WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadmium 114 target

  1. Separation of no-carrier-added 113,117mSn and 113m,114mIn from alpha particle irradiated natural cadmium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A natural cadmium foil was irradiated by 42 MeV α-particles to produce 113,117mSn, 111,113m,114mIn simultaneously in the target matrix. After the complete decay of short lived radionuclides, long-lived NCA products were separated sequentially from the bulk cadmium by liquid-liquid extraction using di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in cyclohexane as organic phase and HCl as aqueous phase. At the optimum condition, 10-2 M HCl and 5 % HDEHP, NCA In along with NCA Sn radionuclides (75 %) were separated from the bulk Cd resulting to high separation factors of 2.7 x 104 (DIn/DCd) and 500 (DSn/DCd), respectively. The NCA In was stripped back completely to the aqueous phase by 6 M HCl leaving NCA Sn in the HDEHP phase with a separation factor (DSn/DIn) of 3.94 x 106. (author)

  2. Cross sections for the formation of sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In on bombardment of cadmium by deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In production by (d,xn) reactions on natural cadmium were measured by the stacked foils activation method. The results are compared with the maximum cross sections estimated from other published studies. Thick target yield for Cd (d,xn) sup(114m)In reactions were determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. (author)

  3. Cell-targeted 114Inm and drug (BCNU) combination therapy in a rat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proportion of syngeneic female rats inoculated intramuscularly with a lethal T-cell lymphoblastic (Roser) leukaemia are cured by a single intraperitoneal injection of bischloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) (Carmustine)(10 mg kg-1) given towards the end of the preleukaemic phase (day 7). Additional therapy on day 4, using intravenous leukaemia cells lethally labelled with the radionuclide 114Inm, enhanced the overall cure rate by 30%. The spleen is a major site of indium concentration from the targeting cells so that the continuous local radiation field appears to result in a substantial reduction of the body load of leukaemia cells in the enlarged spleen particularly, thus enhancing the curative potential of the drug. The results demonstrate in principle that in patients in remission a single dose of targeted radiotherapy in the spleen combined sequentially with an appropriate drug might provide considerable aid in eliminating a residual population of leukaemia cells. (author)

  4. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  5. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  6. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-11-28

    Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure. PMID:25449283

  7. Diffusion-based separation methods: dry distillation of zinc, cadmium and mercury isotopes from irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-based separation methods allow the extraction of produced radionuclides with a low loss of target material, which is of special importance when enriched target material is used. We present a simple, non-destructive and rapid method to separate radioactive isotopes of IIB group elements (zinc, cadmium and mercury) from IB group metal targets irradiated with protons. Irradiated target foils were heated to a temperature 20oC below the melting point of the target material. During these conditions at least 90% of the desired radioactivity was evaporated with negligible loss of target material. Separation time was 15 min for mercury, 60 min for cadmium and 120 min for zinc. (author)

  8. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  9. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  10. Selective splenic targeting of In-114m by heat-treated red blood cells for the treatment of lymphoid cell malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spleen targeted In-114m, using labelled autologous lymphocytes, has produced a significant antitumour effect in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Non-Hodgkins lymphoma (Sharma et al, Anti-Cancer Research 17, 1815-1822,1997). Heat treated red blood cells could be used as alternative vectors for splenic targeting of In-114m, making the technique easier, more universally applicable and furthermore, may reduce the myelosuppression seen with labelled lymphocytes. Red blood cells from HO3T rats were labelled with In-114m-oxine, incubated at 49.5 deg. C for 15 minutes and their distribution investigated in the spleen, liver and blood or recipient animals. The splenic uptake in the spleen at 24h was 64.08%, remained unchanged at 7 days, cleared slowly after that, clearly demonstrating the specificity of HTRBC to target In-114m to the spleen. The depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured in two groups of HO3T rats following the administration of 1.6 and 3.2 MBq of In-114m-HTRBC respectively. Compared to the controls, ∼ 70% of lymphocytes were depleted in the treated animals within one week and remained unchanged for 6 weeks. Using a rat T-cell lymphocytic leukaemia model, with resemblance to the clinical disease, an anti-leukaemic effect of his method of treatment, was monitored. An average life span of the treated group (1.85 MBq of In-114m-HTRBC) was 17.1 days, compared to the 13.5 days for the untreated group. These results are similar to the ones reported by targeting In-114m with labelled lymphocytes. In summary, the project has shown that In-114m-HTRBC can be used to deposit the radioactivity, selectively in the spleen, which in turn, depletes the peripheral blood lymphocytes and produces an anti-leukaemic effect in terms of enhanced life span. The bone marrow toxicity from In-114m therapy is under investigation and a pharmacokinetic study in selected cancer patients is planned following which, a clinical trial will be considered. (author)

  11. Characterization of wheat miRNAs and their target genes responsive to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, ZongBo; Hai, BenZhai; Guo, JunLi; Li, YongFang; Zhang, Liang

    2016-04-01

    A increasing number of microRNAs have been shown to play important regulatory roles in plant responses to various metal stresses. However, little information about miRNAs especially miRNAs responsive to cadmium (Cd) stress is available in wheat. To investigate the role of miRNAs in responses to Cd stress, wheat seedlings were subjected to 250 μM Cd solution for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, and analyses of morphological and physiological changes as well as the expression of five miRNAs and their corresponding targets were carried out. Our results demonstrated that miRNAs and their targets were differentially expressed in leaves and roots of wheat seedlings exposed to Cd stress. Furthermore, miR398 may involve in oxidative stress tolerance by regulating its target CSD to participate in Cd stress. Among ten miRNA-target pairs studied, nine pairs showed complex regulation relationship in leaves and roots of wheat seedlings exposed to Cd stress. These findings suggested that miRNAs are involved in the mediation of Cd stress signaling responses in wheat. The characterization of the miRNAs and the associated targets in responses to Cd exposure provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanism of heavy metal tolerance in plants. PMID:26854408

  12. Subcellular targets of cadmium nephrotoxicity: cadmium binding to renal membrane proteins in animals with or without protective metallothionein synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, G F; Jin, T; Nordberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    Nephrotoxic effects of cadmium exposure are well established in humans and experimental animals. An early manifestation of such toxicity is calciuria a few hours after injection of CdMT in rats. Protection against calciuria and other adverse effects such as proteinuria (occurring later) is offered by pretreatment with Cd, which effectively induces metallothionein synthesis. In the present experiment, one group of animals was given pretreatment with CdCl2 to induce metallothionein synthesis. T...

  13. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dumkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  14. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level. PMID:27271611

  15. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level. PMID:27271611

  16. Production of new superheavy Z=108-114 nuclei with $^{238}$U, $^{244}$Pu and $^{248,250}$Cm targets

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of the dinuclear system (DNS) model, production cross sections of new superheavy nuclei with charged numbers Z=108-114 are analyzed systematically. Possible combinations based on the actinide nuclides $^{238}$U, $^{244}$Pu and $^{248,250}$Cm with the optimal excitation energies and evaporation channels are pointed out to synthesize new isotopes which lie between the nuclides produced in the cold fusion and the $^{48}$Ca induced fusion reactions experimentally, which are feasible to be constructed experimentally. It is found that the production cross sections of superheavy nuclei decrease drastically with the charged numbers of compound nuclei. Larger mass asymmetries of the entrance channels enhance the cross sections in 2n-5n channels.

  17. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  18. 114mIn, a candidate for radionuclide therapy: low-energy cyclotron production and labeling of DTPA-D-Phe-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of carrier-free 114mIn (half-life 49.5 days), which is a potential radionuclide for radionuclide therapy of slowly growing tumors, is presented. A target consisting of five enriched cadmium (114Cd) foils, each 50 μm thick, was irradiated by protons (from 12.6-6.5 MeV) giving a target yield of 0.8 MBq/μAh. A simple and cost-efficient thermal diffusion method was used for the separation. The irradiated target foils were heated for 2 h at 306 deg. C and then etched in 0.05 M HCl. The obtained cadmium/indium solution was purified using a cation ion-exchange resin (AG 1x 8, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA USA). An overall yield of approximately 60% was obtained, whereas the loss of the target material was 114mIn production gave 114mIn with high specific radioactivity and was successfully used to label diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-D-Phe-octreotide. Furthermore, no difference in biodistribution between [114mIn]- and [111In]-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide in tumor-bearing nude mice was seen. The high radionuclide uptake in the tumors indicates a good receptor binding of the labeled octreotide

  19. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  20. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  1. Peculiarities of preparation of cadmium isotopes of high enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade equipped by gas centrifuges with regard for requirements to structural materials operating with chemically active compounds (dimethylcadmium) was devised for preparation of high-enriched cadmium isotopes. Solutions of such problems as overcoming of isotope memory, compensation of the effect of isotope overlapping, operative analytical accompanying permitted to optimize separation process and to obtain cadmium isotopes of high enrichment degree: cadmium-116 ∼98.9 %, cadmium-114 ∼98.7 %, cadmium-113 ∼93.3 %, cadmium-112 ∼99.1 %, cadmium-110 ∼95.8 %

  2. The influence of Bz-DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA on the biodistribution of ABD-fused anti-HER2 Affibody molecules: implications for 114mIn-mediated targeting therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affibody molecules represent a novel class of high-affinity agents for radionuclide tumour targeting. Fusion of the Affibody molecules with an albumin-binding domain (ABD) enables modification of the blood kinetics of the Affibody molecules and reduction of the renal dose. 177Lu-CHX-A''-DTPA-ABD-(ZHER2:342)2, an anti-HER2 Affibody molecule-ABD fusion protein has earlier demonstrated promising results in treatment of HER2-expressing micro-xenografts in mice. The use of the in vivo generator 114mIn/114In as a label for ABD-fused Affibody molecules would create preconditions for efficient treatment of both micrometastases (due to conversion and Auger electrons of 114mIn) and bulky tumours (due to high-energy beta particles from the daughter nuclide 114In). The goal of this study was to investigate if different chelators influence the biodistribution of ABD-(ZHER2:342)2 and to find an optimal chelator for attachment of 114mIn to the Affibody molecule-ABD fusion protein. Isothiocyanate derivatives of Bz-DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA were coupled to ABD-(ZHER2:342)2. The cellular processing of both conjugates was studied in vitro. The influence of chelators on the biodistribution was investigated in mice using double isotope (114mIn and 111In) labelling. The apparent affinity of CHX-A''-DTPA-ABD-(ZHER2:342)2 and Bz-DOTA-ABD-(ZHER2:342)2 to the extracellular domain of HER2 was similar, 13.5 and 15.0 pM, respectively. It was found that both conjugates were internalized by SKOV-3 cells. The use of CHX-A''-DTPA provided better cellular retention of the radioactivity, better tumour accumulation of radioactivity and better tumour to organ dose ratios than Bz-DOTA-ABD-(ZHER2:342)2. CHX-A''-DTPA is more suitable for 114mIn labelling of Affibody molecule-ABD fusion proteins for radionuclide therapy. (orig.)

  3. Celastrol prevents cadmium-induced neuronal cell death via targeting JNK and PTEN-Akt/mTOR network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sujuan; Gu, Chenjian; Xu, Chong; Zhang, Jinfei; Xu, Yijiao; Ren, Qian; Guo, Min; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, has shown neuroprotective effects in various disease models. However, little is known regarding the effect of celastrol on Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we show that celastrol protected against Cd-induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells. This is supported by the findings that celastrol strikingly attenuated Cd-induced viability reduction, morphological change, nuclear fragmentation, and condensation, as well as activation of caspase-3 in neuronal cells. Concurrently, celastrol remarkably blocked Cd-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38, in neuronal cells. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or over-expression of dominant negative c-Jun potentiated celastrol protection against Cd-induced cell death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with celastrol prevented Cd down-regulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and activation of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in neuronal cells. Over-expression of wild-type PTEN enhanced celastrol inhibition of Cd-activated Akt/mTOR signaling and cell death in neuronal cells. The findings indicate that celastrol prevents Cd-induced neuronal cell death via targeting JNK and PTEN-Akt/mTOR network. Our results strongly suggest that celastrol may be exploited for the prevention of Cd-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Celastrol, a plant-derived triterpene, has shown neuroprotective effects. However, little is known regarding the effect of celastrol on cadmium (Cd) neurotoxicity. This study underscores that celastrol prevents Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting activation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and Akt/mTOR network. Celastrol suppresses Cd-activated Akt/mTOR pathway by elevating PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). The

  4. Nuclear data for cyclotron production of 114mIn/114In and 140Nd/140Pr used in gamma camera monitoring, RIT, ERT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the presented study is to compare the calculated cross sections for the production of 140Nd/140Pr and 114mIn/114In via different reactions with incident particle energy up to 50 MeV as a part of systematic studies on particle-induced activations on metal target, theoretical calculation of production yield, calculation of target thickness requirement and suggestion for optimum reaction to produce Neodymium-140 and Indium-114m. 140Nd/140Pr and 114mIn/114In excitation functions via natCe(3He,xn)140Nd → 140Pr, 141Pr(p,2n)140Nd → 140Pr, 141Pr(d,3n)140Nd → 140Pr, 114Cd(p,n)114mIn → 114In, 114Cd(d,2n)114mIn → 114In and 116Cd(p,3n)114mIn → 114In reactions were calculated by ALICE/91, ALICE/ASH (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.2 (Equilibrium and Pre-Equilibrium) codes and compared to existing data. (orig.)

  5. New elements - approaching Z = 114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z = 107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Alpha decay, not fission, is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z = 107) to element 112, for which a cross section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavierelements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small {alpha}-, {beta}- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical superheavy elements (SHEs) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHEs using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed. (author)

  6. New elements - approaching Z = 114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z = 107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of α-α correlations. Alpha decay, not fission, is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z = 107) to element 112, for which a cross section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small α-, β- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical superheavy elements (SHEs) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 208Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHEs using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed. (author)

  7. Levels structures of Cd-114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level structures of 114Cd up to an excitation energy of 3.6 MeV have been investigated. Gamma radiation following thermal neutron capture in 113Cd in the energy region from 50 keV to 2.2 MeV has been measured by means of the three curved-crystal γ-ray spectrometers, GAMS 1 and GAMS 2/3 at the I.L.L. reactor. Internal conversion electrons have been measured with the electron spectrometer BILL installed at the I.L.L. Several targets were prepared by the evaporation or sedimentation technique in order to measure the electrons in the energy region from 40 keV to 8.5 MeV. Multipolarities for a large number of transitions were determined. Primary γ-ray following average resonance neutron capture at Esub(n) = 2 keV and 24 keV were recorded at the Brookhaven National Laboratory resulting in a complete set of levels with Isup(π) +- up to 3 MeV excitation energy. Combining these results a level scheme up to 3.6 MeV has been constructed

  8. New elements - approaching Z=114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of α-α correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small α-, β- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross-sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical super heavy elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 208Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. (orig.)

  9. New elements - approaching Z=114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S.

    1998-03-01

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small {alpha}-, {beta}- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross-sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical super heavy elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. (orig.)

  10. Risk of overestimation of urinary cadmium concentrations: interference from molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañas A.I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show here that the selection of analytical method is critical when measuring low levels of cadmium in human urine. Cadmium is today usually analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, which has a higher sensitivity than Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. ICP-MS cadmium measurements show interference from tin (114Sn and molybdenum oxides, which can result in an overestimation of cadmium levels. The 114Sn interference is stable and can be mathematically corrected. Molybdenum concentrations in urine are variable and different from individual to individual. We have estimated the degree of error which molybdenum interference introduces in the measurement of cadmium in urine by conventional ICP-MS. 268 urine samples from mothers and their children were measured. Removal of the molybdenum oxide interference (DRC-ICP-MS method reduced urinary cadmium concentrations significantly (47.8%. The urinary molybdenum concentration in children was higher than in their mothers, resulting in greater overestimation. Our results clearly show that the DRC method is essential for reliable measurements of urinary cadmium concentrations, particularly in children. Furthermore, care should be taken when comparing Human Biomonitoring data for cadmium in urine and attention should be paid to which analytical method has been used (e.g. AAS and ICP-Ms, and especially if the measurements have been corrected for molybdenum interference.

  11. To problem about construction of cyclotron target for bombardment of metal zinc and cadmium targets on exterior beams of the accelerator U-120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Industrial intrusion of diffusion-and-thermal methods of radionuclides separation it is impossible at use of traditional targets representing a Cu or Ag substrate, on which the starting isotopic enriched material is marked. For embodying these technologies it is necessary to modify a target so that completely to eliminate an opportunity of a physicochemical interaction (diffusion, alloy building) labilized material and target radionuclide with a substrate in requirements of heightened temperatures. One of the possible solutions of this problem - manufacture of substrates of cyclotron targets from high-melting inert materials. For the bombardment of metal Zn or Cd metal targets (production of 67Ga and 111In, basic medical radionuclides) on the on exterior beam of the accelerators U-120 designed the cyclotron target, where as a bottom for drawing a isotopic enriched materials will be utilized a tantalic substrate by a diameter of 28 mm and depth 750 microns. At centre of a substrate are made a dimple by a diameter 16 mm, where (from a melt) are superimposed metal Zn or Cd. For heat removal during bombardment: a) on the part of a tantalic substrate the target is washed by water, b) for refrigerating a obverse surface of a target the gaseous He will be utilized. The evaluation calculations are carried out: a) of the basic characteristics of a helium heat exchanger (for dissecting away of irradiated target from volume of the accelerator the titanium metal foil by depth 50 μm will be utilized), b) of strength of a Ta substrate (will be utilized at pressure of 'frigorific' water 0.5 MPa), c) of operating temperatures of a substrate and targets (Zn or Cd) at the bombardment by their of beams of deuterons (energy - 13/0 Me V, peak current of beam - 20 μA). Is ro tined, that the optimum interval of values of pressures of helium compounds 25-32 mm Hg; the build-up of pressure of helium gives in linear magnification of voltages and down stroke of ultimate strength

  12. Cadmium mass measurements between the neutron shell closures at N = 50 and 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass values of the neutron-deficient cadmium isotopes 99-109Cd and of the neutron-rich isotopes 114,120,122-124,126,128Cd have been measured using ISOLTRAP. The behavior of the separation energies of the cadmium isotopes from N = 50 to 82 is discussed.

  13. Mercury, cadmium and lead contamination in seafood: a comparative study to evaluate the usefulness of Target Hazard Quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroczi, A; Naughton, D P

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the applicability of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) estimations to inform on seafood hazards through metal contamination. The food recall data set was collated by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC, UK) over the period from January to November 2007. Pearson chi-square goodness of fit test, nonparametric correlation (Kendall tau) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were computed by using Excel and SPSS 15.0. The vast majority of food alerts/recalls owing to metal contamination occur in seafood and during the summer months. Only swordfish and shark containing produce received over 10 recalls which were mainly for mercury contamination. Seafood produce originating from only 3 countries had over 10 recalls owing to metal contamination (Spain 50; France 11 and Indonesia 11). Based upon the food alert/recall system, the application of THQ estimations of risk in cases of metal contamination of seafood is questionable as THQ implies frequent if not daily exposure over a lifetime. Infrequent recalls owing to metal contamination and the absence of patterns make it highly unlikely that an individual would be subject to multiple exposures to significant levels of metal ions in seafood. PMID:19041361

  14. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  15. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  16. Nuclear data for cyclotron production of {sup 114m}In/{sup 114}In and {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr used in gamma camera monitoring, RIT, ERT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School; Ghanbarzadeh, Ali; Enferadi, Milad [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research and Science Branch

    2010-11-15

    Aim of the presented study is to compare the calculated cross sections for the production of {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr and {sup 114m}In/{sup 114}In via different reactions with incident particle energy up to 50 MeV as a part of systematic studies on particle-induced activations on metal target, theoretical calculation of production yield, calculation of target thickness requirement and suggestion for optimum reaction to produce Neodymium-140 and Indium-114m. {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr and {sup 114m}In/{sup 114}In excitation functions via {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He,xn){sup 140}Nd {yields} {sup 140}Pr, 141Pr(p,2n){sup 140}Nd {yields} {sup 140}Pr, 141Pr(d,3n){sup 140}Nd {yields} {sup 140}Pr, {sup 114}Cd(p,n){sup 114m}In {yields} {sup 114}In, {sup 114}Cd(d,2n){sup 114m}In {yields} {sup 114}In and 116Cd(p,3n){sup 114m}In {yields} {sup 114}In reactions were calculated by ALICE/91, ALICE/ASH (GDH Model and Hybrid Model) and TALYS-1.2 (Equilibrium and Pre-Equilibrium) codes and compared to existing data. (orig.)

  17. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and...

  18. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering...

  19. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained...

  20. 27 CFR 11.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 11.4 Section 11.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.4 Jurisdictional limits....

  1. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114...

  2. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  3. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  4. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  5. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  6. 24 CFR 884.114 - Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financing. 884.114 Section 884.114... HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.114 Financing. (a) Types. Eligible projects... contract as security for financing. (1) An Owner may pledge, or offer as security for any loan...

  7. 34 CFR 101.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious treatment. 101.114 Section 101.114 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 101.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before...

  8. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.114 - Eligible organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Eligible organization. 1160.114 Section 1160.114... Order Definitions § 1160.114 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means an organization eligible... organization pursuant to section 501(c) (3), (5), or (6) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501(c) (3),...

  10. 7 CFR 1260.114 - Eligible organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible organization. 1260.114 Section 1260.114... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.114 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary pursuant to the Act and this part as being eligible...

  11. On the mechanism of cadmium toxicity: Suppression of mitochondrial respiration by an organic complex of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotkov, S.M.; Rozengart, E.V.; Suvorov, A.A.; Nesterov, V.P.; Khovanskikh, A.E. [Setchenow Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-01

    Mitochondria are the main targets of the deleterious effect of cadmium. It was found that 94% of cadmium in mitochondria exists as a soluble complex with low-molecular-weight proteins, i.e., metallothioneins. The remaining 6% of cadmium is bound to protein structures of the mitochondrial matrix and, thereby cause the dysfunction of subcellular organelles in vivo. The mechanism of direct interaction of cadmium with the target protein is unknown; however, it is evident that the incorporation of cadmium into a complex with an organic ligand can significantly affect this process and eventually affect the interaction of cadmium with matrix proteins. It was of interest to compare the effects of an inorganic cadmium salt (hydrated Cd{sup 2+} cation) and an organic complex of cadmium [Cd(II)-1,3-bis-(chlorobenzylidenamino)guanidine, CBG] on rat liver mitochondrial respiration. This complex was earlier shown to display a wide range of biological activities. Particularly, it appeared to be more potent than Cd{sup 2+} in inhibiting monoamine oxidase.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSL114 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSL114 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16581-1 SSL114Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSL114Z 305 - - - - Show SSL114 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSL114 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SS/SSL1-A/SSL114Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SSL11...4Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SSL114 (SSL114Q) /CSM/SS/SSL1-A/SSL114Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...kknf*nspstfwcfc*ANAKVSLSPFALH YSPQAQIISSSTNDAPQVSSGLIHHIPMQLSQMYKQSLTKKNI Transla

  13. 7 CFR 1942.114 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Security. 1942.114 Section 1942.114 Agriculture... Security. Specific requirements for security for each loan will be included in the letter of conditions. Loans must be secured by the best security position practicable, in a manner which will...

  14. 24 CFR 4001.114 - Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisal. 4001.114 Section 4001.114 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... may be shared with holders and servicers of existing subordinate mortgages....

  15. 7 CFR 1709.114 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1709.114 Section 1709.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. The RUS will request applications for high energy cost grants on a competitive basis...

  16. 21 CFR 114.100 - Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examinations of raw materials, packaging materials, and finished products, and of suppliers' guarantees or... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 114.100 Section 114.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  18. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  19. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  20. 21 CFR 114.10 - Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner for giving instruction in food-handling techniques, food-protection principles, personal hygiene... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personnel. 114.10 Section 114.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. 9 CFR 113.114 - Tetanus Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tetanus Toxoid. 113.114 Section 113... Bacterial Products § 113.114 Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium... purified and concentrated. Each serial of biological product containing tetanus toxoid fraction shall...

  2. 48 CFR 570.114 - Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests. 570.114 Section... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.114 Protests. FAR 33.1 and 533.1 apply to protests of lease acquisitions....

  3. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a... that the cacao fat content is less than 10 percent by weight, as determined by the method prescribed...

  4. Rice mutant cultivar SCS114 Andosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development process and its yield, quality performance of the mutant rice variety SCS Andosan 114 was described. SCS Andosan 114 was selected from the mutant progeny of IR 841 after treatment of 150 Gy gamma rays; It had a 7.4 ∼ 9.6% yield increase over IR 841 and a higher amylase content (28%) than IR 841 (19%). The mutant variety also showed high tolerance to iron toxicity and resistance to blast disease. (author)

  5. FDAMA Section 114: Why the Renewed Interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Eleanor M; Burke, Laurie; Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Gaballah, Mena

    2015-05-01

    The FDA regulates the use of information by biopharmaceutical companies in their promotional activities. Section 114 of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA) was specifically designed to allow companies to more readily disseminate health care economic information (HCEI) to those who need it for formulary decision making. However, very little HCEI has been distributed promotionally under this provision over the past 17 years. There are recent discussions by stakeholders regarding the need for updates, revisions, or guidance regarding Section 114.In light of recent renewed interest in Section 114 of the FDAMA, the purpose of this commentary is to equip managed care decision makers with the information they need to understand and respond to industry communications that are governed by Section 114. This commentary reviews and synthesizes the regulatory history and language of the statute and changes to the promotion regulation generated by Section 114. It explores the reasons for the section's limited use to date, for recent renewed interest, and why changes by various stakeholders are suggested at this time. Also discussed is what managed care pharmacists need to know about Section 114, and suggestions are included regarding the active role pharmacists can play in this change process. Renewed interest in FDAMA Section 114 appears to stem largely from the increasingly visible and growing interest in comparative effectiveness research, the emergence of "big data," the expanding range of data sources available for deriving HCEI, and recent court decisions that might indicate a change in the regulatory environment. Various stakeholders are proposing recommendations regarding changes to FDAMA Section 114. Managed care pharmacists should be aware that companies are restricted when communicating HCEI promotional messages; this may mean seeing the use of FDAMA Section 114 as the "competent and reliable" effectiveness standard in promotion. If the

  6. 49 CFR 571.114 - Standard No. 114; Theft protection and rollaway prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prevention. 571.114 Section 571.114 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... prevention. S1. Scope. This standard specifies vehicle performance requirements intended to reduce the..., or multipurpose passenger vehicle, as those terms are defined in 49 CFR 571.3. S5Requirements....

  7. Urinary Cadmium and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Shafer, Martin M; Bonner, Matthew R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Manson, JoAnn E; Meliker, Jaymie R; Neuhouser, Marian L; Newcomb, Polly A

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium is a widespread heavy metal pollutant that may act as an exogenous estrogenic hormone. Environmental cadmium exposure has been associated with risk of breast cancer in retrospective studies. We prospectively assessed the relationship between cadmium exposure, evaluated by creatinine-normalized urinary cadmium concentration, and invasive breast cancer among 12,701 postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years in a Women's Health Initiative study of bone mineral density. After a median of 13.2 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 508 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,050 comparison women were identified for a case-cohort analysis. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with urinary cadmium parameterized either in quartiles (comparing highest quartile with lowest, hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 1.14; P for trend = 0.20) or as a log-transformed continuous variable (per 2-fold higher urinary cadmium concentration, hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.03). We did not observe an association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer risk in any subgroup examined, including never smokers and women with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) less than 25. Results were consistent in both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposure is associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:27037269

  8. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  9. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  10. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  11. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  12. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  13. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  14. Indication for a volatile element 114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the chemical investigation of element 112 revealed a highly volatile, noble metallic behaviour, as expected for the last group 12 member of the periodic table. The observed volatility and chemical inertness were ascribed to the growing influence of relativistic effects on the chemical properties of the heaviest elements with increasing nuclear charge. Here, we report for the first time on gas phase chemical experiments aiming at a determination of element 114 properties. This element was investigated using its isotopes 287114 and 288114 produced in the nuclear fusion reactions of 48Ca with 242Pu and 244Pu, respectively. Identification of three atoms of element 114 in thermochromatography experiments and their deposition pattern on a gold surface indicates that this element is at least as volatile as simultaneously investigated elements Hg, At, and element 112. This behaviour is rather unexpected for a typical metal of group 14. (orig.)

  15. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 μM of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 μM Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 μM cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  16. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamers, An; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Griffin, Julian L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 2QA (United Kingdom); Jones, Oliver A.H., E-mail: oliver.jones@rmit.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 {mu}M of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 {mu}M Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 {mu}M cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure.

  17. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (Isc), transepithelial potential (Vt) and resistance (Rt) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 μM to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in Isc cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H2 histamine receptor, 2) Ca2+ signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H+/K+-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H+/K+-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  18. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  19. 41 CFR 114-51.100 - Departmental Quarters Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handbook. 114-51.100 Section 114-51.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-General § 114-51.100 Departmental Quarters Handbook. The Office of Acquisition and Property Management (PAM) has prepared the Departmental Quarters Handbook (DQH), 400 DM, which provides detailed...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.114 - Repayment agreement (grants only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repayment agreement (grants only). 3550.114 Section 3550.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.114 Repayment agreement (grants only). Grant recipients...

  1. 5 CFR 185.114 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties to the hearing. 185.114 Section 185.114 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.114 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 114.6 - Mixing biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixing biological products. 114.6 Section 114.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.6...

  3. 40 CFR 86.114-94 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.114-94 Section 86.114-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.114-94 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the...

  4. 21 CFR 114.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 114.5 Section 114.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS General Provisions § 114.5 Current good...

  5. 48 CFR 632.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing. 632.114 Section 632.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 632.114 Unusual contract financing....

  6. 42 CFR 480.114 - Limitation on data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on data collection. 480.114 Section 480.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Access to Information § 480.114 Limitation on data collection. A QIO or any agent, organization,...

  7. 19 CFR 114.2 - Customs Conventions and Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs Conventions and Agreements. 114.2 Section 114.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS General Provisions § 114.2 Customs Conventions and Agreements....

  8. 19 CFR 181.114 - Customs response to request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs response to request. 181.114 Section 181.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Decisions § 181.114 Customs response to request. (a) Time for response. The port director will issue...

  9. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  10. STS-114 Flight Day 11 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Flight Day 11 begins with the STS-114 crew of Space Shuttle Discovery (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) awaking to "Anchors Away," to signify the undocking of the Raffaello Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) from the International Space Station (ISS). Canadarm 2, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), retrieves the Raffaello Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) from the nadir port of the Unity node of the ISS and returns it to Discovery's payload bay. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) hands the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) to its counterpart, the SSRMS, for rebearthing in the payload bay as well. The rebearthing of the OBSS is shown in detail, including centerline and split-screen views. Collins sends a message to her husband, and talks with Representative Tom DeLay (R-TX). Earth views include the Amalfi coast of Italy. The ISS control room bids farewell to the STS-114 crew and the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the ISS.

  11. Contacting cadmium deposition from spent industrial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium metal deposition from spent industrial solutions by cadmium (2) reduction with dispersed aluminium is studied. The influence of temperature, reagent concentration and the presence of complexing agents on the yield and purity of isolated cadmium metal is examined

  12. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  13. STS-114 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Highlights of Day 5 of the STS-114 Return to Flight mission (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) include video coverage of an extravehiclular activity (EVA) by Noguchi and Robinson. The other crew members of Discovery are seen on the flight deck and mid-deck helping the astronauts to suit-up. The objectives of the EVA are to test repair techniques on sample tiles in the shuttle's payload bay, to repair electrical equipment for a gyroscope on the International Space Station (ISS), and to install a replacement GPS antenna on the ISS. Noguchi and Robinson use a caulk gun and a putty knife to repair the sample tiles. The video contains several Earth views, including one of Baja California.

  14. STS-114: Discovery Launch Postponement Press Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This press briefing addresses the problem that occurred prior to the launch of the STS-114. Dean Acosta, Deputy Assistant Administrator of Public Affairs, introduces the panel which consists of Dr. Michael Griffin, NASA Administrator, William Readdy, Associate Administrator for Space Operations, Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Deputy Manager, Steve Poulas, Orbiter Project Manager, Mike Leinbach, NASA Launch Director, and Bill Parsons, Space Shuttle Program Manager. Wayne Hale expresses that a problem occurred with one of the low level sensors in the hydrogen tank and that the cause of the problem must be identified and rectified. Steve Poulos talks about establishing a troubleshooting plan as a part of the scrub effort and Mike Leinbach describes the process of draining the external tank. Wayne Hale answers questions about the sensors and if the Space Shuttle Discovery is safe to fly and Steve Poulos answers questions about the possible suspects for this problem.

  15. Asteroseismology of the DBV star CBS 114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Asteroseismology is a unique and powerful tool to investigate the internal structure of stars. CBS 114 is the sixth known pulsating DBV star. It was observed by Handler, Metcalfe, & Wood at the South African Astronomical Observatory over three weeks in 2001. Then, it was observed by Metcalfe et al. for seven nights (2004 Feb. 19–25) on the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory and seven nights (2004 Feb. 21–27) on the 2.1 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. Totally two triplets, four doublets, and five singlets were identified. The frequency splitting values are very different, from 5.2 μHz to 11.9 μHz, which may reflect differential rotations. We evolve grids of white dwarf models by MESA. Cores, added with He/C envelopes, of those white dwarf models are inserted into WDEC to evolve grids of DBV star models. With those DBV star models, we calculate eigenperiods. Those calculated periods are used to fit observed periods. A best-fitting model is selected. The parameters are T eff = 25000 K, M * = 0.740 M ⊙ and log(M He/M *) = —4.5. With the relatively large stellar mass, the effective temperature is close to the previous spectroscopic result. In addition, kinetic energy distributions are calculated for the best-fitting model. We find that the observed modes with large frequency splitting values are fitted by the calculated modes with a large amount of kinetic energy distributed in the C/O core. After preliminary analysis, we suggest that the C/O core may rotate at least two times faster than the helium layer for CBS 114.

  16. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baggio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO34(H2O5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017 of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978. 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080. The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two cadmium centres and the remaining one an unbound solvent molecule which completes the asymmetric unit. There are two types of cadmium environment: CdO8 (through four chelating sulfite ligands and CdO6 (by way of six monocoordinated ligands. The former groups form planar arrays [parallel to (001 and separated by half a unit cell translation along c], made up of chains running along [110] and [overline{1}10], respectively. These chains are, in turn, interconnected both in an intraplanar as well as in an interplanar fashion by the latter CdO6 polyhedra into a tight three-dimensional framework. There is, in addition, an extensive network of hydrogen bonds, in which all 12 water H atoms act as donors and eight O atoms from all four sulfite groups and two water molecules act as acceptors.

  17. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  18. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  19. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  20. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  1. Projectbeschrijving Cadmium-informatiepunt (CIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer PJ

    1989-01-01

    To minimize the use of cadmium the Central Government has decided to perform the purchase of products and materials within the Central Government as much as possible within the Draft Cadmium Decree. The activities to achieve this are as far as could be seen at the start of the project in june 1989, mentioned in this report.

  2. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  3. STS-114 Flight Day 3 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Video coverage of Day 3 includes highlights of STS-114 during the approach and docking of Discovery with the International Space Station (ISS). The Return to Flight continues with space shuttle crew members (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) seen in onboard activities on the fore and aft portions of the flight deck during the orbiter's approach. Camarda sends a greeting to his family, and Collins maneuvers Discovery as the ISS appears steadily closer in sequential still video from the centerline camera of the Orbiter Docking System. The approach includes video of Discovery from the ISS during the orbiter's Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver, giving the ISS a clear view of the thermal protection systems underneath the orbiter. Discovery docks with the Destiny Laboratory of the ISS, and the shuttle crew greets the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the ISS onboard the station. Finally, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System hands the Orbiter Boom Sensor System to its counterpart, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System.

  4. Asteroseismology of the DBV star CBS 114

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Asteroseismology is an unique and powerful tool to detect the internal structure of stars. CBS 114 is the sixth known pulsating DBV star. It was observed by Handler, Metcalfe, \\& Wood at South African Astronomical Observatory over 3 weeks in 2001. Then, it was observed by Metcalfe et al. at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory and McDonald Observatory respectively for 7 nights in 2004. Totally 2 triplets, 4 doublets, and 5 singlets were identified. The frequency splitting values are very different, from 5.2 $\\mu$Hz to 11.9 $\\mu$Hz, which may reflect differential rotations. We evolve grids of white dwarf models by \\texttt{MESA}. Cores, added with He/C envelopes, of those white dwarf models are inserted into \\texttt{WDEC} to evolve grids of DBV star models. With those DBV star models, we calculate eigenperiods. Those calculated periods are used to fit observed periods. A best-fitting model is selected. The parameters are $T_{eff}$ = 25000 K, $M_{*}$ = 0.740 $M_{\\odot}$, and log($M_{He}/M_{*}$) = -4.5. Wi...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... containment of cadmium or materials containing cadmium on the site or location at which construction...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1127 Cadmium. (a... forms, in all construction work where an employee may potentially be exposed to cadmium....

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. 11 CFR 114.11 - Employee participation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stockholder, director, or employee of the corporation or its separate segregated fund may exert pressure of... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee participation plans. 114.11 Section... § 114.11 Employee participation plans. (a) A corporation may establish and administer an...

  8. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average hourly earnings from the salary fall below the minimum hourly wage rate applicable under the Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed salary for fluctuating hours. 778.114 Section 778.114... salary for fluctuating hours. (a) An employee employed on a salary basis may have hours of work...

  9. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 814.114 - Timeframes for reviewing an HDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Timeframes for reviewing an HDE. 814.114 Section 814.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Timeframes for reviewing an HDE. Within 75 days after receipt of an HDE that is accepted for filing and...

  11. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  12. 13 CFR 114.103 - Who may file a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may file a claim? 114.103... Tort Claims § 114.103 Who may file a claim? (a) If a claim is based on factors listed in the first... entitled to assert the claim under applicable state law. Loss wholly compensated by an insurer with...

  13. 9 CFR 114.13 - Expiration date determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration date determination. 114.13... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.13 Expiration date determination. Unless otherwise provided for in a Standard Requirement of filed Outline of Production, the expiration date for each product shall be computed from...

  14. 9 CFR 114.12 - Expiration date required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration date required. 114.12... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.12 Expiration date required. Each serial or subserial of biological product prepared in a licensed establishment shall be given an expiration date determined in accordance with...

  15. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General...

  16. Cadmium in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 ...

  17. Cadmium sulfite hexahydrate revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Baggio; Andrés Ibáñez; Ricardo Baggio

    2008-01-01

    The present structural revision of the title compound, tetracadmium tetrasulfite hexahydrate, [Cd4(SO3)4(H2O)5]·H2O, is a low-temperature upgrade (T = 100 K and R = 0.017) of the original room-temperature structure reported by Kiers & Vos [Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1978). 7, 399–403; T = 293 K and R = 0.080). The compound is a three-dimensional polymer with four independent cadmium centres, four sulfite anions and six water molecules, five of them coordinated to two c...

  18. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  19. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  20. RNA-Seq identifies key reproductive gene expression alterations in response to cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hanyang; Lu, Xing; Cen, Xiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Feng; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice. PMID:24982889

  1. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice.

  2. A comparison of intravascular source designs based on the beta particle emitter 114mIn/114In Line source versus stepping source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Catheter-based intravascular brachytherapy (IVB) sources of the next generation will have to meet high demands in terms of miniaturization, flexibility, safety, reliability, costs and versatility. The radionuclide pair 114mIn/114In (half-life 49.51 days, maximum beta energy 2.0 MeV, average beta energy 0.78 MeV) is an attractive beta emitter for application in such a source. Methods: Since metallic indium is unfit for the manufacture of a brachytherapy source, the feasibility, safety and dosimetric properties of a design concept comprising a linear array of ceramic In2O3 spheres within a thin-walled, superelastic Ni/Ti capsule are investigated. Results: Neutron activation of enriched In2O3 spheres yields a specific activity sufficiently high for the manufacture of a stepping source, keeping treatment times limited to a few minutes. Although 114mIn/114In also emits some gamma radiation, the effective doses received by members of the medical staff are an order of magnitude lower than those received from fluoroscopy. The dose distributions about a 40-mm line source and a 5-mm stepping source (outer diameter 0.36 mm) are calculated using MCNP4C. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) are calculated for the line source (centered and noncentered) and the stepping source (centered) using the geometry of a human coronary artery. Conclusion: The results show that a centered stepping source with optimized dwell times delivers the most homogenous dose within the target volume

  3. Potentiometric titration of excess cadmium in cadmium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid potentiometric technique for determining excess cadmium in CdSe has been developed. Reaction with AgNO3 is used for sample treatment. Silver, formed in the AgNO3 reaction with excess Cd is determined with the help of KI. When using the given method of analysis the relative standard deviation is equal to 0.08-0.21. The real detection limit of excess cadmium is 9x10-7 g

  4. Structure and Stability of Si(114)-(2x1)

    CERN Document Server

    Erwin, S C; Whitman, L J; Erwin, Steven C.; Baski, Alison A.; Whitman, Lloyd J.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a recently discovered stable planar surface of silicon, Si(114). This high-index surface, oriented 19.5 degrees away from (001) toward (111), undergoes a 2x1 reconstruction. We propose a complete model for the reconstructed surface based on scanning tunneling microscopy images and first-principles total-energy calculations. The structure and stability of Si(114)-(2x1) arises from a balance between surface dangling bond reduction and surface stress relief, and provides a key to understanding the morphology of a family of surfaces oriented between (001) and (114).

  5. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  6. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Cadmium telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and performance of undoped high resistivity cadmium telluride detectors are compared to chlorine lifted counters. It is shown, in particular, that Undodep CdTe is in fact aluminium doped and that compensation occurs, as an silicon or germanium, by pair and triplet formation between the group III donor and the doubly charged cadmium vacancy acceptor. Furthermore, in chlorine doped samples, the polarization effect results from the unpaired level at Esub(c)-0,6eV

  8. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE......) method separates dissolved Cd into free divalent Cd (Cd 2+) and complexed Cd and furthermore separates the latter into the operationally defined forms: labile, slowly labile and stable complexes. The dialysis (ED) method determines high molecular weight Cd complexes (above 1000mol. wt). For both methods...... the reproducibility was good. By combining the results of the GEOCHEM calculations in terms of the inorganic complexes, and the IE results, the fractions of free and inorganically complexed Cd were estimated. The IE and ED results furthermore provided information about the organic complexes. Selected...

  9. 19 CFR 114.32 - Samples for taking orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY CARNETS Miscellaneous § 114.32 Samples for taking orders. A.T.A. or TECRO/AIT carnets may be... territory of another contracting party to the A.T.A. Convention or TECRO/AIT Agreement....

  10. Cadmium accumulation and depuration in Anodonta anatina exposed to cadmium chloride or cadmium-EDTA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, D.A.; Hemelraad, J.; Veenhof, P.R.; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-03-01

    The authors have previously reported on the uptake and distribution of cadmium in unionids, experimentally exposed to cadmium chloride. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of metal chelation on cadmium kinetics, including metal elimination in the post-exposure phase. Generally, chelation of ionic metal by natural substances like humic acids or by synthetic compounds like EDTA decreases its environmental toxicity through a diminished rate of uptake, as compared with the free ion. The influences of metal chelation on bioconcentration and on toxicity do not always run parallel. To their knowledge, there are no data on the effect of chelation on metal kinetics in freshwater clams. Data on rates of cadmium elimination from aquatic invertebrates are highly divergent, but Cd excretion is invariably found to be smaller than uptake.

  11. Studies of 3He Induced Nuclear Reactions on Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions of 3He induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium were measured using the standard stacked foil technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The experimental cross sections for the nuclear reactions natCd(3He,xnp )117m,g,116m115m,114m,113m,111,110m,g,109,108,107 In were measured from their threshold energy up to 27 MeV. The integral yields for some medically important products were determined. Theoretical calculations using the nuclear codes ALICE- IPPE, TAL YS, and EMPIRE-3 were used to describe the formation of these products. Theoretical and experimental results were compared with each other. K

  12. LLE Review 114 (January-March 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2008, features 'Cryogenic Targets: Current Status and Future Development', by D. R. Harding, D. H. Edgell, M. D. Wittman, L. M. Elasky, S. J. Verbridge, A. J. Weaver, L. D. Lund, W. Seka, W. T. Shmayda, R. T. Janezic, M. J. Shoup III, M. Moore, R. Junquist, and A. V. Okishev. In this article (p. 57), the authors report on the status of layering cryogenic DT and D2 targets at LLE for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This critical effort achieves the important milestone of routinely providing cryogenic DT targets that meet the 1.0-(micro)m (rms) OMEGA ice-quality-surface specification. The best D2-ice layers produced so far (rms roughness of 1.1 (micro)m) are approaching the quality typically achieved in DT targets. Efforts to improve the consistency of this process are reported along with investigations supporting the National Ignition Campaign studying issues relevant to indirect-drive and direct-drive cryogenic targets. Additional highlights of recent research presented in this issue include the following: (1) an improved laser speckle smoothing scheme that augments the current NIF 1-D SSD system by using multiple-FM modulators (MultiFM 1-D SSD) (p. 73). With a judicious choice of modulator frequencies, MultiFM 1-D SSD smoothes resonances produced at the higher spatial frequencies and can attain similar or even faster smoothing rates compared to the baseline NIF 2-D SSD system. DRACO simulations have shown that MultiFM 1-D SSD beam smoothing is sufficient for the direct-drive-ignition targets and pulse shapes analyzed thus far, and may even allow reducing the bandwidth enough to eliminate the need for dual-tripler frequency conversion on the NIF. (2) describes a time-gated, monoenergetic proton radiography that provides unique measurements of implosion dynamics of spherical targets in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (p. 81). Radiographs obtained at different implosion times, from

  13. LLE Review 114 (January-March 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.

    2008-07-30

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2008, features 'Cryogenic Targets: Current Status and Future Development', by D. R. Harding, D. H. Edgell, M. D. Wittman, L. M. Elasky, S. J. Verbridge, A. J. Weaver, L. D. Lund, W. Seka, W. T. Shmayda, R. T. Janezic, M. J. Shoup III, M. Moore, R. Junquist, and A. V. Okishev. In this article (p. 57), the authors report on the status of layering cryogenic DT and D{sub 2} targets at LLE for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This critical effort achieves the important milestone of routinely providing cryogenic DT targets that meet the 1.0-{micro}m (rms) OMEGA ice-quality-surface specification. The best D{sub 2}-ice layers produced so far (rms roughness of 1.1 {micro}m) are approaching the quality typically achieved in DT targets. Efforts to improve the consistency of this process are reported along with investigations supporting the National Ignition Campaign studying issues relevant to indirect-drive and direct-drive cryogenic targets. Additional highlights of recent research presented in this issue include the following: (1) an improved laser speckle smoothing scheme that augments the current NIF 1-D SSD system by using multiple-FM modulators (MultiFM 1-D SSD) (p. 73). With a judicious choice of modulator frequencies, MultiFM 1-D SSD smoothes resonances produced at the higher spatial frequencies and can attain similar or even faster smoothing rates compared to the baseline NIF 2-D SSD system. DRACO simulations have shown that MultiFM 1-D SSD beam smoothing is sufficient for the direct-drive-ignition targets and pulse shapes analyzed thus far, and may even allow reducing the bandwidth enough to eliminate the need for dual-tripler frequency conversion on the NIF. (2) describes a time-gated, monoenergetic proton radiography that provides unique measurements of implosion dynamics of spherical targets in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (p. 81). Radiographs obtained at different

  14. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  15. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  16. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Yongvongsoontorn, Nunnarpas; Tawarada, Kei; Ohnishi, Yoshikazu; Arakane, Tamami; Kayama, Fujio; Abe, Kaoru; Oguma, Shinichi; Ohmura, Naoya

    2009-06-10

    One of the pathways by which cadmium enters human beings is through the consumption of agricultural products. The monitoring of cadmium has a significant role in the management of cadmium intake. Cadmium purification and quantification using immunochromatography were conducted in this study as an alternative means of cadmium analysis. The samples used in this study were rice, tomato, lettuce, garden pea, Arabidopsis thaliana (a widely used model organism for studying plants), soil, and fertilizer. The cadmium immunochromatography has been produced from the monoclonal antibody Nx2C3, which recognize the chelate form of cadmium, Cd.EDTA. The immunochromatography can be used for quantification of cadmium in a range from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L at 20% mean coefficient of variance. A chelate column employing quaternary ammonium salts was used for the purification of cadmium from HCl extracts of samples. Recoveries of cadmium were near 100%, and the lowest recovery was 76.6% from rice leaves. The estimated cadmium concentrations from the immunochromatography procedure were evaluated by comparison with the results of instrumental analysis (ICP-AES or ICP-MS). By comparison of HCl extracts analyzed by ICP-MS and column eluates analyzed by immunochromatography of the samples, the estimated cadmium concentrations were closely similar, and their recoveries were from 98 to 116%. PMID:19489614

  17. Osteoporosis and renal dysfunction in a general population exposed to cadmium in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a common metabolic disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. Many factors are involved in the occurrence of osteoporosis. Cadmium can cause both osteomalacia and osteoporosis and these effects have long been investigated through various epidemiological or experimental studies. The present study examines a possible relationship between cadmium nephropathy and its effects on the skeleton in populations living in a polluted area in southeast China. Monophoton absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in the population and the Z score (the number of SD from the difference between the measured bone density of the individual and the group mean value for sex- and age-matched controls) was introduced to define osteoporosis (Z score 2=18.84, P=0.0008). The linear trend test gave χ2=16.281, P=0.00005. There was a dose-response relationship between cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium) and prevalence of osteoporosis. Of 31 subjects with osteoporosis, 23 subjects were suffering from renal dysfunction. The prevalence of renal dysfunction (74.19%) was significantly higher than that in those without osteoporosis (χ2=16.53, P2=19.92, P=0.000) but not in those with and without glomerular damage (χ2=0.08, P=0.114). This showed that glomerular dysfunction plays a smaller role than tubular dysfunction in the causation of bone damage. It was found that the prevalence of osteoporosis increases with increasing values of parameters of tubular damage. Osteoporosis caused by cadmium is thus related to kidney dysfunction and especially to tubular damage and its severity but not to glomerular damage. The present study has thus demonstrated the combined adverse effects (osteoporosis and renal dysfunction) caused by environmental exposure to cadmium for the first time in Asia outside the endemic area in Japan

  18. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd), a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern, has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The carcinogenic potential of Cd as well as the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis following exposure to Cd has been studied using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. Exposure of cells to Cd results in their transformation. Administration of Cd in animals results in tumors of multiple organs/tissues. Also, a causal relationship has been noticed between exposure to Cd and the incidence of lung cancer in human. It has been demonstrated that Cd induces cancer by multiple mechanisms and the most important among them are aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, induction of oxidative stress, and inhibition of apoptosis. The available evidence indicates that, perhaps, oxidative stress plays a central role in Cd carcinogenesis because of its involvement in Cd-induced aberrant gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, and apoptosis.

  19. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  20. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  1. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  2. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  3. Independent Verification of Element 114 Production in the 48Ca+242Pu Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent verification of the production of element 114 in the reaction of 244-MeV 48Ca with 242Pu is presented. Two chains of time- and position-correlated decays have been assigned to 286114 and 287114. The observed decay modes, half-lives, and decay energies agree with published results. The measured cross sections at a center-of-target energy of 244 MeV for the 242Pu(48Ca,3-4n)287,286114 reactions were 1.4-1.2+3.2 pb each, which are lower than the reported values.

  4. Metallogenetic condition and mineralization characteristics of uranium deposit No.114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposit No 114 is one of the typical carbonate-type uranium deposits, that are widely distributed in South China. In this paper formational environment of host rock, wall-rock alteration, sulfur, oxygen, carbon isotopes, mineralization temperatures, ore compsitions were studied. Based on the U-Pb isotopic research three mineralization stages in deposit No 114 were established, namely 104 Ma, 61 Ma and 11 Ma. It is suggested, that the deposit No 114 is a polygenetic deposit formed primarily by supergene leaching and hydrothermal reworked. The uranium deposit has multi-sources, the main uranium source of which is from the granite body situated nearby. According to metallogenetic characteristics the authors suggest the favourable geological exploration guides for this kind of ore deposits

  5. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  6. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation in Seawater - A Signature of Nutrient Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichtlhuber, S.; Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A. N.

    2005-12-01

    Cadmium displays a nutrient-like distribution akin to phosphorous in the oceans. This has been attributed to the assimilation of Cd by phytoplankton in surface waters and re-mineralization at depth. If biological uptake is associated with kinetic isotopic fractionation, as recently suggested by Lacan et al. (2005), then the Cd-depleted surface waters of the oceans (with Cd contents of Lacan et al., 2005). In this study, we have extended the search for Cd isotope variations in the oceans with analyses of two depth profiles and various additional seawater samples from the North Pacific, the Arctic, and the Southern Ocean. The Cd isotope measurements utilized a double spike technique in conjunction with multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), to achieve a precision and accuracy of about ± 0.8 to 1.5 ɛ114/110Cd. This precision is about a factor of 3 to 4 better than that of previous studies, which did not utilize a double spike. The data collected for the samples display a clear co-variation of Cd isotope compositions with Cd concentrations. The most Cd-rich water samples (with ~1 nmol/kg Cd) display the "lightest" Cd isotope compositions with ɛ114/110Cd ~ +3, akin to results previously obtained for crustal and mantle rocks (Wombacher et. al, 2003). In contrast, samples from the upper water column of the North Pacific (with Lacan et al. (2005), because inorganic geological processes (other than evaporation/condensation) do not appear to generate isotope effects as large as those observed in the present study (Wombacher et. al, 2003). These preliminary results suggest that Cd isotopes have the potential to become a useful proxy of nutrient utilization, which could supplement the Cd/Ca and δ13C records of previous studies, if suitable sedimentary archives can be identified that preserve the Cd isotope signatures of past seawater. References: Lacan F., Francois R., Ji Y. and Sherrell R., 2005. Does oceanic productivity production

  7. Insulin Expression in Rats Exposed to Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of cadmium exposure on insulin expression in rats. Methods Eighteen adult SD assessed. The levels of cadmium and zinc in pancreas, blood and urine glucose, serum insulin and urine NAG (N-acyetyl-β-glucosaminidase) were determined. The gene expressions of metallothionein (MT) and insulin were also measured,and the oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were carried out. Results The contents of cadmium in pancreas in cadmium-treated rats were higher than that in the control group, which was associated with slight increase of zinc in pancreas.not change significantly after cadmium administration, and the UNAG had no change in Cd-treated group. The gene expression the change of the expression of insulin, MT-Ⅰ and MT-Ⅱ genes. Cadmium can influence the biosynthesis of insulin, but does not induce the release of insulin. The dysfunction of pancreas occurs earlier than that of kidney after administration of cadmium.

  8. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  9. 9 CFR 114.7 - Personnel at licensed establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel at licensed establishments... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.7 Personnel at licensed establishments. (a) Each licensee shall...) All personnel employed in the preparation of biological products at a licensed establishment shall...

  10. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  11. 33 CFR 183.114 - Test of flotation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.114 Test of flotation materials. (a) Vapor test. The flotation material... gasoline test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more than 5 percent after being..., see § 183.5). (d) 24-hour oil test. The flotation material must not reduce in buoyant force more...

  12. 21 CFR 114.80 - Processes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.80 Processes and controls. (a) Processing operations. The manufacturer shall employ appropriate quality control procedures to ensure that... scheduled process and maintained in all finished foods. Manufacturing shall be in accordance with...

  13. 48 CFR 2832.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2832.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA, or designee at a level not lower than the BPC, is the official authorized to...

  14. 48 CFR 32.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.114 Unusual contract financing. Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract...

  15. 48 CFR 432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.114 Unusual contract financing. The HCA is authorized to approve unusual contract financing. The signed determination and...

  16. 48 CFR 2432.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unusual contract financing... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 2432.114 Unusual contract financing. The Senior Procurement Executive is the agency head for the purpose...

  17. 48 CFR 1332.114 - Unusual contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual contract financing... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 1332.114 Unusual contract financing. The designee authorized to approve unusual contract financing arrangements is set forth in...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHO114 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHO114 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16441-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 69204( S69204 ) pheromone response factor 1 - smut fungus ... (Ustila... 32 7.0 protein update 2009. 3.16 PSORT ...

  20. 40 CFR 180.114 - Ferbam; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ferbam; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.114 Ferbam; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the...

  1. Atmospheric deposition of cadmium in Croatia studied by using moss bio monitoring technique and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia participated for the first time in moss survey in 2005, in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops with heavy metals in Europe (UNECE ICP Vegetation) when different species of moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium sericeum) were collected from 96 locations evenly distributed over the country. An additional 27 new sampling sites were added for the investigation in 2010. Moss samples were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected moss samples were air dried, cleaned and totally digested by using microwave digestion system. Digests were analysed for cadmium by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). The results for cadmium were compared with the results obtained in previous investigations in Croatia and some other neighboring countries and Norway as a pristine area. The content of cadmium ranges from 0.10 mg kg -1 to 1.42 mg kg-1. It was found that the median value of cadmium (0.38 mg kg-1) is 1.41 times higher than the value obtained in the study performed in 2005. Compared to the other countries, Croatia shows insignificantly higher median value. Highest contents of cadmium were found in the Podravina region (1.14 mg kg-1 and 1.42 mg kg-1) where cadmium inputs as a result of anthropogenic origin from Slovenia and Austria (Pb and Zn mines and smelter plants). High levels of cadmium were also found in moss samples collected at some industrialized areas in northern parts of Croatia as a result of anthropogenic influence as well as in samples collected in the Coastal region where high levels are a result of geological origin. (Author)

  2. Application of small diameter nozzles systems for cyclotron targets cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work estimating calculations of cadmium targets cooling conditions under proton beam irradiation are cited. Irradiation conditions and targets parameters are as follows: a) proton initial energy - 16 MeV, beam current - 20 μA; b) metallic cadmium layer thickness - 660 μm; target diameter - 9 mm, it squire - 0.64 cm2; c) vanadium substrate thickness, on which the cadmium layer is fixed - 200 μm; d) proton energy losses in the target - 15 MeV, heat release in the cadmium layer - 300 W, heat release on the target surface - 471 W·cm-2; e) proton energy losses in the substrate - 1 MeV, heat release in vanadium - 15 W. For the calculation the system of 7 nozzles was selected. It is noted, that cooling change by single jet of nozzle systems with small diameter provides to heat transfer coefficient increase and sharply reduces (into 3 times) water flow

  3. Cadmium detoxification processes in the digestive gland of cephalopods in relation to accumulated cadmium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Paco; Cosson, Richard; Gallien, Isabelle; Caurant, Florence; Miramand, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    International audience The high concentrations of cadmium recorded in the digestive gland of cephalopods from various temperate and subpolar waters suggest that these molluscs have developed efficient cadmium detoxification mechanisms. The subcellular distribution of cadmium in the digestive gland cells was investigated in seven cephalopod species from the Bay of Biscay (France) and the Faroe Islands. In most species, cadmium was mainly found in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive glan...

  4. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds hav...

  6. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Luckett, Brian G.; L. Joseph Su; Rood, Jennifer C.; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney c...

  7. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  8. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  9. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    -dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  10. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  11. Determination of cadmium in real water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after cloud point extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollution is a global threat and it is the leading world wide cause of death and diseases. The awareness of the potential danger posed by heavy metals to the ecosystems and in particular to human health has grown tremendously in the past decades. Separation and preconcentration procedures are considered of great importance in analytical and environmental chemistry. Cloud point is one of the most reliable and sophisticated separation methods for determination of traces quantities of heavy metals. Cloud point methodology was successfully employed for preconcentration of trace quantities of cadmium prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The metals react with 8-hydroxquinoline in a surfactant Triton X-114 medium. The following parameters such as pH, concentration of the reagent and Triton X-114, equilibrating temperature and centrifuging time were evaluated and optimized to enhance the sensitivity and extraction efficiency of the proposed method. Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified ethanol was performed after phase separation and the cadmium content was measured by FAAS. The validation of the procedure was carried out by spiking addition methods. The method was applied for determination of Cd in water samples of different ecosystems (lake and river). (author)

  12. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-05-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000nM) for 4h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  13. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  14. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  15. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium ...

  16. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG)

  17. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  18. Cluster radioactivity in $^{114}$Ba in the HFB theory

    OpenAIRE

    Warda, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cluster radioactivity in $^{114}$Ba is described as a spontaneous fission with a large mass asymmetry within the self-consistent HFB theory. A new fission valley with large octupole deformation is found in the potential energy surface. The fragment mass asymmetry of this fission mode corresponds to the expected one in cluster radioactivity with the emission of $^{16}$O predicted with a very long half-life.

  19. Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand Across 114 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Anita; Seale, James L. Jr

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a simple methodology for calculating cross-price elasticities across countries, using the Frisch own-price elasticity. Cross-price elasticities are calculated for 9 major consumption categories from the 1996 International Comparison Program data across 114 countries. The consumption categories are: food, beverage, and tobacco; clothing and footwear; education; gross rent, fuel, and power; house furnishings and operations; medical care; recreation; transport and communicat...

  20. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  1. Intraoperative brachytherapy in the management of keloids: about 114 cases; Place de la curietherapie dans le traitement des cheloides a propos de 114 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalej, M.; Frikha, H.; Bouaouina, N.; Daoud, J.; Besbes, M.; Benna, F.; Sellami, D.; Bennour, N. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Radiotherapie, Tunis (Tunisia); Jellouli, M.; Gritli, S. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service d' ORL, Tunis (Tunisia); Guigua, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Chirurgie reparatrice et esthetique, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Abdallah, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Statistique Medicale, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2000-08-01

    Keloid scars are unsightly, especially when located on the face or bare zones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic results of intraoperative brachytherapy in the management of keloids. This retrospective study was based on the study of 82 patients with keloids treated in Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia) between 1982 and 1994 (65 women and 17 men). The mean age of patients was 23.4 years ({+-}8.4). A total of 114 lesions have been treated with surgical resection and intraoperative brachytherapy using an iridium source placed under the surgical scar. The length of iridium was chosen with the result that the radioactive thread exceeded 5 mm on each side of the surgical scar. The iridium source was loaded less than six hours after resection. Average iridium activity was 1.5{+-}0.3 mCi/cm. Average iridium length was 56.8{+-}34 mm. The referred isodose chosen for the target volume included the surgical scar and a margin of 5 mn around the iridium source, which was placed under the surgical scar. The average administered dose was 20.4 Gy ({+-}3.2 Gy). The 2-year local control rate was 87% for the whole group of lesions treated (n=114). Local control rate of keloids processed by resection and intraoperative brachytherapy as the first treatment (59 cases) was 96% at two years. This rate was better than the local control of lesions that had been previously treated with anterior surgical resection (84% in 55 cases). For the latter group, lesions treated with a dose of more than 20 Gy had better local control, but the difference was not statistically significant (87 vs. 65% at two years, P = 0.41). Intraoperative brachytherapy is effective for improving local control of keloids and preventing a recurrence. A rigorous technique and an adequate dose according to previous surgical treatment allows very good results. (author)

  2. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L. PMID:26336850

  3. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  4. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0-50 mu M) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitativ

  5. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.;

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  6. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne;

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of...

  7. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5 Section 114.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation...

  8. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and analysis shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 1065, with the following exceptions and... and analytical system. 92.114 Section 92.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 92.114 Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system. (a) General. (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 179.103 - Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.103 Special requirements for class 114A * * * tank car tanks. (a) In addition to the...

  10. 48 CFR 18.114 - Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Administration (The 8(a) Program). 18.114 Section 18.114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.114 Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a)...

  11. 40 CFR 264.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 264.114 Section 264.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.114 Disposal or...

  12. Development of cadmium/silver/palladium separation by ion chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection for off-line cadmium isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method was investigated to perform off-line cadmium isotopic measurements on a 109Ag transmutation target. Ion chromatography (IC) with Q ICPMS detection (quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection) was chosen to separate cadmium from the isobarically interfering elements, silver and palladium, present in the sample. The optimization of chromatographic conditions was particularly studied. Several anion and cation columns (Dionex AG11 (R), CS10 (R) and CS12 (R)) were compared with different mobile phases (HNO3, HCl). The separation procedure was achieved with a carboxylate-functionalized cation exchange CS12 column using 0.5 M HNO3 as eluent. The developed technique yielded satisfactory results in terms of separation factors (greater than 5) and provides an efficient solution to obtain rapidly purified cadmium fractions (decontamination factors higher 100,000 for silver and palladium) which can directly be analyzed by multi collection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC ICPMS). By applying the proposed procedure, accurate and precise cadmium isotope ratios were determined for the irradiated 109Ag transmutation target. (authors)

  13. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  14. Cadmium blood concentrations in relation to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudládková, Marica; Ursínyová, Monika; Masánová, Vlasta; Béderová, Alzbeta; Valachovicová, Martina

    2006-09-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element ubiquitous in the environment, which damages biological systems in various ways. The major source of cadmium exposure is food. High cadmium content in the soil leads to high cadmium concentrations in certain plants such as grains (above all surface layers and germs), oil or non-oil seeds, fruit and vegetables. These food commodities are the crucial components of a vegetarian nutrition. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in two non-smoking population groups: the vegetarian group (n = 80) and the non-vegetarian (control) group of general population on traditional mixed diet (n = 84). The significantly higher blood cadmium content (1.78 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.04 microg/l) was measured in vegetarian group. Healthy risk values > 5 microg/l were found in 6 vegetarians vs. no non-vegetarian. The highest cadmium concentration (3.15 +/- 0.77 microg/l) was measured in vegan subgroup (plant food only, n = 10) and that value decreased with increasing animal food consumption (1.75 +/- 0.36 microg/l, lactovegetarian and lactoovovegetarian subgroup/added dairy products and eggs, n = 41/, 1.34 +/- 0.21 microg/I, semivegetarian subgroup /as a previous subgroup and added white meat, n = 291). Risk vegetarians vs. non-risk vegetarians consume significantly higher amounts of whole grain products, grain sprouts and oil seeds. Blood cadmium content is directly influenced by age (r = 0.32, p vegetarianism (r = 0.5, p Vegetarians have significantly higher plasma concentrations of natural antioxidants. The sufficient antioxidative protection against cadmium induced free radical formation in vegetarians may inhibit the harmful effects of greater cadmium intake from plant food. PMID:17152224

  15. STS-114: Multi-Cut Profiles and Mission Overviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Profiles of the seven crewmembers of the STS-114 Discovery are shown. Eileen Collins, Commander, talks about her fascination with flying as a young child and her eagerness to have someone teach her to fly at age 19. Her eagerness and hard work earned her a master's in operations research from Stanford University in 1986 and a master's in space systems management from Webster University in 1989. Jim Kelly, Pilot, talks about his desire to become an astronaut at a very young age. Charles Camarda, Mission Specialist, always wanted to become an astronaut and earned a Bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1974, a Master's in engineering Science from George Washington University in 1980 and a doctorate in aerospace engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1990. Wendy Lawrence, Mission Specialist decided that she wanted to become an astronaut when she saw the first man to walk on the moon. Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialist from JAXA expresses that people like scientists, doctors and engineers could fly and he also wanted to venture into spaceflight. Steve Robinson, Mission Specialist says that he was fascinated with things that flew as a child and wanted to make things fly. Australian born Andrew Thomas, Mission Specialist wanted to become an astronaut as a young boy but never realized that he would fulfill his dream. The crewmember profiles end with an overview of the STS-114 Discovery mission. Paul Hill, Lead Flight Director talks about the main goal of the STS-114 mission which is to demonstrate that changes to the Orbiter and flight procedures are good and the second goal is to finish construction of the International Space Station. Sergei Krikalev, Commander talks about increasing the capability of the International Space Station, Jim Kelly discusses the work that is being performed in the external tank, Andy Thomas talks about procedures done to stop foam release and Soichi Noguchi

  16. E2 Transition Probabilities in 114Te: a Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetimes in 114Te were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with a plunger device coupled to five HP Ge detectors enhanced by one Euroball Cluster detector. The experiment was carried out at the Cologne FN Tandem facility using the 93Nb(24Mg,p2n) reaction at 90 MeV. The differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for seven excited states, while the lifetime of an isomeric state was obtained in singles mode. The resulting E2 transition probabilities are shown to be very anomalous in comparison with the vibrational energy spacings of the ground state band

  17. E2 transition probabilities in 114Te: A conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetimes in 114Te were determined using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique with a plunger device coupled to five HP Ge detectors enhanced by one Euroball cluster detector. The experiment was carried out at the Cologne FN Tandem facility using the 93Nb(24Mg,p2n) reaction at 90 MeV. The differential decay curve method in coincidence mode was employed to derive lifetimes for seven excited states, whereas the lifetime of an isomeric state was obtained in singles mode. The resulting E2 transition probabilities are shown to be very anomalous in comparison with the vibrational energy spacings of the ground-state band

  18. Automated flow-injection method for cadmium determination with pre-concentration and reagent preparation on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Di Nezio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The spectrophotometric determination of Cd(II using a flow injection system provided with a solid-phase reactor for cadmium preconcentration and on-line reagent preparation, is described. It is based on the formation of a dithizone-Cd complex in basic medium. The calibration curve is linear between 6 and 300 µg L-1 Cd(II, with a detection limit of 5.4 µg L-1, an RSD of 3.7% (10 replicates in duplicate and a sample frequency of 11.4 h-1. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of Cd(II in surface, well and drinking waters.

  19. Automated flow-injection method for cadmium determination with pre-concentration and reagent preparation on-line

    OpenAIRE

    María S. Di Nezio; Miriam E. Palomeque; Fernández Band, Beatriz S.

    2005-01-01

    The spectrophotometric determination of Cd(II) using a flow injection system provided with a solid-phase reactor for cadmium preconcentration and on-line reagent preparation, is described. It is based on the formation of a dithizone-Cd complex in basic medium. The calibration curve is linear between 6 and 300 µg L-1 Cd(II), with a detection limit of 5.4 µg L-1, an RSD of 3.7% (10 replicates in duplicate) and a sample frequency of 11.4 h-1. The proposed method was satisfactorily ap...

  20. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  1. Viral and cellular requirements for the budding of Feline Endogenous Retrovirus RD-114

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuma Aiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RD-114 virus is a feline endogenous retrovirus and produced as infectious viruses in some feline cell lines. Recently, we reported the contamination of an infectious RD-114 virus in a proportion of live attenuated vaccines for dogs and cats. It is very difficult to completely knock out the RD-114 proviruses from cells, as endogenous retroviruses are usually integrated multiply into the host genome. However, it may be possible to reduce the risk of contamination of RD-114 virus by regulating the viral release from cells. Results In this study, to understand the molecular mechanism of RD-114 virus budding, we attempted to identify the viral and cellular requirements for RD-114 virus budding. Analyses of RD-114 L-domain mutants showed that the PPPY sequence in the pp15 region of Gag plays a critical role in RD-114 virus release as viral L-domain. Furthermore, we investigated the cellular factors required for RD-114 virus budding. We demonstrated that RD-114 virus release was inhibited by overexpression of dominant negative mutants of Vps4A, Vps4B, and WWP2. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that RD-114 budding utilizes the cellular multivesicular body sorting pathway similar to many other retroviruses.

  2. STS-114 Crew Interviews: 1. Eileen Collins 2. Wendy Lawrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1) STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins emphasized her love for teaching, respect for teachers, and her plan to go back to teaching again someday. Her solid background in Math and Science, focus on her interests, with great support from her family, and great training and support during her career with the Air Force gave her confidence in pursuing her dream to become an astronaut. Commander Collins shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details the various flight operations and crew tasks that will take place during the mission and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration. 2) STS-114 Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence first dreamed of becoming an astronaut when she watched Neil Armstrong walk on the moon from their black and white TV set. She majored in Engineering and became a Navy pilot. She shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details her major role as the crew in charge of all the transfer operations; getting the MPLM unpacked and repacked; and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration.

  3. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  4. Cadmium - a complex environmental problem. Part II. Cadmium in sludges used as fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.D.

    1984-02-15

    Utilisation of sewage sludge as a fertilizer is the most economic disposal route for inland sewage-treatment works. Much of the cadmium in wastewater is concentrated into sludge. It is impracticable to reduce cadmium concentrations in sludge below certain levels. Cadmium is a principal factor limiting the use of sludge on land. Investigations are described which have attempted to identify and to determine the availability of forms of cadmium in soil. There is considerable research interest in cadmium in soil solution which is likely to be directly available for crop uptake. Another area of interest is the apparent disappearance of cadmium from sludge-treated soil. Soil analysis often cannot fully account for the cadmium added in sludge. Apart from the effect of soil conditions, especially pH value, crop uptake varies according to the particular crop examined. Highest concentrations of cadmium occur in tobacco, lettuce, spinach and other leafy vegetables. Using crop uptake data from field trials it is possible to relate potential human dietary intake of cadmium, on which hazard depends, to soil concentrations of cadmium, which can be controlled by regulating applications of sludge. This provides an objective basis for limits for cadmium concentrations in soils receiving sludge. Transfer of cadmium via farm animals to meat and dairy products for human consumption is thought to be minimal, even allowing for some direct ingestion of sludge-treated soil by the animals. Evidence from these and other investigations suggests that a loading rate limit of 5 kg Cd/ha (equivalent to a soil concentration of about 3.5 mg Cd/kg) affords adequate protection to the foodchain where sludge is used on agricultural land.

  5. Effect of iron upon cadmium-manganese and cadmium-iron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increase cadmium production has enhanced the potential danger of this toxic metal including its effect upon the metabolism of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese of some essential elements as, for instance, manganese and iron. Relevant data about the cadmium-manganese interaction are rather scanty. Since there are more data of the effect of iron on the metabolism of either of these ions independently. The authors decided to investigate how the presence of iron affected the interaction between cadmium and manganese and how cadmium alone or in combination with the additional iron affected iron transfer and retention in the intestinal wall

  6. Customer Management System of 114 Transformation Business%114转型业务客户管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建华; 宋革联

    2014-01-01

    系统主要解决了政企大客户管理客户资料困难以及电信公司固话保有量下降这两大问题。该系统结合114客户资料库进行客户资料的反查,并利用168平台对每一路通话进行录音,并且具有强大的客户统计分析功能,方便了政企用户,提高了政企用户的办事效率。%This system has mainIy soIved two probIems.One is the Iarge government and enterprise customers is difficuIt to man-age customer data,the other is the China TeIecom company's fixed-Iine users continue to decIine.The system combines 114 customer database for customer information reverse Iookup and use the pIatform 168 to record each way caI .The sys-tem aIso has a strong function of cIient statisticaI anaIysis.The system greatIy faciIitates the government and enterprise users,and improve the efficiency of government and enterprise users.

  7. Tripolyphosphates of potassium-cadmium and ammonium-cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of barely soluble compounds during interaction of ammonium and potassium tripolyphosphates with cadmium nitrate in aqueous solutions (0.1-2.0 mol% concentration, the temperature 20 deg C), is investigated. KCd2P3O10x7H2O, NH4Cd2P3O10x7H2O crystallohydrates and Cd5(P3O10)2xhH2O (x=10-13) X-ray amorphous salt, that are dissolved in potassium and ammonium tripolyphosphate solution with formation of Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 and 1:2 complexes, are separated. In K5P3O10-Cd(NO3)2-H2O system Cd2+:P3O105-=1:1 complex is crystallized in a mixture with varied composition amorphous phase

  8. Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium distribution was studied in different subcellular fractions of gill and hepatopancreas tissues of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Oysters were exposed for up to 21 days to low sublethal Cd concentrations (25 μg L-1). Gill and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled and divided into organelle fractions and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Organelle content of different fractions was verified by activities of marker enzymes, citrate synthase and acid phosphatase for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. In both tissue types, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium in cytosol reaching 230-350 ng mg-1 protein. Among organelles, mitochondria were the main target for Cd bioaccumulation in gills (250-300 ng mg-1 protein), whereas in hepatopancreas tissues, the highest cadmium accumulation occurred in lysosomes (90-94 ng mg-1 protein). Although 75-83% of total cadmium burden was associated with the cytosol reflecting high volume fraction of this compartment, Cd concentrations in organelle fractions reached levels that could cause dysfunction of mitochondria and lysosomes. Organ- and organelle-specific patterns of cadmium bioaccumulation support our previous in vivo studies, which showed adverse effects of cadmium exposures on mitochondrial oxidation in gills and on the lysosomal system of hepatopancreas. This may have important implications for the development of biomarkers of effect for heavy metals and for understanding the mechanisms of toxic effects of metals

  9. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  10. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Smart, James C. R.; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    concentration to be calculated for each scenario. Human exposure was determined based on soil-crop bioconcentration factors for cadmium and dietary intake rates of Danish food crops. Updated dose-response functions linking lifetime cadmium intake to the probability of developing cadmium-induced renal disease...... and osteoporosis were applied. These impacts were converted into monetary values by using the EU standard value of a life-year adjusted for quality of life experience. Annualized cost per unit of phosphorus and cadmium are presented, discounted and undiscounted, for comparison. Application of struvite (magnesium...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  11. Soybean phytoremediation of cadmium polluted agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Balabanova, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Soil pollution with cadmium is a result of the strengthened industrial development, especially in the areas of drilling, exploitation and processing of mineral raw materials. On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are several areas with significant higher content of cadmium in the soil, including the vicinity of the mine lead and zinc “Zletovo” near the town of Probištip. Phytoremediation is one of the most convenient techniques for remediation of heavy metals from conta...

  12. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance

  13. Cathodoluminescence of cadmium diphosphide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation is made of the cathodoluminescence spectra of CdP2 crystals in the temperature range 6 to 300 K. A pulsing beam of high energy electrons (40 kV) is used in the experiment. The samples investigated are undoped, heat annealed in vacuum or saturated vapours of cadmium, and also doped with As and Bi, elements isoelectronic to phosphorus. The experimental results show that the fine structure present in the higher energywing (2.02 to 2.14 eV) depends on the concentration of the uncontrolled nitrogen impurity in CdP2. Atoms of nitrogen give rise to exciton-impurity complexes, leading to intense narrow peaks in the spectrum of cathodoluminescence. Their location and nature are shown in a table. (author)

  14. Cadmium zinc telluride spectral modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors are the highest resolution room temperature gamma-ray detectors available for isotopic analysis. As with germanium detectors, accurate isotopic analysis using spectra requires peak deconvolution. The CZT peak shapes are asymmetric, with a long low energy tail. The asymmetry is a result of the physics of the electron/hole transport in the semiconductor. An accurate model of the physics of the electron/hole transport through an electric field will allow the parameterization of the peak shapes as a function of energy. In turn this leads to the ability to perform accurate spectral deconvolution and therefore accurate isotopic analysis. The model and the peak-shape parameterization as a function of energy will be presented

  15. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  16. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 oC), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO3 (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 oC was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples

  17. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  18. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes treated by potassium permanganate for determination of trace cadmium prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated the enrichment ability of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and established a new method for the determination of trace cadmium in environment with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The MWCNTs were oxidized by potassium permanganate under appropriate conditions before use as preconcentration packing. Parameters influencing the recoveries of target analytes were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the target analyte exhibited a good linearity (R2=0.9992)over the concentration range 0.5-50 ng/ml. The detection limit and precision of the proposed method were 0.15 ng/ml and 2.06%,respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of cadmium in real-world environmental samples and the recoveries were in the range of 91.3%-108.0%. All these experimental results indicated that this new procedure could be applied to the determination of trace cadmium in environmental waters.

  19. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator. PMID:24933906

  20. Effects of cadmium on nickel electrodes in nickel-cadmium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel cadmium battery cells containing nicel electrodes that are not treated with cadmium during the manufacturing process have a history of performance variability and capacity problems in various cell test programs. In this work cadmium additions to the nickel electrode are examined to determine the effects on the fundamental electrochemical processes occurring at this electrode. The results indicate that cadmium treatments improve recharge efficiency by increasing the potential required for oxygen evolution from the nickel electrode, thus decreasing the overcharge rate at a given voltage and allowing the nickel electrode to attain a higher state of charge. The effects of cadmium treatment become particularly important for stable cell operation at temperatures above 10 C, and for capacity maintenance under conditions of long term, low rate trickle charge

  1. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; Ptrend=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk

  2. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  3. Copper-cadmium interaction in mice: effects of copper status on retention and distribution of cadmium after cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of increased dietary copper in altering the accumulation of cadmium and other metals in tissues, was investigated. Female Swiss-Webster mice were pretreated with cadmium or copper in drinking water for three weeks prior to cadmium exposure for an additional nine weeks, with sub groups from each dose level receiving Cu additions to the Cd supplemented water. In Cd pretreated animals, a significant decrease was observed in Cd concentrations in liver and kidney when Cu was added to Cd in drinking water. Cadmium levels in soluble protein fractions of liver of animals administered 5 ppm Cd were approximately three fold greater than that for the same Cd dose when Cu was added. The same was the case for the metallothionein-like protein fraction (MTP) of the liver cytosol. In copper pretreated animals similar trends were noted in that brain, spleen, liver (but not kidney) Cd levels were decreased in animals receiving Cu additions to the Cd dose. Increased binding of Cd to the MTP fraction was observed after both in vivo and in vitro exposure of intestinal mucosal cells to cadmium

  4. Suitability of Cadmium Tantalate and Indium Tantalate as Control Materials for High-Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control materials for practical use in high-temperature reactors should, independently of the requirements of the individual case, have the following properties: (a ) high absorption cross-section for neutrons in a wide range of energies; (b ) high absorption capacity for neutrons; (c ) small sensitivity for radiation damage; (d) good thermal resistance; (e ) low reactivity with the environment; and ( f ) low costs and good availability. With these points and the avoidance of the disadvantages of n, α -reactions taken into consideration, attention should be paid chiefly to the elements cadmium, tungsten, indium and tantalum. It is important to combine a good thermal absorber with an epithermál absorber so that the resulting material is stable at elevated temperatures (≳ 700°C). For this purpose the double-oxides CdWO4, Cd 2Ta2O7 and CdIn2O2 are suitable. Among these, cadmium tantalate has the highest thermal resistance. Another double-oxide which in combination with cadmium tantalate possesses an advantageous absorption spectrum for neutrons is indium tantalate. It has also good thermal resistance. Because ceramic absorber materials often have to be shaped by plastic deformation, they usually are used as cermets. Therefore, they must be compatible with metals. Cadmium tantalate is compatible with silver and copper and up to 700°C with nickel; indium, tantalate is completely compatible with silver, copper and nickel and up to 700°C with molybdenum also and to some degree with iron. These results are in agreement with thermodynamical calculations. For an estimation of the behaviour of the absorber materials under reactor conditions the daughter products originating from neutron absorption have to be considered. While Cd113 transforms into the stable Cd114, tantalum transmutes into tungsten and indium into tin. Both daughter products can bind more oxygen in their most stable valency states than the parent elements can. Therefore, the reduction of Cd++to metal

  5. On the effect of thallium additions on cadmium amalgam potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the influence of additives of thallium on potentials of cadmium amalgams with thallium contents of 10, 20, 30, and 40 at.% at 20, 40, 60, and 80 deg C. Additives of thallium have been found to shift the potential of cadmium amalgams towards the range of negative values which indicates an increase in the activity of cadmium. A possibility of calculation of the potential shift for heterogeneous cadmium amalgams on introducing thallium has been shown

  6. STS-114: Crew Interviews 1. Andy Thomas 2. Steve Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    STS-114 Mission Specialists, Andy Thomas and Steve Robinson, are seen in this pre-flight interview. Andy Thomas begins by talking about his interest in spaceflight as a young boy growing up in Australia. He expresses that the chances of an Australian boy studying to eventually become an astronaut was very remote. His Mechanical Engineering Degree in Australia and a Doctorate enabled him to acquire unique skills to come to the United States to work for Lockheed Martin. On the topic of return to flight, he reflects on experiences that he had working with the Michael Anderson and Kalpana Chawla of the ill-fated Space Shuttle Columbia. He also talks about the safety of the Space Shuttle Discovery and repairs to its Thermal Protection system. He explains in detail the Logistics Flight (LF) 1, spacewalks, Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform (ESP)-2. Steve Robinson expresses that he had many interests as a child and becoming an astronaut was one of them. He was fascinated with things that fly and wanted to find out how they flew. He also designed hang gliders as a teenager. He expresses how his family feels about the risky business of spaceflight. He talks about how the space shuttle discovery crew will remember the Columbia crew by including seven stars on their patch so that they can bring them into orbit and then back home. Robinson also talks about his primary job, and the spacewalks that he and Soichi Noguchi will be performing.

  7. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  8. Initial tests of an 11.4 GHz magnicon amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnicon, a scanning beam microwave amplifier related to the gyrocon, is a possible replacement for klystron amplifiers in future high-gradient linear accelerators. The magnicon circuit consists of a multicavity deflection system followed by an output cavity. The purpose of the deflection system is to spin up the electron beam phase-coherently to high transverse momentum. In order to do this, the deflection cavities employ rotating TM11 modes, producing a gyrating electron beam whose centroid rotates about the cavity axis in synchronism with the advance in phase of the rf modes. The output cavity employs a cyclotron resonant mechanism to extract principally the transverse beam momentum. It employs an rf mode that rotates synchronously with the deflection cavity modes, and with the entry point of the electron beam into the output cavity, making possible a highly efficient interaction. The NRL magnicon uses a 100--200 A, 500 keV beam produced by a cold-cathode diode on the NRL Long-Pulse Accelerator Facility. The first cavity is externally driven at 5.7 GHz, while the output cavity is designed to produce megawatts of power at 11.4 GHz in the TM210 mode. In this paper, the authors present a progress report on the NRL magnicon experiment. They will discuss the procedure used to cold test and calibrate the magnicon circuit, and present initial results from experimental operations

  9. Crystallographic structure of ubiquitin in complex with cadmium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Peter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitination plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, from DNA repair and gene transcription to cell cycle and apoptosis. It is catalyzed by a specific enzymatic cascade ultimately leading to the conjugation of ubiquitin to lysine residues of the target protein that can be the ubiquitin molecule itself and to the formation of poly-ubiquitin chains. Findings We present the crystal structure at 3.0 Å resolution of bovine ubiquitin crystallized in presence of cadmium ions. Two molecules of ubiquitin are present in the asymmetric unit. Interestingly this non-covalent dimeric arrangement brings Lys-6 and Lys-63 of each crystallographically-independent monomer in close contact with the C-terminal ends of the other monomer. Residues Leu-8, Ile-44 and Val-70 that form a hydrophobic patch at the surface of the Ub monomer are trapped at the dimer interface. Conclusions The structural basis for signalling by poly-Ub chains relies on a visualization of conformations of alternatively linked poly-Ub chains. This arrangement of ubiquitin could illustrate how linkages involving Lys-6 or Lys-63 of ubiquitin are produced in the cell. It also details how ubiquitin molecules can specifically chelate cadmium ions.

  10. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution. PMID:26608900

  11. 11 CFR 114.10 - Nonprofit corporations exempt from the prohibitions on making independent expenditures and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... candidates. (4) The term shareholder has the same meaning as the term stockholder, as defined in 11 CFR 114.1... 11 CFR 114.2. It sets out the procedures for demonstrating qualified nonprofit corporation status... communications. (1) A qualified nonprofit corporation may make independent expenditures, as defined in 11 CFR...

  12. 46 CFR 114.400 - Definitions of terms used in this subchapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 114.400, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... provisions of 33 CFR Part 173, Subpart B (Numbering); or (2) For a vessel that does not have a Certificate of... Section 114.400 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER...

  13. 40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all...

  14. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallela, Shamroop K; Almeida, Reinaldo; Ejsing, Christer S; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild...

  15. 42 CFR 436.114 - Individuals deemed to be receiving AFDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eligibility under 45 CFR 233.20(a)(14) or section 1925 of the Social Security Act (which was added by section... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals deemed to be receiving AFDC. 436.114... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.114 Individuals deemed to be receiving AFDC. (a)...

  16. Effect of anions on Toxicity of Cadmium Applied to MIcrobial Biomass in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.KHAN; XIEZHENGMIAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidat the effects of associated anions on toxicity of cadmium applied to microbial biomass in the red soil. Cadmium was applied at six different levels,i.e.,O(background),5,15,30,60 and 100μg g-1 soil in the form of either cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride. Application of cadmium as cadmium acetate markedly reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon compared to cadmium applied as cadmium chlorde at all the tested levels.Similarly,organic carbon to biomass carbon ration in the soil was markedly increased by increasing the level of the cadmium in the soil as cadmium acetate,while the change wa much smaller in the case of cadmium chloride at the same cadmium levels.The results suggested that due consideration should be given to the source of cadmium while deciding the cadmium levles in experiments.

  17. Cadmium-113m as a biogeochemical tracer for cadmium in Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lake Michigan watershed has been sampled for 113mCd. This long-lived metastable isotope of cadmium allowed independent evaluation of cadmium distribution in this dynamic ecosystem. 113mCd analysis was not hampered by contamination or loss. These are problems which have plagued stable cadmium measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were necessary concerns. 113mCd has been preconcentrated from large samples in order to obtain sufficient activity for quantification. Specificity for the gross beta activity measured was secured in a rigorous ion exchange decontamination. Confirmation of the suspected 113mCd beta source was checked by reverse tracer analysis and modified Feather analysis range-energy relationships. The 113mCd activities confirm the expected semiconservative behavior for cadmium. This behavior manifests itself in a long residence time for cadmium in Lake Michigan. The inefficiency of outflow removal, the low sedimentation rate and the unquantified sediment resuspension and release of cadmium are factors contributing to this residence time. Steady state concentration of cadmium in Lake Michigan will increase if present input rates persist

  18. Comparison of radioisotopic studied calcium metabolism in the orally administered and inhaled cadmium rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in the rat after oral administration of cadmium, 8 mg/kg during 13 weeks, has shown two different effects of this ion: 1) in the intestine, cadmium inhibits the absorption of calcium by active transport; 2) in the deep bone compartment, the decrease of the bone calcium used for the crystallization and slowly exchangeable with the calcium central pool (serum, extracellular and soft tissues calcium) is combined with a reduction of the exchange rates between the two compartments. When administered through a microparticle aerosol inhalation (1 mg/m3 of air, 30 mn a day, during 12 weeks), cadmium's main target organ is the deep bone compartment. For both modes of administration, the slowing down of osteogenesis is confirmed by a drop in serum alkaline phosphatase after a four weeks period which reflects a decrease of the osteoblastic activity. Therefore it appears that the effects on bones observed during the chronic oral cadmium administration, do not result from a malabsorption of intestine calcium but also from the very action the Cd++ ion on the bone crystallization process

  19. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in Mammalian Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Kathy C; Rippstein, Peter; Tayabali, Azam F.; Willmore, William G.

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of studies indicating that mitochondria are relevant targets in nanomaterial-induced toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which nanoparticles (NPs) interact with these organelles and affect their functions are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride quantum dot (CdTe-QD) NPs on mitochondria in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. CdTe-QD treatment resulted in the enlargement of mitochondria as examined...

  20. CONTROL OF CADMIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION INTERFERENCES DURING THE DIALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN HIGH BICARBONATE ALKALINITY AQUATIC-LIFE BIOASSAY WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The precipitation of cadmium carbonate during the dialysis of cadmium in a high bicarbonate alkalinity natural water, was linked to a significant source of error when determining dialyzate cadmium concentrations. The relative standard deviation was reduced by approximately four-f...

  1. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  2. N114S mutation causes loss of ATP-induced aggregation of human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined recombinant wild-type human phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (wt-PRS1, EC 2.7.6.1) and the point mutant Asn114Ser PRS1 (N114S-Mutant) in cells of a patient with primary gout. Dynamic light-scattering and sedimentation velocity experiments indicated that the monomeric wt-PRS1 in solution was assembled into hexamers after adding the substrate ATP. However, this ATP-induced aggregation effect was not observed with N114S-Mutant, which has a 50% higher enzymatic activity than that of wt-PRS1. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the point mutation causes an increase of α-helix content and a decrease of turn content. Examination of the crystal structure of wt-PRS1 indicated that 12 hydrogen bonds formed by 6 pairs of N114 and D139 have an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. We suggest that the substitution of S114 for N114 in N114S-Mutant leads to the rupture of 12 hydrogen bonds and breakage of the PO43- allosteric site where PO43- functions as a fixer of the ATP-binding loop. Therefore, we consider that formation of the hexamer as the structural basis of the ADP allosteric inhibition is greatly weakened by the N114S mutation, and that alteration of the ATP-binding loop conformation is the key factor in the increased activity of N114S-Mutant. These two factors could be responsible for the high level of activity of N114S-Mutant in this patient.

  3. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  4. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  5. Cadmium tungstate ceramics for application as scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is the production of cadmium tungstate scintillator ceramics (CdWO4 - CWO). The route of production employed was the solid state synthesis. Before the calcination, the precursors cadmium oxide and tungsten oxide were homogenized in an agate mortar. Bismuth oxide was used in the production of doped ceramics with 1% in mol of bismuth, in order to improve de efficiency of the scintillators. Since there is a possibility of Cd2+ loss at temperatures above 1000 deg C, ceramics with 1% of cadmium oxide excess were also produced. The crystalline phase was obtained after two calcination, according to X-Ray diffraction results. For the characterization, radioluminescence measurements were performed under β and X-radiation. Images of the surface of the sintered ceramic were registered by Atomic Force Microscopy. The density of ceramics bodies was calculated by the Archimedes' method and compared with the theoretical density (7.99 g/cm3). (author)

  6. Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Jin; Ren, Gai-Di; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Qian, Meng; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2009-07-01

    Two cadmium (Cd)-resistant strains Pseudomonas sp. RJ10 and Bacillus sp. RJ16 were investigated for their effects on the soil Cd and lead (Pb) solubilization and promotion of plant growth and Cd and Pb uptakes of a Cd-hyperaccumulator tomato. In the heavy metal-contaminated inoculated soil, the CaCl(2)-extractable Cd and Pb were increased by 58-104% and 67-93%, respectively, compared to the uninoculation control. The bacteria produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Root elongation assay conducted on tomato under gnotobiotic conditions demonstrated increase in root elongation of inoculated tomato seedlings compared to the control plants. An increase in Cd and Pb contents of above-ground tissues varied from 92% to 113% and from 73% to 79% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil compared to the uninoculation control, respectively. These results show that the bacteria could be exploited for bacteria enhanced-phytoextraction of Cd- and Pb-polluted soils. PMID:19368973

  7. Synthesis of nuclei of the superheavy element 114 in reactions induced by 48Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Popeko, A. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Buklanov, G. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gikal, B. N.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Itkis, M. G.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Lavrentev, A. Yu.; Malyshev, O. N.; Rohac, J.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Hofmann, S.; Saro, S.; Giardina, G.; Morita, K.

    1999-07-01

    The stability of heavy nuclides, which tend to decay by α-emission and spontaneous fission, is determined by the structural properties of nuclear matter. Nuclear binding energies and lifetimes increase markedly in the vicinity of closed shells of neutrons or protons (nucleons), corresponding to `magic' numbers of nucleons; these give rise to the most stable (spherical) nuclear shapes in the ground state. For example, with a proton number of Z = 82 and a neutron number of N = 126, the nucleus 208Pb is `doubly-magic' and also exceptionally stable. The next closed neutron shell is expected at N = 184, leading to the prediction of an `island of stability' of superheavy nuclei, for a broad range of isotopes with Z = 104 to 120 (refs 1, 2). The heaviest known nuclei have lifetimes of less than a millisecond, but nuclei near the top of the island of stability are predicted to exist for many years. (In contrast, nuclear matter consisting of about 300 nucleons with no shell structure would undergo fission within about 10-20 seconds.) Calculations indicate that nuclei with N > 168 should already benefit from the stabilizing influence of the closed shell at N = 184. Here we report the synthesis of an isotope containing 114 protons and 173 neutrons, through fusion of intense beams of 48Ca ions with 242Pu targets. The isotope decays by α-emission with a half-life of about five seconds, providing experimental confirmation of the island of stability.

  8. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of cadmium in lead amalgam dilute solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of thermodynamic properties of cadmium dilute solutions in lead amalgam is carried out by means of electromotive force technique within 453-523 K temperature range. Cadmium thermodynamic functions are calculated: activity, activity ratio, Libbs partial energy and its excess value and integral characteristics, respectively. When changing cadmium content from 0.01 up to 0.1 χcd at T=473 K, logarithm of activity ratio does not depend on alloy composition, that is, Heury's law is fulfilled. Increase of cadmium content in amalgam results in the essential reduction of mercury and cadmium reaction

  10. Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Kjellstrom, T.; Linnman, L.; Pershagen, G.

    1978-06-01

    Cadmium and zinc concentrations in the urine of 132 Swedes, including 50 pairs of identical twins, were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry procedures were developed for the analysis. Cadmium concentration increased with age and was higher among smokers than among nonsmokers. Estimated 24-hr excretion of cadmium among nonsmokers increased from about 0.25 to 0.40 ..mu..g in persons from 20 to 70 years old. The 24-hr cadmium excretions among nonsmokers in different age-groups fitted better to total kidney burden than to daily cadmium intake from food. Zinc excretion, on the other hand, decreased after the age of 20.

  11. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  12. Metallothionein protection of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the cadmium (Cd)-binding protein from horse kidney in 1957 marked the birth of research on this low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich protein called metallothionein (MT) in Cd toxicology. MT plays minimal roles in the gastrointestinal absorption of Cd, but MT plays important roles in Cd retention in tissues and dramatically decreases biliary excretion of Cd. Cd-bound to MT is responsible for Cd accumulation in tissues and the long biological half-life of Cd in the body. Induction of MT protects against acute Cd-induced lethality, as well as acute toxicity to the liver and lung. Intracellular MT also plays important roles in ameliorating Cd toxicity following prolonged exposures, particularly chronic Cd-induced nephrotoxicity, osteotoxicity, and toxicity to the lung, liver, and immune system. There is an association between human and rodent Cd exposure and prostate cancers, especially in the portions where MT is poorly expressed. MT expression in Cd-induced tumors varies depending on the type and the stage of tumor development. For instance, high levels of MT are detected in Cd-induced sarcomas at the injection site, whereas the sarcoma metastases are devoid of MT. The use of MT-transgenic and MT-null mice has greatly helped define the role of MT in Cd toxicology, with the MT-null mice being hypersensitive and MT-transgenic mice resistant to Cd toxicity. Thus, MT is critical for protecting human health from Cd toxicity. There are large individual variations in MT expression, which might in turn predispose some people to Cd toxicity.

  13. Cadmium exposure and pancreatic cancer in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; Su, L Joseph; Rood, Jennifer C; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana). We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P ≤ 0.0001). Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88) and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18) and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38). Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen. PMID:23319964

  14. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  15. Functions of Ceramide Synthase Paralogs YPR114w and YJR116w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamroop K Mallela

    Full Text Available Ceramide is synthesized in yeast by two redundant acyl-CoA dependent synthases, Lag1 and Lac1. In lag1∆ lac1∆ cells, free fatty acids and sphingoid bases are elevated, and ceramides are produced through the redundant alkaline ceramidases Ypc1 and Ydc1, working backwards. Even with all four of these genes deleted, cells are surviving and continue to contain small amounts of complex sphingolipids. Here we show that these residual sphingolipids are not synthesized by YPR114w or YJR116w, proteins of unknown function showing a high degree of homology to Lag1 and Lac1. Indeed, the hextuple lag1∆ lac1∆ ypc1∆ ydc1∆ ypr114w∆ yjr116w∆ mutant still contains ceramides and complex sphingolipids. Yjr116w∆ exhibit an oxygen-dependent hypersensitivity to Cu2+ due to an increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a mitochondrially orchestrated programmed cell death in presence of copper, but also a general copper hypersensitivity that cannot be counteracted by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC. Myriocin efficiently represses the synthesis of sphingoid bases of ypr114w∆, but not its growth. Both yjr116w∆ and ypr114w∆ have fragmented vacuoles and produce less ROS than wild type, before and after diauxic shift. Ypr114w∆/ypr114w∆ have an increased chronological life span. Thus, Yjr116w and Ypr114w are related, but not functionally redundant.

  16. Susceptibility of domestic animals to a pseudotype virus bearing RD-114 virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaho, Rie Nakaoka; Nakagawa, So; Hashimoto-Gotoh, Akira; Nakaya, Yuki; Shimode, Sayumi; Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takahashi, Mahoko Ueda; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-08-10

    Retroviral vectors are used for gene transduction into cells and have been applied to gene therapy. Retroviral vectors using envelope protein (Env) of RD-114 virus, a feline endogenous retrovirus, have been used for gene transduction. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility to RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus in twelve domestic animals including cattle, sheep, horse, pig, dog, cat, ferret, mink, rabbit, rat, mouse, and quail. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of ASCT2 (SLC1A5), a receptor of RD-114 virus, in 10 mammalian and 2 avian species revealed that insertion and deletion events at the region C of ASCT2 where RD-114 viral Env interacts occurred independently in the mouse and rat lineage and in the chicken and quail lineage. By the pseudotype virus infection assay, we found that RD-114 Env-pseudotyped virus could efficiently infect all cell lines except those from mouse and rat. Furthermore, we confirmed that bovine ASCT2 (bASCT2) functions as a receptor for RD-114 virus infection. We also investigated bASCT2 mRNA expression in cattle tissues and found that it is expressed in various tissues including lung, spleen and kidney. These results indicate that retrovirus vectors with RD-114 virus Env can be used for gene therapy in large domestic animals in addition to companion animals such as cat and dog. PMID:25936996

  17. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Cadmium Metal and Cadmium Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substances cadmium metal and cadmium oxide that has been prepared by Belgium in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references, the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) t...

  18. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  19. Impact of iron status on cadmium uptake in suckling piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low iron status is known to increase the uptake of dietary cadmium in both adolescents and adults and there are indications that cadmium is absorbed from the intestine by the two major iron transporters divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). In addition, it has been suggested that duodenal metallothionein (MT) may limit the transport of cadmium across the intestinal epithelium. The present investigation was undertaken to examine whether iron status influences cadmium absorption in newborns by applying a model of suckling piglets and the possible roles of duodenal DMT1, FPN1 and MT. An oral cadmium dose (20 μg/kg body weight) was given daily for 6 consecutive days on postnatal days (PNDs) 10-15 to iron-deficient or iron-supplemented piglets. The cadmium dose was chosen to keep the cadmium level at a realistically low but still detectable level, and without inducing any adverse health effects in the piglets. As indicators of cadmium uptake, cadmium levels in blood and kidneys were measured on PND 16 by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium levels in blood were statistically significantly correlated with cadmium levels in kidneys. The cadmium uptake was not higher in iron-deficient suckling piglets; rather, we detected a higher cadmium uptake in the iron-supplemented ones. The expression and localisation of DMT1, FPN1 and MT were not affected by iron status and could therefore not explain the findings. Our results suggest that there are developmental differences in the handling of both iron and cadmium in newborns as compared to adults

  20. CADMIUM EXPOSURE VIA FOOD CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF INTENSIVE FARMING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raagheni Munisamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is ubiquitous in environment and may enter food chain through intense application of phosphate fertilizers to agricultural crops. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kuala Terla and Blue Valley farming villages, Cameron Highlands to determine cadmium concentration in vegetables and soil and to determine the health risks among respondents. A total of 87 respondents were selected based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. A set of pre-tested questionnaires utilized to obtain socio-demographic information and to predict health risks faced by the respondents based on their vegetable ingestion rate. The Average Daily Dose (ADD and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ were determined in this study. Convenient sampling method was employed to obtain 15 paired soil and vegetable samples. Cadmium concentration in the samples was acid digested prior analysis using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of Cd in vegetable samples were 0.13±0.082 mg kg-1, within the acceptable range specified by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985 (1 mg kg-1. For sol samples, the mean ± standard deviation concentration of Cd was 2.78±2.83 mg kg-1. Eight out of 11 soil samples exceed the permissible limit of Cd outlined by The Dutch Standard (1 mg kg-1. The findings on THQ demonstrated that all respondents are within the acceptable non-carcinogenic health risk (THQ<1. The results also exhibit that there is no correlation between cadmium in soils and vegetables. There are unlikely potential adverse health impacts arising from Cd through vegetables consumption in this study. Respondents are advised to have a medical check-up in order to determine Cd body burden thus eliminating the risks of acquiring cadmium related diseases.

  1. Superheavy element flerovium (element 114) is a volatile metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, Alexander; Gates, Jacklyn M; Türler, Andreas; Schädel, Matthias; Düllmann, Christoph E; Ackermann, Dieter; Andersson, Lise-Lotte; Block, Michael; Brüchle, Willy; Dvorak, Jan; Eberhardt, Klaus; Essel, Hans G; Even, Julia; Forsberg, Ulrika; Gorshkov, Alexander; Graeger, Reimar; Gregorich, Kenneth E; Hartmann, Willi; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Hessberger, Fritz P; Hild, Daniel; Hübner, Annett; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Kindler, Birgit; Kratz, Jens V; Krier, Jörg; Kurz, Nikolaus; Lommel, Bettina; Niewisch, Lorenz J; Nitsche, Heino; Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Parr, Edward; Qin, Zhi; Rudolph, Dirk; Runke, Jörg; Schausten, Brigitta; Schimpf, Erwin; Semchenkov, Andrey; Steiner, Jutta; Thörle-Pospiech, Petra; Uusitalo, Juha; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    The electron shell structure of superheavy elements, i.e., elements with atomic number Z ≥ 104, is influenced by strong relativistic effects caused by the high Z. Early atomic calculations on element 112 (copernicium, Cn) and element 114 (flerovium, Fl) having closed and quasi-closed electron shell configurations of 6d(10)7s(2) and 6d(10)7s(2)7p1/2(2), respectively, predicted them to be noble-gas-like due to very strong relativistic effects on the 7s and 7p1/2 valence orbitals. Recent fully relativistic calculations studying Cn and Fl in different environments suggest them to be less reactive compared to their lighter homologues in the groups, but still exhibiting a metallic character. Experimental gas-solid chromatography studies on Cn have, indeed, revealed a metal-metal bond formation with Au. In contrast to this, for Fl, the formation of a weak bond upon physisorption on a Au surface was inferred from first experiments. Here, we report on a gas-solid chromatography study of the adsorption of Fl on a Au surface. Fl was produced in the nuclear fusion reaction (244)Pu((48)Ca, 3-4n)(288,289)Fl and was isolated in-flight from the primary (48)Ca beam in a physical recoil separator. The adsorption behavior of Fl, its nuclear α-decay product Cn, their lighter homologues in groups 14 and 12, i.e., Pb and Hg, and the noble gas Rn were studied simultaneously by isothermal gas chromatography and thermochromatography. Two Fl atoms were detected. They adsorbed on a Au surface at room temperature in the first, isothermal part, but not as readily as Pb and Hg. The observed adsorption behavior of Fl points to a higher inertness compared to its nearest homologue in the group, Pb. However, the measured lower limit for the adsorption enthalpy of Fl on a Au surface points to the formation of a metal-metal bond of Fl with Au. Fl is the least reactive element in the group, but still a metal. PMID:24456007

  2. Accumulation of cadmium by transgenic tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Pavlíková, D.; Száková, J.; Truks, M.; Singh Cundy, A.; Kotrba, P.; Yancey, N.; Scouten, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1/2 (2002), s. 101-106. ISSN 0138-4988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation * cadmium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2002

  3. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Z.; Rehkämper, M.; Horner, T.J.; Abouchami, W.; Middag, R.; van de Flierd, T.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea

  4. Physicochemical properties of a cadmium telluride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change of chemical state of cadmium telluride surface is investigated after different treatments (exposure in air, vacuum, gaseous media, γ- and IR-irradiation). The results of these investigations are of great interest for clarifying the nature of active surface of diamond-like semiconductors, the mechanism of its interaction with different media and the possibilities of surface properties regulation

  5. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006. s. 71. [International Symposium on Trace Element in the Food Chain . 25.05.2006-27.05.2006, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  6. The effect of cadmium on plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Pavlík, Milan; Vokáč, Karel; Staszková, L.; Balík, J.; Szaková, J.; Tlustoš, P.

    Budapest : Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, 2006 - (Szilágyi, M.; Szentmihályi, K.), 256-260 [Trace Elements in the food chain . Budapest (HU), 25.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cadmium * plant metabolism * glutamate kinase Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  7. 11 CFR 114.14 - Further restrictions on the use of corporate and labor organization funds for electioneering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of which is to pay for an electioneering communication that is not permissible under 11 CFR 114.15... electioneering communication that is not permissible under 11 CFR 114.15. (2)(i) Any person other than a... for any electioneering communication permissible under 11 CFR 114.15 shall be required to only...

  8. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent Km value. ► The Vmax values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent Km value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the Vmax values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their initial

  9. Cadmium and Chrome Concentrations in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition of children has the highest priority in any program aimed at children's health care. Milk contaminated with various toxic elements can have adverse effects on children's health. This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including cadmium(Cd and chromium (Cr of breast feeding women’s milk in Varamin. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. In the present study, chromium and cadmium levels in milk of 100 mothers attending clinics in the city of Varamin were measured in four to eight weeks after delivery, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean values (±SD of Cd and Cr in human milk were 5±6.9 μg/ml and 3±2.7 μg/ml respectively. Result of Linear regression showed that cadmium levels were higher in breast milk of people living close to the factory or industrial center. Also, the chromium levels were higher in the breast milk of women in cases of: Smoking by spouses, consumption of imported rice, consumption of mineral water, and living close to the factory or an industrial center. Conclusion: This study showed that the relationship of some factors such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water, with the level of cadmium and chromium. Cadmium and chromium levels of breast milk in this study were higher than the levels of these elements mentioned in the reviewed articles and international standard. Because some variables, such as living near a factory or an industrial center, smoking by spouse, the type of consumed rice and water can affect the amount of entering elements in breast milk. Actions can be taken to reduce or eliminate these variables in order to decrease the mentioned elements in human milk.

  10. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  11. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109Cd-labeled CdCl2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  12. Cadmium and lead elimination through milk in the ewe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpert, P.; Mehennaoui, S.; Federspiel, B.; Milhaud, G. [Equipe associee INRA-ENV Alfort, 94 - Maisons-Alfort (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cadmium and lead are heavy metals widely distributed in industrialized countries, and known for their cumulative properties in continental ecological cycling. The purpose of the experiments was to study lead and cadmium transfer from ewe feed to their milk and meat, in view of protecting human consumers. Ewes were given daily oral administrations of lead, cadmium or associations of lead-cadmium, lead-cadmium-zinc for 52 days. Lead and cadmium were measured in blood, milk and tissues. About 0.1 pc of the total lead and 0.002-0.004 pc of the total cadmium dose was excreted via milk during the lactation, with milk concentrations of about 120 microgram per liter for lead and about 3.5 micro-g./l for cadmium. Sixty days after the last administration, 0.16 pc of the total cadmium dose was retained in liver and 0.09 pc in kidneys. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle remained low

  13. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  14. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  15. 75 FR 58364 - Foreign-Trade Zone 114-Peoria, IL Site Renumbering Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... 114 was approved by the FTZ Board on December 21, 1984 (Board Order 288, 50 FR 1606, 1/11/1985) and... 5703 West Smithville Road, Bartonville; Site 5 (37 acres) located at 278 Koch Street, Pekin; Site 6...

  16. An enzymic method for the determination of [1-14C] lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid and specific method for the determination of [1-14C] lactose in biological fluids is described. It is based on the enzymic removal of the 1-14C atom of lactose as [14C] carbon dioxide, using commercially available enzymes. The assay involves only one critical addition and the entire reaction can be carried out in a scintillation vial. (author)

  17. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YJL180C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization, able to recruit actin... polymerization machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes with cortical actin p...YHR114W Bait gene name BZZ1 Bait description SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polyme...rization, able to recruit actin polymerization machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes with cortical actin

  18. Investigation of the influence of cadmium processing on zinc gallium oxide:manganese thin films for photoluminescent and thin film electroluminescent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael John

    Cadmium processing of ZnGa2O4 films provides a new fabrication route for phosphor powders and thin films. It relies on the enhanced diffusion due to the large vacancy concentration left by the sublimation of cadmium. Photoluminescent powders can be made with a single high temperature firing. Thin film devices can be processed at a significantly lower temperature, expanding the range of available substrates. Powders and thin films of ZnGa2O4:Mn were fabricated using starting materials in which between 0% and 50% of the ZnO was substituted by CdO. It was found that the emission spectra of the various compositions was unaffected by the change in composition, peaking at 504 nm, with the colour coordinates x = 0.08 and y = 0.69. The invariance of the emission spectrum is due to the spinel crystal structure exhibited by the compound. However, the maximum PL brightness was obtained from powders in which 10% of the ZnO had been substituted by CdO in the starting materials. The improved brightness is the result of better manganese incorporation which resulted from CdO sublimation during processing. This left a large vacancy concentration which enhanced the diffusion, and hence the manganese incorporation. In the case of thin films sputtered from cadmium processed targets, the composition of the films as deposited closely mirrored that of the target starting materials. The as deposited films were not luminescent and had to be annealed in vacuum in order to activate the manganese. EDX of these films showed that all of the cadmium had sublimed during the anneal. Very long anneal times also resulted in the loss of zinc. The decomposition products were amorphous or nanocrystalline. These films had an identical PL emission to the powders. The loss of cadmium correlated with the onset of bright 254 nm photoluminescence in the films, indicating that cadmium loss aided in the activation of the manganese. This was the result of the enhanced diffusion due to the large vacancy

  19. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  20. Study on electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-xin; CUI Chong-wei; YU Shui-li; FENG Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    Kaolinite from a lead-zinc mining district, which was spiked with cadmium, has been treated by electrokinetics to investigate effects of treatment time and applied voltage gradient. The results showed that the increased test duration had induced a higher removal rate of cadmium. Being treated for 7 days, cadmium was removed from kaolinite dramatically. It was also found that higher removal rate happened when a higher voltage gradient was applied and cadmium accumulated near the cathode because pH increased. Increase of pH near the cathode caused accumulation of cadmium. Moreover, it was observed that cation exchange membrane which was placed between kaolinite and cathode could make pH lower than the initial value and avoid the higher pH near the cathode. As a result, the high concentration accumulation of cadmium near the cathode was avoided.

  1. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  2. Research and Development of Cadmium Sulphoselenide Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Kun; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; XU Xiaoyang; LAO Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphoselenide was synthesized continuous substitution solid solution and the only known pigment to yield bright red color on ceramic decoration. Encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide pigments could yield abundant hues from yellow to red with high opacity at high temperature. The color generation has a linear function relation with the substitution rate. The encapsulation formation process of zirconium silicate encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide was shown. Insufifcient encapsulation efifciency and potential hazard to human and environment had limited the industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment. Ink-jet printing decoration required ifne size cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment on ceramic decoration. The review mainly focused on the synthesis techniques and industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment.

  3. Cadmium filtered neutron flux determination. Comparison of activation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron fluxes under cadmium filters are determined by the cadmium ratio and sandwich activation methods. The thermal neutron flux levels obtained with 7 detectors of different kinds: In, Au, Ag, W, Co, Mn, Zn are compared. The cadmium ratio method was used in locations for which the epithermal and thermal neutron flux ratio are quite different. By irradiating materials under different thicknesses of cadmium it was possible to establish experimental curves from which the flux depression factors for intermediate neutrons may be determined whatever the thickness of the filter used. Whereas the cadmium ratio method can only measure the mean flux above the cadmium cut-off energy the sandwich method enables the flux value to be determined in a narrow band around the resonance energy of each detector used

  4. In search of biomonitors for cadmium: cadmium content of wild Swedish fauna during 1973-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1986-12-01

    Forty-five species of birds and 22 species of mammals of the terrestrial and aquatic fauna, herbivores as well as carnivores, were investigated during the period 1973-1976 for cadmium-accumulating properties in order to find biomonitors for cadmium in the Swedish environment. The herbivores of the terrestrial fauna, birds as well as mammals, are preferred to carnivores, since they demonstrate generally higher renal Cd levels. The moose (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and hare (Lepus europeus and Lepus timidus) were found to be suitable as biomonitors because of their common occurrence and uniform geographical distribution. The eider duck (Somateria mollissima), although a short-distance migrating bird whose diet is composed mainly of mussels and crustaceans, and which lives along a great part of the Swedish coastline, is suggested as a biomonitor of cadmium for the aquatic environment. The accumulation rate of cadmium in the kidneys is rapid. Renal levels of cadmium in the parts per million range are reached 10 weeks after hatching. Juvenile birds should be collected for monitoring purposes before leaving their feeding domains at the end of the summer. PMID:3810147

  5. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  6. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  7. Oral cadmium exposure of adults in Germany. 1: Cadmium content of foodstuffs and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Anke, M; Hartmann, E; Illing-Günther, H

    1996-04-01

    The cadmium contents of 94 and 105 foodstuffs bought in six-fold repetition in 1988 and in nine-fold repetition in 1991, respectively were analysed within the framework of a market-basket study. These foodstuffs were typical of German eating habits. Additionally, 170 samples of drinking water were investigated. The cadmium concentrations of the foodstuffs were comparable with results of recent studies carried out in Europe and North America. Fruit, milk and dairy products, sugar and sugar-rich foodstuffs as well as beverages showed mean cadmium contents cakes and pastries as well as farinaceous products were within the range of 20-40 ng/g. The most important bread, cakes and pastries (wheat and rye bread, toasted bread, rolls) contained 25-35 ng/g. A median cadmium concentration of 0.2 micrograms/l was found in the drinking water. As expected, liver and kidneys showed the highest cadmium levels of 73 and 204 ng/g, respectively on average. PMID:8718751

  8. Urinary cadmium and mammographic density in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A; Shafer, Martin M; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J Aiello; Newton, Katherine M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk, is influenced by genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with risk of breast cancer, and laboratory evidence suggests cadmium is a carcinogen in the breast. We investigated the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is associated with higher MD. In a cross-sectional study of MD and urinary cadmium concentration, percentage MD (MD%) and Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS®) density category were determined from screening mammograms of 190 premenopausal women ages 40-45 years. Women completed a health questionnaire, and the cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and corrected for urine creatinine. Urinary cadmium concentrations are thought to reflect exposure to cadmium during a period of 20-30 years. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to estimate the strength of association between urinary cadmium and mammographic breast density. Adjusted mean MD% among women in the upper tertile of creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium was 4.6% higher (95% CI: -2.3 to 11.6%) than in women in the lowest cadmium tertile. Each twofold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with higher odds of MD% in the upper tertile (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.82-2.02) or a BI-RADS category rating of "extremely dense" (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14-2.70). Stronger associations were observed among nulliparous women, and current or former smokers. Exposure to cadmium may be associated with increased breast density in premenopausal women. PMID:21327468

  9. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction (β2M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and β2M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone density.

  10. Evaluation of aluminium–based coatings for cadmium replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaftris, George

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of aircraft components like fasteners manufactured from non corrosion resisting high strength steels. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium and its compounds have led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Alternatives to cadmium should offer effective corrosion protection and have no detrimental effects on the steel substrate. Hydrogen is known to be abs...

  11. Hepatotoxicity of Cadmium and Roles of Mitigating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Adikwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing reports on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity, due to these reports this study reviewed relevant literature on cadmium associated hepatotoxicity with emphasis on doses, route of administration, salt forms (cadmium compounds and the roles of mitigating agents. Reports have shown that continuous exposure of the liver to cadmium has led to hepatotoxicity. Humans are generally exposed to cadmium by two main routes, inhalation and ingestion. In this study, evaluation of relevant literature showed that irrespective of route of administration and salt forms cadmium hepatotoxicity is dose and time dependent. Cadmium associated hepatotoxicity manifested through impaired functions of hepatic biomarkers (transaminases, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological damage to liver architecture manifested as swelling of hepatocytes, focal necrosis, hepatocytes degeneration, dilatation of ribosomes, damage of membrane-bounded lysosomes, nuclear pyknosis and cytoplasm vacuolization. Deterioration of mitochondrial cristae, deposition of collagen fibrils, hypertrophy of kuffer cells, congestion in central veins and sinusoids, infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells and peripheral hemorrhage also occurred. Hepatotoxic effect of cadmium was mitigated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Manganese (11 Chloride, N-acetylcysteine and Selenium. Extracts of plant origin including Solanum tuberosum, Calycopteris floribunda Hibiscus sabdariffa mitigated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. Chemical substances of animal origin including honey and camel milk were reported to have ameliorated cadmium induced hepatotoxicity. One of the mechanisms of cadmium induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be associated with the up regulation of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress which caused oxidative damage to lipid contents of membranes and direct liver injury. Conclusion cadmium is dose and time dependently hepatotoxic irrespective of route of administration

  12. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Tony T; Wu Hsi-Chin; Pu Yeong S; Chen Yi-Chun; Lai Ming; Yang Chun Y; Sung Fung-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd) and ...

  13. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  14. Assessment of soil contamination. Measuring devices for arsenic, berryllium, lead, cadmium, mercury and selenium. Wirkung von Bodenkontaminationen. Messlatten fuer Arsen, Beryllium, Blei, Cadmium, Quecksilber und Selen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenbach, D.; Kloke, A.; Luehr, H.P.

    1991-12-01

    To assess soil contamination with respect to the suitability of the site concerned, it is essential to obtain knowledge of the relationship between soil contamination levels and the effect of the contaminants on a targets meriting protection (e.g. human beings, plants, soil organisms). In this final report, data obtained from literature on the inorganic pollutants arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium and beryllium are compiled, and for selected targets an overview is given of the damage occurring at the various concentration levels studies. The present data, together with information on the envisaged use of the site and on soil properties influencing the pollutant's transport to the protected target, can be used to assess soil quality. Threshold values for use in decision-making cannot be derived directly from the presented data, as such data can only convey a picture of the range of the harmful concentrations given in the literature. (orig.).

  15. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  16. Extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, A.N.; Malyarova, M.A.; Zhulenko, V.N.

    1986-06-01

    As a result of industrial discharges, burning of solid and liquid fuels, and recycling of metal scrap, cadmium compounds enter the atmosphere and drop into the water and soil causing contamination. In this paper, a method was developed for determining cadmium in meat products. It involves wet ashing the sample, extractive separation of the cadmium as the diethyldithiocarbamate, reextraction, and determination as cadmium dithizonate or as a complex with 2,2'-dipyridyl. The detection limit with dithizone is 0.005 mg/kg and with 2,2'-dipyridyl 0.05 mg/kg. An analysis is shown to take less than 60 minutes.

  17. Effects of Cadmium on BMP Induced Bone Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 徐顺清

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the direct effects of cadmium on activities of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a complex containing BMP and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was implanted beneath the abdominal skin of young male Wistar rats. The activity of BMP was studied by observing the histological changes, and measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) and calcium content of the implants at different time points. Our results showed that during bone formation induced by BMP, cadmium inhibited the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and slowed the deposition of calcium. It is concluded that cadmium can directly affect biological activities of BMP directly.

  18. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Kinetic studies of cadmium sulfide precipitation from aqueous thiourea solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of cadmium sulfide precipitation by thiourea from aqueous solutions containing ammonia complexes of cadmium(II) under conditions of spontaneous initiation of solid phase within solution volume at temperatures of 298-318 K was studied. It was ascertained that the process activation energy is 77843 J/mol, while the reaction order by initial cadmium complex equals unity. Kinetic equation, which permits control over cadmium sulfide precipitation and preparation of CdS films of desired morphology was derived on the basis of the experimental data

  20. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  1. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109CdCl2. Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109CdCl2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r2=0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r2=0.98; P 109Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  2. Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils by tuberose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of three varieties of tuberose (Prajwal, Shringar and Mexican single) for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium was evaluated by subjecting the plants to five levels of Cd (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 soil). Applied Cd did not produce any toxic symptoms in all the three varieties of tuberose except marginal reduction in the photosynthesis rate and total dry weight beyond 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil. The study showed that tuberose possessed the typical ability of Cd hyper accumulator characterized by (1) accumulation of Cd in the shoots of the plant exceeding the critical judging standard i.e., 100 μg g-1 DW and (2) ratio of Cd in the shoots to bulbs >1. It was concluded that tuberose may be an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils. (author)

  3. Prevention of cadmium bioaccumulation by herbal adaptogens

    OpenAIRE

    K Bharavi; A. Gopala Reddy; G S Rao; Ravi Kumar, P.; D Srinivas Kumar; P Prabhu Prasadini

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : To evaluate the effect of various herbal adaptogens such as shade-dried powders of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Asperagus recemosus, Andrographis paniculata, Asphaltum panjabinum (Shilajith), Gymnema sylvestre, Spirulina platensis, and Panex ginseng on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and its accumulation in broiler chicken. Materials and Methods : A total of 80 male broiler chicks of day old age were randomly assigned to 10 equal groups. Group 1 birds were fed wi...

  4. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; Srivastava, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  5. Electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A previously developed program, which includes all electronic interactions thought to be important, does not correctly predict the value of electron mobility in mercury cadmium telluride particularly near room temperature. Part of the reason for this discrepancy is thought to be the way screening is handled. It seems likely that there are a number of contributors to errors in the calculation. The objective is to survey the calculation, locate reasons for differences between experiment and calculation, and suggest improvements.

  6. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. PMID:23478127

  7. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... which could be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for...

  8. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  9. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  10. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors)

  11. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Siswanto; Parinda Suksabye; Paitip Thiravetyan

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N), Cd soils (Cds), and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP), coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm) and corncob (CC) under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatm...

  12. Cadmium sulfate complexing with thiourea during preparation of cadmium sulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of complexes deposited from cadmium sulfate and thiourea(TU) aqueous solution is studied. Its influence on cadmium sulfide film deposition during solution spraying is ascertained. It is shown that with increase of TU concentration in aqueous solution gradual substitution of TU molecules for the first sphere SO42- ions takes place. As a result CdS deposition from these solutions is initiated when the ratio of CdSO4:TU concentrations is 1:2 and for prepartation of uniform films a five-fold TU excess as a minimum is necessary

  13. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  14. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  15. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  16. Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average δ114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of

  17. Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, J; Prabu, S Milton

    2009-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. Naringenin is a naturally occurring plant bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits, which has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd toxicity, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of naringenin on Cd-induced toxicity in the kidney of rats. In experimental rats, oral administration of cadmium chloride (5mg/(kgday)) for 4 weeks significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the increased levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine with a significant (pCadmium also significantly decreased the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. A markedly increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and protein carbonyl contents with significant (pcadmium-treated rats. Co-administration of naringenin (25 and 50mg/(kgday)) along with Cd resulted in a reversal of Cd-induced biochemical changes in kidney accompanied by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and an increase in the level of renal antioxidant defense system. The histopathological studies in the kidney of rats also showed that naringenin (50mg/(kgday)) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histological architecture of the renal tissue. The present study suggest that the nephroprotective potential of naringenin in Cd toxicity might be due to its antioxidant and metal chelating properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced renal damage. PMID:19063931

  18. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl2-treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl2. These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  19. Rare decays of cadmium and tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the pulse height spectrum observed with a CdTe detector in a low-background shield. The spectrum is dominated by the T/sub 1/2/∼10/sup 16/ yr β- decay of /sup 113/Cd. Limits are set on the double beta decay of the isotopes /sup 106,114,116/Cd and /sup 128,130/Te, and the prospects for a more sensitive search for this mode of decay are discussed

  20. 数据访问JSR 114比拼ADO.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫映

    2004-01-01

    作为未来J2SE 5类库的一部分,JSR 114的主要贡献在于对原有JDBC数据库访问技术的完善和改进。JSR 114旨在定义一个JDBC RowSet模型的标准实现,其正式名称为“JDBC RowSet Implementations Specification”。本文所论及的便是笔者对JSR 114的一点粗浅印象,同时还将对比.NET Framework中的ADO.NET技术。

  1. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  2. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  3. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  4. Cadmium interferes with the degradation of ATF5 via a post-ubiquitination step of the proteasome degradation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. In the current study, using a transient transfection system to express FLAG epitope fusion proteins of ATF5, we have shown that CdCl2 or NaAsO3 increases the protein levels of ATF5 in cells, and that cadmium stabilizes the ATF5 protein. Proteasome inhibitors had a similar effect to cadmium on the cellular accumulation of ATF5. Proteasome inhibition led to an increase in ubiquitinated ATF5, while cadmium did not appear to reduce the extent of ATF5 ubiquitination. ATF5 contains a putative nuclear export signal within its N-terminus. We demonstrated that whereas deletion of N-terminal region resulted in a increase of ATF5 levels, this region does not appear to be involved in the ubiquitination of ATF5. These results indicate that ATF5 is targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and that cadmium slows the rate of ATF5 degradation via a post-ubiquitination mechanism.

  5. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  7. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  8. Epigenetic Effects of Cadmium [Abstract and Poster 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reviewed the literature on in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as human studies on cadmium to understand the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cadmium- induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. This presentation will identify gaps in our current understanding and suggest...

  9. Removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shu-juan; WEI De-zhou; ZHOU Dong-qin; JIA Chun-yun; WANG Yu-juan; LIU Wen-gang

    2008-01-01

    The appropriate condition and scheme of removing cadmium from electroplating wastewater were investigated by adsorption-precipitation method using waste saccharomyces cerevisiae(WSC) as sorbent. Effect factors on biosorption of cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae and precipitation process of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae after adsorbing cadmium were studied. The results show that removal rate of cadmium is over 88% after 30 min adsorbing under the condition of cadmium concentration 26 mg/L, the dosage of waste saccharomyces cerevisiae 16.25 g/L, temperature 18 ℃, pH 6.0 and precipitation time 4 h. Biosorption-precipitation method is effective to remove cadmium in cadmium-containing electroplating wastewater by waste saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SEM, infrared spectroscopy and Zeta-potential of the cells show that chemical chelating is the main adsorption form; electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force all function in adsorption process; and ―NH2―,―C=O―,―C=O―NH―,―CH3, ―OH are the main adsorption groups.

  10. Method of making a thin film cadmium telluride solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for making a photovoltaic cell is described comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a transparent or semi-transparent conductive window layer onto a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of cadmium telluride including phosphorus onto the window layer; (c) depositing a layer of lead telluride onto the layer of cadmium telluride; and (d) depositing a metallic electrode onto the lead telluride layer

  11. Effect of environmental exposure to Cadmium on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezanzadeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds andObjectives:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of environmental exposure to toxic metal (cadmium on pregnancy outcome and fetal growth."nMaterials and Methods: 330 normal pregnant women were randomly selected from vali-e-asr hospital, from July 2003 through Feb. 2005. Cadmium was measured in umbilical cord blood and mother whole blood of postpartum women without occupational exposure to metals in Tehran, Iran, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry"nResult: Whole blood cadmium and cord blood cadmium ranged from 0/00 to 6/30 μg/L ,respectivly. in the group higher level of maternal blood cadmium (> 0.40 μg/L 1cm decrease was seen in neonatal birth height. (p = 0.007 There was a significant association between cadmium exposure and birth weight.Mann-whitney test showed that, maternal blood cadmium level, was significantly negatively associated with neonatal birth weight (z = -1.83, P < 0.06."nConclusion: It was concluded that environmental exposure to cadmium significantly reduces neonatal birth height.

  12. Electrolytic indium refining from cadmium in glycerine electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations directed on development of electrochemical indium cleaning from cadmium in glycerine base electrolyte are presented. Optimal operational conditions, specific consumption of reactants and electric power are determined. Relationship between variation of concentration of cadmium impurity in refined metal and duration of electrolysis is revealed. The method for determination of cleaning time is proposed. Developed process was put into commercial operation

  13. Cadmium and zinc reversibly arrest development of Artemia larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, J.C.; Rafiee, P.; Matthews, C.O.; MacRae, T.H.

    1986-08-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc in the environment and their well-known cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity in mammals, comparatively little is known about their effect on aquatic organisms, particularly invertebrates. Post-gastrula and early larval development of the brine shrimp, Artemia, present some useful advantages for studies of developmental aspects of environmental toxicology. Dormant encysted gastrulae, erroneously called brine shrimp eggs, can be obtained commercially and raised in the laboratory under completely defined conditions. Following a period of post-gastrula development within the cyst, pre-nauplius larvae emerge through a crack in the cyst shell. A few hours later, free-swimming nauplius larvae hatch. Cadmium is acutely toxic to both adults and nauplius larvae of Artemia, but the reported LC50s are as high as 10 mM, depending on larval age. In this paper the authors show that pre-nauplius larvae prior to hatching are much more sensitive to cadmium than are hatched nauplius larvae. At 0.1 ..mu..m, cadmium retards development and hatching of larvae; higher concentrations block hatching almost completely and thus are lethal. However, the larvae arrested at the emergence stage survive for 24 hours or more before succumbing to the effects of cadmium, and during this period the potentially lethal effect is reversible if the larvae are placed in cadmium-free medium. The effects of zinc parallel those of cadmium, although zinc is somewhat less toxic than cadmium at equal concentrations.

  14. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  15. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  16. Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo Dos Santos

    2009-01-15

    A flow injection (FI) micelle-mediated separation/preconcentration procedure for the determination of lead and cadmium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been proposed. The analytes reacted with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of 0.05% (w/v) Triton X-114 in a solution buffered at pH 8.4. In the preconcentration stage, the micellar solution was continuously injected into a flow system with four mini-columns packed with cotton, glass wool, or TNT compresses for phase separation. The analytes-containing micelles were eluted from the mini-columns by a stream of 3molL(-1) HCl solution and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables affecting the preconcentration of the analytes were studied. For 15mL of preconcentrated solution, the enhancement factors varied between 15.1 and 20.3, the limits of detection were approximately 4.5 and 0.75microgL(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. For a solution containing 100 and 10microgL(-1) of lead and cadmium, respectively, the R.S.D. values varied from 1.6 to 3.2% (n=7). The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. The method was susceptible to matrix effects, but these interferences were minimized by adding barium ions as masking agent in the sample solutions, and recoveries from spiked sample varied in the range of 95.1-107.3%. PMID:18456398

  17. Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project: Y114_D11_F.ab1 [Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Y114_D11_F.ab1 Y114_D11_F.ab1 DB668015 DB668015 Show Y114_D11_F.ab1 Seqid Y114_D11_F.ab1 Link to ... CGAGTGTNNNAAGAGGNCATCTCTNAAATAGGG GANTNANNATAGGGAATTCC TTAAGATTTGGCGAGCAAATTAACAGACCT AATTGAACTGGAAAACATGT ... AAACCCATTGACAACTACATCACGA ACAGTGTTCGCCTTTTTGAGGTGAATCC ATCTCAAACGCTCTTCTCC ATA TCGTATAAACCACCAACACAGAAGACAG ... ACACCAAAGTGTCC TTTAGAAC TCATAACTCGCATTTATCC TTGAACTATAAATTTACTACTAA ... GATGTTTCAAGATTACTTAGTGCATTAGGCCCACGAGGCGTATCTATA ACTCC AGGTAAAATTGAAAAAATAGCACAGTCGAAGAAGAAAAATAACAA AATAA ...

  18. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  19. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  20. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adámik, Matej [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Bažantová, Pavla [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pečinka, Petr [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Holaňová, Lucie [Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic); Tichý, Vlastimil [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Brázdová, Marie, E-mail: maruska@ibp.cz [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed.

  1. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed

  2. Cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite as affected by glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-jun; ZHOU Dong-mei; LUO Xiao-san; SUN Rui-juan; CHEN Huai-man

    2004-01-01

    Behaviors of soil heavy metals are often affected by coexisting herbicides due to their physical and chemical interaction. Effect of glyphosate, an herbicide containing -PO32- and -COOH groups, on cadmium adsorption in montmorillonite was studied in detail. The results showed that cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite increased with increasing soil solution pH and cadmium concentration as usual, but decreased with glyphosate, which is due to the formation of a low affinity complex of Cd and glyphosate and decreasing solution pH induced by glyphosate addition. When the equilibrium solution pH was below 6.7, glyphosate has little effect on cadmium adsorption, but when the equilibrium solution pH was above 6.7, glyphosate significantly decreased cadmium adsorption quantity in montmorillonite. In addition, the adding order of Cd and glyphosate also influenced Cd adsorption quantity in montmorillonite.

  3. Cadmium sorption and mobility in sludge-amended soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium sorption was examined in three soils that were unamended, freshly amended, or preconditioned with gamma-irradiated sewage sludge. Metal sorption in the same soils treated with a CaCl2-extract of the sludge was also studied. Cadmium sorption was greatest in the unamended soils, less in soils preconditioned with sludge, and least in the freshly amended soils and sludge-extract-treated soils. The authors attempted to explain the treatment effects on the basis of reduced free metal ion activity, but the explanations were not adequate. Despite the reduction in metal retention effected by various treatments, cadmium mobility was very limited. Short- or long-term leaching studies showed cadmium movement to be limited to 1 or 2 m below the zone of sludge (109Cd) incorporation. Cadmium mobility is expected to be very limited in calcareous soils, regardless of sludge treatments. 24 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  4. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  5. Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

  6. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  8. Cadmium in the Amazonian Guajara Estuary: Distribution and remobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, S.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense (Brazil)]. E-mail: nascimento@lisa.univ-paris12.fr; Kurzweil, H. [Institut fuer Petrologie, Universitaet Wien (Austria); Wruss, W. [Institut fuer Chemische Technologie anorganischer Stoffe, Technische Univesitaet Wien (Austria); Fenzl, N. [Nucleo de Altos Estudos Amazonicos, Universidade Federal do Para (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Extremely high total cadmium concentrations (average about 500 mg/kg) together with very small (average of 1.1 {mu}g/l) dissolved available cadmium have been found in the more acidic deeper layers of the bottom sediments of the Brazilian Amazonian Guajara Estuary. The paper shows that climatic changes and the periodic input of the Atlantic waters into the Estuary appear to have no direct influence on annual average total cadmium concentration, but they affect accumulation, distribution and remobilization of cadmium in different ways during the rainy season (February/March) and the dry season (November/December). Even if only a very small part of the total Cd is available, the concentrations of dissolved Cd in the Estuary are still high enough to cause environmental concern, if compared with concentrations in natural freshwater ecosystems. - Distribution and remobilization of cadmium is affected differently by season.

  9. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  10. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...

  11. New compositions of cadmium selenium nanoparticles and dye molecules with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic properties of new heterogeneous multicolor compositions based on cadmium selenium (CdSe/ZnS) nano crystal and inclusion complexes of dye molecule with cyclodextrin are presented. Spectral fluorescence of proposed compositions investigated in thin films. Signals from multicolor fluorescence of proposing compositions may be combined to definite spectral codes that could be used for tracking or verification of different objects. Calibration bar of signal within spectral codes guarantee high reliability in practical application of proposed multicolor compositions. Express analysis the size of nanoparticles during their synthesis and purification by spectroscopic methods is suggested. Application of Cyclodextrin molecules as target delivery systems is considered. (authors)

  12. Fast-neutron scattering from elemental cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron differential-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at incident-neutron energy intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Concurrently, lumped-level neutron inelastic-excitation cross sections are measured. The experimental results are used to deduce parameters of an optical-statistical model that is descriptive of the observables and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  13. Sorption of Cadmium on Na-Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of Cd radionuclide into Na-bentonite as candidate for buffer material in the radioactive waste disposal system has been performed. Cadmium was used for this study as a model for bivalence elements. Batch experiment was adopted to study sorption isotherm, influence of carbonate and influence of EDTA. In a simple media, pure water, Cd was retained with a high affinity. Two stages Freundlich sorption isotherm was shown, with high coefficient distribution and sorption capacities. It is shown that the presence of carbonate in solution was not affect significantly to the sorption. While the presence of EDTA, decrease the distribution coefficient value. (author)

  14. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  15. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  16. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Fels-Klerx, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys. The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize and grass and compound feed. Cadmium content in roughage and cadmium intake by cattle were calculated for six different (soil scenarios varying in soil cadmium levels and soil pH. For each of the six scenarios, the carry-over of cadmium from intake into the cattle organs was estimated applying two model assumptions, i.e., linear accumulation and a steady state situation. The results showed that only in the most extreme soil scenario (cadmium level 2.5 mg.kg-1, pH 4.5, cadmium exceeded the EC maximum tolerated level in roughage. Assuming linear accumulation, cadmium levels in organs of cattle up to six years of age, ranged from 0.37-4.03 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for kidneys and from 0.07 to 0.77 mg.kg-1 of fresh weight for livers. The maximum tolerated levels in one or both organs were exceeded in several scenarios. When considering organ excretion of cadmium, internal cadmium levels in organs were approximately one order of magnitude lower as compared to the results of the linear accumulation model. In this case only in the most extreme soil scenario, the maximum tolerated level in the kidney was exceeded. It was concluded that the difference between the two assumptions (linear model versus a steady state situation to estimate cadmium carry-over in cattle is negligible in the animal's first five years of life, but will become relevant at higher ages. For the current case, the linear approach is a good descriptor for worst case situations. Furthermore, this

  17. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    Injury Unit and to list some of the risk-predicting features. The study comprised an approximately complete, consecutive series of 114 adult patients from a well-defined geographical area, and with a posttraumatic amnesia period of at least 28 days, i.e. very severe TBI. Demographic and functional data...

  18. 17 CFR 1.14 - Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment recordkeeping... Related Reporting Requirements § 1.14 Risk assessment recordkeeping requirements for futures commission... Material Affiliated Person, pursuant to § 240.17h-1T of this title, or such other risk...

  19. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YDR529C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YNL092W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  1. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YJL203W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YGR110W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YCR035C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  4. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YDL217C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  5. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YIL132C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YOR059C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  7. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YFL018C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  8. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YDL134C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  9. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YGL225W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YDR422C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  11. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YHR114W, YGL189C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YHR114W BZZ1 SH3 domain protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to re ... cruit actin polymerization ... machinery through its SH3 domains, colocalizes wit ... main protein implicated in the regulation of actin polymerization , able to recruit actin polymerization ... machinery th ...

  12. HEAT TRANSFER EVALUATION OF HFC-236EA AND CFC-114 IN CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a heat transfer evaluation of the refrigerants hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea) and 1,1,2,2-dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114). (NOTE: With the mandatory phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), as dictated by the Montreal Protocol and Clean Air Act Ame...

  13. Use of the FEU-114 photomultiplier with dynode gills system in the regime of photon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-electron characteristics of 7 pcs of FEU-114 photoelectric multiplier have been measured. Presence of the Geiger plateau has been discovered. The plateau, a low noise level and s/n optimum ratio make it possible to recommend the photoelectric multipliers for usage under photon-counting conditions

  14. 19 CFR 200.735-114 - Employees required to submit statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employees required to submit statements. 200.735... Employees required to submit statements. Except as provided in § 200.735-114a, the following employees shall submit confidential statements of employment and financial interests: (a)(1) Employees in grade GS-13...

  15. 7 CFR 766.114 - State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of creditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of... Programs § 766.114 State-certified mediation or voluntary meeting of creditors. (a) A borrower who is...) State-certified mediation; or (2) Voluntary meeting of creditors when a State does not have a...

  16. 9 CFR 114.14 - Extension of expiration date for a serial or subserial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of expiration date for a... PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.14 Extension of expiration date for a serial or... expiration date shall not be extended: (1) If all fractions of the product are not evaluated for potency...

  17. TJ-114 (Sairei-To), an Herbal Medicine in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borigini, M J; Egger, M J; Williams, H J; Paulus, H E; Ward, J R

    1996-12-01

    The search for better treatments for malignancies has been enhanced by use of a relatively inexpensive clinical protocol that encourages the preliminary screening of a large number of potential anticancer drugs with early elimination of those that are clearly ineffective, preserving resources for more intensive evaluation of those that show some evidence of benefit. We adapted this method to determine whether the herbal medicine TJ-114 was worthy of further study for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. TJ-114 is a traditional herbal medicine that has been used extensively in Japan for the treatment of RA, Reports suggest that it may be a useful second-line agent, well-tolerated and safe. For these reasons, a 6-month, open prospective pilot study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of TJ-114 in United States RA patients was undertaken. Thirty patients were enrolled; 18 completed the study. There were five responders by predefined composite criteria. Twelve patients withdrew from the trial, six for lack of efficacy, four for non-compliance, one for diarrhea and one for constipation and abdominal pain. The anti-cancer drug screening protocol stipulates that the drug be discarded if there are no responders among the first 14 patients and only 1 or 2 among the first 30 patients. Using this approach, the response rate found in this study justifies placebo-controlled, double-blind studies to determine the relative efficacy and toxicity of TJ-114 in a more definitive manner. PMID:19078095

  18. Dietary cadmium intake and risk of prostate cancer: a Danish prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Halkjær, Jytte; Jaymie R. Meliker; McElroy, Jane A.; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is classified as a human lung carcinogen based on evidence from high-exposure occupational settings. Though cadmium has no physiological role, increasing evidence suggests cadmium may mimic steroid hormones. This dual ability of being carcinogenic and hormone-like makes cadmium a concern for hormone-related cancers. Causes of prostate cancer are not clear, but steroid hormones, particularly androgens and probably estrogens, may be involved. Cadmium has been positively assoc...

  19. Impairment induced by chronic occupational cadmium exposure during brazing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (CD) is considered a metal of the 20th century to which all inhabitants of develop societies are exposed. Long-term occupational and environmental exposure to CD often results in renal dysfunction as the kidney is considered the critical target organ. The aim of this work was to evalutate both resporatory and renal manifestations induced by occupational exposure to CD compounds during brazing process, and suggesting a protocol for prevention and control for CD- induced health effects. This study was conducted on 20 males occupationally exposed workers. They are divided into two groups: Group-1 included (10) exposed smokers and group-2 included (10) exposed non-smokers. Results of both groups were compared with those of 10 healthy age and sex matched non-smokers. All subjects were subjected to detailed history taking and laboratory investigations including blood and urinary CD, liver profile (SGOT, SGPT and alkline phosphates), kindey function tests (blood urea, creatinine and urinary beta2- microglobulin). The level of Cd in the atmosphere of the work plase air was also assessed to detect the degree of exposure as it was about 6 times greater than thesave level (1 mu /m3).(1) This study demonstrated elevation levels of blood CD, urea, creatinine and urinary CD and beta2 -microglobulin for both exposed worker groups than the controls. In additions no appreciable were noted for liver function tests, although the levels fell within normal range

  20. 114例儿童药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis of 114 Pediatric Adverse Drug Reaction Reports in Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榕; 陈崇泽

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse drug reactions that occurred in children. Methods: The ages, sex, drug usage, main manifestation, time of occurrence and level of severity of ADR were analyzed in 114 cases of children aged from 2 month to 15 years old. Results: Among 114 cases, 78 patients were male, 36 patients were female. There were fifty three drugs involved. Antibiotics held the first position (42. 11%) and the next was Chinese Anti-inffectives (25. 44%). The main manifestation of ADR was rash, anaphylactoid reaction and somnolence. The main route of administration was intravenous drip. Conclusions: Monitoring of ADR in children should be strengthened in order to ensure the safety of drug usage.%目的:了解儿童发生药品不良反应(ADR)的情况.方法:按患者的年龄、性别、用药情况及ADR的主要表现、发生时间、严重程度等进行统计分析.结果:114例ADR报告中,男78例,女36例,涉及药品53种,主要为抗感染药物(42.11%),其次为中药抗感染药物(25.44%).ADR主要表现是皮疹,其次是过敏样反应、嗜睡.主要给药途径是静脉滴注.结论:应加强对儿童ADR的监测工作,以保证用药安全.

  1. Cellular mechanisms of cadmium-induced toxicity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anju; Kumar, Anuj; Lal, Ankita; Pant, Manu

    2014-08-01

    Cadmium is a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern because of its diverse toxic effects: extremely protracted biological half-life (approximately 20-30 years in humans), low rate of excretion from the body and storage predominantly in soft tissues (primarily, liver and kidneys). It is an extremely toxic element of continuing concern because environmental levels have risen steadily due to continued worldwide anthropogenic mobilization. Cadmium is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, food, water and air contamination and is known to have numerous undesirable effects in both humans and animals. Cadmium has a diversity of toxic effects including nephrotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine and reproductive toxicities. At the cellular level, cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Most important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanism, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. In this article, we have reviewed recent developments and findings on cadmium toxicology. PMID:24117228

  2. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0V; and a fixed cathode potential of -1.0V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50-67% in 24h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH)2 precipitation; and CdCO3 precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H(+)+2e(-)→H2); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3 started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal. PMID:26970043

  3. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r2=0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  4. Cadmium cutoff energy for MCNP modeling of dosimetry reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations are verified by comparing calculated reaction rates of dosimetry foils assumed to be placed in the cavity surrounding the pressure vessel with corresponding experimentally determined dosimetry reaction rates at the same location. The irradiated foils used are bare and cadmium covered. The cadmium-covered foils see a different neutron flux than the uncovered foils. Computer models computing reaction rates for the foils must approximate the effect of the cadmium foil cover. The MCNP code modeling of reactor cavity dosimetry reactions to validate the computed neutron flux hitting the pressure vessel of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) requires the choice of an appropriate cadmium cutoff energy. Since the neutron spectrum is harder in the cavity than in the core, the same cadmium cutoff energy may not be universally applied. The correct cutoff energy for the cavity of a PWR was computed by using MCNP4a and a representative cavity spectrum. Four cadmium-covered foil reactions were analyzed, and the appropriate energy cutoff was determined to be ∼ 0.6 eV for ∼0.5-mm-thick cadmium covers

  5. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  6. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  7. Cadmium Uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruperto Vallarta Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium uptake in Synechococcus aquatilis (Reynaud Strain SY01 showed a biphasic behavior, with an initial rapid passive cell wall interaction phase and a later slow intracellular cation uptake process. The cell wall uptake process followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km of the uptake system was 38.89 µM, a relatively high affinity Km value compared to other metal uptake systems. Fitting of experimental data to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms showed that binding of cadmium to the cell surface was monolayer and/or multilayer, although the monolayer adsorption was more probable, as exemplified by a high correlation coefficient. This could be explained by the presence of a strong primary binding site which was responsible for a monolayer adsorption and a weak secondary binding site which could be responsible for a multilayer adsorption. The uptake process was found to be relatively specific for cadmium. Equimolar amounts (200 µM of cobalt, nickel, magnesium, and copper did not significantly affect cadmium uptake. Synechococcus aquatilis Strain SY01 cells also showed an efflux mechanism for cadmium, although the amount of excluded cadmium was insignificant compared with the amount of adsorbed cadmium in the cell wall.

  8. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  9. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  10. Selenium protection from cadmium and chromium poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of selenium with cadmium and chromium was studied in 168 chicken-broilers (DWCxWR) divided into four equal groups. Eight-week old control animals received an intravenous dose of /sup 115m/Cd Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group I), or 51Cr Chloride 370 KBq/Kg (Group II). The kinetics of these isotopes were studied by scintillation spectrometry (NaI/TI) carried out for whole blood, plasma, plasma proteins, urine, feces and homogenates of all organs at various time intervals. Animals in Groups III and IV received eight subcutaneous doses of sodium selenate (5ug) at 8-week intervals prior to /sup 115m/Cd or 51Cr. The kinetics of these elements were studied as in the previous two groups. It was found that selenium affected those kinetics in two ways: (a) by increasing the excretion of Cd by 11 +/- 3% (P < 0.001) and that of Cr by 7 +/- 1% (P < 0.001); and (b) by favoring redistribution of those elements, with significant (P < 0.001) reductions in liver, endocrine glands and kidney and increases (P < 0.01) in bone. The study suggests that selenium protects the animals' vital organs from environmental pollutants, such as cadmium and chromium

  11. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  12. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  13. Biosorption of Cadmium and Manganese Using Free Cells of Klebsiella sp. Isolated from Waste Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunnan Hou

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated a bacterium that was isolated from waste water for its ability to take up cadmium and manganese. The strain, identified both biochemically and by its 16S rRNA gene sequence as Klebsiella, was named Yangling I2 and was found to be highly resistant to heavy metals. Surface characterization of the bacterium via SEM revealed gross morphological changes, with cells appearing as biconcave discs after metal exposure rather than their typical rod shape. The effects of pH, temperature, heavy metal concentration, agitation and biomass concentration on the uptake of Cd(II and Mn(II was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the biosorption was most affected by pH and incubation temperature, being maximized at pH 5.0 and 30°C, with absorption capacities of 170.4 and 114.1 mg/g for Cd(II and Mn(II, respectively. Two models were investigated to compare the cells' capacity for the biosorption of Cd and Mn, and the Langmuir model based on fuzzy linear regression was found to be close to the observed absorption curves and yield binding constants of 0.98 and 0.86 for Cd and Mn, respectively. This strain of Klebsiella has approximately ten times the absorption capacity reported for other strains and is promising for the removal of heavy metals from waste water.

  14. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the 10B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  15. Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Trtílek, Martin; Setlík, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Acclimation of hyperaccumulators to heavy metal-induced stress is crucial for phytoremediation and was investigated using the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators T. fendleri and T. ochroleucum. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and fluorescence were measured with a novel fluorescence kinetic microscope. At the beginning of growth on cadmium (Cd), all species suffered from toxicity, but T. caerulescens subsequently recovered completely. During stress, a few mesophyll cells in T. caerulescens became more inhibited and accumulated more Cd than the majority; this heterogeneity disappeared during acclimation. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photochemistry were more strongly affected by Cd stress than nonphotochemical parameters, and only photochemistry showed acclimation. Cd acclimation in T. caerulescens shows that part of its Cd tolerance is inducible and involves transient physiological heterogeneity as an emergency defence mechanism. Differential effects of Cd stress on photochemical vs nonphotochemical parameters indicate that Cd inhibits the photosynthetic light reactions more than the Calvin-Benson cycle. Differential spectral distribution of Cd effects on photochemical vs nonphotochemical quenching shows that Cd inhibits at least two different targets in/around photosystem II (PSII). Spectrally homogeneous maximal PSII efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) suggests that in healthy T. caerulescens all chlorophylls fluorescing at room temperature are PSII-associated. PMID:17688582

  16. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  17. Cadmium biosorption by baker’s yeast in aqueous suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Tálos Katalin; Pernyeszi Tímea; Majdik Cornelia; Hegedűsova Alzbeta; Páger Csilla

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of cadmium from artificial aqueous solutions using native baker’s yeast was investigated. The highest metal uptake value was 110 mg g-1 in a suspension of 0.3 g L-1. The effect of pH, initial cadmium concentration, adsorption time and biosorbent dosage on biosorption by baker’s yeast was studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of cadmium by yeast was observed at pH 6.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached within sixty minutes and the sorption process followed pseudo...

  18. Experience of reprocessing of cadmium sulfide-containing waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique of cadmium extraction from sulfide-containing wastes using the method of oxidizing leaching was developed and subjected to industrial testing. Reagents containing manganese dioxide - manganese ore or manganese slime of electrolytic shop usually used in zinc production - are advisable to be used as oxidizers. Factors of cadmium extraction into solution appeared to be close to ones, obtained during laboratory investigation. If the yield of leaching residual equals ∼38% and the content of cadmium, being in insoluble form, equals ∼0.40%, metal losses with this residual are equal to 0.37%

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reetu Toppo; Birendra Kumar Roy; Ravuri Halley Gora; Sushma Lalita Baxla; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various paramete...

  20. Cadmium and hypertension in exposed workers: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Caciari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the general population, cadmium seems to be responsible for hypertension, atherosclerosis and an increase in acute coronary events. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze controlled studies conducted on cadmium and arterial pressure in occupationally-exposed workers. Materials and Methods: After analyzing all the relevant articles found in the literature, 6 publications were selected. Results: A higher prevalence of hypertension and higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded in the exposed subjects. Conclusions: Cadmium in occupationallyexposed individuals appears to induce an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and an increase in the prevalence of hypertension.

  1. Zinc and cadmium oxidation by cyclopentadienylmolybdenum(tungsten) tricarbonyl chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the nature of organic solvent on reaction rate and yield of zinc and cadmium interaction products with Cp(CO)3 MCl complexes (Cp - cyclopentadiene; M = Mo, W) at temperatures of 283-303 K was studied. Kinetic parameters of zinc and cadmium oxidation by molybdenum complex in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide were ascertained. Thermodynamic parameters of the oxidant and ligand adsorption on metal surface were determined. It is shown that the use of the complexes studied as metal oxidants permits preparing compounds featuring molybdenum and tunsten bond with zinc and cadmium

  2. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author)

  3. 46 CFR 171.114 - Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in a vessel less than a 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penetrations and openings in watertight bulkheads in a vessel less than a 100 gross tons. 171.114 Section 171.114 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in...

  4. Chromosomal Locus for Cadmium Resistance in Pseudomonas putida Consisting of a Cadmium-Transporting ATPase and a MerR Family Response Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seon-Woo; Glickmann, Eric; Cooksey, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonads from environmental sources vary widely in their sensitivity to cadmium, but the basis for this resistance is largely uncharactarized. A chromosomal fragment encoding cadmium resistance was cloned from Pseudomonas putida 06909, a rhizosphere bacterium, and sequence analysis revealed two divergently transcribed genes, cadA and cadR. CadA was similar to cadmium-transporting ATPases known mostly from gram-positive bacteria, and to ZntA, a lead-, zinc-, and cadmium-transporting ATPase...

  5. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  6. Scattering of polarized protons by nickel, strontium, cadmium, indium and tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton scattering experiments are described using polarized protons of 20.4 or 24.6 MeV and target nuclides with (nearly) one closed shell: 60Ni, 64Ni, 86Sr, 88Sr, 110Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd, 115In, 116Sn, 118Sn, 120Sn, 122Sn, 124Sn. The experimental arrangement is outlined and the results are presented. The data are analysed using the direct scattering theory and two currently available, nuclear models - the collective (macroscopic) and the shell (microscopic) models. (C.F.)

  7. Cadmium transport and tolerance in rice: perspectives for reducing grain cadmium accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal which harms human health. In Japan, a major source of human Cd-intake is rice grains and contamination of paddy soils by Cd and accumulation of Cd in rice grains are the serious agricultural issues. There also exist Cd contamination of rice and its toxicity in several populations in countries including China and Thailand. Understanding the Cd transport mechanisms in rice can be a basis for regulating rice Cd transport and accumulation by molecular engineeri...

  8. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rongfei Wei; Qingjun Guo; Hanjie Wen; Congqiang Liu; Junxing Yang; Marc Peters; Jian Hu; Guangxu Zhu; Hanzhi Zhang; Liyan Tian; Xiaokun Han; Jie Ma; Chuanwei Zhu; Yingxin Wan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively cou...

  9. Electrochemical removal of cadmium from bio-ash; Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul Pedersen, Anne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter; Christensen, Terkel C.

    2004-07-01

    The potential of using the method electrodialytic remediation for removal of cadmium from bioashes has been investigated. Five different types of fly ash from biomass combustion were included in the study: 1) A straw combustion fly ash from grate-firing at Avedoere power plant. 2) A fly ash from co-firing of wood and fuel oil at Avedoere power plant. 3) A suspended, grain size fractionated straw fly ash, obtained from PSO project FU 2201, fine and coarse size fraction. The ash was originally produced at Avedoere power plant. 4) A straw pellet fly ash from dust-firing at Amager power plant. Thr five ashes were characterised, and a series of preliminary elekctrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted on each ash. In spite a significant differences between the five ashes with respect to parameters such as pH and content of cadmium, all ashes showed promising remediation potential. For all ashes cadmium concentrations below the regulatory limits for recycling were reached in one or more of the preliminary remediation experiements. The best results were obtained with the suspended straw ash from PSO FU 2201, whereas the results with the wood chips ash, due to a high initial pH value, were less sucessful, meaning that the remediation process was progressing more slowly. (BA)

  10. Comparative effects of three dithiocarbamates on tissue distribution and excretion of cadmium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (BGD), sodium N-p-hydroxymethylbenzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (HBGD), and sodium N-p-carboxybenzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (CBGD), which were newly synthesized, on the distribution and excretion of cadmium were compared in mice exposed to cadmium. Mice were injected with 109CdCl2 (1 mg Cd/kg and 74 KBq of 109Cd/one animal) and 30 min or 24 h later, they were injected with the dithiocarbamates (400 mumols/kg). At 30 min after treatment with cadmium, these chelating agents significantly enhanced the biliary excretion of cadmium, and HBGD and CBGD significantly increased the urinary excretion of the metal. At 24 h after cadmium injection, BGD and HBGD significantly increased the biliary excretion of cadmium and HBGD was the most effective on the biliary excretion of the metal. These chelating agents were effective in mobilizing cadmium from the liver and kidney at 30 min after cadmium treatment. HBGD showed the largest effectiveness on the depression of cadmium contents in the liver and kidney. At 24 h after cadmium treatment, only HBGD among these chelating agents significantly reduced the cadmium contents in the liver and kidney. These results show that the injection of HBGD at both 30 min and 24 h after cadmium treatment can much more effectively mobilize cadmium from the body mainly through the bile without redistribution of cadmium to other tissues, such as brain, testes, and heart, than injection of BGD and CBGD

  11. A Study of Growth of Cadmium Oxide Nano structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium oxide nano structure were synthesized by solid-vapor deposition without catalyst. Cadmium Oxide powder was heated to 1320 K in a tube furnace, and the resultant vapor was carried to the silicon substrate zone by an argon flow. Field electron scanning electron microscopy revealed that the product was dendrite-like petals of Cadmium Oxide nano structure. The grown nano structure had random orientations and a grain size of 30 nm. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was conducted to investigate the optical properties of the nano structures. The red-shift direct band gap energy of Cadmium Oxide nano structure was at 548 nm (2.26 eV), whereas that of CdO bulk was at 491 nm (2.5 eV). (author)

  12. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97% of...... the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on cadmium telluride surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the surface properties of cadmium telluride is studied. The possibility of oriented modification of surface properties for increasing the adsorption activity and obtaining the materials, suited for the sensor transducer production, is shown

  14. Studies on cadmium accumulation by some selected floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaeva, Olga V; Belchenko, Ludmila A; Romanova, Tamara E

    2013-01-01

    The results of investigation of the process of cadmium accumulation by floating plants of Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes are discussed. The main specialty of this study is that it puts more emphasis on the mechanism of penetration of pollutant within the plant and its fate during accumulation act. As a result it was shown that at the first stage of cadmium uptake the sorption of the metal on the surface of the roots due to the presence of carboxylic groups takes place. At the root of the plant cadmium mainly localized in the cortex and rhizodermis, then the pollutant penetrates into the tissues of the stem according to its translocation factor. It has been also assumed that flavonoids perform an intermediate role in the accumulation of cadmium by the plant, taking part in the transport and combat an oxidative stress. PMID:23819290

  15. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  16. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  17. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  18. Control of ascariasis through age-targeted chemotherapy: impact of 6-monthly chemotherapeutic regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Thein-Hlaing; Than-Saw; Myat-Lay-Kyin

    1990-01-01

    A field trial of 6-monthly ascariasis chemotherapeutic regimens targeted at 1-19-, 1-14-, and 5-19-year-olds was carried out in three communities in rural Myanmar to observe the effects on the prevalence, intensity, and morbidity indicators over 2 years. After periodic chemotherapy, the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection in age-targeted and non-age-targeted groups fell in all the study areas, more markedly among the 1-19- and 1-14-year-olds. There was also a decrease in the frequen...

  19. Experiments to produce isotopes of superheavy elements with atomic numbers 114-116 in 48Ca ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted to synthesize isotopes of elements 114-116 in fusion reactions between 48Ca ions and sup(246,248)Cm, sup(243)Am and sup(242)Pu isotopes. Irradiations by 48Ca ions at 267 MeV have been carried out using an internal beam of the cyclotron U-300 with the average current of 48Ca ions 1012 fr/s. As in conformity with the theoretical predictions, the superheavy elements with Z=112-116 must possess higher volatility and the elements with Z=108-111 must be analogs of heavy metals with Z=76-79, upon irradiation from the target by chemical methods fractions of volatile elements, heavy noble gases, sulphides of heavy metals as well as Cf-Fm fraction have been isolated. The obtained samples (80%) have been put in contact with phosphate glasses for detecting spontaneous fission of superheavy elements with the period Tsub(sf) from 2 h. to a year. At the same time a part of the samples (20%) has been placed in an alpha-spectrometer. No unknown spontaneously fissioning and alpha-active radiations have been observed. Upper limits of the production cross sections for superheavy elements in the studied reactions: for spontaneously-fissioning activity sigma35 cm2, for alpha-active isotopes with the period 2h(-34 cm2

  20. Surfactant Mediated Cadmium Determination with Dithizone in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael, Fouad Jawad

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cadmium is a toxic and hazardous trace metal that has become a serious environmental pollutant since industrialization and intensive farming began in late 19th century. Although there are many established wet-chemical and instrumental methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of cadmium, most involve the formation of the Cd-dithizone complex in the presence of the highly toxic potassium cyanide which is then extracted into carcinogenic chlorinated organic solvents such ...

  1. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria D; Araújo, Mário J; Cardoso, Diogo N; Silva, Ana Rita R; Cruz, Andreia; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Calado, Ricardo; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium ecotoxicity and genotoxicity was assessed in three representative species of different trophic levels of marine ecosystems - the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, the decapod shrimp, Palaemon varians and the pleuronectiform fish Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicity endpoints assessed in this study were adult survival, hatching success and larval development ratio (LDR) for A. tonsa, survival of the first larval stage (zoea I) and post-larvae of P. varians, egg and larvae survival, as well as the presence of malformations in the larval stage of S. senegalensis. In vivo genotoxicity was assessed on adult A. tonsa, the larval and postlarval stage of P. varians and newly hatched larvae of S. senegalensis using the comet assay. Results showed that the highest sensitivity to cadmium is displayed by A. tonsa, with the most sensitive endpoint being the LDR of nauplii to copepodites. Sole eggs displayed the highest tolerance to cadmium compared to the other endpoints evaluated for all tested species. Recorded cadmium toxicity was (by increasing order): S. senegalensis eggs < P. varians post-larvae < P. varians zoea I < S. senegalensis larvae < A. tonsa eggs < A. tonsa LDR. DNA damage to all species exposed to cadmium increased with increasing concentrations. Overall, understanding cadmium chemical speciation is paramount to reliably evaluate the effects of this metal in marine ecosystems. Cadmium is genotoxic to all three species tested and therefore may differentially impact individuals and populations of marine taxa. As A. tonsa was the most sensitive species and occupies a lower trophic level, it is likely that cadmium contamination may trigger bottom-up cascading effects in marine trophic interactions. PMID:27203468

  2. Cadmium and hypertension in exposed workers: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Caciari; Angela Sancini; Mario Fioravanti; Teodorico Casale; Lucio Montuori; Maria Fiaschetti; Maria Pia Schifano; Giorgia Andreozzi; Nadia Nardone; Gianfranco Tomei; Manuela Ciarrocca; Maria Valeria Rosati; Francesco Tomei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In the general population, cadmium seems to be responsible for hypertension, atherosclerosis and an increase in acute coronary events. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze controlled studies conducted on cadmium and arterial pressure in occupationally-exposed workers. Materials and Methods: After analyzing all the relevant articles found in the literature, 6 publications were selected. Results: A higher prevalence of hypertension and higher values of systoli...

  3. Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environm...

  4. Avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes in cadmium telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Demich, N V

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the ratio of the coefficients of the electrons and holes of the diode structures impact ionization is carried out with the purpose of optimizing the parameters of the avalanche diodes from the cadmium telluride. It is shown experimentally, that the process of the impact ionization in the cadmium telluride is stimulated by holes. The ratio of the coefficients of the holes and electrons impact ionization constitutes approx = 30-40

  5. 阿联酋采购AGM-114R3海尔法导弹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雨丝

    2011-01-01

    美国国防安全合作局向国会通报了一份可能的对外军售协议,即向阿联酋销售500枚AGM-114R3海尔法导弹以及相关零部件、训练与后勤支持设备,估计价值6500万美元。事实上,阿联酋政府已经提出需求500枚AGM-114R3海尔法导弹、箱体、备用及修理部件以及测试设备、训练设备及人员训练设施等。

  6. Diagnosis of Refsum's disease using [1-14C]phytanic acid as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of using [1-14C]phytanic acid as a substrate for the diagnosis of Refsum's disease has been examined. Normal fibroblasts cultured in medium containing low concentrations of foetal calf serum (0.5%) oxidised added [1-14C]phytanic acid to 14CO2 only slowly up to about 2 days; byond this period a marked stimulation in oxidation was observed. Easily measurable conversion of the radiolabelled acid (from 1.5 to 5.0%) was obtaned by numbers of cells at least one order of magnitude fewer than previously described. Fibroblasts from adult patients with Refsum's disease displayed about 5-10% of the normal mean activity. Small differences in residual activity were observed in the different cell lines. However, no obvious relationship was found between the degree of residual activity, the level of plasma phytanate, and the patient's clinical condition and history. (author)

  7. Carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect in the decarbonylation of lactic acid [1-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect for the decarbonation of lactic acid[1-14C] in sulfuric acid has been measured in the temperature interval of 20-90 deg C. The experimental values of (k12C/k14C) are compared with the theoretical 14C kinetic isotope effect calculated assuming that one carbon-oxygen stretching vibration is lost in the rate-determining step. The discrepancy between experimentally observed temperature dependence of the 14C kinetic isotope effect and the theoretical one is explained by the possible side reactions wich change the apparent degrees of decarbonylation and isotopic composition of CH3CHOHCOOH[1-14C] used in experiments aiming at the determination of carbon-14 kinetic isotope effect in the decarbonylation process itself. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  8. Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter;

    Hosliggende rapport formidler resultaterne fra PSO-projektet: ”Elektrokemisk fjernelse af cadmium fra bioasker” (PSO-F&U 3206), finansieret af Elkraft System og Energi E2 A/S. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden 01.05.2003 – 30.06.2004, og partnerne var Energi E2 A/S, BYG-DTU og Krüger A/S, med ...... igangværende PSO FU 2201 ”Opgradering af restprodukter” (”Askepot”), og det skulle derfor også undersøges, om den elektrodialytiske rensningsproces evt. kunne kombineres med den vaskeproces, der benyttes til rensning af aske i FU 2201....

  9. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Bellad; S C Watawe; A M Shaikh; B K Chougule

    2000-04-01

    Polycrystalline Li0.5–/2 Cd Fe2.5–/2O4 ferrites where = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up to = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values of . A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability () is however found to increase continuously with . The increase in is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

  10. Flotation of cadmium-loaded biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I

    1994-07-01

    Biosorption of heavy metal ions such as Cd(2+) by dead biomass has been recognized as a potential alternative to existing removal technologies applied to wastewater treatment. Two bacterial strains were studied in the laboratory, streptomyces griseus and S. clavuligerus, an industrial by-product. Both washed and unwashed samples were examined. Foam flotation proposed in this work as the separation state following biosorption. Effective biomass separation was conducted in the presence of a frother, ethanol. The pH of the solution was a crucial parameter for flotation and also for metal binding. Other basic parameters of flotation examined were the initial cadmium concentration in the dilute aqueous solution and the quantity of biomass used. A study of zeta-potential measurements of the actinomycetes was carried out under the conditions used in the separation; surface tension was also measured. These provided useful information on the process. PMID:18618752

  11. Synthesis and Electroluminescence Characterization of Cadmium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and characterized a new electroluminescence material,Cadmium [(2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole(8-hydoxyquinoline] Cd(HPBq. The absorption spectra of this material show maxima at 378 nm. It may be attributed due to π° – π* transition. The photoluminescence showed peak at 520 nm. TGA data of the material shows stability up to 370 °C .Organic light emitting diode have been fabricated with this material and the fundamental structures of the device is ITO/α-NPD/ Cd(HPBq/BCP/Alq3/LiF/Al exhibited a luminescence peak at 550 nm. The maximum luminescence of the device was 295 cd/m2 with current density of 6687 A/m2 at 20 V. The maximum current efficiency of OLED was 1.01 cd/A at 17 V and power efficiency was 1.01 lm/w at 17 V.

  12. Soil Cadmium Regulates Antioxidases in Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Da-lin; ZHANG Shu-pan; CHEN Zheng; QIU Wei-wei

    2010-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of soil cadmium(Cd)on antioxidases in sorghum was studied using 3 sorghum species viz.,sweet sorghum[Sorghum bicolor(L.)]Moench.cv.Hunnigreen,sorghum hybrid sudangrass(Sorghum bicolor × S.sudanense,cv.Everlush)and sudangrass[Sorghum sudanense(Piper)Stapf cv.Xinjiang].The results showed that low concentrations of Cd2+(≤10 mg kg-1)induced the activities of 4 antioxidases in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum,but high Cd2+concentrations(≥50 mg kg-1)significantly reduced the activities of all the four antioxidases.The glutathione(GSH)contents in leaves of the 3 species of sorghum correlated positively with the Cd2+concentrations.The maximum antioxidase activities were observed at the elongation stage of sorghum during the whole growth period.

  13. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Spermatogenic and mutagenic damage after paternal exposure to systemic indium-114m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic consequences of systemic administration of 114mIn have been examined. Adult male rats were dosed intraperitoneally with 14.8 or 3.7 MBq/kg 114mIn. Approximately 0.25% of the injected radioactivity was localized within the testis by 24 h and was retained with an effective half-life of 49.5 days. Breeding studies were started 3 days after injection, males being housed with two females for seven consecutive mating trials of 19 days, separated by 2 days. Indium-114m caused a reduction in litter size and an increase in the incidence of pre- and postimplantation losses and dominant lethal mutations. These effects became evident from 24 days but were most marked between 87-126 days after treatment and persisted up to 147 days. When animals were mated 200 days after treatment, no significant changes were observed. In a parallel study, administration of 14.8 MBq/kg 114mIn resulted in decreased testis and epididymal weight and sperm reserves. Maximal reduction occurred between 87-108 days after injection followed by recovery toward control values, but neither organ had reached normal levels at 200 days. A single dose of 3.7 MBq/kg, however, had no effect on reproductive organ weight or sperm content. Male F1 progeny from the 14.8 MBq/kg group of the second mating period (commencing at 24 days) displayed decreased testis weights and sperm content and provoked a higher incidence of dominant lethal mutations. This effect was not observed in male progeny from any other time or the alternative dose level. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Genome of Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NA114 from India ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Avasthi, Tiruvayipati Suma; Kumar, Narender; Baddam, Ramani; Hussain, Arif; Nandanwar, Nishant; Jadhav, Savita; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2011-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) causes serious infections in people at risk and has a significant environmental prevalence due to contamination by human and animal excreta. In developing countries, UPEC assumes importance in certain dwellings because of poor community/personal hygiene and exposure to contaminated water or soil. We report the complete genome sequence of E. coli strain NA114 from India, a UPEC strain with a multidrug resistance phenotype and the capacity to produce extend...

  16. FTIR AND NMR STUDIES OF ADSORBED TRITON X-114 IN MCM-41 MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Taba, P

    2009-01-01

    One source of water pollutions is caused by the high use of surface-active agents (surfactants) by industries and households. As a consequence, it is required to remove such substances from the environment One of the important and widely used methods for removal of substances from solution is adsorption. In this research, MCM-41 and its modification MCM41-TMCS were used to adsorb nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114. FTIR and NMR methods were used to study the interaction between the...

  17. Comparison between the exact and the thermal description of the pairing interaction in 114Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pairing interaction is solved exactly in the 114Sn nucleus using a realistic strength parameter as well as standard energy levels for the shell seniority zero states. The same single-particle and two-body Hamiltonian is treated with finite-temperature BCS and the thermal random-phase approximation. The results obtained through these calculations are compared to obtain insight about the suitability of the thermal approach to the description of nuclear phenomena

  18. Adsorption mechanism of copper and cadmium onto defatted waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yabutani, Hitoshi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using waste biomass (i.e., coffee grounds (CG) and rice bran (RB)) was investigated. The amount of crude protein in defatted CG (D-CG) or RB (D-RB) was greater than that in CG or RB, respectively. The amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed using CG was greater than that using RB. Additionally, the amount of copper or cadmium adsorbed was not affected by the presence of fat in CG. Adsorption data was fitted to the Freundlich equation, and the correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.794-0.991. The main adsorption mechanism was thought to be monolayer adsorption onto the surface of the waste biomass. The adsorption rate data was fitted to the pseudo-second-order model, and the correlation coefficient average was in the range of 0.891-0.945. This result showed that the rate-limiting step may be chemisorption. Moreover, the amount of copper or cadmium desorbed from CG or RB using 0.01 mol/L or 1.00 mol/L HNO(3) was investigated. Desorption with 0.01 mol/L HNO(3) resulted in the recovery of 86-97% of the copper and cadmium, indicating that copper or cadmium that was adsorbed using waste biomass was recoverable. PMID:21701100

  19. Tantalum-cadmium film coatings: Preparation, phase composition, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ion-plasma sputtering and codeposition of ultrafine Ta and Cd particles were used for the first time to prepare solid solutions, namely, alloys with up to 66.2 at % Cd in the form of coatings; the fact of such a production confirms the thermal-fluctuation melting and coalescence of small particles. When the coatings are formed by tantalum and cadmium nanolayers, the mutual dissolution of the components takes place, which is accompanied by the formation of solid solutions of one metal in the other. When the cadmium concentration is above 44 at %, the β-Ta tetragonal lattice transforms into the α-Ta body-centered cubic lattice. Beginning from 74.4 at % Cd, a hexagonal structure typical of cadmium is formed, and tantalum is present in the coatings in the form of amorphous phase. The formation of β-Ta- and Cd-based interstitial and α-Ta-based substitute solid solutions is stated. At 700°C, cadmium evaporates from Ta-based solid solutions, and porous tantalum is formed. The evaporation of cadmium from coatings, which consist of the mixture of tantalum solid solution in cadmium and amorphous tantalum, leads to the formation of tantalum characterized by a highly developed surface. The prepared Ta-based materials assume the technological application of the results of the investigation.

  20. Effects of Cadmium on Some Physiological Characteristics of Eucalyptus occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shariat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals including cadmium produced as a result of urban, industrial and agricultural activities lead to the water pollution. Also, considering the growing need for silviculture in Iran, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive research on fast growing and evergreen species of Eucalyptus and their role in heavy metals' absorption. To achieve this goal, Eucalyptus occidentalis seedlings were grown in pots containing silica and irrigated with a mixture of nutrient solution and cadmium chloride in 5, 10 and 15 m M for 10 months. Root and leaf samples were harvested and the amount of cadmium in stem, root and leaf organs was measured. Also, some morphological and physiological characteristics were determined including soluble sugar and praline. The analysis indicated that the cadmium concentrations of 15 mM treatment in the root, leaf and stem were 585, 142 and 87 mg/kg D.W., respectively. Proline content increased with the increase of Cadmium concentration while the content of pigments decreased. The result of this research shows that eucalypt has the potential of cadmium accumulation without any serious damage to its growth. Therefore, the plant can be used to decrease the environmental pollutions.

  1. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. PMID:26467054

  2. The IMF-sensitive 1.14-micron Na I doublet in early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Russell J; Lucey, John R; Conroy, Charlie; Carter, David

    2015-01-01

    We present J-band spectroscopy of passive galaxies focusing on the Na I doublet at 1.14 {\\mu}m. Like the Na I 0.82 {\\mu}m doublet, this feature is strong in low-mass stars and hence may provide a useful probe of the initial mass function (IMF). From high signal-to-noise composite spectra, we find that Na I 1.14 {\\mu}m increases steeply with increasing velocity dispersion, {\\sigma}, and for the most massive galaxies (\\sigma > 300 km/s) is much stronger than predicted from synthetic spectra with Milky-Way-like IMFs and solar abundances. Reproducing Na I 1.14 {\\mu}m at high {\\sigma} likely requires either a very high [Na/H], or a bottom-heavy IMF, or a combination of both. Using the Na D line to break the degeneracy between IMF and abundance, we infer [Na/H] $\\approx$ +0.5 and a steep IMF (single-slope-equivalent x $\\approx$ 3.2, where x = 2.35 for Salpeter), for the high-\\sigma galaxies. At lower mass ({\\sigma} = 50-100 km/s), the line strengths are compatible with MW-like IMFs and near-solar [Na/H]. We highlig...

  3. Heavy particle radioactivity from superheavy nuclei leading to $^{298}$114 daughter nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay and the heavy particle decay from the even-even superheavy (SH) nuclei with Z = 116-124 have been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The Universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., the Universal Decay Law (UDL) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al., has also been used for the evaluation of the decay half lives. A comparison of our predicted half lives with the values evaluated using these empirical formulas are in agreement with each other and hence CPPM could be considered as a unified model for alpha and cluster decay studies. Within our fission model, we have studied cluster formation probability for various clusters and the maximum cluster formation probability for the decay accompanying $^{298}$114 reveals its doubly magic behavior. In the plots for log_10(T_1/2) against the neutron number of the daughter in the corresponding decay, the half life is found to be the minimum for the decay leading to $^{298}$114 (Z = 114, N = ...

  4. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  5. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S;

    2002-01-01

    the skeleton nor to the cadmium concentrations. Furthermore, the degree of mineralisation of the skeleton was not correlated with the cadmium concentration, age or sex. It can therefore be concluded that despite high levels of cadmium, none of the ringed seals showed any signs of cadmium......-induced nephropathy or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not...

  6. The Role of Exopolymers in Protection of Ralstonia sp., a Cadmium-resistant Bacterium, from Cadmium Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Anchulee Watcharamusik; Benjaphorn Prapagdee

    2008-01-01

    Production of exopolymers is one of heavy metal resistance mechanisms in bacteria. Ralstonia sp. TAK1, a cadmium-resistant bacterium, was isolated from a high cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil at the zinc mine, Tak province, Thailand. The bacterium was cultivated in LB broth and its growth was monitored. The yields of exopolymers were measured by the phenol-sulfuric method at different growth phases. The levels of Cd resistance were quantitatively determined by survival cell assay. The highest a...

  7. Influence of pressure on the synthesis of cadmium sulfide by combustion of complex compound of cadmium nitrate with thiosemicarbazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of cadmium sulfide synthesis based on combustion of high-energy content complex of cadmium nitrate and thiosemicarbazide has been suggested. The combustion has been carried out in nitrogen under gas pressure varying from 0.1 to 2.0 MPa. It is shown that the complex may serve as a precursor for obtaining sulfide materials with regulated morphology and dispersivity under combustion conditions

  8. Study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9. Formation constants on cadmium (II) complexes with dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Haruo (Government Industrial Research Inst., Nagoya (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm/sup -3/ LiClO/sub 4/ as a constant ionic medium at 25/sup 0/C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log ..beta..sub(pr)= log((Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+))/((Cd/sup 2 +/)sup(p)(L/sup 2 -/)sup(r))), of the complexes were: log ..beta../sub 11/ = 1.98, log ..beta../sub 12/ = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log ..beta../sub 11/ = 2.28, log ..beta../sub 12/ = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log ..beta../sub 11/ = 1.78, log ..beta../sub 12/ = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log ..beta../sub 11/ = 1.85, log ..beta../sub 12/ = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes.

  9. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  10. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: Role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 μM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 μM lead to 30% mortality after 24 h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 μM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium

  11. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  12. Effects of Soil pH,Texture,Moisture,Organic Matter and Cadmium Content on Cadmium Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUQI-TANG; J.L.MOREL; 等

    1994-01-01

    The supply of cadmium from soil to plant roots mainly depends on the diffusion prooess.This work was conducted to study the effects of some soil properties on cadmium diffusion coefficient (D) in soil. Measurements were made using the Shofield and Graham-Bryce's isotopic labelling method.Cadmium diffusion coefficients varied from 10-7to 10-9 cms2-1.Higher values were observed in acid sandy soils and lower values in calcareous clay soils.Liming an acid soil resulted in a substantial decrease of D.Addition of cadmium as nitrate salt generally increased D,while addition of sewage sludge and organic matter resulted in a significant decrease of cadmium diffusion.The rhizospheric activity also induced a moderate reduction in D.The relationships between D(10-9cms2-1)on the on hand and soil pH.moisture(Mc,g kg-1) ,organic matter(OM,g kg-1),clay(Cy,gkg-1)and cadmium content(Cd,mgkg-1) on the other were obtained by the multiple regression:D=182.1-29.91pH+0.210Mc-0.303OM+0.011Cy+1.64Cd(R2=0.859,n=22).

  13. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata

  14. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  15. Cadmium: A toxin and a nutrient for marine phytoplankton. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Although cadmium is known to be very toxic, it exhibits nutrient-like vertical concentration profiles in the open ocean. Cadmium enhances the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, a chlorophyte and some prymnesiophytes at inorganic zinc and cadmium concentrations typical of surface seawater. Detailed studies of T. weissflogii show that cadmium is also regulated like a nutrient over a wide range of external inorganic cadmium (5-500pM) and inorganic zinc (2-16pM) concentrations. The cellular cadmium concentration is maintained at relatively constant levels both through uptake and, at high inorganic cadmium concentrations (5nM), export of cadmium, most likely complexed to the metal-binding polypeptide phytochelatin. Cadmium may play an essential role in carbon uptake under conditions of zinc limitation. The same low level of inorganic cadmium that enhances the growth of T. weissflogii restores the activity of carbonic anhydrase, thought to be the key enzyme limiting growth at low zinc. Cadmium coelutes with a least one of the multiple isoforms of carbonic anhydrase produced by T. weissfiogii and covaries with activity of this isoform. The substitution of cadmium for zinc in carbonic anhydrase links the geochemical cycle of cadmium to those of zinc and carbon.

  16. Cadmium-induced apoptosis and necrosis in human osteoblasts: role of caspases and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brama, M; Politi, L; Santini, P; Migliaccio, S; Scandurra, R

    2012-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant which induces severe toxic alterations, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis, likely by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, cadmium has been described to act as an endocrine disruptor and its toxicity is exerted both in vivo and in vitro through induction of apoptosis and/or necrosis by not fully clarified intracellular mechanism(s) of action. Aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which cadmium might alter homeostasis of estrogen target cells, such as osteoblast homeostasis, inducing cell apoptosis and/or necrosis. Human osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19) in culture were used as an in vitro model to characterize the intracellular mechanisms induced by this heavy metal. Cells were incubated in the presence/ absence of 10-50 μM cadmium chloride at different times and DNA fragmentation and activation of procaspases- 8 and -3 were induced upon CdCl(2) treatment triggering apoptotic and necrotic pathways. Addition of caspase-8 and -3 inhibitors (Z-IETD-FMK and Z-DQMD-FMK) partially blocked these effects. No activation of procaspase-9 was observed. To determine the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in these events, we investigated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation which were activated by 10 μM CdCl(2). Chemical inhibitors of JNK, p38, and ERK1/2, SP600125, SB202190, and PD98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of the kinases and blunted apoptosis. In contrast, caspase inhibitors did not reduce the cadmium-induced MAPK phosphorylation, suggesting an independent activation of these pathways. In conclusion, at least 2 pathways appear activated by cadmium in osteoblasts: a direct induction of caspase-8 followed by activation of caspase-3 and an indirect induction by phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK MAPK triggering activation of caspase-8 and -3. PMID:21697648

  17. Cadmium assessment on the intertidal water margins from the Óbidos Lagoon (western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S.S. Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Óbidos Lagoon is the largest shallow coastal lagoon in Portugal. Like any other brackish water system, it has been potentially exposed to different sources of contamination (e.g. livestock farming, domestic and industrial sewage. Trace metals are persistent elements present in the water and sediments in their elemental and organic/inorganic forms. In fact, Cadmium is extremely pollutant due to its great solubility in water and high toxicity for organisms. Also, it is classified as a priority substance according to the European Union Water Frame directive. In this context, a seasonal environmental monitoring program was implemented in the intertidal water margins of the Óbidos Lagoon to assess the presence of Cadmium. In 2009 and 2010, eight sampling stations (S distributed on the shores of the Óbidos Lagoon were chosen and water and sediments were seasonally collected. In all samples, cadmium concentrations were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, with Graphite Furnace Technique. Cadmium dissolved in the water samples was only detected during summer months, with the highest values in the Barrosa’s arm (S3: 0.35 mg/l in 2009, and at the station further downstream (S1: 0.19 mg/l in 2010. In the suspended fraction of the water samples the trace metal was detectable in all seasons, with the maximum concentration at the Barrosa’s arm (S4: 1.04 mg/l in the winter of 2010. Cadmium was not detectable in the sediments during the summers and was sporadically present in the autumn and in the winter of 2009. The highest concentration in the sediments was observed at the Barrosa´s arm (S4: 140.78 mg/kg in the spring of 2010. As a whole, cadmium contamination appears to be mostly focused on the inner areas of the lagoon, at the Barrosa´s arm, but a clear seasonal pattern of variation was not detectable. These results allow a better understanding of the environmental quality of this ecosystem and may assist in the definition of coastal

  18. Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, targeting the lung, liver, kidney, and testes following acute intoxication, and causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity and tumors after prolonged exposures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd toxicology. This minireview focused on direct evidence for the generation of free radicals in intact animals following acute Cd overload and discussed the association of ROS in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis. Cd-generated superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vivo have been detected by the electron spin resonance spectra, which are often accompanied by activation of redox sensitive transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1 and Nrf2) and alteration of ROS-related gene expression. It is generally agreed upon that oxidative stress plays important roles in acute Cd poisoning. However, following long-term Cd exposure at environmentally-relevant low levels, direct evidence for oxidative stress is often obscure. Alterations in ROS-related gene expression during chronic exposures are also less significant compared to acute Cd poisoning. This is probably due to induced adaptation mechanisms (e.g., metallothionein and glutathione) following chronic Cd exposures, which in turn diminish Cd-induced oxidative stress. In chronic Cd-transformed cells, less ROS signals are detected with fluorescence probes. Acquired apoptotic tolerance renders damaged cells to proliferate with inherent oxidative DNA lesions, potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, ROS are generated following acute Cd overload and play important roles in tissue damage. Adaptation to chronic Cd exposure reduces ROS production, but acquired Cd tolerance with aberrant gene expression plays important roles in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  19. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  20. CONCENTRATION OF CADMIUM IN MEAT AND SELECTED MEATS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and food production methods. The monitoring of cadmium concentration in meat is important for human health. The concentrations of cadmium in meat and meat products collected from central Slovakia, in the central Europe region and from different countries of West Europe were assessed using by AA spectrometer with graphite furnace (PerkinElmer AAnalyst 80, MA, USA. Within starting materials we detected the highest values of cadmium in beef from foreign production (0.1101 ppm, followed by pork from foreign production (0.0901 ppm in Lovecka salama and pork thigh (0.0523 ppm in selected ham. In Lovecka salami we were found the highest concentration of cadmium in final samples from foreign starting materials, followed by homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final samples from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.3728, 0.3549, 0.2387, 0.2112 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration of cadmium in selected ham were found in final products from foreign starting materials, homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final products from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.1453, 0.1382,0.0810, 0.0734 ppm, respectively. The obtained results suggested that the concentrations of cadmium are higher in homogenized samples and final products in Lovecka salami and selected ham in comparison with to starting materials. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products.

  1. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  2. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd2+-ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C354, C356 and proline P355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D692 in Tm8, glutamate E164 in Tm4 and methionine M149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author)

  3. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  4. Target capture and target ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  5. Cadmium(II) complex formation with glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Vicky; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2010-03-01

    Complex formation between heavy metal ions and glutathione (GSH) is considered as the initial step in many detoxification processes in living organisms. In this study the structure and coordination between the cadmium(II) ion and GSH were investigated in aqueous solutions (pH 7.5 and 11.0) and in the solid state, using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The similarity of the Cd K-edge and L(3)-edge X-ray absorption spectra of the solid compound [Cd(GS)(GSH)]ClO(4).3H(2)O, precipitating at pH 3.0, with the previously studied cysteine compound {Cd(HCys)(2).H(2)O}(2).H(3)O(+).ClO(4) (-) corresponds to Cd(S-GS)(3)O (dominating) and Cd(S-GS)(4) four-coordination within oligomeric complexes with mean bond distances of 2.51 +/- 0.02 A for Cd-S and 2.24 +/- 0.04 A for Cd-O. For cadmium(II) solutions (C (Cd(II)) approximately 0.05 M) at pH 7.5 with moderate excess of GSH (C (GSH)/C (Cd(II)) = 3.0-5.0), a mix of Cd(S-GS)(3)O (dominating) and Cd(S-GS)(4) species is consistent with the broad (113)Cd NMR resonances in the range 632-658 ppm. In alkaline solutions (pH 11.0 and C (GSH)/C (Cd(II)) = 2.0 or 3.0), two distinct peaks at 322 and 674 ppm are obtained. The first peak indicates six-coordinated mononuclear and dinuclear complexes with CdS(2)N(2)(N/O)(2) and CdSN(3)O(2) coordination in fast exchange, whereas the second corresponds to Cd(S-GS)(4) sites. At high ligand excess the tetrathiolate complex, Cd(S-GS)(4), characterized by a sharp delta((113)Cd) NMR signal at 677 ppm, predominates. The average Cd-S distance, obtained from the X-ray absorption spectra, varied within a narrow range, 2.49-2.53 A, for all solutions (pH 7.5 and 11.0) regardless of the coordination geometry. PMID:20035360

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-08-01

    needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 114. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 114: • Perform site preparation activities (e.g., utilities clearances, radiological surveys). • Collect environmental samples from designated target populations (e.g., stained soil) to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information. • Collect samples of materials to determine whether potential source material (PSM) is present that may cause the future release of a COC to environmental media. • If no COCs or PSMs are present at a CAS, establish no further action as the corrective action. • If COCs exist, collect environmental samples from designated target populations (e.g., clean soil adjacent to contaminated soil) and submit for laboratory analyses to define the extent of COC contamination. • If a COC or PSM is present at a CAS, either: - Establish clean closure as the corrective action. The material to be remediated will be removed, disposed of as waste, and verification samples will be collected from remaining soil, or - Establish closure in place as the corrective action and implement the appropriate use restrictions. • Confirm the selected closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  7. Cadmium Impairs p53 Activity in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Urani, C.; Melchioretto, P.; M. Fabbri; Bowe, G.; Maserati, E.; Gribaldo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium and cadmium compounds are contaminants of the environment, food, and drinking water and are important constituents of cigarette smoke. Cd exposure has also been associated with airborne particulate CdO and with Cd-containing quantum dots in medical therapy. Adverse cadmium effects reported in the literature have stimulated during recent years an ongoing discussion to better elucidate cadmium outcomes at cell and molecular level. The present work is designed to gain an insight into the...

  8. An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized usi...

  9. a Plutonium Ceramic Target for Masha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, P. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Landingham, R. L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 °C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  10. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yuan-Hung; Ho, Po-Chun; Chen, Min-Shan; Hugo, Eric; Ben-Jonathan, Nira [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States); Wang, Shao-Chun, E-mail: shao-chun.wang@uc.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0521 (United States); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNA{sup F/F}) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNA{sup F/F} MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT

  11. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 114 of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is required for adipogenesis in response to high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is phosphorylated at Y114. ► Phospho-Y114 of PCNA is not required for cell proliferation for normal growth. ► MCE during adipogenesis is abolished in the lack of the phosphorylation. ► Homozygous Y114F mice are resistant to high fat diet induced obesity. ► Our results shed light on the interface between proliferation and differentiation. -- Abstract: Clonal proliferation is an obligatory component of adipogenesis. Although several cell cycle regulators are known to participate in the transition between pre-adipocyte proliferation and terminal adipocyte differentiation, how the core DNA synthesis machinery is coordinately regulated in adipogenesis remains elusive. PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is an indispensable component for DNA synthesis during proliferation. Here we show that PCNA is subject to phosphorylation at the highly conserved tyrosine residue 114 (Y114). Replacing the Y114 residue with phenylalanine (Y114F), which is structurally similar to tyrosine but cannot be phosphorylated, does not affect normal animal development. However, when challenged with high fat diet, mice carrying homozygous Y114F alleles (PCNAF/F) are resistant to adipose tissue enlargement in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) harboring WT or Y114F mutant PCNA proliferate at similar rates. However, when subjected to adipogenesis induction in culture, PCNAF/F MEFs are not able to re-enter the cell cycle and fail to form mature adipocytes, while WT MEFs undergo mitotic clonal expansion in response to the adipogenic stimulation, accompanied by enhanced Y114 phosphorylation of PCNA, and differentiate to mature adipocytes. Consistent with the function of Y114 phosphorylation in clonal proliferation in adipogenesis, fat tissues isolated from WT mice contain significantly more adipocytes than those isolated from PCNAF/F mice. This study identifies a critical role for PCNA in adipose

  12. Cadmium localization and quantification in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, F. J.; Ynsa, M. D.; Domínguez-Solís, J. R.; Gotor, C.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Romero, L. C.

    2002-04-01

    Remediation of metal-contaminated soils and waters poses a challenging problem due to its implications in the environment and the human health. The use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals, including Cd, from soil and aqueous streams has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The process of using plants for environmental restoration is termed phytoremediation. Cd is a particularly favourable target metal for this technology because it is readily transported and accumulated in the shoots of several plant species. This paper investigates the sites of metal localization within Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, when plants are grown in a cadmium-rich environment, by making use of nuclear microscopy techniques. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses were performed on the scanning proton microprobe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), showing that cadmium is sequestered within the trichomes on the leaf surface. Additionally, regular PIXE analyses were performed on samples prepared by an acid digestion method in order to assess the metal accumulation of such plants.

  13. Cadmium localization and quantification in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of metal-contaminated soils and waters poses a challenging problem due to its implications in the environment and the human health. The use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals, including Cd, from soil and aqueous streams has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The process of using plants for environmental restoration is termed phytoremediation. Cd is a particularly favourable target metal for this technology because it is readily transported and accumulated in the shoots of several plant species. This paper investigates the sites of metal localization within Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, when plants are grown in a cadmium-rich environment, by making use of nuclear microscopy techniques. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses were performed on the scanning proton microprobe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), showing that cadmium is sequestered within the trichomes on the leaf surface. Additionally, regular PIXE analyses were performed on samples prepared by an acid digestion method in order to assess the metal accumulation of such plants

  14. Development of a Plutonium Ceramic Target for the MASHA Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Lougheed, R. W.; Yeremin, A. V.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    2004-04-01

    We are participating in the development of the target for the MASHA (Mass Analyzer of Super Heavy Atoms) on-line mass separator in Dubna. Along with recent upgrades of the U400 cyclotron, MASHA will provide for at least a ten-fold increase in the production- and-detection rate for element 114 atoms, and will allow us to measure their atomic masses precisely. The MASHA separator will employ a thick Pu ceramic target capa- ble of tolerating temperatures in the vicinity of 2000 C without vaporizing the actinide compound. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target and will drift to an ECR ion source after which they will be transported through the separator and will impinge on a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Furthermore, operation of the MASHA hot target/ion source combination will provide chemical volatility information that will support our assignment of an atomic number of 114 to these nuclei. Taken together, these experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments in which the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  15. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  16. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  17. Assessment of radio modulatory potential of emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation Induces cellular damage through direct ionization of DNA and other cellular targets and indirectly via reactive oxygen species which may include effects from epigenetic changes. It has been known since ancient times that Cadmium is virtually toxic to every organ of body including renal system. Radioprotectors are compounds that are designed to reduce the damage in normal tissue caused by radiation and cadmium. Emblica officinalis extract has been shown to possess high antioxidative, anticancer, lipid lowering, antisclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV potential. It is highly nutritious and important dietary source of vitamin. Emblica contains a polyphenols, especially tannins and other phenolic compounds. Considering antioxidant properties of Emblica, the aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica in reducing radiation and cadmium induced changes in mouse kidney. For this purpose four male mice were randomly assigned into six treatment groups. The mice in the treatment groups II to VII treated respectively with cadmium chloride, radiation (7.0 Gy) combined treatment and drug treated groups. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day-14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups. Thereafter value declined up to day-28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in Emblica treated groups. The biochemical findings indicated the drug treated section of the kidney showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The treated groups demonstrating the ability of Emblica to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing renal injury. (author)

  18. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM EXPOSURE AND TOXICITY RISK IN AN AMERICAN VEGETARIAN POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been postulated that nonvegetarians may be exposed to less cadmium than vegetarians because of the cadmium-poor meat in their diet. This study attempts to test this possibility by measuring the cadmium exposure and accumulation in a population subgroup that includes many v...

  20. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annalakshmi, O. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Jose, M.T., E-mail: mtj@igcar.gov.in [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Sridevi, J. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mandal, A.B. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600 020, Tamilnadhu (India)

    2014-03-15

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 10{sup 9}–10{sup 12} s{sup −1} and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies.

  2. Kinetic parameters and TL mechanism in cadmium tetra borate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline powder samples of cadmium tetra borate were synthesized by a simple solid state sintering technique and gamma irradiated sample showed a simple Thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak around 460 K. The TL kinetic parameters of gamma irradiated phosphor were determined by initial rise (IR), isothermal decay (ID), peak shape (PS), variable heating rate (VHR) and glow curve de-convolution method. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and order of kinetics (b) were calculated by IR, ID, PS and VHR methods are in the order of ∼1.05 eV, 109–1012 s−1 and 1.58, respectively. From the results of TL and PL emission studies carried out on the phosphor revealed that the defect centers related to TL is different from that for PL. EPR measurements were carried out to identify the defect centers formed in cadmium tetra borate phosphor on gamma irradiation. Based on EPR studies the mechanism for TL process in cadmium tetra borate is proposed in this paper -- Highlights: • Polycrystalline powder samples of undoped cadmium tetra borate synthesized. • Cadmium tetra borate phosphor exhibits a dosimetric peak at 458 K. • Kinetic parameters of the trap responsible for TL evaluated. • TL mechanism is proposed from TL to EPR correlation studies

  3. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb−1 cm−2) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium

  4. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kovarova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L on common carp (Cyprinus carpio was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted.

  5. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g-1, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  6. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM2.5, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  7. Upper limit to the 11.4 m flux of Saturn using VLBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Clark, T. A.; Cronyn, W. M.; Basart, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Summary of a series of interferometric observations of Saturn using large phased dipole arrays at 11.4 m wavelength (26.3 MHz). The observations were made in August 1971 using a VLBI system operated over two baselines. The results obtained are interpreted as negative for both decametric continuum and noise storm emission from source regions much less than the planetary disk size. This leads to an upper limit value of approximately 14 flux units from a source less than 1 arc sec in diameter located in a region plus or minus 40 min in right ascension and 3.5 deg in declination about Saturn's optical position.

  8. All-order calculations of the spectra of superheavy elements E113 and E114

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, T H

    2016-01-01

    We apply a recently developed method (V. A. Dzuba, PRA 90, 012517 (2014); J. S. M. Ginges and V. A. Dzuba, PRA 91, 042505 (2015)) to calculate energy levels of superheavy elements Uut (Z = 113), Fl (Z = 114), and Fl+. The method combines the linearized single-double coupledcluster technigue, the all-order correlation potential method and configuration interaction method. Breit and quantum electrodynamic corrections are included. The role of relativistic and correlation effects is discussed. Similar calculations for Tl, Pb and Pb+ are used to gauge the accuracy of the calculations.

  9. High-resolution near-infrared imaging of the Orion 114-426 silhouette disk

    OpenAIRE

    McCaughrean, Mark J.; Chen, Hua; Bally, John; Erickson, Ed; Thompson, Rodger; Rieke, Marcia; Schneider, Glenn; Stolovy, Susan; Young, Erick

    1997-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution near-infrared images of the edge-on silhouette circumstellar disk, Orion 114-426, made using NICMOS on the Hubble Space Telescope. Images taken against the bright nebular background of the ionized hydrogen Pa$\\alpha$ line at 1.87 micron show the major axis of the disk to be approximately 20% smaller than at 0.6 micron, from which we deduce the structure of the edge of the disk. Continuum images of diffuse polar lobes above and below the plane of the disk s...

  10. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  11. Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. In the industry, excessive exposures to airborne Cd may impair lung function and increase the risk of lung cancer. All these effects have been described in populations with relatively high exposures to Cd in the industrial or in heavily polluted environments. Recent studies, however, suggest that the chronic low environmental exposure to Cd now prevailing in industrialized countries can adversely affect the kidneys and bones of the general population. These studies show consistent associations between various renal and bone biomarkers and the urinary excretion of Cd used to assess Cd body burden. The public health impact of these findings are still unknown. Further research is needed to ascertain that these associations are truly causal and not secondary to parallel changes in Cd metabolism and in the bone or kidney function occurring because of ageing or diseases unrelated to Cd exposure. PMID:19106447

  12. Scanning tunneling microscope study of cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered samples of cadmium telluride grown epitaxially on gallium arsenide substrates have been investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface geometric and electronic structures are both of interest. Techniques were developed to remove the native oxide by etching, or to create a fresh surface by cleaving, and to protect them from oxidation by employing mineral or paraffin oil media. STM studies were conducted within the protective medium. These techniques were adapted and tested for both etched and cleaved samples of Si, CdTe and HgTe. The current-voltage characteristics of the CdTe surface were investigated during dynamic changes of the tunnel current and barrier height while the probe-to-sample separation (gap) was static. Recorded values are shown for current versus bias for several constant gap values. A range of bias values has been employed to test a possible solution for the problem of interference between the contributions from geometric and electronic structure factors

  13. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  14. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  15. Cadmium in insects after ash fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Lodenius; Jussi Josefsson; Kari Heli(o)vaara; Esa Tulisalo; Matti Nummelin

    2009-01-01

    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH.but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota.Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects(Formica ants.carabids and Coleopteran larvac from decaying wood)were investigated in southern Finland where two plots were fertilized with wood ash,while two other plots represented anfertilized control plots.In ants,mean Cd concentration was 3.6±1.4 mg/kg.with nest workers having significantly higher concen-trations than workers trapped in pitfall traps.Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar.In carabid beetles,the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44±0.36 mg/kg.with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots.In another carabid beetle,Pterostichus niger,mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots.We conclude that the variation of Cd concentra-tions in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.

  16. Cadmium accumulation and subcellular distribution in relation to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bovine kidney cell culture system was used to assess what relationship cadmium (Cd) uptake and subcellular distribution had to cadmium chloride induced cytotoxicity. Twenty-four hour incubation with 0.1-10 μM Cd elicited 0-90% cytotoxicity. Fifty percent cytotoxicity was estimated to result from 0.8 μM Cd. A concentration-related Cd accumulation paralleled the cytotoxicity profile. The time-course for Cd accumulation was linear for the first 6 h of exposure and plateaued by 18 h post-exposure. When the degree of cytotoxicity was compared with the cellular Cd burden at 24 h post-treatment a least-squares linear regression analysis (r=0.93) indicated a direct relationship. Subcellular distribution studies indicated greater than 90% Cd recovery from the soluble supernatant (105,000 g) at all levels of cytotoxicity studied. Metallothionein sequestered less than 25% of the cellular Cd. As a result of the correlation of the degree of cytotoxicity with the cellular Cd burden and the independence of subcellular distribution from cytotoxicity, a cumulative mechanism of toxicity for Cd in MDBK cells was suggested. (author)

  17. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their application for cadmium bioremediation - 16072

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a global basis, trace-metal pollution is one of the most pervasive environmental problems. It is particularly difficult to prevent or clean up because the metals are toxic in their elemental form and cannot be decomposed. Bioremediation has been shown to be a powerful system for heavy metal pollution clean up and prevention. In this work, we characterized the cadmium (Cd)-resistant bacteria isolated from rice field soil downstream from zinc (Zn) mineralized area which the owners were contaminated at high level of cadmium content in their blood (>10 μg Cd/g creatinine). We found that all 24 isolated bacteria tolerated toxic Cd concentrations (2,500 μM). In order to determine whether the Cd toxicity affected the growth of isolated bacteria, we grew the isolated bacterial cells in the absence and presence of toxic concentrations of CdCl2 (500 μM). In the absence of Cd, all isolated bacterial cells grew slightly better than in the presence of toxic concentrations of Cd. In addition, the Cd binding capacity of all isolated bacteria were very high, ranging from 6.38 to 9.38 log[Cd(atom)]/cell when grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2. Furthermore, the stability of Cd-bacteria complex of all isolated bacteria was affected by 1 mM EDTA. When grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2, Cd-resistant isolates S2500-6, -8, -9, -15, -17, -18, -19, and -22 increasingly produced proteins containing cysteine (SH-group) (from 1.3 to 2.2 times) as well as 11 isolates of Cd-resistant bacteria, including S2500-1, -2, -3, -5, -6, -8, -9, -11, -16, -20, and -21, increasingly produced inorganic sulfide (1.5 to 4.7 times). Furthermore, the Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy studies indicated that Cd-resistant isolated S2500-3 precipitated amounts of cadmium sulfide (CdS), when grown in the presence of 500 μM CdCl2. The results suggested that these Cd-resistant bacteria have potential ability to precipitate a toxic soluble CdCl2 as nontoxic

  18. Mutual binary separations of cadmium(II), indium(III) and thallium(III) as chlorides by their extraction in high molecular weight amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of cadmium(II), indium(III) and thallium(III) with high molecular weight amines have been studied from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. Primene JM-T, Amberlite LA-1, Alamine 336 and Aliquat 336 were chosen for the study as representatives of various types of amines. These were all practical grade materials and were used without further purification. sup(115m)Cd, sup(114m)In and 114In and 204Tl radioisotopes were used as tracers. Equal volumes of the organic amine solution (0.1M) and the labelled aqueous metal ion solution (2.5x10-4M) were mixed and shaken on a mechanical shaker. Each experiment was run in duplicate and the average values are reported. All the extraction studies were done at room temperature, 25+-3 deg C. Using the data mutual binary separations of these elements with high separation coefficients are proposed. Various variables like type of amine, amine concentration and organic diluent were explored to propose the best conditions of separations. (T.G.)

  19. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L-1 HNO3 was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL-1 for Cd2+, Pb2+, Pd2+ and Ag+ along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd2+, Pb2+, Pd2+ and Ag+, respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.

  20. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Ardeshir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Khodabakhsh [Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Ebrahim; Najibi, Asma [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL{sup -1} for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}, respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.