human keratinocytes. The difference in affinity of 1,24R(OH)2D3 for the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor correlates with its greater inhibition of keratinocyte growth than 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,24R(OH)2D3 may be useful in the treatment of psoriasis.

  4. Influence of pH of spray solution on optoelectronic properties of cadmium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly conducting transparent cadmium oxide thin films were prepared by the conventional spray pyrolysis technique. The pH of the spray solution is varied by adding ammonia/hydrochloric acid. The effect of pH on the morphology, crystallinity and optoelectronic properties of these films is studied. The structural analysis showed all the films in the cubic phase. For the films with pH < 7 (acidic condition), the preferred orientation is along the (111) direction and for those with pH >7 (alkaline condition), the preferred orientation is along the (200) direction. A lowest resistivity of 9.9 × 10−4 Ω·cm (with carrier concentration = 5.1 × 1020 cm−3, mobility = 12.4 cm2/(V·s)) is observed for pH ≈ 12. The resistivity is tuned almost by three orders of magnitude by controlling the bath pH with optical transmittance more than 70%. Thus, the electrical conductivity of CdO films could be easily tuned by simply varying the pH of the spray solution without compromising the optical transparency. (paper)

  5. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  6. Cadmium Uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Vallarta Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01 showed a biphasic behavior, with an initial rapid passive cell wall interaction phase and a later slow intracellular cation uptake process. The cell wall uptake process followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km of the uptake system was 38.89 µM, a relatively high affinity Km value compared to other metal uptake systems. Fitting of experimental data to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms showed that binding of cadmium to the cell surface was monolayer and/or multilayer, although the monolayer adsorption was more probable, as exemplified by a high correlation coefficient. This could be explained by the presence of a strong primary binding site which was responsible for a monolayer adsorption and a weak secondary binding site which could be responsible for a multilayer adsorption. The uptake process was found to be relatively specific for cadmium. Equimolar amounts (200 µM of cobalt, nickel, magnesium, and copper did not significantly affect cadmium uptake. Synechococcus aquatilis Strain SY01 cells also showed an efflux mechanism for cadmium, although the amount of excluded cadmium was insignificant compared with the amount of adsorbed cadmium in the cell wall.

  7. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  8. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  9. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  10. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  11. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  12. Selenium protection from cadmium and chromium poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of selenium with cadmium and chromium was studied in 168 chicken-broilers (DWCxWR) divided into four equal groups. Eight-week old control animals received an intravenous dose of /sup 115m/Cd Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group I), or 51Cr Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group II). The kinetics of these isotopes were studied by scintillation spectrometry (NaI/TI) carried out for whole blood, plasma, plasma proteins, urine, feces and homogenates of all organs at various time intervals. Animals in Groups III and IV received eight subcutaneous doses of sodium selenate (5ug) at 8-week intervals prior to /sup 115m/Cd or 51Cr. The kinetics of these elements were studied as in the previous two groups. It was found that selenium affected those kinetics in two ways: (a) by increasing the excretion of Cd by 11 +/- 3% (P < 0.001) and that of Cr by 7 +/- 1% (P < 0.001); and (b) by favoring redistribution of those elements, with significant (P < 0.001) reductions in liver, endocrine glands and kidney and increases (P < 0.01) in bone. The study suggests that selenium protects the animals' vital organs from environmental pollutants, such as cadmium and chromium

  13. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  15. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  16. Cadmium biosorption by baker’s yeast in aqueous suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Tálos Katalin; Pernyeszi Tímea; Majdik Cornelia; Hegedűsova Alzbeta; Páger Csilla

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of cadmium from artificial aqueous solutions using native baker’s yeast was investigated. The highest metal uptake value was 110 mg g-1 in a suspension of 0.3 g L-1. The effect of pH, initial cadmium concentration, adsorption time and biosorbent dosage on biosorption by baker’s yeast was studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of cadmium by yeast was observed at pH 6.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within sixty minutes and the sorption process followed pseudo...

  17. Chromosomal Locus for Cadmium Resistance in Pseudomonas putida Consisting of a Cadmium-Transporting ATPase and a MerR Family Response Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seon-Woo; Glickmann, Eric; Cooksey, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonads from environmental sources vary widely in their sensitivity to cadmium, but the basis for this resistance is largely uncharactarized. A chromosomal fragment encoding cadmium resistance was cloned from Pseudomonas putida 06909, a rhizosphere bacterium, and sequence analysis revealed two divergently transcribed genes, cadA and cadR. CadA was similar to cadmium-transporting ATPases known mostly from gram-positive bacteria, and to ZntA, a lead-, zinc-, and cadmium-transporting ATPase...

  18. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  19. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rongfei Wei; Qingjun Guo; Hanjie Wen; Congqiang Liu; Junxing Yang; Marc Peters; Jian Hu; Guangxu Zhu; Hanzhi Zhang; Liyan Tian; Xiaokun Han; Jie Ma; Chuanwei Zhu; Yingxin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively cou...

  20. Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio-ash; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Pedersen, Anne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter; Christensen, Terkel C.

    2004-07-01

    The potential of using the method electrodialytic remediation for removal of cadmium from bioashes has been investigated. Five different types of fly ash from biomass combustion were included in the study: 1) A straw combustion fly ash from grate-firing at Avedoere power plant. 2) A fly ash from co-firing of wood and fuel oil at Avedoere power plant. 3) A suspended, grain size fractionated straw fly ash, obtained from PSO project FU 2201, fine and coarse size fraction. The ash was originally produced at Avedoere power plant. 4) A straw pellet fly ash from dust-firing at Amager power plant. Thr five ashes were characterised, and a series of preliminary elekctrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted on each ash. In spite a significant differences between the five ashes with respect to parameters such as pH and content of cadmium, all ashes showed promising remediation potential. For all ashes cadmium concentrations below the regulatory limits for recycling were reached in one or more of the preliminary remediation experiements. The best results were obtained with the suspended straw ash from PSO FU 2201, whereas the results with the wood chips ash, due to a high initial pH value, were less sucessful, meaning that the remediation process was progressing more slowly. (BA)

  1. Inactivation of bacteriophage infecting Bacteroides strain GB124 using UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, David; Ebdon, James E; Taylor, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) has long been associated with the inactivation of microorganisms in the natural environment. Determination of the environmental inactivation kinetics of specific indicator organisms [used as tools in the field of microbial source tracking (MST)] is fundamental to their successful deployment, particularly in geographic regions subject to high levels of solar radiation. Phage infecting Bacteroides fragilis host strain GB124 (B124 phage) have been demonstrated to be highly specific indicators of human fecal contamination, but to date, little is known about their susceptibility to UV-B radiation. Therefore, B124 phage (n = 7) isolated from municipal wastewater effluent, were irradiated in a controlled laboratory environment using UV-B collimated beam experiments. All B124 phage suspensions possessed highly similar first order log-linear inactivation profiles and the mean fluence required to inactivate phage by 4 - log(10) was 320 mJ cm(-2). These findings suggest that phage infecting GB124 are likely to be inactivated when exposed to the levels of UV-B solar radiation experienced in a variety of environmental settings. As such, this may limit the utility of such methods for determining more remote inputs of fecal contamination in areas subject to high levels of solar radiation.

  2. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  3. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  4. A Study of Growth of Cadmium Oxide Nano structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium oxide nano structure were synthesized by solid-vapor deposition without catalyst. Cadmium Oxide powder was heated to 1320 K in a tube furnace, and the resultant vapor was carried to the silicon substrate zone by an argon flow. Field electron scanning electron microscopy revealed that the product was dendrite-like petals of Cadmium Oxide nano structure. The grown nano structure had random orientations and a grain size of 30 nm. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was conducted to investigate the optical properties of the nano structures. The red-shift direct band gap energy of Cadmium Oxide nano structure was at 548 nm (2.26 eV), whereas that of CdO bulk was at 491 nm (2.5 eV). (author)

  5. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  6. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  7. Literature review on pickling inhibitors and cadmium electroplating processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsea, A. R.; Fletcher, E. E.; Groeneveld, T. P.

    1969-01-01

    Because introduction of hydrogen during bright-cadmium electroplating of high strength steels causes hydrogen-stress cracking, a program was undertaken to evaluate various processes and materials. Report describes effectiveness of inhibitors for reducing hydrogen absorption by steels.

  8. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  9. A Facile Glycosylation of Spirostanol Catalyzed by Cadmium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A facile glycosylation for the synthesis of spirostanol glycosides was reported. Using cadmium carbonate as a catalyst in CH3CN, a series of saponins was synthesized efficiently in a satisfactory yield.

  10. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  11. Theoretical study of projectile fragmentation in the reactions $^{112}$Sn + $^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn + $^{124}$Sn at 1 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Imal, H; Buyukcizmeci, N; Ogul, R; Botvina, A S; Trautmann, W

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the production cross sections and isotopic distributions of projectile-like residues in the reactions $^{112}$Sn + $^{112}$Sn and $^{124}$Sn + $^{124}$Sn at an incident beam energy of 1 GeV/nucleon measured with the FRS fragment separator at the GSI laboratory. Calculations within the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) for an ensemble of excited sources were performed with ensemble parameters determined previously for similar reactions at 600 MeV/nucleon. The obtained good agreement with the experiment establishes the universal properties of the excited spectator systems produced during the dynamical stage of the reaction. It is furthermore confirmed that a significant reduction of the symmetry-energy term at the freeze-out stage of reduced density and high temperature is necessary to reproduce the experimental isotope distributions. A trend of decreasing symmetry energy for large neutron-rich fragments of low excitation energy is interpreted as a nuclear-structure effect.

  12. Prediction of cadmium concentration in selected home-produced vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bešter, Petra Karo; Lobnik, Franc; Eržen, Ivan; Kastelec, Damijana; Zupan, Marko

    2013-10-01

    Soil contaminated with cadmium presents a potential hazard for humans, animals and plants. The latter play a major role in the transfer of cadmium to the food chain. The uptake of cadmium and its accumulation by plants is dependent on various soil, plants and environmental factors. In order to identify soil properties with statistically significant influence on cadmium concentration in vegetables and to reduce the collection of data, time and costs, regression models can be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop regression models to predict the concentration of cadmium in 9-vegetable species: zucchini, tomato, cabbage, onion, potato, carrot, red beet, endive and chicory, based on soil properties. Soil samples were collected from 123 home gardens of the Municipality of Celje and 59 of these gardens were also included in vegetable sampling. The concentration of elements (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) in the samples was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Single (for cabbage, potato, red beet and chicory) and multiple (for tomato, onion, carrot and endive) linear regression models were developed. There was no statistically significant regression model for zucchini. The most significant parameter for the influencing the cadmium concentration in vegetables was the concentration of cadmium in soil. Other important soil properties were the content of organic matter, pH-value and the concentration of manganese. It was concluded that consuming carrots, red beets, endives, onions, potatoes and chicory which are grown in gardens with Cd concentrations (mgkg(-1) DW) above 2.4, 3.2, 6.3, 7.9, 8.3 and 10.9, respectively, might represent an important contribution to dietary Cd exposure. PMID:23886800

  13. Surfactant Mediated Cadmium Determination with Dithizone in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Fouad Jawad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic and hazardous trace metal that has become a serious environmental pollutant since industrialization and intensive farming began in late 19th century. Although there are many established wet-chemical and instrumental methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of cadmium, most involve the formation of the Cd-dithizone complex in the presence of the highly toxic potassium cyanide which is then extracted into carcinogenic chlorinated organic solvents such ...

  14. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  15. Avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes in cadmium telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Demich, N V

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the ratio of the coefficients of the electrons and holes of the diode structures impact ionization is carried out with the purpose of optimizing the parameters of the avalanche diodes from the cadmium telluride. It is shown experimentally, that the process of the impact ionization in the cadmium telluride is stimulated by holes. The ratio of the coefficients of the holes and electrons impact ionization constitutes approx = 30-40

  16. Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environm...

  17. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  18. Harmful effects of cadmium on olfactory system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondier, Jean-Robert; Michel, Germaine; Propper, Alain; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2008-10-01

    The inhalation of certain metals can result in olfactory epithelial injury, an altered sense of smell, and direct delivery of the metal from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and other parts of the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to examine whether mice given an intranasal instillation of cadmium would develop altered olfactory function and to assess whether cadmium may be transported directly from the olfactory epithelium to the central nervous system. To evaluate cadmium's ability to induce anosmia and on the basis of olfactory epithelium sensitivity to metals, the aim of this study was first to study cadmium effects on the olfactory function and secondly to check whether cadmium may be transported from the nasal area to the central nervous system. After an intranasal instillation of a solution containing CdCl2 at 136 mM, we observed in treated mice: (1) a partial destruction of the olfactory epithelium, which is reduced to three or four basal cell layers followed by a progressive regeneration; (2) a loss of odor discrimination with a subsequent recovery; and (3) a cadmium uptake by olfactory bulbs demonstrated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but not by other parts of the central nervous system. Cadmium was delivered to the olfactory bulbs, most likely along the olfactory nerve, thereby bypassing the intact blood-brain barrier. We consider that cadmium can penetrate olfactory epithelium and hence be transported to olfactory bulbs. The olfactory route could therefore be a likely way to reach the brain and should be taken into account for occupational risk assessments for this metal.

  19. Cadmium removal in a biosorption column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volesky, B.; Prasetyo, I. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    New biosorbent material derived from a ubiquitous brown marine alga Ascophyllum nodosum has been examined in packed-bed flow-through sorption columns. It effectively removed 10 mg/L of cadmium down to 1.5 ppb levels in the effluent, representing 99.985% removal. The experimental methodology used was based on the early Bohart and Adams sorption model, resulting in quantitative determination of the characteristic process parameters which can be used for performance comparison and process design. An average metal loading of the biosorbent (N[sub 0]) determined was 30 mg Cd/g, corresponding closely to that observed for the batch equilibrium metal concentration of 10 mg Cd/L. The critical bed depth (D[sub min]) for the potable water effluent quality standard varied with the column feed flow rate from 20 to 50 cm. The sorption column mass transfer and dispersion coefficients were determined, which are also required for solving the sorption model equations.

  20. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bellad; S C Watawe; A M Shaikh; B K Chougule

    2000-04-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5–/2 Cd Fe2.5–/2O4 ferrites where = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up to = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values of . A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability () is however found to increase continuously with . The increase in is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

  1. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Characterization of Cadmium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized a new electroluminescence material,Cadmium [(2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole(8-hydoxyquinoline] Cd(HPBq. The absorption spectra of this material show maxima at 378 nm. It may be attributed due to π° – π* transition. The photoluminescence showed peak at 520 nm. TGA data of the material shows stability up to 370 °C .Organic light emitting diode have been fabricated with this material and the fundamental structures of the device is ITO/α-NPD/ Cd(HPBq/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al exhibited a luminescence peak at 550 nm. The maximum luminescence of the device was 295 cd/m2 with current density of 6687 A/m2 at 20 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 1.01 cd/A at 17 V and power efficiency was 1.01 lm/w at 17 V.

  2. Soil Cadmium Regulates Antioxidases in Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Da-lin; ZHANG Shu-pan; CHEN Zheng; QIU Wei-wei

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of soil cadmium(Cd)on antioxidases in sorghum was studied using 3 sorghum species viz.,sweet sorghum[Sorghum bicolor(L.)]Moench.cv.Hunnigreen,sorghum hybrid sudangrass(Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense,cv.Everlush)and sudangrass[Sorghum sudanense(Piper)Stapf cv.Xinjiang].The results showed that low concentrations of Cd2+(≤10 mg kg-1)induced the activities of 4 antioxidases in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum,but high Cd2+concentrations(≥50 mg kg-1)significantly reduced the activities of all the four antioxidases.The glutathione(GSH)contents in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum correlated positively with the Cd2+concentrations.The maximum antioxidase activities were observed at the elongation stage of sorghum during the whole growth period.

  3. Flotation of cadmium-loaded biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I

    1994-07-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions such as Cd(2+) by dead biomass has been recognized as a potential alternative to existing removal technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Two bacterial strains were studied in the laboratory, streptomyces griseus and S. clavuligerus, an industrial by-product. Both washed and unwashed samples were examined. Foam flotation proposed in this work as the separation state following biosorption. Effective biomass separation was conducted in the presence of a frother, ethanol. The pH of the solution was a crucial parameter for flotation and also for metal binding. Other basic parameters of flotation examined were the initial cadmium concentration in the dilute aqueous solution and the quantity of biomass used. A study of zeta-potential measurements of the actinomycetes was carried out under the conditions used in the separation; surface tension was also measured. These provided useful information on the process. PMID:18618752

  4. 不明原因发热124例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 124 fever cases of unknown origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕; 李湘新; 宋强; 栾海鹰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis, etiology and management of fever of unknown origin (FUO). Methods 124 inpatient FUO cases, from 2009 to 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among the 124 patients, diagnoses were reached in 120 cases (96. 8% ) , in which 62 cases(51.7% ) were infections (54 bacterial infections; 6 virus infections and 2 fungal infections) , 37 cases were rheumatologic diseases (30. 8% ), and 12 cases were malignant tumors (30. 8% ). Conclusion The causes of FUO can be found by appropriate clinical examinations. Infection, rheumatologic disease and malignant tumor are the three main causes.%目的 探讨长期不明原因发热(FUO)的病因构成及临床诊断思路.方法 回顾性分析2009年7月至2011年1月符合长期不明原因发热诊断标准的住院患者124例临床资料.结果 124例患者最终确诊120例,确诊率为96.8%,其中感染性疾病62例(包括细菌感染54例,病毒感染6例,真菌感染2例)占51.7%,风湿免疫病37例,占30.8%,恶性疾病12例,占10%.结论 感染性疾病是发热原因待查的主要病因,其次为风湿免疫病和恶性疾病.

  5. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  6. PET quantitation and imaging of the non-pure positron-emitting iodine isotope 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, H; Tellman, L; Qaim, S M; Spellerberg, S; Schmid, A; Coenen, H H

    2002-05-01

    A series of PET studies using phantoms is presented to characterize the imaging and quantitative performance of the positron-emitting iodine isotope 124I. Measurements were performed on the 2D-PET scanner GE 4096+ as well as on the Siemens PET scanner HRR+ operated in both 2D and 3D modes. No specific correction was applied for the gamma-rays emitted together with the positrons. As compared to 18F, in studies with 124I there is a small loss of image resolution and contrast, and an increase in background. The quantitative results varied between different scanners and various acquisition as well as reconstruction modes, with an average relative difference of -6 +/- 13% (mean+/-SD) in respect of the phantom radioactivity as measured with gamma-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that quantitation of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with 124I is feasible and may be improved by the development of specific corrections.

  7. N-Carbethoxy-N′-(3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiourea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Dolzhenko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: ethyl N-[N-(3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylcarbamothioyl]carbamate}, C12H13N5O2S, exists in the 3-phenyl-5-thioureido-1H-1,2,4-triazole tautomeric form stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the endocyclic NH H atom and the thioureido S atom. The molecular structure is also stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds arranged in an S(6 graph-set motif within the carbethoxythiourea moiety. The mean planes of the phenyl and 1,2,4-triazole rings make a dihedral angle of 7.61 (11°. In the crystal, the molecules form two types of inversion dimers. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are arranged in R22(6 and R22(8 graph-set motifs, together forming a network parallel to (111.

  8. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol via 1,2,4-benzenetriol by an Arthrobacter sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K.; Spain, J.C. [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Dreisbach, J.H. [Univ. of Scranton, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by Moraxella and Pseudomonas spp. involves an initial monooxygenase-catalyzed removal of the nitro group. The resultant hydroquinone is subject to ring fission catalyzed by a dioxygenase enzyme. A strain of an Arthrobacter sp. JS443, capable of degrading PNP with stoichiometric release of nitrite has been isolated. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on PNP, 1,2,4-benzenetriol was identified as an intermediate by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and radiotracer studies. 1,2,4-Benzenetriol was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was further degraded by the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Conversion of PNP to 1,2,4-benzenetriol is catalyzed by a monooxygenase system in strain JS443 through the formation of 4-nitrocatechol, 4-nitroresorcinol, or both. Results clearly indicate the existence of an alternative pathway for the biodegradation of PNP. 15 refs, 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Tantalum-cadmium film coatings: Preparation, phase composition, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ion-plasma sputtering and codeposition of ultrafine Ta and Cd particles were used for the first time to prepare solid solutions, namely, alloys with up to 66.2 at % Cd in the form of coatings; the fact of such a production confirms the thermal-fluctuation melting and coalescence of small particles. When the coatings are formed by tantalum and cadmium nanolayers, the mutual dissolution of the components takes place, which is accompanied by the formation of solid solutions of one metal in the other. When the cadmium concentration is above 44 at %, the β-Ta tetragonal lattice transforms into the α-Ta body-centered cubic lattice. Beginning from 74.4 at % Cd, a hexagonal structure typical of cadmium is formed, and tantalum is present in the coatings in the form of amorphous phase. The formation of β-Ta- and Cd-based interstitial and α-Ta-based substitute solid solutions is stated. At 700°C, cadmium evaporates from Ta-based solid solutions, and porous tantalum is formed. The evaporation of cadmium from coatings, which consist of the mixture of tantalum solid solution in cadmium and amorphous tantalum, leads to the formation of tantalum characterized by a highly developed surface. The prepared Ta-based materials assume the technological application of the results of the investigation.

  10. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. PMID:26467054

  11. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiges, R; Bélanger-Chabot, G; Kaplan, S M; Christe, K O

    2015-02-21

    Salts of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, a building block for energetic materials, have been prepared and fully characterized. Most of the studied salts exhibit high thermal stability and very low shock and friction sensitivities. 3,5-Dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates with the nitrogen-rich ammonium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, and aminotetrazolium cations are energetic and have potential for energetic material applications. Salts containing alkali, alkali earth metal, and silver cations exhibit coloured emissions upon combustion while salts with large organic cations such as PPh4(+) and (Ph3P)2N(+) are highly insensitive and can be easily crystallized.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Activity Evaluation of Schiff Bases of 5-Acyl-1,2,4-Triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and general method has been developed for the synthesis of various Schiff bases (oximes, hydrazones, semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones) derived from 5-acyl-1,2,4-triazines. Some of the new synthesized Schiff bases were tested for biological activity but only oximes 2a-c shown poor antiviral activity. The oxime derivatives of 5-acyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1,2,4-triazine were tested with pea-seedling diamine oxidase as the enzyme is known to be inhibited by oxime compounds. However, only weak non-competitive inhibitory effects were observed (Ki of 10 /sup -2/ M). (author)

  14. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  15. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  16. Effects of Soil pH,Texture,Moisture,Organic Matter and Cadmium Content on Cadmium Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQI-TANG; J.L.MOREL; 等

    1994-01-01

    The supply of cadmium from soil to plant roots mainly depends on the diffusion prooess.This work was conducted to study the effects of some soil properties on cadmium diffusion coefficient (D) in soil. Measurements were made using the Shofield and Graham-Bryce's isotopic labelling method.Cadmium diffusion coefficients varied from 10-7to 10-9 cms2-1.Higher values were observed in acid sandy soils and lower values in calcareous clay soils.Liming an acid soil resulted in a substantial decrease of D.Addition of cadmium as nitrate salt generally increased D,while addition of sewage sludge and organic matter resulted in a significant decrease of cadmium diffusion.The rhizospheric activity also induced a moderate reduction in D.The relationships between D(10-9cms2-1)on the on hand and soil pH.moisture(Mc,g kg-1) ,organic matter(OM,g kg-1),clay(Cy,gkg-1)and cadmium content(Cd,mgkg-1) on the other were obtained by the multiple regression:D=182.1-29.91pH+0.210Mc-0.303OM+0.011Cy+1.64Cd(R2=0.859,n=22).

  17. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata

  18. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  19. Cadmium: A toxin and a nutrient for marine phytoplankton. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Although cadmium is known to be very toxic, it exhibits nutrient-like vertical concentration profiles in the open ocean. Cadmium enhances the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, a chlorophyte and some prymnesiophytes at inorganic zinc and cadmium concentrations typical of surface seawater. Detailed studies of T. weissflogii show that cadmium is also regulated like a nutrient over a wide range of external inorganic cadmium (5-500pM) and inorganic zinc (2-16pM) concentrations. The cellular cadmium concentration is maintained at relatively constant levels both through uptake and, at high inorganic cadmium concentrations (5nM), export of cadmium, most likely complexed to the metal-binding polypeptide phytochelatin. Cadmium may play an essential role in carbon uptake under conditions of zinc limitation. The same low level of inorganic cadmium that enhances the growth of T. weissflogii restores the activity of carbonic anhydrase, thought to be the key enzyme limiting growth at low zinc. Cadmium coelutes with a least one of the multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase produced by T. weissfiogii and covaries with activity of this isoform. The substitution of cadmium for zinc in carbonic anhydrase links the geochemical cycle of cadmium to those of zinc and carbon.

  20. Effects of Sulfur and Cadmium Interactions on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Hyperaccumulator-Sedum alfredii Hance%镉硫交互对东南景天抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会合

    2011-01-01

    通过营养液培养试验研究不同硫镉水平对超积累东南景天抗氧化酶活性的影响。结果表明,在增施镉水平下东南景天叶片的MDA含量随着硫水平增加显著降低,Cd0水平下S2处理显著降低MDA含量达12.4%。相反,东南景天叶片的MDA含量随着镉水平的提高显著增加18.4%~137.7%。镉硫交互对超积累东南景天叶片抗氧化酶活性有显著影响。超积累东南景天叶片SOD活性随着硫、镉水平的增加而增加,以S3〉S2〉S1,Cd100〉Cd10〉Cd0。增施硫显著提高Cd10和Cd100水平下东南景天叶片POD活性。在S1,S2水平下,增加Cd水平东南景天叶片POD活性显著增加,POD活性以Cd10〉Cd100〉Cd0。超积累东南景天叶片CAT活性随着硫水平增加而增加8.9%~21.3%,CAT活性随着Cd水平的增加而显著增加,增幅以S1和S2水平下较大。随着S,Cd水平的增加东南景天叶片的APX活性显著增加。镉硫交互对4种抗氧化酶的效应以APX〉CAT〉POD〉SOD。%Effects of sulfur and cadmium interactions on antioxidant enzyme activity in hyperaccumulator-Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated in hydroponic culture.The contents of MDA in leaf were decreased with sulfur application under three cadmium levels,significantly decreased by 12.4% in Cd0 and S2 treatment.On the contrary,the contents of MDA were significantly increased from 18.4% to 137.7% with increasing cadmium level.There were significant effects of sulfur and cadmium interactions on antioxidant enzyme activity in hyperaccumulator-Sedum alfredii Hance.With increasing of sulfur and cadmium level,the activity of SOD were significantly increased and were in the order of S3S2S1 and Cd100Cd10Cd0.The activities of POD in leaf of hyperaccumulator-Sedum alfredii Hance were increased with increasing S application in Cd10 and Cd100 treatment.Under S1and S2 levels,the activities of POD were enhanced with increasing cadmium level and were in the order of Cd10Cd100Cd0.The activities

  1. 124I-Epidepride: A PET radiotracer for extended imaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-Epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2 days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18 F-fallypride (half-life of 18 F = 0.076 days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods: 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2, 3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75 μCi/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 μM haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results: 124I-Epidepride was obtained with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (> 95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hours in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions: 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting

  2. 124I-Epidepride: A PET Radiotracer for Extended Imaging of Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh; Venugopal, Archana; Kant, Ritu; Coleman, Robert; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A new radiotracer, 124I-epidepride, has been developed for the imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3Rs). 124I-epidepride (half-life of 124I = 4.2days) allows imaging over extended periods compared to 18F-fallypride (half-life of 18F = 0.076days) and may maximize visualization of D2/3Rs in the brain and pancreas (allowing clearance from adjacent organs). D2/3Rs are also present in pancreatic islets where they co-localize with insulin to produce granules and may serve as a surrogate marker for imaging diabetes. Methods 124I-Epidepride was synthesized using N-[[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl]-5-tributyltin-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide and 124I-iodide under no carrier added condition. Rats were used for in vitro and in vivo imaging. Brain slices were incubated with 124I-epidepride (0.75μCi/cc) and nonspecific binding measured with 10 μM haloperidol. Autoradiograms were analyzed by OptiQuant. 124I-Epidepride (0.2 to 0.3 mCi, iv) was administered to rats and brain uptake at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours post injection was evaluated. Results 124I-Epidepride was synthesized with 50% radiochemical yield and high radiochemical purity (>95%). 124I-Epidepride localized in the striatum with a striatum to cerebellum ratio of 10. Binding was displaced by dopamine and haloperidol. Brain slices demonstrated localization of 124I-epidepride up until 48 hr in the striatum. However, the extent of binding was reduced significantly. Conclusions 124I-Epidepride is a new radiotracer suitable for extended imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors and may have applications in imaging of receptors in the brain and monitoring pancreatic islet cell grafting. PMID:24602412

  3. CONCENTRATION OF CADMIUM IN MEAT AND SELECTED MEATS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and food production methods. The monitoring of cadmium concentration in meat is important for human health. The concentrations of cadmium in meat and meat products collected from central Slovakia, in the central Europe region and from different countries of West Europe were assessed using by AA spectrometer with graphite furnace (PerkinElmer AAnalyst 80, MA, USA. Within starting materials we detected the highest values of cadmium in beef from foreign production (0.1101 ppm, followed by pork from foreign production (0.0901 ppm in Lovecka salama and pork thigh (0.0523 ppm in selected ham. In Lovecka salami we were found the highest concentration of cadmium in final samples from foreign starting materials, followed by homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final samples from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.3728, 0.3549, 0.2387, 0.2112 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration of cadmium in selected ham were found in final products from foreign starting materials, homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final products from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.1453, 0.1382,0.0810, 0.0734 ppm, respectively. The obtained results suggested that the concentrations of cadmium are higher in homogenized samples and final products in Lovecka salami and selected ham in comparison with to starting materials. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products.

  4. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  5. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd2+-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C354, C356 and proline P355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D692 in Tm8, glutamate E164 in Tm4 and methionine M149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author)

  6. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  7. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  8. Preparation and Antibacterial Properties of Substituted 1,2,4-Triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Ledeţi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Both 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles are nowadays incorporated in numerous antibacterial pharmaceutical formulations. Aim. Our study aimed to prepare three substituted 1,2,4-triazoles and to evaluate their antibacterial properties. Materials and Methods. One disubstituted and two trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles were prepared and characterised by physical and spectroscopic properties (melting point, FTIR, NMR, and GC-MS. The antibacterial properties were studied against three bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, by the agar disk diffusion method and the dilution method with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration determination. Results. The spectroscopic characterization of compounds and the working protocol for the synthesis of the triazolic derivatives are described. The compounds were obtained with 15–43% yields and with high purities, confirmed by the NMR analysis. The evaluation of biological activities showed that the compounds act as antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, while being inactive against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Conclusions. Our results indicate that compounds containing 1,2,4-triazolic moiety have great potential in developing a wide variety of new antibacterial formulations.

  9. 78 FR 40776 - Issuance of Regulatory Guide 1.124 and Regulatory Guide 1.130

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... to ] the subject matters covered in each regulatory guide). The earlier revisions of both guides... COMMISSION Issuance of Regulatory Guide 1.124 and Regulatory Guide 1.130 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory Guide; Issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  10. miR-124 promotes the neuronal differentiation of mouse inner ear neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Di; Du, Jintao; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Wei; Zong, Lin; Dong, Chang; Chen, Kaitian; Chen, Yu; Chen, Xihui; Jiang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) act as key regulators in neuronal development, synaptic morphogenesis and plasticity. However, their role in the neuronal differentiation of inner ear neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unclear. In this study, 6 miRNAs were selected and their expression patterns during the neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs were examined by RT-qPCR. We demonstrated that the culture of spiral ganglion stem cells present in the inner ears of newborn mice gave rise to neurons in vitro. The expression patterns of miR-124, miR-132, miR-134, miR-20a, miR-17-5p and miR-30a-5p were examined during a 14-day neuronal differentiation period. We found that miR-124 promoted the neuronal differentiation of and neurite outgrowth in mouse inner ear NSCs, and that the changes in the expression of tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42) during inner ear NSC differentiation were associated with miR-124 expression. Our findings indicate that miR-124 plays a role in the neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs. This finding may lead to the development of novel strategies for restoring hearing in neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. 47 CFR 15.124 - DTV transition notices by manufacturers of televisions and related devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.124 DTV transition notices by manufacturers... programming provided by multi-channel video programming distributors. (b) The notices required under paragraph...-only television sets that receive TV programming through an antenna will need a converter box...

  12. Thick tellurium electrodeposition on nickel-coated copper substrate for 124I production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Dastan, M; Ensaf, M R; Tehrani, A Abaspour; Tenreiro, C; Avila, M

    2008-10-01

    Tellurium electrodeposition on a nickel-coated copper substrate was investigated for production of iodine-124. The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by the alkali plating baths. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tellurium were as follows: 6 g l(-1) tellurium, pH=10, DC current density of ca. 8.55 mA cm(-2) and room temperature.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for dipping and coating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for dipping and coating operations... Dipping and Coating Operations § 1910.124 General requirements for dipping and coating operations. (a... coating operation using flammable or combustible liquids is: (i) Free of any solid particulate that...

  14. Mining engineering department to lead $1.24M underground mine ventilation study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Tech mining and minerals engineering department has received a $1.24 million, five-year contract by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to study the effects of roof falls, bumps, or explosions on underground mine ventilation systems.

  15. 32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.124 Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned firearms and ammunition will be transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time,...

  16. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGR218W, YMR124W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry, cytoplasm, bud, and bud neck; interacts with Crm1p in two-hybrid assay; YMR12...bud, and bud neck; interacts with Crm1p in two-hybrid assay; YMR124W is not an essential gene Rows with this

  17. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bektaş

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some novel 4,5-disubstituted-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (3, 6, 8, 9 derivatives and or 3-(4-methylphenyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3]benzoxazole (5 were synthesized from the reaction of various ester ethoxycarbonylhydrazones (1a-e with several primary amines. The synthesis of 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylmethyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (13 was performed starting from 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (2 by four steps; then 13 was converted to the corresponding Schiff base (14 by using 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Finally, two Mannich base derivatives of 14 were obtained by using morpholine or methyl piperazine as amine component. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities and some of which were found to possess good or moderate activities against the test microorganisms.

  18. 22 CFR 124.1 - Manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing license agreements and technical... ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.1 Manufacturing... manufacturing license agreements, technical assistance agreements, distribution agreements, or...

  19. Synthesis and Selective Functionalization of [1,2,4]Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles Sylvain; Jorgensen, Morten; Kehler, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    A new tactic for the synthesis and selective functionalization of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazines has been developed using an oxidative cyclization as key step. Furthermore, novel strategies for introducing diverse substituents in all positions of the heterocycle were identified....

  20. 49 CFR 393.124 - What are the rules for securing concrete pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing concrete pipe? 393... Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.124 What are the rules for securing concrete pipe? (a) Applicability. (1) The rules in this section apply to the transportation of concrete pipe...

  1. N-[4-(Dimethylaminobenzylidene]-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Liang Zhou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H13N5, is a Schiff base synthesized by the reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the benzene and triazole rings is 43.09 (11°. The crystal structure displays weak C—H...N interactions.

  2. 124I-huA33 Antibody PET of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; O’Donoghue, Joseph A.; Humm, John L.; Zanzonico, Pat; Smith-Jones, Peter M.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.; Pryma, Daniel A.; Ruan, Shutian; Kemeny, Nancy E.; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Douglas; Jaggi, Jaspreet S.; Scheinberg, David A.; Gonen, Mithat; Panageas, Katherine S.; Ritter, Gerd; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Old, Lloyd J.; Larson, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Humanized A33 (huA33) is a promising monoclonal antibody that recognizes A33 antigen, which is present in more than 95% of colorectal cancers and in normal bowel. In this study, we took advantage of quantitative PET to evaluate 124I huA33 targeting, biodistribution, and safety in patients with colorectal cancer. We also determined the biodistribution of 124I-huA33 when a large dose of human intravenous IgG (IVIG) was administered to manipulate the Fc receptor or when 124I-huA33 was given via hepatic arterial infusion (HAI). Methods We studied 25 patients with primary or metastatic colorectal cancer; 19 patients had surgical exploration or resection. Patients received a median of 343 MBq (44.4–396 MBq) and 10 mg of 124I-huA33. Nineteen patients received the antibody intravenously and 6 patients via HAI, and 5 patients also received IVIG. Results Ten of 12 primary tumors were visualized in 11 patients. The median concentration in primary colon tumors was 0.016% injected dose per gram, compared with 0.004% in normal colon. The PET-based median ratio of hepatic tumor uptake to normal-liver uptake was 3.9 (range, 1.8–22.2). Quantitation using PET, compared with well counting of serum and tissue, showed little difference. Prominent uptake in bowel hindered tumor identification in some patients. Pharmacokinetics showed that patients receiving IVIG had a significantly shorter serum half-time (41.6 ± 14.0 h) than those without (65.2 ± 9.8 h). There were no differences in clearance rates among the intravenous group, IVIG group, and HAI group, nor was there any difference in serum area under the curve, maximum serum concentration, or volume of distribution. Weak titers of human–anti-human antibodies were observed in 6 of 25 patients. No acute side effects or significant toxicities were associated with huA33. Conclusion Good localization of 124I-huA33 in colorectal cancer with no significant toxicity has been observed. PET-derived 124I concentrations agreed well with

  3. Cadmium Impairs p53 Activity in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Urani, C.; Melchioretto, P.; M. Fabbri; Bowe, G.; Maserati, E.; Gribaldo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium and cadmium compounds are contaminants of the environment, food, and drinking water and are important constituents of cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has also been associated with airborne particulate CdO and with Cd-containing quantum dots in medical therapy. Adverse cadmium effects reported in the literature have stimulated during recent years an ongoing discussion to better elucidate cadmium outcomes at cell and molecular level. The present work is designed to gain an insight into the...

  4. Cadmium Stress Induced Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation and Hydrogen Peroxide Contents in Barley Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Alayat; Lynda Souiki; Mohammed Reda Djebar; Zine Eddine Boumedris; Ouissem Moumeni; Houria Berrebbah

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium pollution is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, nutritional and environmental reasons. Different plant species and varieties show a wide range of plasticity in Cadmium tolerance, from a high degree of sensitivity to the hyper-accumulating phenotype of some tolerant plants. To avoid Cadmium toxicity, plants adopt various defense strategies. The present study was undertaken to assess and investigate the antioxidant responses of barley (Hordeum vulgare) L.) to cadmium t...

  5. A method for making a cadmium anode for a hermetically sealed alkaline storage battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Y.; Yosikhira, Y.

    1983-07-14

    Metallic cadmium powder and a glue solution are added to CdO powder. The compound is applied to a current tap and dried. The powder form metallic cadmium is prepared from a mixture of zinc and nickel powder which is dispersed in a solution of cadmium salts. As a result of the replacement reaction, a spongy metallic cadmium is produced which contains nickel. The sponge is ground. The obtained powder is used as an additive for the CdO.

  6. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, Panemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.

  7. ACTHsub(1-24) and lysine vasopressin selectively activate dopamine synthesis in frontal cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanoy, R.L.; Kramarcy, N.R.; Dunn, A.J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Coll. of Medicine)

    1982-01-07

    The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)catecholamines from (/sup 3/H)tyrosine in frontal cortical, septal, striatal and hippocampal slices was examined following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of ACTHsub(1-24), lysine vasopressin (LVP) and saline. Both ACTHsub(1-24) and LVP (1..mu..g) selectively increased the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) in frontal cortical slices, but did not affect that of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine (NE). LVP but not ACTHsub(1-24) also inhibited the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)DA in striatal slices. ACTHsub(1-24) did not alter the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)NE in hippocampal slices, nor did LVP alter the accumulation of either catecholamine (CA) in septal slices. In vitro incubations with ACTH analogs or LVP failed to alter the rate of accumulation of (/sup 3/H)CAs in striatal, substantia nigral and frontal cortical slices, except for an inhibitory effect at high doses. This effect is believed to be an artifact of precursor dilution caused by release of tyrosine following degradation of the peptides. Neither peptide modified the increased (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation stimulated by 26 mM K/sup +/, nor did ACTHsub(1-24) modify the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)CA accumulation caused by 3 X 10/sup -6/ M Haloperidol or 3 X 10/sup -7/ M apomorphine. Selective activation of the mesocortical DA system has also been reported to occur in response to footshock, suggesting the possibility that endogenous ACTH and/or LVP might mediate the stress-induced activation of mesocortical DA synthesis. Alternatively, i.c.v. injections of these peptides may themselves be stressful and thus indirectly elicit the response.

  8. THE DYNAMICS AND METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISTANT DWARF GALAXY VV124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bellazzini, Michele [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-05-20

    VV124 (UGC 4879) is an isolated, dwarf irregular/dwarf spheroidal (dIrr/dSph) transition-type galaxy at a distance of 1.36 Mpc. Previous low-resolution spectroscopy yielded inconsistent radial velocities for different components of the galaxy, and photometry hinted at the presence of a stellar disk. In order to quantify the stellar dynamics, we observed individual red giants in VV124 with the Keck/Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS). We validated members based on their positions in the color-magnitude diagram, radial velocities, and spectral features. Our sample contains 67 members. The average radial velocity is (v{sub r} ) = -29.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1} in agreement with the previous radio measurements of H I gas. The velocity distribution is Gaussian, indicating that VV124 is supported primarily by velocity dispersion inside a radius of 1.5 kpc. Outside that radius, our measurements provide only an upper limit of 8.6 km s{sup -1} on any rotation in the photometric disk-like feature. The velocity dispersion is {sigma}{sub v} = 9.4 {+-} 1.0 km s{sup -1}, from which we inferred a mass of M{sub 1/2} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and a mass-to-light ratio of (M/L{sub V} ){sub 1/2} = 5.2 {+-} 1.1 M{sub Sun }/L{sub Sun }, both measured within the half-light radius. Thus, VV124 contains dark matter. We also measured the metallicity distribution from neutral iron lines. The average metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = -1.14 {+-} 0.06, is consistent with the mass-metallicity relation defined by dSph galaxies. The dynamics and metallicity distribution of VV124 appear similar to dSphs of similar stellar mass.

  9. Synthesis and structure of mercury (II) chloride complex with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazole thione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to synthesis and structure of mercury (II) chloride complex with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazole thione. Thus the optimal conditions for synthesis of mercury complex with 4-methyl-1,2,4-triazole thione were defined. The parameters of unit cell were found. The intermolecular connections were defined as well.

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Stereoselective Metabolism of the 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicide, Triadimefon, in Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questions Agricultural and pharmaceutical 1,2,4-triazole fungicides are potent cytochrome P450 modulators that can disrupt mammalian steroid biosynthesis. Triadimefon [(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] is unique with respect to tumorige...

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Schiff Bases of 3-Amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Xiaohong; LIU,Yuanfa; CHEN,Shuzhe; CHEN,Bang; JIA,Yingqi; ZENG,Zhengfang

    2009-01-01

    Eight Schiff bases of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized by glacial acetic acid catalyzed conden- sation of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with substituted benzaldehyde and structurally confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The preliminary bioassay showed that the title compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities.

  12. Uptake and elimination of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) at sublethal and lethal aqueous concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van J.M.C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Deneer, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) have been studied in an accumulation and elimination experiment. At a sublethal exposure, uptake and elimination rate constants of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were determined, employing a first-order one-compartment model. The consta

  13. 40 CFR 124.13 - Obligation to raise issues and provide information during the public comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligation to raise issues and provide information during the public comment period. 124.13 Section 124.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING General Program Requirements §...

  14. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  15. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  16. {sup 124}Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities; {sup 124}Sb - Mesure de l'activite et determination des intensites photoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-15

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of {sup 124}Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4pigamma method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY RISK IN AN AMERICAN VEGETARIAN POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been postulated that nonvegetarians may be exposed to less cadmium than vegetarians because of the cadmium-poor meat in their diet. This study attempts to test this possibility by measuring the cadmium exposure and accumulation in a population subgroup that includes many v...

  18. 76 FR 57682 - Petition Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... cadmium in children's products, especially toy metal jewelry. On September 6, 2011, the Commission granted... cadmium in children's jewelry is published by ASTM International, Inc. (``ASTM'') within three months after September 16, 2011. If a voluntary standard for cadmium in children's jewelry is published by...

  19. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  1. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kulik; A. Anielska-Mazur; M. Bucholc; E. Koen; E. Szymańska; A. Żmieńko; E. Krzywińska; I. Wawer; F. McLoughlin; D. Ruszkowski; M. Figlerowicz; C. Testerink; A. Sklodowska; D. Wendehenne; G. Dobrowolska

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related

  2. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  3. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g-1, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  4. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM2.5, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  5. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarnicki, Günter J K

    2005-07-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM(10), and PM(2.5) were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM(2.5), both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality.

  6. Corn leaf nitrate reductase - A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, C.J.; Fischer, A.E.; Campbell, W.H.; Campbell, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC 1.6.6.1) purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h-1, sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete over the entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously by the two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level.

  7. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  8. Cadmium in insects after ash fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Lodenius; Jussi Josefsson; Kari Heli(o)vaara; Esa Tulisalo; Matti Nummelin

    2009-01-01

    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH.but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota.Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects(Formica ants.carabids and Coleopteran larvac from decaying wood)were investigated in southern Finland where two plots were fertilized with wood ash,while two other plots represented anfertilized control plots.In ants,mean Cd concentration was 3.6±1.4 mg/kg.with nest workers having significantly higher concen-trations than workers trapped in pitfall traps.Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar.In carabid beetles,the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44±0.36 mg/kg.with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots.In another carabid beetle,Pterostichus niger,mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots.We conclude that the variation of Cd concentra-tions in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.

  9. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  10. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  11. Cadmium accumulation and subcellular distribution in relation to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship cadmium (Cd) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity. Twenty-four hour incubation with 0.1-10 μM Cd elicited 0-90% cytotoxicity. Fifty percent cytotoxicity was estimated to result from 0.8 μM Cd. A concentration-related Cd accumulation paralleled the cytotoxicity profile. The time-course for Cd accumulation was linear for the first 6 h of exposure and plateaued by 18 h post-exposure. When the degree of cytotoxicity was compared with the cellular Cd burden at 24 h post-treatment a least-squares linear regression analysis (r=0.93) indicated a direct relationship. Subcellular distribution studies indicated greater than 90% Cd recovery from the soluble supernatant (105,000 g) at all levels of cytotoxicity studied. Metallothionein sequestered less than 25% of the cellular Cd. As a result of the correlation of the degree of cytotoxicity with the cellular Cd burden and the independence of subcellular distribution from cytotoxicity, a cumulative mechanism of toxicity for Cd in MDBK cells was suggested. (author)

  12. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  13. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  14. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β2-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β2-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  15. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  16. Effects of macromolecular chelators on intestinal cadmium absorption in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.; Bulman, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of absorption by macromolecular chelators have been sucessful with several metals. In this paper a series of immobilized chelators ranging from DTPA to S-containing soft bases have been synthetized and investigated for ability to suppress intestinal uptake of /sup 109/Cd/sup 2+/ in mice. Dextran-O-ethyl-mercaptan, xanthates derived from polysaccharides and polyvinyl alcohol, dithiocarbamates of polyethylene imine and aminoethyl cellulose, and DTPA immobilized on aminopropyl silica were all ineffective. DTPA immobilized on aminoethyl cellulose even enhanced the intestinal uptake. The macromolecular chelators were without extensive effect on organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, except for dithiocarbamate immobilized on polyethylene imine, which enhanced the deposition of cadmium in several organs including the brain. Although the results are discouragign, they indicate that desing and synthesis of immobilized vicinal dithio compounds may represent an avenue for development of non-absorbable chelators with high affinity for cadmium.

  17. Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI YANG; JIAN-LONG WANG; ZHI XING

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by waste fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, originated from citric acid fermentation industry. Methods Batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. The Cd2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) HITACHI 180-80. Results The biosorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min. The adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich adsorption model, and the constants KF and 1/n were determined to be 2.07 and 0.18, respectively, and the correlation efficiency was 0.97. The optimal pH for Cd adsorption was 6.0. The cadmium-laden biomass could be effectively regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Conclusion The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, a by-product of fermentation industry, is a potential biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stroiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202 and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP and catalase (CAT was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT and AAP was observed and it comes from inactivation of enzymes by cadmium ions. A subsequent activity increase of the enzymes aroused earlier in tolerant tissues. It seems therefore, that tolerant tissues possess a more efficient antioxidative system.

  19. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-Phenyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]-1,2,4-triazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming; ZHAI Li-Na; WEN Li-Rong; WANG Xiao; DU Feng

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound 3-phenyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]-1,2,4-triazine (C17H13N5,Mr = 287.32) was synthesized and determined by singlecrystal X-ray diffraction.It belongs to monoclinic,space group P21/c,with a = 11.4038(18),b =11.7675(18),c = 11.0904(18) (A),β = 108.439(7)°,V= 1411.9(4)(A)3,Z = 2,Dc = 1.352 g/cm3,μ =0.085 mm-1,F(000) = 600,R = 0.0445 and wR = 0.1041 for 2888 unique reflections with 1501 observed ones (I >2σ(I)).In the crystal structure,the triazine moiety is almost coplanar with the triazole ring,and the largest deviation for atom C(4) is -0.026 (A).The intermolecular hydrogen bond in the crystal lattice plays an important role in stabilizing the structure.

  1. THE CADMIUM INTAKE OF SELECTED LEGUMES IN MODEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is to evaluate the extent of risk transfer of heavy metals from soil burdensome to their different levels of consumption of selected parts of the crop. The goal to be achieved in conditions of simulated vegetation pot experiments. To implement the experiment, we used the agricultural soil of land site Výčapy - Opatovce. The experiments use two types of leguminous plants: Faba beans (Faba vulgaris M., a variety MERLIN lentil dishes (Lens esculentum variety NELKA. In one experimental tank was weighed 5 kg of soil mixed with 1 kg of silica sand, and the bottom of the container we put a small drainage layer of gravel. Within each container, we applied the calculated dose of the basic fertilizer, as well as various amounts of soluble salts of cadmium observed. Crops are harvested when fully ripe and the  wet mineralization of plant samples was determined by heavy metals AAS method for device VARIAN 240FS. Significant ratio of cadmium is in the aboveground biomass of the legumes. Lentils take into aboveground biomass much more cadmium than  faba beans. The cadmium content in the first two variants is significantly lower than in the next two in both crops. We may conclude that the faba beans, and lentils to accumulate an increased amount of cadmium in soil in a relatively large amount of seeds. Although it is clear that Faba bean received cadmium content was compared with more lentils. Due to the significant accumulation of Cd by plants lentils and excessive production of the aboveground biomass is potentially usable lens as fytoremediation crop recovery for metalic polluted soils.doi:10.5219/221

  2. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (dinophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.-R.

    1980-03-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in unialgal 10-1 batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 µg l-1. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 µg Cd l-1 reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 µg Cd-1 does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and in the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 µg g-1 (dry weight) in controls to 500 µg g-1 (dry weight) in media containing 100 µg Cd l-1. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant (Series 1) or decreased only slowly during experimental time (Series 2). The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  3. Cadmium effects and accumulation in cultures of Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, H.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Effects and accumulation of cadmium were studied in 10-l batch-culture experiments with the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg. Tests were made using sterile filtered North Sea water enriched with nitrate and phosphate only in order to avoid disturbances by complex formation. Cadmium was added to the cultures in amounts of 100 to 0.13 ..mu..g l/sup -1/. In one series it was added at the start of the experiments and in a second one after a growth period of 1 week. Addition of only 1.2 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ reduces multiplication rates and maximum cell densities of the algae. Not until 0.4 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/ does growth correspond to that of the controls. Cadmium concentrations were measured, after filtration, in the culture medium and the biomass by means of flameless AAS. The cadmium content in algae increased from 2.7 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in controls to 500 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ (dry weight) in media containing 100 ..mu..g Cd l/sup -1/. Uptake occurred rapidly during the first few days of the experiments, slowed down somewhat during exponential growth stage, and increased during decay of the cultures. Cadmium content of culture media remained nearly constant or decreased only slowly during experimental time. The highest concentration factor was measured in the controls. It decreased with increasing metal concentration in the medium and increased with experimental time. Structural modifications of the cells were visible after Lugol fixation only, indicating brittleness of the cell walls. P. micans has shown to be extremely sensitive to cadmium and to accumulate this metal.

  4. Lead and Cadmium Content of Korbal Rice in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhtiarian

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Every year the entrance of factory wastes such as Shiraz Petrochemical Complex, Marvdasht sugar cube factory, and Charmineh factory, and other industrial units into the Kor and Sivand rivers and also the entrance of the Marvdasht and Zarghan city sewer system wastes into the Kor river and the use of their water in the cultivation of the rice has caused a significant increase in the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice. To study the effect of the Kor river's pollution on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the grains of rice, 57 samples of 6 different types of rice were prepared in 19 different stations in Korbal region and also 18 samples of 6 different types of rice, cultivated with unpolluted water, were prepared in the National Institute of Rice Research (Gilan. A comparison of the pollution level of the Korbal and Gilan rice samples shows a significant difference and indicates the significant effect of the pollution of the river on the lead and cadmium content of the Korbal rice samples. The results of the study show that the lead and cadmium content of the hybrid, prolific, and late rice sample types were greater than that of unprolific and early types, such that the amount of these two elements were highest in the Hassani type (the lead content was 0.9625 ppm and the cadmium content was 0.0793 ppm, whereas the Gasroddashti type which blooms earlier and is long seeded has the lowest amount of these two elements.

  5. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    . Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined...

  6. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  7. Contribution of an Auxin to the Uptake of Nickel and Cadmium in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO DONG-SHENG; XI YU-YING; WANG AI-YING; ZHANG JUN; YUAN XIAO-YING

    1999-01-01

    Maize seedlings were cultured in nickel or cadmium contaminated sand treated with α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The effects of NAA on nickel and cadmium uptake in roots, shoots, and subcellular fractions (cell wall, nuclei and remained parts of seedling cells) were determined. The data showed growth promotion when NAA was applied at low concentrations and inhibition at high concentrations. Uptake of nickel and cadmium content increased concurrently in roots and shoots. In the subcellular fraction, nickel and cadmium was greatest in the cell wall. The changes in growth had greatest correlation with nickel and cadmium content in the subcellular fraction.

  8. Purification and characterization of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K L; Pedersen, S N; Højrup, P;

    1994-01-01

    Two metallothionein variants were purified from the midgut gland of crabs (Carcinus maenas) exposed to a high cadmium concentration (2 p.p.m.). One of the variants was purified from crabs exposed to a low cadmium concentration (0.5 p.p.m.). The purification method involved acetone precipitation...... from crabs exposed to the high cadmium concentration differed only by a single residue of methionine at the N-terminus. The single variant isolated from crabs exposed to the low cadmium concentration was the one without the N-terminal methionine, indicating that high cadmium concentrations either...

  9. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  10. Spectroscopic study of cadmium (II) complexes with heterocyclic dithiocarbamate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fontan, S. (Departamento de Quimica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)); Rodriguez-Seoane, P. (Departamento de Quimica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)); Casas, J.S. (Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)); Sordo, J. (Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)); Jones, M.M. (Department of Chemistry and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States))

    1993-09-15

    Cadmium(II) dithiocarbamates Cd(dtc)[sub 2] (dtc=4-carboxamidopiperidine-1-carbodithioate, morpholine-1-carbodithioate or 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate) and Cd(dtc)[sub 2].H[sub 2]O (dtc=4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carbodithioate)[r brace] have been prepared and characterized by thermal analysis and IR and NMR ([sup 13]C, [sup 113]Cd) spectrometry. Two of these ligands have previously been shown capable of removing cadmium from its aged in vivo storage sites. The use of solid state [sup 13]C NMR measurements to establish the coordination mode of the dithiocarbomate ligands is also examined and the difficulties which arise are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Alemi; H Sedghi; A R Mirmohseni; V Golsanamlu

    2006-02-01

    Cadmium doped lead–borate glasses were prepared from the melts in appropriate proportions of PbO2, H3BO3 and (15–40 mol%) CdO mixture in the temperature range 700–950°C. The infrared spectra of the glasses in the range 400–4000 cm-1 show their structures. No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed.

  12. Cadmium resistance from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadA gene results from a cadmium-efflux ATPase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nucifora, G; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium resistance specified by the cadA determinant of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 results from the functioning of a cadmium-efflux system. In the nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the cadA determinant, two open reading frames were identified. The larger one, corresponding to a predicted polypeptide of 727 amino acid residues, is necessary and sufficient for expression of cadmium resistance. Comparison of the CadA amino acid sequence with known protein sequences sugg...

  13. Biosorption of cadmium by endophytic fungus (EF) Microsphaeropsis sp. LSE10 isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Shenglian; Zeng, Guangming; Wei, Wanzhi; Wan, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Hanjun; Cao, Zhe; Yang, Lixia; Chen, Jueliang; Xi, Qiang

    2010-03-01

    A novel technology to obtain highly efficient biosorbent from the endophytes of a hyperaccumulator is reported. This technology is more convenient than the traditional method of obtaining biosorbents by experimentally screening many types of biomass by trial and error. Using this technology, endophytic fungus (EF) LSE10 was isolated from the cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Microsphaeropsis sp. When cultured in vitro, the biomass yield of this EF was more than twice that of none-endophytic fungus (NEF) Rhizopus cohnii. Subsequently, it was used as a biosorbent for biosorption of cadmium from the aqueous solution. The results showed that the maximum biosorption capacity was 247.5mg/g (2.2 mmol/g) which was much higher than those of other adsorbents, including biosorbents and activated carbon. Carboxyl, amino, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups on EF LSE10 surface were responsible for the biosorption of cadmium. PMID:19854641

  14. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  15. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg−1) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg−1, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg−1. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg−1), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg−1, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is likely

  16. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pbeans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  17. Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Ye, Xiaoqing; He, Buyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin, 1 of the top 5 synthetic pyrethroids in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as 1 of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In the present study, combined toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or binary mixtures. Co-exposure to cypermethrin and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema, and noninflation of swim bladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated cypermethrin-induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. Cypermethrin-mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme were significantly down-regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed that in vitro elimination of cypermethrin by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo cypermethrin residue levels in the mixture-exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of cypermethrin in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP-mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. The authors' findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of cypermethrin and Cd. PMID:26267556

  18. Potentiation of cadmium nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Russis, R. de; Ouled Amor, A.; Lauwerys, R.R.

    1988-10-01

    The possible interactions between acetaminophen and cadmium (Cd) on the kidney were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetaminophen was administered in the food at an average dose of 900 mg/kg and Cd in drinking water at the concentration of 200 ppm. The treatment with acetaminophen and Cd lasted 2 and 10 months, respectively. No interaction between Cd and acetaminophen was observed during the period of their concomitant administration: the increase in albuminuria caused by Cd and acetaminophen was additive, while the tubular impairment caused by acetaminophen (increased ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria and decreased kidney concentrating ability) was not exacerbated by Cd. None of these treatments affected the glomerular filtration rate. Four months after the end of acetaminophen treatment, the renal changes had almost completely disappeared in the rats which had received the analgesic alone. Those continously exposed to Cd had developed slight tubular damage, as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin and ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase. By contrast, rats pretreated with acetaminophen for 2 months and exposed to Cd showed a marked increase in urinary excretion of albumin and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, suggesting an interaction between both treatments. At the end of the study, only the interaction with ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin excretion was still evident; that with the urinary excretion of ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase and albumin having been masked by the chronic progessive nephrosis affecting most animals at that stage. As acetaminophen had no effect on the renal accumulation of Cd, it may be concluded that pretreatment with this analygesic at a dose causing slight tubular dysfunction renders rat kidney more sensitive to the nephrotoxic action of Cd. This observation may be of clinical relevance for population groups occupationally or environmentally exposed to Cd.

  19. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake. PMID:26677685

  20. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  1. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure.

  2. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  3. Dietary intake and urinary level of cadmium and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinbo; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Yixiong

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium, a human carcinogenic heavy metal, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk; however, the results from the epidemiological studies are not always consistent. The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize the current evidence for the relationship between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk using meta-analysis methods. Six studies determining the dietary cadmium intake level and five studies evaluating the urinary cadmium level were identified in a systematic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and the associations between these levels and breast cancer risk were analysed. The pooled estimates under the random-effects model suggested that higher urinary cadmium levels were associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.24, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=1.49-3.35) and a 1μg/g creatinine increase in urinary cadmium led to a 1.02-fold increment of breast cancer (pooled OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.34-3.03); however, pooled estimates for dietary cadmium intake found no significant association between cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk (highest versus lowest quantile, pooled relative risk [RR]=1.01, 95%CI=0.89-1.15). These results suggest that cadmium exposure may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer, and urinary cadmium levels can serve as a reliable biomarker for long-term cadmium exposure and may predict the breast cancer risk.

  4. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  5. Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium acting on wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ecological toxicity of reactive X-3B red dye and cadmium in both their single form and their combined form on wheat was studied using the experimental method of seed and root exposure. The single-factor exposure indicated that the inhibitory rate of wheat root elongation was significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of the dye in the cultural solution, although seed germination of wheat was not sensitive to the dye. The toxicity of cadmium was greatly higher than that of the dye, but low concentration cadmium (< 40 mg/L) could promote the germination of wheat seed. Interactive effects of the dye and cadmium on wheat were complicated. There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory rate of seed germination and the concentrations of the dye and cadmium. Low concentration cadmium could strengthen the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation. On the contrary, high concentration cadmium could weaken the toxicity of the dye acting on root elongation.

  6. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (115Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  7. Search for Two-Neutrino Double Electron Capture of $^{124}$Xe with XENON100

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Agostini, F; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Anthony, M; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Bauermeister, B; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Bütikofer, L; Calvén, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cervantes, M; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; de Perio, P; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Diglio, S; Duchovni, E; Fei, J; Ferella, A D; Fieguth, A; Franco, D; Fulgione, W; Rosso, A Gallo; Galloway, M; Gao, F; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Goetzke, L W; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hogenbirk, E; Itay, R; Kaminsky, B; Kessler, G; Kish, A; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Calloch, M Le; Levy, C; Lin, Q; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Manfredini, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodán; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Masson, D; Mayani, D; Meng, Y; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Miguez, B; Molinario, A; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orrigo, S E A; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Pienaar, J; Piro, M -C; Plante, G; Priel, N; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Reuter, C; Rizzo, A; Rosendahl, S; Rupp, N; Santos, J M F dos; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schreiner, J; Schumann, M; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Silva, M; Simgen, H; Sivers, M v; Stein, A; Thers, D; Tiseni, A; Trinchero, G; Tunnell, C D; Wall, R; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wulf, J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    Two-neutrino double electron capture is a rare nuclear decay where two electrons are simultaneously captured from the atomic shell. For $^{124}$Xe this process has not yet been observed and its detection would provide a new reference for nuclear matrix element calculations. We have conducted a search for two-neutrino double electron capture from the K-shell of $^{124}$Xe using 7636 kg$\\cdot$d of data from the XENON100 dark matter detector. Using a Bayesian analysis we observed no significant excess above background, leading to a lower 90 % credibility limit on the half-life $T_{1/2}>6.5\\times10^{20}$ yr. We also evaluated the sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment, which is currently being commissioned, and find a sensitivity of $T_{1/2}>6.1\\times10^{22}$ yr after an exposure of 2 t$\\cdot$yr.

  8. Evaluation of the 2039 keV level property in {sup 124}Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katakura, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    One of the purposes of the mass chain evaluation is to provide reliable level properties of isobars based on available experimental data. In the work of A=124 mass chain evaluation, we have faced some confusing data relating to confirming the level properties of the 2039 keV level in {sup 124}Te: (1) inconsistent intensity ratios of emitted gamma rays between reaction gamma ray and decay gamma ray data, (2) placement of 2039 keV gamma ray transition and (3) gamma ray angular correlation data relating to the level. In the evaluation work, we have to reconcile the confusing data and to provide the adopted ones derived from the available data. In this report, the problems relating to the level properties are described and the reanalyses of the measured data are presented for providing the adopted data. (author)

  9. Observation of Low-Lying and Linking Transitions in 124Cs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆景彬; 尹利长; 张帆; 吴晓光; 温淑贤; 李广生; 杨春祥

    2001-01-01

    The level states of the nucleus 124Cs have been populated through the 116Sn(11 B,3n) reaction at a beam energy of 45MeV, provided by the HI-13 tandem accelerator of the China Institute of Atomic Energy. A number of low-lying states are constructed. The level states in the πh11/2 νg7/2 side band are extended down to lower spin by one h. The level energies and spins in the rotational bands are determined through the establishment of various connections, which confirm the spin assignment of the yrast band in 124Cs based on excitation energy systematics. It is revealed that with the present spin assignment, the πh11/2 νg7/2 side band shows signature inversion at low-spin region and the inversion occurs at a spin of about 16h.

  10. Cyclotron Produced Radionuclides: Emerging Positron Emitters for Medical Applications: 64Cu and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing number of medical cyclotrons and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) centres as well as the proven high clinical utility of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in cancer patients has led to interest in possibilities for the use of PET tracers which are in different stages of clinical evaluation. This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project on this topic and provides a comprehensive overview of the technologies involved in the production of copper-64 and iodine-124, techniques on preparation of targets, irradiation of targets under high beam currents, target processing, target recovery and labelling. It provides guidance to enhance copper-64 and iodine-124 production and applications. This book will appeal to scientists and technologists involved in putting cyclotron based radioisotope production into practice, as well as postgraduate students in the field

  11. Expression of MiR-124 in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinical Significance%miR-124在胃癌中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕辉; 唐云云; 唐海林; 张志伟; 周秀田; 罗招阳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨miR-124(Homo sapiens miR-124)在胃癌组织中的表达及临床意义.[方法]收集胃癌患者手术标本176例(研究组),以相应癌旁组织作为正常对照(对照组),制成组织芯片,运用原位杂交检测胃癌及癌旁组织中miR-124的表达,分析其与胃癌临床病理参数之间的关系.[结果] 研究组miR-124阳性表达率18.18%显著低于癌旁对照组86.36%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);miR-124的表达随着胃癌临床分期演进和浸润深度的增加而下调,各组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);miR-124的表达与胃癌的分化程度相关,分化越差其表达越低,各组比较差异均有统计学意义 (P<0.01);且有淋巴结转移的miR-124的表达显著低于无淋巴结转移组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]miR-124的表达下调可能是胃黏膜恶性转变及胃癌发生浸润转移的重要生物学标志.%[Objcctivc] To cxplorc the expression of miR-124(Homo sapiens miR-124) in gastric cancer and its clinical significance. [Methods] The tissue specimens of 176 patients with gastric canccr(study group) were collected. The corresponding adjacent tissues of gastric cancer were collected as the normal controls (control group). Tissue chip was prepared. Hybridization in situ was used to detect the expression of miR-124, and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer was analyzed. [Rcsults]Thc positive expression rate of miR-124 in study group(18. 18%) was markedly significantly lower than that in control group(82. 36%) , and there was significant diffcrcncc(P <0. 01). The expression of miR-124 was down regulated with the increasing of clinical stage and the depth of infiltration, and there were significant differences between two groups(P <0. 01). The expression of miR-124 was related to the differentiation degree. The poorer the diffcrcntiation, the lower the expression of miR-124, and there was significant difference between two groups(P <0. 01

  12. 1,2,4-三氯苯对斑马鱼生殖和胚胎发育毒性效应%Reproduction and embrvonic development toxicity of 1,2,4-TCB on zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜青平; 刘伍香; 袁保红; 贾晓珊

    2012-01-01

    The reproduction and embryonic development toxicities of 1,2,4-TCB on zebrafish embryos were examined using a zebrafish embryo test. The results showed that 1,2,4-TCB presented remarkably toxicity effects on zebrafish embryos and larve. High concentration of l,2,4-TCB(>5mg/L) showed toxic effects to embryo development, which caused the embryo abnormality, embryo aggregation and death. The embryo lethality rates were increased by 1,2,4-TCB exposure in the time-response manners and concentration-dependent ways for both adult zebrafish exposure groups and fertilized eggs exposure groups. Exposure to higher concentration of 1,2,4-TCB (15mg/L) for the adult zebrafish, the amounts of spawns and fertilization rates were decreased, and the offspring embryo lethality rates were lower than the fertilized eggs exposure groups. The ratios of typical embryo abnormality- pericardial edema and axial malformation for zebrafish embryos exposure to 1.2.4-TCB were increased with the treated concentrations. The non-lethal embryo abnormality rates in fertilized eggs exposure groups were higher than that in the adult zebrafish exposure groups at the same concentrations of 1,2,4-TCB exposure. The results indicated that 1,2,4-TCB residue in water would have potential hazard to the fish reproduction and development of fish.%采用斑马鱼胚胎早期发育技术研究了1,2,4-三氯苯(1,2,4-TCB)对成年斑马鱼(Danio retio)和斑马鱼受精卵染毒后胚胎生命早期阶段生长发育的影响.结果发现,大于5mg/L剂量的1,2,4-TCB有明显发育毒性,会导致胚胎致畸,引起胚胎凝集或死亡.1,2,4-TCB对成年斑马鱼和斑马鱼受精卵染毒后,胚胎的致死率均与1,2,4-TCB处理之间呈现时间-效应和剂量-效应关系.高浓度的(15 mg/L)1,2,4-TCB对成年斑马鱼的染毒,其平均产卵量和受精率均降低.成年斑马鱼或者受精卵接触1,2,4-TCB后,胚胎发育中典型的非致死效应—心包囊水肿和脊柱畸形的比例均随着1,2,4

  13. Thermoanalytical study of the pesticide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Soto, Pedro José; Morillo González, Esmeralda; Pérez Rodríguez, José Luis; Real, Concepción

    1995-01-01

    Thermoanalytical study of the pesticide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATA) has been carried out, using simultaneous DTA-TG in nitrogen flow, in order to know its thermal behaviour and stability. These techniques have been further complemented using evolved gas analysis and mass spectroscopy (EGA-MS). Two different stages of ATA decomposition were observed: after the first decomposition step, a mixture of compounds is obtained, according to MS data, being the principal component a compound of molecu...

  14. Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in $^{124-132}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Arsenyev, N N; Voronov, V V; Van Giai, Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in $^{124-132}$Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy $E1$ strength distribution.

  15. Search for double electron capture on 124Xe with the XMASS-I detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraide, Katsuki; XMASS Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The XMASS project is a multi-purpose experiment using highly-purified liquid xenon scintillator located underground at the Kamioka Observatory in Japan. A search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe is performed using 165.9 days of data collected with the XMASS-I detector. No significant excess above background was observed and we set a lower limit on the half-life as 4.7 × 1021 years at 90% confidence level.

  16. High spin structure in the odd-odd nucleus sup 124 Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, T.; Furuno, K. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark) Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics); Hosoda, T. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics); Espino, J. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark) Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear); Gascon, J.; Hagemann, G.B.; Jerrestam, D.; Nyberg, J.; Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)); Iwata, Y.; Morikawa, T. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark) Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Kato, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark) Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Tjoem, P.O. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark) Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    High spin states in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 124}Cs have been investigated within the NORDBALL Collaboration. In the yrast cascade which is determined as a {pi}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}h{sub 11/2} configuration, a rather large signature splitting in the ratios, B(M1)/B(E2), has been observed. Furthermore, signature inversion is suggested in the lower spin part of the yrast band. (orig.).

  17. Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in 124-132Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in 124-132Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy E1 strength distribution.

  18. Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0νββ in 124Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0νββ in 124Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

  19. A New Klebsiella planticola Strain (Cd-1) Grows Anaerobically at High Cadmium Concentrations and Precipitates Cadmium Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Balkwill, David L.; Frenkel, Anatoly; Vairavamurthy, Murthy A.

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metal resistance by bacteria is a topic of much importance to the bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. We report here the isolation of a highly cadmium-resistant Klebsiella planticola strain, Cd-1, from reducing salt marsh sediments. The strain grows in up to 15 mM CdCl2 under a wide range of NaCl concentrations and at acidic or neutral pH. In growth medium amended with thiosulfate, it precipitated significant amounts of cadmium sulfide (CdS), as confirmed by x-absorption...

  20. Changes in Tissue Metals After Cadmium Intoxication and Intervention With Chlorpromazine in Male Rats 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAO-FANG; WANGSHU-YI; 等

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd),one of the most dangerous heavy metals,has a very similar ionic radius to calcium(Ca),The interference of cadmium in calcium homeostasis may play an important role in cadmium toxicity.Recent reports indicate that calmodulin(CaM) inhibitors such as trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine(CPZ) could protect rodents against cadmium toxicity,It was also reported that pretreatment of mice with zine(Zn)could reduce the adverse effects induced by cadmium.The aim of this study is to determine whether Cd changes the balance of other essential metals such as Zn and copper(Cu) in rat tissues,and whether CPZ can reverse these changes which are induced by cadmium intoxication.Adult male Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally(ip) with cadmium chloride(CdCl2)(0.2,0.4,0.8mg Cd/kg body wight) alone and 0.4mg Cd/kg in association with CPZ(5mg/kg) daily for a week.The control animals were injected with normal saline only.The results showed that the cadmium content in the liver,kidney,and testis increased significantly with a dose-response relationship.Cadmium treatment markedly increased the Zn and Ca content in some of the tissues,Hepatic and renal metallothionein(MT) increased significantly after cadmium intoxication,CPZ treatment,howerver,reduced cadmium content in liver,but not blood and kidney.CPZ seemed to decrease the content of MT in liver and significantly increase the amounts of MT in kidney.These data suggest that the intervention of cadmium with tissue essential metals may play a role in cadium toxicity in rats,and calmodulin inhibitors to some extent can reduce the adverse effect of cadmium by decreasing the cadmium load in tissues and reversing the unbalance of essetial metals.

  1. 2-(5,6-Diphenyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-ylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Mojzych

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H16N4, obtained under standard Suzuki cross-coupling conditions, is a model compound in the synthesis and biological activity evaluation of new aza-analogues of sildenafil containing a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine system. An N—H...N intramolecular hydrogen bond involving the aminobenzene system and the 1,2,4-triazine moiety helps to establish a near coplanar orientation of the rings with a dihedral angle of 12.04 (4°, which is believed to be necessary for the biological activity of sildenafil analogues. The 1,2,4-triazine ring is slightly distorted from planarity [r.m.s deviation = 0.0299 (11 Å] and forms dihedral angles of 58.60 (4 and 36.35 (3° with the pendant phenyl rings. The crystal packing features bifurcated N—H...(N,N hydrogen bonds linking screw-axis-related molecules into chains parallel to the [010] direction< and π–π interactions, with a centroid–centroid separation of 3.8722 (7 Å and a slippage of 1.412 (3 Å. The crystal studied was a nonmerohedral twin with a ratio of 0.707 (2:0293 (2.

  2. Benzyl-1,2,4-triazoles as CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands: Preparation and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Decara, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists. In order to expand the number of cannabinoid ligands with a central 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we have synthesized a novel series of 1-benzyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles, and some of them were evaluated by CB1R radioligand binding assays. Compound 12a showed the most interesting pharmacological properties, possessing a CB1R affinity in the nanomolar range. PMID:27127651

  3. Reaction of lithiumcarboranes with 1,2,4-triazine-4-oxides: the SNH reactions and cycle transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of applying the reactions of the hydrogen nucleophilic substitution in the 1,2,4-triazine-4-oxides series for the synthesis of the heteroaryl carboranes is studied. It is established that the reaction of the 1-lithium-1,2- or 1,7-dicarbo-closo-dodecaborane with 1,2,4-triazine-4-oxides may proceed by two competing directions. Introduction of the acceptor 1,2,4-triazine cycle into the carborane skeleton may significantly facilitate the the deboration reaction process with formation of the 1-(1,2,4-triazine-5-yl)-1,2-1,7-dicarbo-nido-undecaboranes

  4. Thin films and solar cells of cadmium telluride and cadmium zinc telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferekides, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this dissertation are to investigate (1) the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and properties of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (Cd(1-x)Zn(z)Te) films and junctions, and their potential application to solar cells, and (2) the fabrication and characterization of CdTe solar cells by the close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. CdTe and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te films have been deposited by MOCVD on a variety of substrates at 300-400 C.The effect of the deposition parameters and post deposition heat treatments on the electrical, optical, and structural properties have been investigated. Heterojunctions of the configuration CdTe/transparent conducting semiconductor (TCS) and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te/TCS have been prepared and characterized. CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS and Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te(E sub g = 1.65eV)/Cd(1-x)Zn(x)S solar cells with efficiencies of 9.9 percent and 2.4 percent, respectively have been fabricated. The as-deposited CdTe(MOCVD)/CdS junctions exhibited high dark current densities due to deflects at the interface associated with small grain size. No effective post-deposition heat treatment has been developed. CdTe/CdS solar cells have also been fabricated by the close spaced sublimation (CSS). Significant improvements in material and processing have been made, and in collaboration with fellow researchers an AM1.5 conversion efficiency of 13.4 percent has been demonstrated, the highest efficiency ever measured for such devices. The highest conversion efficiency for the CdTe(CSS)/CdS solar cell was achieved by reaching high open-circuit voltages and fill factors, while the short-circuit current densities were moderate. These results indicate that further improvements to increase the short-circuit current densities can result in conversion efficiencies over 15 percent.

  5. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes.

  6. Biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) by protonated Sargassum glaucescens biomass in a continuous packed bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddafi, Kazem [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nabizadeh, Ramin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeedi, Reza [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: reza.saeedi@gmail.com; Mahvi, Amir Hossein [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, Forough [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yaghmaeian, Kamyar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasri, Azar [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazmara, Shahrokh [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-25

    Biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by protonated Sargassum glaucescens biomass was studied in a continuous packed bed column. The selective uptake of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} was investigated in a binary system with initial concentration of 1 mM for each metal ion. The selective uptake capacities of Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} at complete exhaustion point were obtained 1.18 and 0.22 mmol/g, respectively; therefore, the biosorbent showed much higher relative affinity for Pb{sup 2+} than for Cd{sup 2+}. The optimum range of empty bed contact time (EBCT) was identified as 5-10 min in the packed bed column. The efficiency of biosorbent regeneration by 0.1 M HCl was achieved about 60%, so that the maximum uptake capacity of Pb{sup 2+} by the regenerated biomass was determined to be 0.75 mmol/g while the same value for the original biomass was 1.24 mmol/g. The Thomas model was found in a suitable fitness with the experimental data (R {sup 2} > 0.90 and {epsilon}% < 50%) at all different operation stages. Monitoring of pH in the effluent of the column presented the simultaneous release of H{sup +} with the uptake of heavy metals; hence, ion exchange was confirmed to be one of the main biosorption mechanisms.

  7. 42 CFR 423.124 - Special rules for out-of-network access to covered Part D drugs at out-of-network pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Part D drugs at out-of-network pharmacies. 423.124 Section 423.124 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 423.124 Special rules for...

  8. Expression of miR-124 in gastric cancer and its clinical signiifcance%miR-124在胃癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋; 谢黎明; 张志伟; 唐海林; 邬力祥

    2016-01-01

    背景与目的:miR-124在多种肿瘤中发挥抑癌基因样功能,如肺癌、前列腺癌、膀胱癌和乳腺癌,但是其在胃癌中的表达及临床意义尚不清楚。该研究旨在研究miR-124在正常胃黏膜上皮细胞与不同胃癌细胞及胃癌组织及正常胃黏膜组织中的表达,分析其表达与胃癌患者性别、年龄、组织学分级、T分期、TNM分期、淋巴结转移及预后之间的相关性。方法:采用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain-reaction,RTFQ-PCR)检测miR-124在人胃黏膜上皮细胞及胃癌细胞中的表达,采用原位杂交法检测miR-124在胃癌及癌旁正常组织中的表达。结果:RTFQ-PCR结果显示,miR-124在胃癌MKN-74、MKN-28、MKN-45、MGC-803、SGC-7901及AGS细胞中的表达均低于GES-1细胞;原位杂交实验结果显示,miR-124在正常胃黏膜中呈强阳性表达,在胃腺癌组织中表达下降、局灶阳性或缺失;统计分析显示,miR-124与胃腺癌患者组织学分级、TNM分期及淋巴结转移密切相关,与患者的年龄、性别及肿瘤大小无关;Kaplan-Meier生存曲线统计分析显示,miR-124低表达患者的总生存时间和无病生存时间显明低于miR-124高表达患者;多因素分析结果提示,miR-124表达下调是影响患者生存的独立预后因素。结论:miR-124在胃癌细胞及组织中表达下调,并且与患者的组织学分级、TNM分期、淋巴结转移及预后密切相关。%Background and purpose:miR-124 is considered to be a tumor suppressor in multiple tumors, including lung cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, and breast cancer. However, its function is unclear in gastric cancer. This study aimed to explore the expression of miR-124 in human gastric mucosal epithelium cells and different gastric cancer cells, as well as gastric cancer tissues and matched para-cancerous tissues. The correlations of miR-124

  9. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  10. Nickel cadmium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, fabrication, components, testing, and assembly of nickel cadmium batteries are covered in the bibliography. The majority of these citations deal with the development of power supplies for aircraft and spacecraft. This updated bibliography contains 135 abstracts, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  11. A method for partitioning cadmium bioaccumulated in small aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardena, S.N.; Rana, K.J.; Baird, D.J. [Univ. of Stirling (United Kingdom). Institute of Aquaculture

    1995-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to evaluate bioaccumulation and surface adsorption of aqueous cadmium (Cd) by sac-fry of the African tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In the first experiment, the design consisted of two cadmium treatments: 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in dilution water and a Cd-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Cd-EDTA) complex at 15 {micro}m{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}, and a water-only control. There were five replicates per treatment and 40 fish per replicate. It was found that EDTA significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of cadmium by tilapia sac-fry by 34%. Based on the results, a second experiment was conducted to evaluate four procedures: a no-rinse control; rinsing in EDTA; rinsing in distilled water; and rinsing in 5% nitric acid, for removing surface-bound Cd from exposed sac-fry. In this experiment, 30 fish in each of five replicates were exposed to 15 {micro}g Cd{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for 72 h, processed through the rinse procedures, and analyzed for total Cd. The EDTA rinse treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) Cd concentrations of the exposed fish relative to those receiving no rinse. It was concluded that the EDTA rinse technique may be useful in studies evaluating the partitioning of surface-bound and accumulated cadmium in small aquatic organisms.

  12. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha;

    2015-01-01

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and...

  13. GEMAS: Geochemical Distribution of Cadmium in European Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Manfred; Reimann, Clemens; Demetriades, Alecos; Dinelli, Enrico; Halamić, Josip; Rauch, Uwe; Gosar, Mateja; Ladenberger, Anna; Klos, Volodymyr; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium concentrations are reported for the urbanisation and use of fertilisers. The median value of Cd in the mobile metal ion (MMI®) extraction of Ap soil samples is 0.054 mg/kg. The Cd distribution pattern of MMI® extracts shows a zone of relatively high values throughout central Europe, which can be linked to agricultural land use (input of Cd via fertlisers).

  14. Plant science: the key to preventing slow cadmium poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, S.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Thomine, S.; Verbruggen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Practically all human populations are environmentally exposed to cadmium (Cd), mostly through plant-derived food. A growing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no margin of safety between current Cd exposure levels and the threshold for adverse health effects and, hence, there is

  15. The cadmium content in bone of osteoporotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 50 elements in the human body. A half of them is the essential elements in the organism. The residual elements except main constituents are called the essential trace elements for the organism. Trace elements in human body are very important for physical reactions of life. There is an osteoporosis that is one of the old person's disease. The osteoporosis happened by changing some physical nature of bone with aging. Or hormone imbalance and deficiency of calcium intake degenerated the bone in quality, too. The trace elements in human organ tissues and human bone tissues were determined to make clear distribution of trace elements in the human body by neutron activation analysis. Very much cadmium was found in human bones of osteoporotic patients. Why the high concentration of cadmium present in the bone tissues? Cadmium accumulates in it for long term of years. The Cd rich bone easily damaged by very weak impact. The normal bone mainly formed by Ca-hydroxyapatite with some connective protein tissues. Cadmium containing one formed by the hydroxyapatite, too. There is no apparent change in the nature and crystalline change. (author)

  16. Separator Qualification for Aerospace Nickel-cadmium Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milden, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development plans for a new separator for nickel cadmium (NiCd) cells is described. Research includes acceptance testing, operation in a charge/discharge characterization matrix, and life testing in low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) orbit under real time and accelerated conditions.

  17. Cadmium and zinc relationships in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Piscator, M.; Linnman, L.

    1977-06-01

    Zinc and cadmium have been determined in kidney cortex, liver, and pancreas from 292 subjects autopsied in Stockholm, Sweden. In the liver and pancreas zinc was found to have a normal frequency distribution, average 45.3 ..mu..g/g and 26.9 ..mu..g/g wet wt, respectively. The concentrations of zinc in these two organs were constant regardless of age at death. Zinc was shown to accumulate with age in the kidney cortex in a way similar to cadmium, and had a log-normal distribution. The calculation of the regression line between individual cadmium concentrations below 60 ..mu..g/g and zinc concentrations gave a slope constant of 0.61 (Y/sub Zn/ = 0.61 X/sub Cd/ + 24.4), which corresponds to a nearly equimolar increase of zinc. The concentrations of ''physiological zinc,'' i.e., total zinc minus the zinc related to cadmium, were normally distributed (anti x = 24.6 ..mu..g Zn/g) and did not change with age. Furthermore, data on dry weight/wet weight ratios and ash weight/dry weight ratios in relation to age are presented.

  18. Tribological performance of organic cadmium compound as lubricant additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jian-qiang; XIE Feng; ZHU Huan-qin; ZHEN Fa-zheng; YAO Jun-bing

    2004-01-01

    The oil-soluble cadmium dipropyldithiophosphate additive was synthesized. A four-ball tester was used to evaluate the tribological performance of the additive in a mineral oil under different loads and lubricant grease synthesized compared with some commercial additives. The results show that it exhibits excellent antiwear and load-carrying capacities and is better than other additives. The surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) were used to investigate the topography, the compositions, and chemical states of some typical elements on the rubbing surface of worn scar.Smooth and light topography of worn scar further confirms that the additive shows good antiwear capacities. The results of EDX and XPS analyses indicate that tribochemical mixed protective films consisting of atomic cadmium, sulphides, sulphates and phosphates are formed on the rubbing surface, which contribute to improving the tribological properties of lubricant and grease. Particularly, the soft cadmium film formed plays an important role in improving antiwear properties of oils. Finally, antiwear mechanism of the additive and formation scheme of atomic cadmium was proposed.

  19. in situ immobilization of Cadmium and zinc in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: beringite, cadmium, DOC, DOM, earthworms, immobilization, leaching, lime, manganese oxides, metal binding, metal uptake, organic matter partitioning, pH, soil contamination, remediation, sorption, Swiss chard, zeolites, zinc.It is generally assumed that a decrease in metal c

  20. Nuclear toxicology file: the cadmium: mechanisms to elucidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spread in the environment by the human activities, the cadmium is a toxic and mutagen metal and its mechanisms of toxicity are still badly understood. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the transport, the toxicity and the detoxication of this metal by relying us on the cellular model of baker's yeast. (N.C.)

  1. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  2. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing;

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...

  3. Determination of lead and cadmium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling techniques and experience, and decomposition methods are presented. The processes used in flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (including the method using automatic insertion of samples), pulse polarography and isotope dilution mass spectrometry are described. Finally, the results of lead and cadmium measurements in bovine liver, blood, urine and hair samples are reported and discussed with a comparison of methods in some cases

  4. A major gene for grain cadmium accumulation in oat

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan; Kiviharju, Elina

    2008-01-01

    A population of 150 F2 plants was derived from a cross between two spring oat individuals, one from cv. Aslak (Boreal Plant Breeding LTd., Finland) and the other from cv. Salo (Svalöf-Weibull AB, Sweden). Cadmium was tested by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method.

  5. Matched pairs dosimetry: {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I metaiodobenzylguanidine and {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Fanti, Stefano [Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi and University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Pepe, Giovanna; Antunovic, Lidija [IRCCS Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Castellani, Maria Rita; Bombardieri, Emilio [Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The technological advances in imaging and production of radiopharmaceuticals are driving an innovative way of evaluating the targets for antineoplastic therapies. Besides the use of imaging to better delineate the volume of external beam radiation therapy in oncology, modern imaging techniques are able to identify targets for highly specific medical therapies, using chemotherapeutic drugs and antiangiogenesis molecules. Moreover, radionuclide imaging is able to select targets for radionuclide therapy and to give the way to in vivo dose calculation to target tissues and to critical organs. This contribution reports the main studies published on matched pairs dosimetry with {sup 124}I/{sup 131}I- and {sup 86}Y/{sup 90}Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, with an emphasis on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  6. Literature Analysis of 124 Cases of Fosfomycin-induced ADR%磷霉素致不良反应124例文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金永; 孙增先; 张骞峰; 周金玉; 高山

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨磷霉素致不良反应(ADR)发生的一般规律及特点,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:以“磷霉素”为关键词,检索中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据库,收集磷霉素致ADR的有效文献99篇,共124例,并按患者性别、年龄、既往药物过敏史、原患疾病、用药情况、ADR发生时间、ADR类型及临床表现、评价与转归等进行分类、统计和回顾性分析.结果:124例磷霉素致ADR患者性别与年龄比较,无显著性差异(P>0.05);37例患者有药物及食物过敏史,占49.33%(75例患者有过敏史确切记录);121例(97.58%)患者经静脉滴注给药;过敏性休克最多(42例,33.87%),其次为皮肤及附件损害(28例,22.58%);出现ADR最快的是在静脉滴注后立即发生,最迟出现在患者用药5d后;绝大多数患者停药或治疗后好转恢复,死亡8例.结论:磷霉素致ADR的临床表现复杂多样,最严重的可能引起死亡,临床医师、药师应重视其ADR的危害性.%OBJECTIVE: To explore the general regularity and characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) induced by fos-fomycin, and to provide reference for rational safe use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS: Using fosfomycin as key word. CNK1 and Wangfang database were searched. A total of 99 literatures about fosfomycin-induced ADR were collected, involving 124 cases. The data were analyzed retrospectively in respect of patients' gender, age, allergy history, primary disease, medication, ADR on-set time, types and clinical manifestation of ADR, evaluation and outcome. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in patients' gender and age of 124 fosfomycin-induced ADR cases (P>0.05). 37 cases had drug and food allergy history, accounting for 49.33% (75 patients had exact record of allergy history). 121 cases (97.58%) were given fosfomycin intravenously; the most of cases were anaphylactic shock (42 cases, 33.87%), followed by lesion of skin and its appendants (28

  7. Simple and Efficient Synthesis of Racemic 2-(tert-Butoxycarbon-ylamino-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpropanoic Acid, a New Derivative of β-(1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Kerbal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic approach to racemic N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylalanine (5 in four steps and 68% overall yield starting from oxazoline derivative 1 is reported. This synthesis involves the alkylation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole with an O-tosyloxazoline derivative, followed by an oxazoline ring-opening reaction and oxidation of the N-protected β‑aminoalcohol by potassium permanganate.

  8. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  9. Uptake of cadmium by Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magela Paula Casiraghi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata was used for the removal of the cadmium in liquids. The accumulations of metal ions by the alga occur in two stages: a very fast absorption (passive adsorption proceeded by a slower absorption (activate absorption. A mathematical model based on the surface absorption and on the transport into the interior of the cellular membrane was developed. The simulation model kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained. Through the results observed, the mathematical model was shown to be suitable when compared to the experimental results, confirming the validation of the mathematical model.Neste trabalho utilizou-se a microalga Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata para a remoção do cádmio em líquidos. A metodologia consistiu de três conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro conjunto teve como objetivo a avaliação do crescimento da alga, o segundo foi à avaliação da remoção de cádmio e o terceiro a avaliação do crescimento da alga sendo adicionado o cádmio junto com o inóculo no tempo igual a zero, também foi avaliada a remoção de cádmio neste terceiro experimento. O acúmulo de íons metálicos pela alga ocorre em duas etapas: uma absorção muito rápida (adsorção passiva seguida por uma absorção mais lenta (absorção ativa Desenvolveu-se um modelo matemático baseado na absorção da superfície e no transporte para o interior da membrana celular. A obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos do modelo de simulação foi obtida experimentalmente. Pelos resultados observados o modelo matemático proposto mostrou-se adequado quando comparado aos resultados experimentais, confirmando a validação do modelo matemático proposto.

  10. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  11. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tony T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd and creatinine-adjusted urine cadmium (CAUCd levels were measured for each participant. Statistical analyses measured the prostate cancer risk associated with BCd and CAUCd separately, controlling for age, smoking and institution. BCd and CAUCd levels within cases were compared in relation to the disease stage and the Gleason score. Results High family income, low beef intake, low dairy product consumption and positive family history were independently associated with the prostate carcinogenesis. There was no difference in BCd levels between cases and controls (median, 0.88 versus 0.87 μg/l, p = 0.45. Cases had lower CAUCd levels than controls (median, 0.94 versus 1.40 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.001. However, cases with higher BCd and CAUCd levels tended to be at more advanced stages and to have higher Gleason scores. The prostate cancer cases with Gleason scores of ≥ 8 had an odds ratio of 2.89 (95% confidence interval 1.25-6.70, compared with patients with scores of 2-6. Conclusion Higher CAUCd and BCd levels may be associated with advanced cancer phenotypes, but there was only a tenuous association between cadmium and prostate cancer.

  12. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiwen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  13. Physiological characterization of cadmium-exposed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräutigam, Anja; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Thondorf, Iris; Wesenberg, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a common model organism for investigation of metal stress. This green alga produces phytochelatins in the presence of metal ions. The influence of cadmium is of main interest, because it is a strong activator of phytochelatin synthase. Cell wall bound and intracellular cadmium content was determined after exposition to 70 µm CdCl(2), showing the main portion of the metal outside the cell. Nevertheless, imported cadmium was sufficient to cause significant changes in thiolpeptide metabolism and its transcriptional regulation. Modern analytical approaches enable new insights into phytochelatin (PC) distribution. A new rapid and precise UPLC-MS method allowed high-throughput PC quantification in algal samples after 1, 4, 24 and 48 h cadmium stress. Initially, canonic PCs were synthesized in C. reinhardtii during cadmium exposition, but afterwards CysPCs became the major thiolpeptides. Thus, after 48 h the concentration of the PC-isoforms CysPC(2-3) and CysGSH attained between 105 and 199 nmol g(-1) fresh weight (FW), whereas the PC(2-3) concentrations were only 15 nmol g(-1) FW. The relative quantification of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) mRNA suggests the generation of CysPCs by glutamate cleavage from canonic PCs by γ-GT. Furthermore, a homology model of C. reinhardtii phytochelatin synthase was constructed to verify the use of crystal structures from Anabaena sp. phytochelatin synthase (PCS) for docking studies with canonical PCs and CysPCs. From the difference in energy scores, we hypothesize that CysPC may prevent the synthesis of canonical PCs by blocking the binding pocket. Finally, possible physiological reasons for the high abundance of CysPC compared with their canonic precursors are discussed.

  14. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Some New Fused 1,2,4-Triazines Bearing Thiophene Moieties With Expected Pharmacological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosselhi A. Mosselhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and efficient solvent-free synthesis of 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-[2-(2-thienylvinyl]-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H-one 1 under microwave irradiation is described. Some new fused heterobicyclic nitrogen systems such as 1,2,4-triazino[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazinones, 1,3,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]triazinone and pyrazolo[5,1-c]-[1,2,4]triazine-7-carbonitrile, have been synthesized by treatment of 1 with bifunctional oxygen and halogen compounds, CS2/KOH and malononitrile via heterocyclization reactions, in addition to some uncondensed triazines. Structures of the products have been deduced from their elemental analysis and spectral data (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR. Select new synthesized compounds were screened as anticancer agents, with some showing activity as cytotoxic agents against different cancer cell lines.

  15. 20 CFR 632.124 - Theft or embezzlement from employment and training funds; improper inducement; obstruction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Prevention of Fraud and Program Abuse § 632.124 Theft or... misapplies, steals, or obtains by fraud any of the money, funds, assets, or property which are the subject...

  16. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  17. Flow of Cadmium from Rechargeable Batteries in the United States, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium metal has been found to be toxic to humans and the environment under certain conditions; therefore, a thorough understanding of the use and disposal of the metal is warranted. Most of the cadmium used in the United States comes from imported products. In 2007, more than 83 percent of the cadmium used in the United States was contained in batteries, mostly in rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries used in popular consumer products such as cordless phones and power tools. The flow of cadmium contained in rechageable nickel-cadmium batteries used in the United States was tracked for the years 1996 to 2007. The amount of cadmium metal contained in imported products in 2007 was estimated to be about 1,900 metric tons, or about 160 percent higher than the reported cadmium production in the United States from all primary and secondary sources. Although more than 40,000 metric tons of cadmium was estimated to be contained in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that became obsolete during the 12-year study period, not all of this material was sent to municipal solid waste landfills. About 27 percent of the material available for recovery in the United States was recycled domestically in 2007; the balance was discarded in municipal solid waste landfills, exported for recycling, retained in temporary storage, or thrown away.

  18. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  20. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  2. Prompt γ-ray spectroscopy of the neutron-rich 124Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancraeyenest A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prompt γ-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich cadmium isotopes has been performed. The nuclei of interest have been populated via a 25-MeV, proton-induced fission of the 238U thick target and prompt γ-rays measured using the multi-detector HPGe array JUROGAM II. New high-spin decays have been observed and placed in the level scheme using triple coincidence gates. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations and show good agreement.

  3. Synthesis and biological activities of some new 4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, A; Johansson, C B; Duman, N; Ikizler, A A

    1996-01-01

    The reactions of 3-alkyl(aryl)-4-phenylamino-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones with appropriate alkyl halides via sodio derivatives were studied and the corresponding 1-alkyl-3-alkyl(aryl)-4-phenylamino-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-traizol-5 -ones were synthesized. Next, the new compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities. PMID:8960286

  4. Phase control and growth of Y123 and Y124 crystals below 600 °C by molten KOH flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • KOH flux can grow Y123 and Y124 crystals below 600 °C. • Growth phases of Y123 and Y124 are controlled by changing growth atmosphere. • p–T Phase relation diagram involving KOH and Y–Ba–Cu–O is determined. • Liquid phase epitaxial films of Y123 and Y124 is obtained at low temperatures. - Abstract: Phase formation temperatures of YBa2Cu3O7−δ (Y123), YBa2Cu4O8 (Y124) and Y2Ba4Cu7O15 (Y247) in a system containing molten KOH have been studied with respect to partial oxygen pressure. At the low oxygen partial pressure of approximately 10−5–10−4 atm, crystalline Y123 phase was generated at as low as 550 °C with the superconducting transition temperature above 90 K. In the air atmosphere, Y124 phase was formed below 600 °C and Y123/Y124 phase boundary was observed approximately 775 °C. At the oxygen pressure of 1 atm, Y247 was formed between the regions of Y123 and Y124 formation. Phase formation relation among Y123, Y124 and Y247 is similar to that of the conventional system without KOH, however, phase boundary sifts toward lower temperature by 50–150 °C in the KOH contained system. The morphology of the obtained crystals indicates that they grew by the liquid phase growth mode. The process with the molten KOH has a potential to fabricate superconducting liquid phase epitaxial films at very low temperatures below 600 °C

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 4,5-Dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN, Xiaohong; BAI, Yan; LIU, Yuanfa; CHEN, Bang; JIA, Yingqi; ZENG, Zhenfang

    2009-01-01

    The 4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole Schiff base derivatives were synthesized with 4-amino-4,5-dihydro-3-(phenoxy- methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione and substituted benzaidehydes. The chemical structures of the compounds have been confirmed by 1H NMR, IR spectra and elemental analysis. Their biological activities were investigated, and the results showed that they exhibited good fungicidal activities.

  6. MicroRNA-124-3p regulates cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and bioenergetics by targeting PIM1 in astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danni; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yao; Li, Bowen; Xue, Lian; Shao, Naiyuan; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin; Zhi, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The PIM1 protein is an important regulator of cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism in various human cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful post-transcriptional gene regulators that function through translational repression or transcript destabilization. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether a close relationship exists between PIM1 and miRNAs. PIM1 protein levels and mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in astrocytoma tissues, indicating the oncogenic role of PIM1 in astrocytoma. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that miR-124-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of PIM1. We also observed an inverse correlation between the miR-124-3p levels and PIM1 protein or mRNA levels in astrocytoma samples. Next, we experimentally confirmed that miR-124-3p directly recognizes the 3'-UTR of the PIM1 transcript and regulates PIM1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we examined the biological consequences of miR-124-3p targeting PIM1 in vitro. We showed that the repression of PIM1 in astrocytoma cancer cells by miR-124-3p suppressed proliferation, invasion, and aerobic glycolysis and promoted apoptosis. We observed that the restoration or inhibition of PIM1 activity resulted in effects that were similar to those induced by miR-124-3p inhibitors or mimics in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of PIM1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-124-3p. In summary, these findings aid in understanding the tumor-suppressive role of miR-124-3p in astrocytoma pathogenesis through the inhibition of PIM1 translation. PMID:27088547

  7. Improved Biodegradation of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene by Adapted Microorganisms in Agricultural Soil and in Soil Suspension Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; WANG Fang; F. O. KENGARA; BIAN Yong-Rong; YANG Xing-Lun; LIU Cui-Ying; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    Inoculating soil with an adapted microbial community is a more effective bioaugrnentation approach than inoculation with pure strains in bioremediation.However,information on the potential of different inocula from sites with varying contamination levels and pollution histories in soil remediation is lacking.The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of adapted microorganisms in soil inocula,with different contamination levels and pollution histories,to degrade 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB).Three different soils from chlorobenzene-contaminated sites were inoculated into agricultural soils and soil suspension cultures spiked with 1,2,4-TCB.The results showed that 36.52% of the initially applied 1,2,4-TCB was present in the non-inoculated soil,whereas about 19.00% of 1,2,4-TCB was present in the agricultural soils inoculated with contaminated soils after 28 days of incubation.The soils inoculated with adapted microbial biomass (in the soil inocula) showed higher respiration and lower 1,2,4-TCB volatilization than the non-inoculated soils,suggesting the existence of 1,2,4-TCB adapted degraders in the contaminated soils used for inoculation.It was further confirmed in the contaminated soil suspension cultures that the concentration of inorganic chloride ions increased continuously over the entire experimental period.Higher contamination of the inocula led not only to higher degradation potential but also to higher residue formation.However,even inocula of low-level contamination were effective in enhancing the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB.Therefore,applying adapted microorganisms in the form of soil inocula,especially with lower contamination levels,could be an effective and environment-friendly strategy for soil remediation.

  8. Lanthanide nitrates as Lewis acids in the one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Juliana A.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: julianadqf@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Zampieri, Davila de S.; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose A.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] acting as catalyst in direct one pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups. (author)

  9. 含镉粉尘治理前后工人尿镉与血镉水平分析%Analysis of urine cadmium and blood cadmium of workers before and after the cadmium dust control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继猛; 皮嵩云; 张玉莲; 李娟萍; 朱洁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the urinary cadmium, blood cadmium and urinary β2-MG of workers in a zinc powder processing plant before and after the cadmium dust control, and to explore the effects of dust control on the prevention and treatment of cadmium hazards.Methods The on-site occupational hazard survey was used to investigate the changes of urine cadmium, blood cadmium and 32-MG of 84 workers exposed to cadmium before and after the treatment by self-control analysis for evaluating the effects of dust control measures in a zinc powder processing plant.Results After treatment of the cadmium dust, the geometric mean of zinc dust in the workplace significantly decreased from 3.38 mg/m3 to 2.2 2mg/m3 (P<0.01).The geometric mean concentration of blood cadmium [(2.19±1.19) μg/L] and urine cadmium [(1.96±0.74) μg/g Cr] before treatment were significantly higher than those of one year [(1.63±0.83) μg/L] and [(1.25±0.83) μg/g Cr] and two years [( 1.36±0.95) μg/L] and [(0.94±0.72) μg/g Cr] after the cadmium dust control (P<0.01), respectively.The positive correlations analysis between urine cadmium and blood cadmium concentration of one and two years before and afterthe cadmium dust treatment implied that there was significant difference ( r=0.466, P<0.01).Conclusion Dust treatment could reduce the impact of low concentration cadmium on the urine cadmium and blood cadmium concentrations of the workers exposed to cadmium, and effectively prevent the cadmium poisoning.%目的 分析某锌粉加工厂含镉粉尘治理前后作业工人尿镉、血镉和尿β2-微球蛋白的变化.方法 对锌粉加工厂粉尘进行治理,对粉尘治理前后84名镉作业工人尿镉、血镉、β2-微球蛋白水平进行自身对照分析.结果 治理后,作业场所锌尘几何均数由3.38mg/m3降至2.22mg/m3,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治理前调查对象的血镉、尿镉几何均数浓度[血镉(2.19±1.19)μg/L,尿镉(1.96±0.74)μg

  10. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    . Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  11. Silver complexes of 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes: Synthesis, structure and reactivity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandrakanta Dash; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh

    2011-03-01

    Two silver(I) complexes {[1-R-4-(-t4-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene]2Ag}+ Cl− [R = Et (1b), -Pr (2b)] of /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes derived from 1,2,4-triazoles are reported. The silver complexes, 1b and 2b, have been synthesized from the reaction of the /-functionalized triazolium chloride salts namely, 1-R-4-(N-t-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazolium chloride [R = Et (1a), -Pr (2a)] by treatment with Ag2O in 53-56% yield. The 1,2,4-triazolium chloride salts 1a and 2a were prepared by the alkylation reaction of 1-R-1,2,4-triazole (R = Et, -Pr) with --butyl-2-chloro acetamide in 47-63% yield. The molecular structures of the silver(I) complexes, 1b and 2b, have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The density functional theory studies on the silver 1b and 2b complexes suggest that the 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes to be strong −donating ligands similar to the now much recognized imidazolebased N-heterocyclic carbenes. The reactivity studies with (SMe2)AuCl and (SMe2)CuBr indicated the silver complexes, 1b and 2b, to be good transmetallating agents.

  12. Occurrence of bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides host strains (ARABA 84 and GB-124) in fecal samples of human and animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diston, David; Wicki, Melanie

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriophage-based microbial source-tracking studies are an economical and simple way of identifying fecal sources in polluted water systems. Recently isolated Bacteroides spp. strains ARABA 84, and GB-124 have been shown to detect bacteriophages exclusively in aquatic systems impacted by human fecal material. To date, limited examination of the occurrence or concentration of phages capable of infecting Bacteroides fragilis strain GB-124 or B. thetaiotaomicron strain ARABA 84 in human and animal feces has been carried out. This study reports the prevalence rates and concentrations of phages infecting ARABA 84 and GB-124 host strains in human and a range of animal feces. Discrete human fecal samples (n=55) and pooled animal samples (n=46, representing the feces of over 230 animals) were examined for phages infecting the host strains ARABA 84, GB-124, and E. coli strain WG5. Both human Bacteroides host strains were highly specific (95% and 100% for ARABA 84 and GB-124, respectively), challenging results from previous studies. This study supports the use of Bacteroides strains GB-124 and ARABA 84 in fecal source tracking studies for the detection of human fecal contamination.

  13. Loss of microRNA-124 expression in neurons in the peri-lesion area in mice with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Hui Zhang; Dan Zhang; Cai-yong Yu; Xiang-hui Zhao; Fang-fang Liu; Gan-lan Bian; Gong Ju; Jian Wang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) is abundantly expressed in neurons in the mammalian central ner-vous system, and plays critical roles in the regulation of gene expression during embryonic neurogenesis and postnatal neural differentiation. However, the expression proifle of miR-124 after spinal cord injury and the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we examined the expression of miR-124 in mouse brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury usingin situ hybridization. Furthermore, the expression of miR-124 was examined with quantitative RT-PCR at 1, 3 and 7 days after spinal cord injury. The miR-124 expression in neurons at the site of injury was evaluated by in situ hybridization combined with NeuN immunohistochemical staining. The miR-124 was mainly expressed in neurons through-out the brain and spinal cord. The expression of miR-124 in neurons significantly decreased within 7 days after spinal cord injury. Some of the neurons in the peri-lesion area were NeuN+/miR-124−. Moreover, the neurons distal to the peri-lesion site were NeuN+/miR-124+. These ifndings indicate that miR-124 expression in neurons is reduced after spinal cord injury, and may relfect the severity of spinal cord injury.

  14. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  15. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette. PMID:6617614

  16. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:26675819

  17. Assessment of Cadmium Contamination of Soils in Sewage Disposal Areasof Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vinu Radha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a naturally occurring minor element, one of the metallic components in the earth’s crust and oceans and present everywhere. Agricultural soils may also be enriched by cadmium which causes it’s accumulation in plants and pose a potential threat to human health. Also high concentrations of cadmium in soil have detrimental effects on ecosystem as it enters the food chain. Soil samples were collected from different places near sewage disposal areas in Coimbatore where the source of cadmium is likely to be threatening the public. Twenty six samples were collected, their physiochemical properties and total cadmium content were determined. Five soil samples that showed high levels of more than 3 mg kg-1of cadmium were identified as hotspots and their Arbuscularmycorrhizal spore count were assessed.

  18. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress.

  19. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  20. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l-1) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l-1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l-1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  1. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S. A.; Abu Shawish, K.Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  2. Lead, cadmium and nickel contents of some medicinal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilatun Nessa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead.

  3. Radiation and cadmium induced histological alteration in the mice liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) were procured from CCS Agricultural University, Hissar and maintained at 20-25 degree celcius. The animals were housed in polypropylene cages and maintained on balanced mice feed and tap water ad libitum. Cobalt gamma radiotherapy source (Thearton, Canada) was used to irradiate the animals.The animals were irradiated at the dose rate of 0.97 Gy/Min. The aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (20 ppm) was administered orally in drinking water. For the purpose the animals were divided into the following groups. Group-I included sham irradiated animals and served as normal.The animal of Group-II were treated with cadmium chloride through out the experiment. The mice of group-Ill were irradiated with 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of group-IV were treated with cadmium chloride and also exposed to 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Five animals were autopsied by cervical dislocation from every set of experiment and each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The weight of animals was recorded. For histopathological studies pieces of liver were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hrs. The tissues were washed in water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Section were cut at 5 micrometer and stained in Harris heametoxylene and alcoholic eosin. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vaculation, pycnotic nuclei, giant cells, binucleated cells and enucleation. Hyperaemia and leucocytic infilteration were also noticed. The changes were more marked on day 7 but on day 14 the sign of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better hepatic architecture were observed. The synergistic additive changes were seen in the liver after the combined treatment of gamma radiation and cadmium chloride. From present finding it could de deduced that the liver of Swiss albino mice suffered with

  4. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing 1,2,4-Triazolinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo; PAN Li; LI Yong-hong; WANG Su-hua; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of new sulfonylureas incorporating 1,2,4-triazolinone moiety was synthesized,which were further bio-assayed for the herbicidal activity against four herbs,representative of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Some of them exhibited high potency to inhibit the growth of dicotyledons(Bassica napus and Amaranthus retroflexus) in the pot experiment.Compounds 9a and 9b also displayed an excellent herbicidal activity against Bassica napus at a concentration of 15 g/hectare,which were comparable with commercial triasulfuron.

  5. Population of dipole states via isoscalar probes: the splitting of pygmy dipole resonance in $^{124}$Sn}

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, Edoardo G; Litvinova, Elena; Savran, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Inelastic $\\alpha$-scattering excitation cross sections are calculated for electric dipole excitations in $^{124}$Sn based on the transition densities obtained from the relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the framework of a semiclassical model. The calculation provides the missing link to directly compare the results from the microscopic RQTBA calculations to recent experimental data measured via the $(\\alpha ,\\alpha '\\gamma)$ reaction, which show a structural splitting of the low-lying E1 strength often denoted as pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The experimentally observed splitting is reproduced by the cross section calculations, which allows to draw conclusion on the structure of the PDR.

  6. An expeditious green synthesis of Schiff bases and azetidinones derivatised with 1,2,4-triazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tasneem Taj; Ravindra R Kamble; Tegginamath Gireesh; Bharathi V Badami

    2011-09-01

    An efficient green approach to the synthesis of Schiff bases (11-21) of 1-amino-2-aryl-3-oxo-1,2,4-triazoles (1-3) have been reported under Mg(ClO4)2 as catalyst followed by the reaction with chloroacetyl chloride in solvent-free conditions to yield the azetidinones (22-32) with excellent yields. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the extent of penetration into biological membranes ($clogP$), drug-likeliness and finally drug score was calculated and also screened for antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolines catalyzed by a cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qian; Chen, Jiean; Tu, Meihua; Piotrowski, David W; Huang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    An enantioselective organocatalytic process for the one-step synthesis of poly-substituted 1,2,4-triazolines is reported. The heterocycle formation is believed to go through a step-wise mechanism of nucleophilic addition of an azlactone to an azodicarboxylate in the presence of an organic base catalyst, followed by a TMSCHN2 mediated heterocyclization. Both theoretical calculations and experimental evidence suggest the pre-organization of the transition state for the chirality determining step via a unique 7-membered intramolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:24145477

  8. Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium 3-Nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-zhen; FAN Xue-zhong; ZHANG Jiao-qiang; ZHANG Guo-fang; WANG Bo-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate monohydrate[NH4(NTO).H2O] wasstudied by means of thermal analysis-MS coupling and the combination technique of in situ thermolysis cell with rapid-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.The results show that there are two endothermic steps and one exothermic step in the decomposition process of NH4(NTO).H2O.The detected gas products consist of NH3,H2O,N2,CO2,CO,and NO2.

  9. PET imaging with the non-pure positron emitters: 55Co, 86Y and 124I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braad, Poul-Erik; Hansen, S B; Thisgaard, H;

    2015-01-01

    PET/CT with non-pure positron emitters is a highly valuable tool in immuno-PET and for pretherapeutic dosimetry. However, imaging is complicated by prompt gamma coincidences (PGCs) that add an undesired background activity to the images. Time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction improves lesion...... detectability in 18F-PET and can potentially also improve the signal-to-noise ratio in images acquired with non-pure positron emitters. Using the GE Discovery 690 PET/CT system, we evaluated the image quality with 55Co, 86Y and 124I, and the effect of PGC-correction and TOF-reconstruction on image quality...

  10. Low-lying levels and collective bands in doubly-odd 124Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleus 124Cs has been studied by in-beam γ- and e--spectroscopy techniques with the fusion-evaporation reaction 115In(12C, 3nγ) at 57 MeV. Multipolarities of the main low-energy transitions have been deduced from electron spectra. A level scheme is proposed with firm Iπ assignments. Low-spin low-lying levels and high-spin states have been investigated. The low-spin levels and two-quasiparticle bands are interpreted by using the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model. The band structures are also discussed in the frame of the cranked-shell model

  11. 5-Azido-4-dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium Hexafluoridophosphate and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 5-Azido-4-(dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium hexafluoridophosphate was synthesized from the corresponding 5-bromo compound with NaN3. Reaction with bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene yielded a tricyclic aziridine, addition of an N-heterocyclic carbene resulted in a triazatrimethine cyanine, and reduction with triphenylphosphane gave the 5-amino derivative. The crystal structures of three nitrogen-rich salts were determined. Thermoanalysis of the cationic azide and triazene showed exothermal decomposition. The triazene exhibited negative solvatochromism in polar solvents involving the dipolarity π* and hydrogen-bond donor acidity α of the solvent.

  12. H型高血压124例门诊护理干预%Nursing intervention on 124 cases of type H hypertension in the outpatient department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the nursing intervention methods for patients with type H hypertension in the outpatient department and the clinical effect. Methods:264 patients with type H hypertension were randomly divided into an intervention group { n = 124 } and a control group { n = 140 }. The conventional nursing care was implemented in the control group and nursing intervention in the outpatient department was provided for the patients in the intervention group,the serum homocysteine { Hey } levels,blood pressure and compliance behavior of the patients were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results:The serum Hey levels were lower after intervention than those before intervention in the intervention group{ P < 0. 05 } ;the serum Hey levels, blood pressure and compliance behavior were superior in the intervention group to the control group after intervention { P < 0. 05 }. Conclusion: The nursing intervention in the outpatient department has the positive significance in the control of blood pressure and the levels of serum Hey of the patients with type H hypertension and it can improve patients compliance behavior.%目的:探讨H型高血压患者的门诊护理干预方法及临床效果.方法:将264例H型高血压患者随机分为干预组124例和对照组140例,对照组实施高血压常规护理,干预组在此基础上实施门诊护理干预,比较两组患者干预前后血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)水平、血压情况及遵医行为.结果:干预组干预后血清Hcy水平低于干预前(P<0.05),干预组干预后血清Hcy、血压、遵医行为均优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:门诊护理干预对控制H型高血压患者血压及血清Hcy水平具有积极意义,可改善其遵医行为,值得临床推广应用.

  13. Clinical features of 124 cases with oral fungus infections%124例口腔真菌感染患者临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟士; 林秉奖

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical features of patients with oral fungus infection. METHODS The clinical data of 124 cases with oral fungus infection were reviewed. RESULTS Oral fungus infections occurred more often in children or the elderly (20. 2%), and the cases with denture repair (30. 6%) and poor oral hygiene conditions (17.7%). Candida (120 strains,96.8%) and Mold (4 strains, 3.2%), and Saccharomyces albicans (82. 3%) was the very common fungus. Candida showed high drug-resistence to itraconazole (47. 5%) and fluconazole (25. 8%), and low or no drug-resistance to 5-flucytosine (1. 7%), nystatin (0. 8%), and amphotericin B (0). CONCLUSION Denture repair, children or the elderly with poor constitution, and poor oral hygiene conditions are the risk factors of oral fungus infections. Saccharomyces albicans is the very common fungus, and has a certain resistance. We should strengthen the monitoring.%摘要:目的 探讨口腔真菌感染患者临床特征.方法 回顾性分析124例口腔真菌感染患者的临床资料.结果口腔真菌感染患者以义齿修复、儿童及老年人、口腔卫生差者为主,分别占30.6%、20.2%、17.7%;分离出假丝酵母菌属120株,占96.8%,以白色假丝酵母菌为主,占82.3%;假丝酵母菌属对伊曲康唑、氟康唑耐药率相对较高,为47.5%、25.8%,对5-氟胞嘧啶、制霉菌素和两性霉素B耐药率较低,分别为1.7%、0.8%、0.结论 义齿修复、体质差的儿童及老年人和口腔卫生差是口腔真菌感染的易感因素,分离的真菌主要为白色假丝酵母菌,并且呈现出一定的耐药性,应加强监测.

  14. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of cadmium with iodide and methyl violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selective spectrophotometric method based on the interaction of an anionic iodo complex of cadmium with methyl violet has been described for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium. The developed method is precise, accurate and has been applied to determination of cadmium at trace levels (25 ppb) in sea water and high purity sample of indium and zinc materials. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Chronic cadmium treatment promotes oxidative stress and endothelial damage in isolated rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C P Almenara

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that is present in phosphate fertilizers, and the incidence of cadmium poisoning in the general population has increased, mainly due to cigarette smoking. Once absorbed, cadmium accumulates in the tissues, causing harmful effects including high blood pressure, endothelial damage and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is known to efficiently produce oxidized low-density lipoprotein and consequently atherosclerosis, mainly in the aorta. However, the mechanisms through which endothelial damage is induced by cadmium have not been elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this metal in the isolated aorta and the possible role of oxidative stress. Rats received 100 mg.L(-1 cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the drinking water or distilled water alone for four weeks. The pressor effect of cadmium was followed throughout the exposure period by tail plethysmography. At the end of the fourth week, the blood cadmium content was established, and the vascular reactivity of the isolated aorta to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was analyzed in the context of endothelium denudation and incubation with L-NAME, apocynin, losartan, enalapril, superoxide dismutase (SOD or catalase. We observed an increased response to phenylephrine in cadmium-treated rats. This increase was abolished by catalase and SOD incubation. Apocynin treatment reduced the phenylephrine response in both treatment groups, but its effect was greater in cadmium-treated rats, and NOX2 expression was greater in the cadmium group. These results suggested that cadmium in blood concentrations similar to those found in occupationally exposed populations is able to stimulate NOX2 expression, contributing to oxidative stress and reducing NO bioavailability, despite enhanced eNOS expression. These findings suggest that cadmium exposure promotes endothelial damage that might contribute to inflammation, vascular injury and the

  17. Determination of cadmium in water samples by co-precipitation and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the determination of cadmium in sea water, a neutron activation analysis method involving a preconcentration step has been developed. Preconcentration is achieved by co-precipitation of cadmium dibenzyldithiocarbamate with phenolphthalein. The precipitate is collected on 0.45 μm membrane filters and cadmium is determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A 115mCd radio tracer was used to establish optimum conditions and to evaluate the chemical yield. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig. ; 2 tabs

  18. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, E.; G. de Candia; E. Bonerba

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy) and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw ...

  19. Cephalopods as a key of the transfer of cadmium to top marine predators

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Caurant, Florence; Fowler, Scott; Miramand, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    International audience Cephalopods of 11 species differing in their geographic distribution (French , Irish and faroese waters) and feeding habitats, were analysed for their cadmium contents. When comparing the cadmium levels of these cephalopods, it show that the squid Todarodes sagittatus and the octopus Eledone cirrhosa coming from the Faroe Islands contain respectively 17 and 18 times more than the animals from the French Atlantic coast. High cadmium levels in cephalopods from sub-pola...

  20. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. eleg...

  1. Dietary Cadmium Intake and the Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ae Cho; Jeongseon Kim; Hae Dong Woo; Moonsu Kang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet is a major source of cadmium intake among the non-smoking general population. Recent studies have determined that cadmium exposure may produce adverse health effects at lower exposure levels than previously predicted. We conducted a meta-analysis to combine and analyze the results of previous studies that have investigated the association of dietary cadmium intake and cancer risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE database for case-control and cohort studies th...

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SHEEP INDUCED BY CADMIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY, WITH THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ALPHA LIPOIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Hussien Ali NAJI; Mohammad Mushgil ZENAD

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy toxic metal, with harmful effects on animals and public health. Recently the risk of cadmium toxicity is substantially regarded; the environmental pollution is increased due to multi- uses of this element in various industries. This study was performed to clarify the effects of acute cadmium toxicity in sheep with trail of using alpha lipoic acid as an antioxidant therapeutic substance. Fifteen male lambs aged from 5-to-7 months were divided equally in to three groups,...

  3. Activation of Methanogenesis by Cadmium in the Marine Archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Lira-Silva; M Geovanni Santiago-Martínez; Viridiana Hernández-Juárez; Rodolfo García-Contreras; Rafael Moreno-Sánchez; Ricardo Jasso-Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Methanosarcina acetivorans was cultured in the presence of CdCl(2) to determine the metal effect on cell growth and biogas production. With methanol as substrate, cell growth and methane synthesis were not altered by cadmium, whereas with acetate, cadmium slightly increased both, growth and methane rate synthesis. In cultures metabolically active, incubations for short-term (minutes) with 10 µM total cadmium increased the methanogenesis rate by 6 and 9 folds in methanol- and acetate-grown cel...

  4. Low cadmium (LCD), a novel gene related to cadmium tolerance and accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Hugo; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; An, Gynheung; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-11-01

    The contamination of food crops by cadmium (Cd) is a major concern in food production because it can reduce crop yields and threaten human health. In this study, knockout rice plants (Oryza sativa) tagged with the gene trap vector pGA2707 were screened for Cd tolerance, and the tolerant line lcd was obtained. The lcd mutant showed tolerance to Cd on agar plates and in hydroponic culture during early plant development. Metal concentration measurements in hydroponically grown plants revealed significantly less Cd in the shoots of lcd plants compared with wild-type (WT) shoots. When cultured in the field in soil artificially contaminated with low levels of Cd, lcd showed no significant difference in the Cd content of its leaf blades; however, the Cd concentration in the grains was 55% lower in 2009 and 43% lower in 2010. There were no significant differences in plant dry weight or seed yield between lcd and wild-type plants. LCD, a novel gene, is not homologous to any other known gene. LCD localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, and was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues in the roots and phloem companion cells in the leaves. These data indicate that lcd may be useful for understanding Cd transport mechanisms and is a promising candidate rice line for use in combating the threat of Cd to human health.

  5. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  6. Role of dissolved and particulate cadmium in the accumulation of cadmium in cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekhi, Priyanka [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: anka.lekhi@ubc.ca; Cassis, D. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Pearce, C.M. [Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Nanaimo, BC V9T 6N7 (Canada); Ebell, N. [Odyssey Shellfish Ltd., Nanoose Bay, BC V0R 9G0 (Canada); Maldonado, M.T. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Orians, K.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected on the coast of British Columbia, Canada have occasionally shown cadmium (Cd) concentrations at or above 2 {mu}g g{sup -1} (wet weight), which has resulted in the loss of some international markets. This study investigated the source and transfer of Cd to oysters by focusing on the role of dissolved and particulate Cd in seawater. Parameters monitored for 1 year at two oyster farm sites on Vancouver Island included: oyster tissue mass and shell length, Cd in oysters, dissolved Cd, particulate Cd, temperature and salinity. Results show that dissolved Cd was the main source of Cd to the oysters and that Cd was mainly concentrated in the gut tissues. A seasonal trend was observed in Cd in oysters, in which levels were lowest during periods of higher temperatures. Results also indicate that the local oceanographic inputs and sediment diagenesis directly affect dissolved Cd and thereby influence the Cd levels in oysters. Particulate matter was not found to be a source of Cd in oysters, and was actually negatively correlated. This was likely due to the uptake of dissolved Cd by phytoplankton and the effect of phytoplankton on oyster tissue mass.

  7. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upa Kukongviriyapan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd.

  8. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  9. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  10. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  11. Cadmium Increases the Sensitivity of Adolescent Female Mice to Nicotine-Related Behavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates spatial and nonspatial working memory, anxiety related behavior, and motor activities in cadmium and/or nicotine exposed female adolescent mice. P28 female adolescent mice (albino strain were divided into four groups of five (n=5 mice each. A set of mice (Nic received subcutaneous nicotine (2.0 mg/kg while a separate set (Cd was treated with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium (subcutaneous. For the combined treatments of cadmium and nicotine, we administered 2.0 mg/kg Nicotine and 2.0 mg/kg of Cd. Subsequently, a separate group of animals (n=5; control received normal saline. The total duration of treatment for all groups was 28 days (P28–P56. At P56, the treatment was discontinued, after which the animals were examined in behavioural tests. Nicotine and cadmium increased the metabolism and food intake in the female adolescent mice. This also corresponded to an increase in weight when compared with the control. However, a combined nicotine-cadmium treatment induced a decline in weight of the animals versus the control. Also, nicotine administration increased the motor function, while cadmium and nicotine-cadmium treatment caused a decline in motor activity. Both nicotine and cadmium induced a reduction in memory index; however, nicotine-cadmium treatment induced the most significant decrease in nonspatial working memory.

  12. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  13. Health, safety and environmental issues relating to cadmium usage in photovoltaic energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Zweibel, K. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the current technology base and hazards associated with two promising thin-film photovoltaic cells that contain cadmium compounds -- cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}). More specifically, this paper summarizes the toxicological information on cadmium (Cd) compounds; evaluates potential health, safety and environmental hazards associated with cadmium usage in the photovoltaics industry; describes regulatory requirements associated with the use, handling and disposal of cadmium compounds; and lists management options to permit the safe and continued use of these materials. Handling of cadmium in photovoltaic production can present hazards to health, safety and the environment. Prior recognition of these hazards can allow device manufacturers and regulators to implement appropriate and readily available hazard management strategies. Hazards associated with product use (i.e., array fires) and disposal remain controversial and partially unresolved. The most likely effects that could be expected would be those associated with chronic low-level exposures to cadmium wastes. Because of the general immobility of the cadmium present in these devices and availability of environmental and biomonitoring protocols, chronic hazards can be monitored, and remediated if necessary. Nevertheless, concern about cadmium hazards should continue to be emphasized to ensure that health, safety and environmental issues are properly managed. At the same time, the potential role that these systems can play in ameliorating some important health and environmental hazards related to other energy systems should not be ignored. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N.; Der, R.; Ross, G.; Fahim, M.

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg lead acetate and 0.5 mg cadmium chloride. The lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  15. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  16. Protective role of carnosine in mice with cadmium-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Al-Melhim, Walid N

    2009-11-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of carnosine was investigated against cadmium-induced acute liver injury in mice. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (6.5mg/kg). Carnosine treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for three consecutive days, starting one day before cadmium administration. Carnosine significantly decreased the cadmium-induced elevations in serum aminotransferases. Carnosine suppressed lipid peroxidation and restored the deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities) in liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, the reductions in hepatic nitric oxide and zinc ion levels, and the increases in hepatic cadmium ion concentration, and myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 activities following cadmium exposure were significantly attenuated by carnosine treatment. In addition, carnosine markedly ameliorated cadmium-induced liver tissue damage as evidenced by light and electron microscopic examinations. It was concluded that carnosine can be considered a potential candidate to protect the liver against the deleterious effect of acute cadmium intoxication. PMID:19748544

  17. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  18. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  19. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L-1) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L-1). Exposure to 50 ng L-1 cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L-1 surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L-1 cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters

  20. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilly, Karine [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Gagnaire, Beatrice [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Bonnard, Marc [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Renault, Tristan [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France); Miramand, Pierre [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, FRE-CNRS, 2727, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Avenue Michel Crepeau, La Rochelle 17042 (France); Lapegue, Sylvie [IFREMER, Laboratoire de Genetique et Pathologie, La Tremblade 17390 (France)]. E-mail: slapegue@ifremer.fr

    2006-06-15

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L{sup -1}) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L{sup -1}). Exposure to 50 ng L{sup -1} cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L{sup -1} surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L{sup -1} cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters.