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Sample records for cadmium 110 target

  1. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  2. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

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    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  3. Targeting GPR110 in HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Christiny, Sarmistha Nanda , Mario Giuliano, Chad Creighton, C. Kent Osborne, Vihang A. Narkar, Rachel Schiff, Meghana V. Trivedi. Identification of GPR110...Pavel Christiny, Sarmistha Nanda , Mario Giuliano, Chad Creighton, C. Kent Osborne, Vihang A.Narkar, Rachel Schiff, Meghana V. Trivedi. Identification...Pavel  ChrisCny1,  Sarmistha   Nanda  S3,   Mario  Giuliano3,  Chad  Creighton3,  C.  Kent  Osborne3,  Vihang    Narkar2

  4. Di-μ-acetato-κ3O,O′:O;κ3O:O,O′-bis[(acetato-κ2O,O′(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′cadmium(II

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    Miguel Angel Harvey

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cd2(C2H3O24(C12H8N22], consists of dimeric units built up around a crystallographic symmetry centre. Each cadmium(II unit is chelated by a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen group and two acetate ligands, one of which also acts as a bridge, linking both seven-coordinated cadmium(II centres. The crystal structure is governed by a single π–π interaction between stacked phen groups [centroid–centroid distance 3.5209 (11 Å], leading to a planar structure parallel to (010.

  5. Neutron Capture by Cadmium: Thermal Cross Sections and Resonance Integrals of ^106,108,110,112,114,116Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicking, Allison M.; Krane, Kenneth S.

    2011-10-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the stable, even-mass Cd isotopes (A = 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, and 116) have been previously measured in sources of natural abundance or low enrichment, often making the results uncertain owing to the large absorption cross section of naturally occurring ^113Cd. Ambiguities in values of the isomeric branching ratios have also contributed to uncertainties in previous results. We have remeasured the Cd neutron capture cross sections using samples of greater than 90% isotopic enrichment irradiated in the OSU TRIGA reactor. Gamma-ray emission spectra were analyzed to determine the effective resonance integrals and thermal cross sections leading to eight radioactive ground and isomeric states in the Cd isotopes.

  6. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

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    Jana Dumkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  7. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

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    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  8. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

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    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  9. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

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    Tania Jacobo-Estrada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters, the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization, in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney.

  10. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo-Sánchez, Mitzi; Thévenod, Frank; Barbier, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd) toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters), the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization), in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney). PMID:28737682

  11. Targeting PI3K-p110α Suppresses Influenza Virus Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Starkey, Malcolm R; Hanish, Irwan; Parsons, Kristy; Haw, Tatt Jhong; Howland, Linda J; Barr, Ian; Mahony, James B; Foster, Paul S; Knight, Darryl A; Wark, Peter A; Hansbro, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and influenza virus infections are major global health issues. Patients with COPD are more susceptible to infection, which exacerbates their condition and increases morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of increased susceptibility remain poorly understood, and current preventions and treatments have substantial limitations. To characterize the mechanisms of increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection in COPD and the potential for therapeutic targeting. We used a combination of primary bronchial epithelial cells (pBECs) from COPD and healthy control subjects, a mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced experimental COPD, and influenza infection. The role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was characterized using molecular methods, and its potential for targeting assessed using inhibitors. COPD pBECs were susceptible to increased viral entry and replication. Infected mice with experimental COPD also had more severe infection (increased viral titer and pulmonary inflammation, and compromised lung function). These processes were associated with impaired antiviral immunity, reduced retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, and IFN/cytokine and chemokine responses. Increased PI3K-p110α levels and activity in COPD pBECs and/or mice were responsible for increased infection and reduced antiviral responses. Global PI3K, specific therapeutic p110α inhibitors, or exogenous IFN-β restored protective antiviral responses, suppressed infection, and improved lung function. The increased susceptibility of individuals with COPD to influenza likely results from impaired antiviral responses, which are mediated by increased PI3K-p110α activity. This pathway may be targeted therapeutically in COPD, or in healthy individuals, during seasonal or pandemic outbreaks to prevent and/or treat influenza.

  12. Bis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′(sulfato-κ2O,O′cadmium(II propane-1,3-diol solvate

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    Kai-Long Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cd(SO4(C12H8N22]·C3H8O2, the CdII atom has a distorted octahedral coordination composed of four N atoms from two chelating 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and two O atoms from an O,O′-bidentate sulfate group. The two chelating NCCN groups subtend a dihedral angle of 82.21 (9°. The CdII ion, the S atom and the middle C atom of the propane-1,3-diol solvent molecule are located on special positions, site symmetry 2. The solvate features a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the uncoordinated O atoms of the sulfate ion. The OH group of the propane-1,3-diol solvent is disordered over two positions of equal occupancy.

  13. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    using for commercial applications Other zinc alloys Zinc cobalt , tin zinc, zinc iron Passivation Cadmium, ZnNi, SnZn, ZnCo, ZnFe, and...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  14. The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded glycoprotein gp 110 (BALF 4) can serve as a target for antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jilg, Wolfgang; Bogedain, C; Mairhofer, H.; Gu, S. Y.; Wolf, Hans J.

    1994-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is thought to play a major role in controlling the spread of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in an infected individual. Recently, the viral membrane protein gp 350/220, which is also expressed at the surface of the virus producing cell, was identified as a target for ADCC reactions. Due to its glycoprotein nature, the EBV protein gp 110 is another possible ADCC target. It is one of the most abundant proteins found during the late phase of vira...

  15. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  16. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

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    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  17. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

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    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  18. miR-122 promotes hepatic antioxidant defense of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium by directly targeting a metallothionein gene

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    Qiang, Jun, E-mail: Qiangj@ffrc.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Tao, Yi-Fan [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); He, Jie [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Xu, Pao, E-mail: Xup@ffrc.cn [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China); Bao, Jin-Wen [Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081 (China); Sun, Yi-Lan [Key Laboratory of Freshwater Fisheries and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MiR-122 regulated tilapia MT by directly targeting MT 3′UTR. • MiR-122 level was negatively related to MT level under Cd stress. • MiR-122 silencing caused up-regulation of MT expression. • MiR-122 loss relieved liver stress and stimulated antioxidant enzymes. - Abastract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by binding to the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of the target mRNA. MiRNAs regulate a large variety of genes, including those involved in liver homeostasis and energy metabolism. Down-regulated levels of hepatic miR-122 were found in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Here, we report for the first time that reduction of miR-122 post-transcriptionally increased metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels by binding to its 3′UTR, as shown by a 3′ UTR luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of miR-122 were negatively related to MT levels in GIFT under Cd stress. We performed in vivo functional analysis of miR-122 by injecting the fish with a miR-122 antagomir. Inhibition of miR-122 levels in GIFT liver caused a significant increase in MT expression, affected white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and glucose levels, all of which may help to relieve Cd stress-related liver stress. miR-122 silencing modulated oxidative stress and stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Our findings indicate that miR-122 regulated MT levels by binding to the 3′UTR of MT mRNA, and this interaction affected Cd stress induction and the resistance response in GIFT. We concluded that miR-122 plays an important role in regulating the stress response in GIFT liver. Our findings may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in tilapia in response to environmental stresses.

  19. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

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    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  20. Bis(5-chlorosalicylato-κObis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′cadmium(II

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    Xiurong Jiang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cd(C7H4ClO32(C12H8N22], the Cd atom is coordinated by two 5-chlorosalicylate ligands and two 1,10-phenanthroline ligands, displaying a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions between the 1,10-phenanthroline ligands and 5-chlorosalicylate ligands, with a centroid–centroid distance between neighbouring aromatic rings of 3.730 (1 Å.

  1. The Effect of Selenium and +(-)Catechin on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione in Cadmium Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Semra; Dursun, Şefik

    2007-04-01

    Cadmium performs its effect on living organisms by accumulating in various tissues and effects tissue antioxidant enzyme systems. The testes are critical target organ following cadmium exposure. The present study was planned to determine the possible protective roles of selenium and +(-) catechin against the toxic effects of cadmium. The study has been performed in Wistar Albino rats which divided into four groups as control, cadmium, cadmium+selenium and cadmium+ catechin received groups. Each experimental group consisted of ten rats. The experimental group rats have received cadmium sulphate, sodium selenite and +(-) catechin via there drinking water for thirty days. Cadmium concentration, lipid peroxidation and glutathione were measured in the homogenate of testes and blood. As a result of the study it may be said that: The cadmium accumulates in testes and its concentration increases in blood and possibly selenium administration is helpful against cadmium but not +(-)catechin.

  2. Di-μ-benzoato-κ3O,O′:O′;κ3O:O,O′-bis[(benzoato-κ2O,O′(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′cadmium

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    Hong-Jin Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The dinuclear title compound, [Cd2(C7H5O24(C12H8N22], lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The CdII ions are connected by two bridging benzoate anions and each ion is seven-coordinated by five O atoms from three benzoate ligands and by two N atoms from 1,10-phenanthroline. The benzoate ligands adopt two different coordination modes, acting as bidentate and bridging tridentate ligands. The discrete neutral molecules further extend their structure into a three-dimensional supramolecular framework by intermolecular π–π [interplanar distances of 3.392 (4 Å] and C—H...π stacking interactions [H–mean plane = 2.567 (4 and 2.781 (4 Å].

  3. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  4. Poly[[(1,10-phenanthroline{μ3-2,2′,2′′-[1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltris(sulfanediyl]triacetato}cadmium] 0.42-hydrate

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    Chun-Jing Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title complex, {[Cd(C9H7N3O6S3(C12H8N2]·0.42H2O}n, contains a CdII atom, one doubly deprotonated 2,2′,2′′-[1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltris(sulfanediyl]triacetic acid ligand (HTTTA2−, a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligand and a fractionally occupied water molecule [site occupancy = 0.421 (15]. The CdII atom is six-coordinated within a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Six coordination arises from four O atoms derived from three different HTTTA2− ligands, and two N atoms of the chelating phen molecule. The incompletely deprotonated triazine ligand adopts a μ3-η1:η1:η2 coordination mode, resulting in the formation of chains along the c axis based on Cd2O2 dimeric units. Adjacent chains are stacked through π–π stacking [3.533 (2 Å between phen and triazine rings] and C—H...O interactions, forming supramolecular sheets in the ab plane. Intra-and intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds are also observed.

  5. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

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    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the {sup 110,113g,117m}Sn, {sup 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g}In, and {sup 111m,115g}Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  6. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-08-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on natCd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the 110,113g,117mSn, 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117gIn, and 111m,115gCd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  7. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that cadmium uptake in lettuce plants is negatively associated with the presence of calcium in the culture medium, maybe due to a competition between these two cations for binding and absorption sites in roots. In conclusion, the results suggest that fertilization with Ca2+ appears to be a promising ...

  8. 49 CFR 110.110 - After-grant requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS § 110.110 After-grant requirements. The Associate... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false After-grant requirements. 110.110 Section 110.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  9. Computational and Pharmacological Evaluation of Ferrocene-Based Acyl Ureas and Homoleptic Cadmium Carboxylate Derivatives for Anti-diabetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shahar; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Asghar, Faiza; Usman, Muhammad; Badshah, Amin; Ali, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    We investigated possible anti-diabetic effect of ferrocene-based acyl ureas: 4-ferrocenyl aniline (PFA), 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DPC1), 1-(3-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DMC1), 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl) urea (DOC1) and homoleptic cadmium carboxylates: bis (diphenylacetato) cadmium (II) (DPAA), bis (4-chlorophenylacetato) cadmium (II) (CPAA), using in silico and in vivo techniques. PFA, DPC1, DMC1, DOC1, DPAA and CPAA exhibited high binding affinities (ACE ≥ -350 Kcal/mol) against targets: aldose reductase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, C-alpha glucosidase and glucokinase, while showed moderate affinities (ACE ≥ -250 Kcal/mol) against N-alpha glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, phosphorylated-Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, whereas revealed lower affinities (ACE diabetic mice, DPAA and DPC1 (1-10 mg/Kg) at day 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20th decreased blood glucose levels, compared to diabetic control group and improved the treated animals body weight. DPAA (10 mg/Kg) and DPC1 (5 mg/Kg) in time-dependent manner (30-120 min.) enhanced tolerance of oral glucose overload in mice. DPAA and DPCI dose-dependently at 1, 5, and 10 mg/Kg decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels in diabetic animals, as caused by metformin. These results indicate that aforementioned derivatives of ferrocene and cadmium possess anti-diabetic potential.

  10. Thermophilin 110: a bacteriocin of Streptococcus thermophilus ST110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Stefanie E; Somkuti, George A

    2005-09-01

    A screen of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria identified Streptococcus thermophilus strain ST110 as the putative producer of a bacteriocin with high level of activity against pediococci. Thermophilin 110 was isolated from culture supernatant after 16 h of growth and partially purified by a chloroform extraction procedure. The bacteriocin inhibited the growth of several lactic acid bacteria and in the case of Pediococcus acidilactici, it induced cell lysis with the concomitant release of OD260-absorbing material and intracellular enzymes. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed two components with estimated sizes between 4.0 kDa and 4.5 kDa, respectively, with possible involvement in bacteriocin activity as indicated by agar overlay assays with P. acidilactici as the target organism. Thermophilin 110 was inactivated by several proteolytic enzymes and also by alpha-amylase, which indicated the putative requirement of a glycosidic component for activity. The bacteriocin produced by S. thermophilus may be especially useful in the food processing industries to control spoilage caused by pediococci.

  11. Toxicity of cadmium to grapevine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, D.; Ruehl, E.; Alleweldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Cuttings of the cv. Riesling were cultivated in nutrient solutions with different amounts of cadmium. Cadmium inhibited the growth of shoot and of leaf area and produced chlorosis, necroses and leaf deformations. Old leaves showed no symptoms at all, but with high cadmium levels leaf fall occurred. The threshold of cadmium damage was beneath a level of 0.1 ppm Cd of the nutrient solution. The dry matter production of the plants was reduced by cadmium: 0.66 mg Cd/l of nutrient solution caused an inhibition of 50%. Cadmium reduced the chlorophyll content of the leaves. The transport of iron from roots to leaves was inhibited nearly completely by medium to high levels of cadmium (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 ppm). Iron was accumulated in the roots. Thus cadmium may have caused an iron deficiency chlorosis in grapevines. The uptake of cadmium showed a clear dependence on the amount of cadmium in the nutrient solution. Within the plants, decreasing amounts of cadmium were found following the pattern roots - stem - leaves.

  12. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  13. 29 CFR 1910.1027 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery Plate making, plate preparation 50 All other processes 15 Zinc/Cadmium refining* Cadmium refining... as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3... air cadmium level to which an employee is exposed means the exposure to airborne cadmium that would...

  14. Cadmium hazard in silver brazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, S L; Tan, S H; Pinnagoda, J; Tan, K T

    1995-03-01

    This study evaluates the usage of cadmium-containing silver brazing alloys in Singapore and the potential cadmium hazard from its use. Of the 137 factories which responded to the survey questionnaire, only 28 (20.4%) carried out brazing. Of these, only 7 factories used cadmium-containing filler alloys. One hundred and six out of 123 workers from one of these factories had cadmium-in-blood concentrations exceeding 10 mcg/l. Thirty-one (29.2%) of the workers with excessive cadmium absorption had urinary beta-2 microglobulin levels exceeding 28 mcg/g creat. Workers in the other factories who were intermittently exposed had cadmium-in-blood concentrations of 10 mcg/l and below.

  15. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  16. Speciation of Dissolved Cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter Engelund; Andersen, Sjur; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Equilibrium dialysis and ion exchange methods, as well as computer calculations (GEOCHEM), were applied for speciation of dissolved cadmium (Cd) in test solutions and leachate samples. The leachate samples originated from soil, compost, landfill waste and industrial waste. The ion exchange (IE...... leachates showed different Cd speciation patterns as expected. Some leachates were dominated by free divalent Cd (1-70%), some by inorganic complexes (1-87%), and some by organic complexes (7-98%)....

  17. Sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study also evaluated the sublethal effects of cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and iron in plasma samples utilising plasma electrolyte parameters as a biomarker using an albino mice model, M. musculus. Mice were subjected to sublethal concentrations of the selected heavy metals (1/10th of 96 hrLC50). Blood plasma ...

  18. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  19. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  20. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  1. Sensitivity to cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rat testicular cells is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, N; Hochadel, J F; Coogan, T P; Koropatnick, J; Waalkes, M P

    1995-02-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal. Although the mechanism of tumor induction is unknown, DNA/metal interactions may be involved. Metallothionein can protect against cadmium toxicity in our previous work it was shown to reduce cadmium genotoxicity in cultured cells. To extend these results, the genotoxicity of cadmium was studied in R2C cells, a rat testicular Leydig cell line. The R2C cells were very sensitive to cadmium-induced single-strand DNA damage (SSD), as measured by alkaline elution. SSD occurred in R2C cells after treatment with 25 and 50 microM CdCl2 for 2 hr. Prior work showed other cells required much higher levels of cadmium (approximately 500 microM) to induce genotoxicity. The genotoxic levels of cadmium (25-50 microM) were not cytotoxic in R2C cells as assessed by a metabolic activity (MTT) assay. Pretreatment of R2C cells with a low cadmium dose (2 microM, 24 hr) had no effect on cadmium-induced SSD, in contrast to prior work in other cells where such pretreatments reduced SSD through metallothionein gene activation. In fact, cadmium or zinc treatments resulted in little or no increase in metallothionein gene expression in R2C cells as determined by Northern blot analysis for metallothionein mRNA using cDNA or oligonucleotide probes and radioimmunoassay for metallothionein protein production. Basal metallothionein mRNA was essentially nondetectable. Induction of a cadmium-binding protein in R2C cells did occur, as determined by Cd-heme assay, but did not induce tolerance to SSD. In vivo, the Leydig cell is a target for cadmium carcinogenicity and its cadmium-binding protein is thought not to be a true metallothionein. These results indicate that R2C cells are sensitive to cadmium-induced genotoxicity and that this sensitivity is associated with minimal expression of the metallothionein gene.

  2. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  3. Inhibition of Yap2 activity by MAPKAP kinase Rck1 affects yeast tolerance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Daiane; Pimentel, Catarina; Caetano, Soraia; Amaral, Catarina; Menezes, Regina; Santos, Claudia N; Eleutherio, Elis; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2015-09-14

    Yap2 is a cadmium responsive transcription factor that interacts with MAPK-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase Rck1. We show that Rck1 deletion confers protection against cadmium toxicity and that the mechanism underlying this observation relies on Yap2. Rck1 removal from the yeast genome potentiates Yap2 activity by increasing protein half-life and delaying its nuclear export. As a consequence, several Yap2 antioxidant targets are over-activated by a mechanism that also requires Yap1. Several genes of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway are upregulated under cadmium stress in a Yap2 dependent way. We showed that deletion of CWI genes renders yeast cells more sensitive to cadmium. These findings led us to suggest that in response to cadmium stress Yap2 may serve a dual purpose: oxidative stress attenuation and cell wall maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium immobilization by hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smičiklas Ivana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air, soil and water by cadmium is a great environmental problem. If cadmium occurs in nature in ionic form, soluble in water, it easily enters into the food chain. Hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca-o(POAe(OH2 is a sparingly soluble salt and an excellent matrix for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Considerable research attention has been paid to the bond between Cc/2+ ions and synthetic hydroxyapatite of known composition. The sorption mechanism is complex. The dominant process is ion exchange, but surface adsorption, surface complexation and coprecipitation can also contribute to the overall mechanism. The sorption capacity depends on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite itself and on the experimental conditions. Under optimum conditions a maximum capacity of 0.8 mol Cd2+/mol HAP can be achieved. HAP is a potential sorbent for the remediation of contaminated water and soil, for industrial waste treatment, and it is also referenced as a material that can be used as a barrier around waste depositories.

  5. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  6. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice.

  7. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hanyang; Lu, Xing; Cen, Xiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Feng; Zhong, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively investigate the mice testicular transcriptome to further elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that hundreds of genes expression altered significantly in response to cadmium treatment. In particular, we found several transcriptional signatures closely related to the biological processes of regulation of hormone, gamete generation, and sexual reproduction, respectively. The expression of several testosterone synthetic key enzyme genes, such as Star, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, were inhibited by the cadmium exposure. For better understanding of the cadmium-mediated transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the genes, we computationally analyzed the transcription factors binding sites and the mircoRNAs targets of the differentially expressed genes. Our findings suggest that the reproductive toxicity by cadmium exposure is implicated in multiple layers of deregulation of several biological processes and transcriptional regulation in mice. PMID:24982889

  8. Aspirin, 110 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, C; Rocca, B

    2009-07-01

    Although conceived at the end of the 19th century as a synthetic analgesic agent with improved gastric tolerability vs. naturally occurring salicylates, acetylsalicylic acid (marketed as aspirin in 1899) turned out to be an ideal antiplatelet agent about 90 years later, following the understanding of its mechanism of action, the development of a mechanism-based biomarker for dose-finding studies, and the initiation of a series of appropriately sized, randomized clinical trials to test its efficacy and safety at low doses given once daily. At the turn of its 110th anniversary, aspirin continues to attract heated debates on a number of issues including (i) the optimal dose to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity; (ii) the possibility that some patients may be 'resistant' to its antiplatelet effects; and (iii) the balance of benefits and risks in primary vs. secondary prevention.

  9. Occupational cadmium exposure-associated oxidative stress and erythrocyte fragility among jewelry workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Brashier, Bill B; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium-induced pulmonary and renal target organ effects are well-established although its association with oxidative stress and associated hematological effects for human toxicity remain understudied. In a population of cadmium-exposed male jewelry manufacturing workers (n = 32) and referents without direct exposure (n = 21), all with urinary cadmium quantification, we measured plasma antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), erythrocyte fragility, and surface irregularity of the erythrocyte membrane. Compared to referents, exposed workers manifested significantly lower plasma antioxidant enzymes, and increased malondialdehyde and erythrocyte fragility (for all, P toxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  11. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  13. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data ...... or crushed linseed nor the intake of cocoa and chocolate....

  14. Removal of cadmium from acidic phosphatic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenfeld, K.; Brodt, P.; Eich, G.; Ruschke, P.

    1985-01-08

    The invention is concerned with a process of removing cadmium from acid, especially P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-containing solutions by liquid/liquid extraction with the aid of alkyl amine salts that are dissolved in an inert, organic solvent. The cadmium ions are removed from the acid, aqueous phase and are enriched in the organic phase. The cadmium-containing organic phase, subsequently, is re-extracted with an aqueous salt solution, with the cadmium ions migrating from the organic phase into the aqueous phase. The process is particularly suitable for extracting cadmium from concentrated, highly acid aqueous solutions.

  15. Magnesium supplements affect selected cadmium toxic actions and uptake of repeated doses of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of magnesium supplements on organ retention of cadmium and allometric parameters after repeated exposure to cadmium chloride were studied in male Wistar rats. Magnesium chloride was given via drinking water (500 mg Mg/L to rats exposed intragastrically to cadmium chloride (labelled with cadmium 109 at a daily dose corresponding to 25 mg/kg diet for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d. Supplements of magnesium temporarily decreased cadmium retention in the duodenum and liver. No significant differences in cadmium retention were evidenced in the kidneys and testicles. The supplements of magnesium also retain more of the body weight gains and restore the relative liver and testicle weight in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Comparison of the present results with earlier reports suggests a relationship between doses of magnesium and cadmium; higher doses of cadmium need more magnesium to overcome toxic action of the heavy metal.

  16. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... P. chrysosporium was used to biosorp cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and the adsorption capacities reached 23.04, 69.77 and 20.33mg/g dry biomass, respectively (Say et al. 2001). The maximum experimental biosorption capacities for entrapped live and dead fungal mycelia of L. sajur-caju were found ...

  17. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium content of plants as affected by soil cadmium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoczky, E. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely (Hungary); Szabados, I.; Marth, P. [Plant Health and Soil Conservation Station, Higany (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse conditions to study the effects of increasing cadmium (Cd) levels on biomass production and Cd contents in corn, (Zea mays L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Plants were grown in two soil types: Eutric cambisol soil and A gleyic luvisol soil. Spinach proved to be the most sensitive to Cd treatments as its biomass considerably decreased with the increasing Cd levels. Cadmium contents of the three crops increased with increasing levels of Cd applications. Statistical differences were observed in the Cd contents of crops depending on soil type. With the same Cd rates, Cd tissue concentration of test plants grown in the strongly acidic Gleyic luvisol soil were many times higher than that of plants grown in a neutral Eutric cambisol soil. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  20. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  1. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  2. Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, H. J.; Davison, A G; Wright, A. L.; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium bu...

  3. Dynamics of GFP-Fusion p110α and p110β Isoforms of PI3K Signaling Pathway in Normal and Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Paramjeet; Dar, Mohd Saleem; Singh, Gurjinder; Jamwal, Gayatri; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Ahmad, Muzamil; Dar, Mohd Jamal

    2016-12-01

    Cancer therapeutics is a hot subject and PI3K class 1A isoforms (p110α and p110β) are pursued as major targets. Genetic analysis, biochemical approaches, and structural studies have demonstrated crucial roles for these isoforms in several physiological processes. p110α is critical for insulin signaling, whereas p110β is essential for the growth and differs from p110α in many ways. Here, we have generated GFP-fusion clones of wildtype and mutant version of p110α and p110β and expressed them in HEK293 and cancer cells to examine their subcellular localization and their impact on downstream signaling. In HEK293 cells, p110β GFP-fusion protein is translocated into the nucleus, whereas p110α-GFP stays exclusively in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates that p110α and p110β oncogenecity, kinase activity, and interaction with p85 regulatory subunit does not have any impact on their subcellular localization. PI3K pathway specific inhibitor, LY294002, abrogated PI3K signaling by reducing pAkt levels, however, the subcellular localization of p110α and p110β remained unchanged. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of recombinant p110α and p110β in a panel of human cancer cells and observed remarkable differences in their expression levels. The differential expression of recombinant p110α and p110β was observed to be mainly regulated by the endogenous levels of pAkt. Unlike in HEK293, p110α showed nuclear localization in cancer cells in a similar fashion to p110β. Moreover, we observed the PI3K signaling activities in low pAkt expressing cells are mediated by PDK1 and S6K proteins. Finally, p110α and p110β were seen to play an essential role in promoting the cell cycle progression in MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2864-2874, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [Effects of cadmium on testis function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynowicz, Helena; Skoczyńska, Anna; Karczmarek-Wdowiak, Beata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    The deterioration of male fertility, reported in numerous epidemiological studies over past decades, can be connected with growing exposure to environmental toxins. Heavy metals, especially cadmium, is widely spread and extremely toxic. The mechanisms of cadmium toxic effects vary and involve the damage of vascular endothelium, intracellular junctions, germ cells, Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cadmium can increase activity of reactive oxygen species and induce changes in activity of enzymatic systems and inflammatory reactions. The morphological changes caused by cadmium included the necrosis of seminiferous tubiles and interstitial edema. This metal can reduce testosterone synthesis at various levels and deteriorate spermatogenesis. Cadmium is also acknowledged carcinogen with confirmed mutagenic and genotoxic activity. Increasing environmental exposure to cadmium, currently existing occupational exposure and the prevalence of tobacco smoking results in constant increase in the number of diagnosed fertility impairments.

  6. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  7. Electrodialytic Removal of Cadmium from Straw Ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days of remed......A problem with flyash from straw and wood combustion is the high level of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Two electrodialytic remediation experiments were carried out on cadmium polluted flyash from straw combustion. The flyash could be cleaned to 1/3 of its initial level after 24 days...

  8. Interplay of calcium and cadmium in mediating cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Grace; Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2014-03-25

    The environmentally important toxic metal, cadmium, exists as the Cd(2+) ion in biological systems, and in this state structurally resembles Ca(2+). Thus, although cadmium exerts a broad range of adverse actions on cells by virtue of its propensity to bind to protein thiol groups, it is now well appreciated that Cd(2+) participates in a number of Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, attributable to its actions as a Ca(2+) mimetic, with a central role for calmodulin, and the Ca(2+)/calmodlin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) that mediates effects on cytoskeletal dynamics and apoptotic cell death. Cadmium interacts with receptors and ion channels on the cell surface, and with the intracellular estrogen receptor where it binds competitively to residues shared by Ca(2+). It increases cytosolic [Ca(2+)] through several mechanisms, but also decreases transcript levels of some Ca(2+)-transporter genes. It initiates mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, and activates calpains, contributing to mitochondria-independent apoptosis. However, the recent discovery of the role CaMK-II plays in Cd(2+)-induced cell death, and subsequent implication of CaMK-II in Cd(2+)-dependent alterations of cytoskeletal dynamics, has opened a new area of mechanistic cadmium toxicology that is a focus of this review. Calmodulin is necessary for induction of apoptosis by several agents, yet induction of apoptosis by Cd(2+) is prevented by CaMK-II block, and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of CaMK-II has been linked to increased Cd(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Calmodulin antagonism suppresses Cd(2+)-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and the Akt survival pathway. The involvement of CaMK-II in the effects of Cd(2+) on cell morphology, and particularly the actin cytoskeleton, is profound, favouring actin depolymerization, disrupting focal adhesions, and directing phosphorylated FAK into a cellular membrane. CaMK-II is also implicated in effects of Cd(2+) on microtubules and cadherin junctions. A key question for

  9. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    -dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  10. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  11. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  12. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 3. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization. N R Munirathnam ... The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical ...

  13. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  14. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of damage to organs of grey poplar was as follows: root > stem> leaves. It was suggested that the Populus × canescens as a renewable resource has the potential to decontaminate cadmium stress development, accumulation and distribution. Key words: Cadmium, phytoremediation, hyperaccumulator, grey poplar, organ.

  15. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uptake of cadmium from aqueous solution appeared to follow adsorption mechanism and not ion exchange as characteristic of many other divalent hexacyanoferrates. The sorption data were fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. KEY WORDS: Cadmium removal, Potassium manganese hexacynoferrates(II)/(III) Bull.

  16. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma ...

  17. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette (cadA4C), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation.IMPORTANCEListeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and tolerate

  18. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  19. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to

  20. 9 CFR 590.110 - Licensed inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensed inspectors. 590.110 Section 590.110 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... financially interested. ...

  1. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  2. Response of Pleurotus ostreatus to cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favero, N.; Bressa, G.; Costa, P. (Univ. of Padua (Italy))

    1990-08-01

    The possibility of utilizing agroindustrial wastes in the production of edible, high-quality products (e.g., mushrooms) implies the risk of bringing toxic substances, such as heavy metals, into the human food chain. Thus, growth in the presence of cadmium and cadmium accumulation limits have been studied in the industrially cultivated fungus P. ostreatus. Fruit body production is substantially unaffected in the presence of 25, 139, and 285 mg Cd/kg of dried substrate. Cadmium concentration in fruit bodies is related to cadmium substrate level, the metal being present at higher levels in caps (22-56 mg/kg dry wt) than in stems (13-36 mg/kg dry wt). Concentration factor (CF), very low in the controls (about 2), further decreases in treated specimens. The presence of a cadmium control mechanism in this fungi species is suggested. Fruit body cadmium levels could, however, represent a risk for P. ostreatus consumers, according to FAO/WHO limits related to weekly cadmium intake.

  3. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  4. [Cadmium and selenium interaction in mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium occurs in the environment naturally and as a pollutant. Its exposure is inevitable and may produce toxic effects in many organs and organ systems through binding to biological structures, accumulation in internal organs or induction of free radical production. Another important aspect of Cd toxicity is its interaction, often anthagonistic, with essential elements. Vice versa, additional intake of the essential elements may have beneficial influence on distribution and toxic effects of cadmium. Selenium is an essential microelement and a constituent of many selenoproteins with antioxidant properties that bind cadmium (and other toxic elements such as mercury or arsenic). This review summarizes results, to date, of cadmium toxicokinetics and toxicodinamics, selenium biokinetics and biodinamics, as well as mechanisms of cadmium-selenium interaction and their impact on the oxidative status derived from the studies based upon mainly on animal experiments and on limited number of human studies. The wide variety of different doses, dose ratios, element administration modes and exposure lenghts of cadmium and selenium often yielded contradictory results. Future studies should be focused on assessment of effects of cadmium and selenium interaction in sensitive population groups and mechanisms of that interaction. Regarding animal studies, doses and exposure should be adjusted to long-term low exposure levels that are usually found in human population.

  5. 7 CFR 4290.110 - Qualified management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified management. 4290.110 Section 4290.110... Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.110 Qualified management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that its current or proposed management team is qualified and has...

  6. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cacao nibs. 163.110 Section 163.110 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.110 Cacao nibs. (a) Description. (1) Cacao nibs is the food prepared by removing the shell from cured, cleaned, dried, and cracked...

  7. 10 CFR 110.134 - Public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public participation. 110.134 Section 110.134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Rulemaking § 110.134 Public participation. (a) The Commission may hold an oral hearing on a proposed rule or permit...

  8. 27 CFR 44.110 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 44.110 Section 44.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Proprietors Changes in Location and Premises § 44.110 ...

  9. 42 CFR 51c.110 - Confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 51c.110 Section 51c.110 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.110 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts and... designee with appropriate safeguards for confidentiality of patient records. Otherwise, information may be...

  10. 49 CFR 195.110 - External loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External loads. 195.110 Section 195.110 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.110 External loads. (a) Anticipated external loads (e.g.), earthquakes...

  11. 7 CFR 1280.110 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 1280.110 Section 1280.110 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.110 Information. Information means information and programs that are designed to increase efficiency in producing lambs, to...

  12. 14 CFR 1250.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judicial review. 1250.110 Section 1250.110... PROGRAMS OF NASA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1250.110 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Act is subject to judicial review as provided in section 603...

  13. 27 CFR 24.110 - Organizational documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organizational documents. 24.110 Section 24.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.110 Organizational...

  14. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...

  15. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 110.13 Section 110.13... PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26... political parties may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11 CFR 114.4(f). (2...

  16. 29 CFR 1978.110 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor, shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceedings (49 U.S.C... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 1978.110 Section 1978.110 Labor...) Rules of Procedure Litigation § 1978.110 Judicial review. (a) Within 60 days after the issuance of a...

  17. 49 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... GRANTS § 110.1 Purpose. This part sets forth procedures for reimbursable grants for public sector...

  18. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate accounting...

  19. 11 CFR 6.110 - Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation. 6.110 Section 6.110 Federal... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION § 6.110 Evaluation. (a) Within one year of... persons, including handicapped persons and organizations representing handicapped persons, and evaluation...

  20. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...

  1. 10 CFR 110.28 - Embargoed destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embargoed destinations. 110.28 Section 110.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.28 Embargoed destinations. Cuba Iran Iraq North Korea Syria Sudan ...

  2. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  3. 42 CFR 136.110 - Facilities construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilities construction. 136.110 Section 136.110..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Grants for Development, Construction, and Operation of Facilities and Services § 136.110 Facilities construction. In addition to other requirements of this subpart...

  4. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  5. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  6. The isotopic composition of dissolved cadmium in the water column of the West Philippine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chung eYang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved concentration and isotopic compositions of cadmium (Cd in the seawater of the West Philippine Sea were determined. In general, Cd isotopic composition in the water column decreased with depth, with ε114/110Cd (ε114/110Cd = [(114Cd/110Cdsample / (114Cd/110CdNIST 3108 - 1]×10000 ranging from +7.2 to +10.1 in the top 60 m, from +4.8 to +5.1 between 100 and 150 m, peaking at +8.2 at 200 m, decreasing from +4.5 to +3.3 from 400 to 1000 m, and remaining constant at +3.0 from 1000 m and deeper. Different to a Rayleigh fractionation model, the isotopic composition and log scale concentrations of Cd do not exhibit a linear relationship. However, from the deep water to thermocline, the variations in Cd concentration and ε114/110Cd are relevant to the variations of temperature and salinity, indicating that water mixing is the dominant processes determining the concentration and isotopic composition in the interval. At 200 m where North Pacific Tropic Water dominates the water mass, the elevated ε114/110Cd could be linked to the composition in the upper portions of the water mass. In the top 150 m, the ε114/110Cd varies similarly to the phytoplankton community structures, implying that Cd uptake by various phytoplankton species may be associated with the isotopic variation. However, the effects of atmospheric inputs to the ε114/110Cd in the surface water cannot be excluded. A box model calculation is used to constrain the contributions of various processes to the Cd isotopes of surface water, and the results indicate that the Cd concentration and isotopic composition in most of the water body of the region are controlled by physical mixing, while the effects of biological fractionation and atmospheric inputs are limited in the euphotic zone.

  7. Low level determinations of environmental cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, K.J.R.; De Laeter, J.R.

    1976-06-24

    An isotope dilution technique has been developed to measure the concentration of cadmium in aqueous solutions with a sensitivity of 0.003 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of cadmium in two river systems in Western Australia has been measured to establish an accurate set of low level reference determinations in a region which is relatively free of sources of industrial pollution. The results of the study demonstrate that the cadmium content in the two major river systems in western Australia is about 100 times lower than the World Health Organization limits. The data indicate that the cadmium content tends to decrease upstream from the mouth of the river, and that in the reservoir areas the content is as low as 0.02 micrograms per liter. These values are substantially lower than waterways in other parts of the world. 13 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  8. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content.

  9. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  10. Cadmium leaching from thermal treated and gamma irradiated Mexican aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Rangel, J.I. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Academica Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, Zacatecas, Zacatecas 98068 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100 Col. Centro C.P. 50000, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Solache-Rios, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico 11801, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: msr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-10-15

    Thermal and radiation effects on the leaching of cadmium from two cadmium exchanged zeolitic tuffs and one clay were determined. The cadmium exchanged aluminosilicates were heated at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1100 {sup o}C), and the materials were then treated with NaCl (1 M and 5 M) and HNO{sub 3} (0.001 M and 1 M) solutions to determine the leaching behaviour of cadmium from the materials. The stability of cadmium in the materials increased as the heating temperature was increased. Cadmium leaching from gamma irradiated and heated materials at 1100 {sup o}C was higher than leaching from non-irradiated samples.

  11. Application of mercapto ordered carbohydrate-derived porous carbons for trace detection of cadmium and copper ions in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Abolhasani, Jafar; Amini, Mostafa M; Sadeghi, Omid; Omidi, Fariborz; Bagheri, Akbar; Salarian, Mani

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have introduced nanoporous carbon modified with mercapto groups as a new solid-phase method for extraction of cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions. The modified nanoporous carbon sorbent was characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption surface area (BET) measurements. Effects of pH value, flow rates, type, concentration and volume of the eluent, breakthrough volume, and effect of other ions were studied. The experimental results show that simultaneous trace cadmium(II) and copper(II) ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated at pH 6.0 with recoveries >97%. Under optimised conditions, limits of detection are 0.04 and 0.09 ng mL(-1) for the ions of cadmium and copper respectively, and the precision of the method for analysis of cadmium and copper ions (5.0 μg of each target ions, N=8) are 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively. The obtained capacities of mercapto-nanoporous carbon were found to be 145 and 95 mg g(-1) for cadmium and copper ions, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing standard reference material. Finally, the introduced sorbent was successfully applied for trace determination of cadmium and copper ions in food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphorus adlayers on Platinum (110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Olli; Riihimäki, Ari; Sainio, Jani; Lahtinen, Jouko

    2017-10-01

    Platinum is a metal utilized in many applications. Its catalytic activity can be decreased due to chemical poisoning caused e.g. by phosphorus. To gain more understanding of its poisoning, we present a study of phosphorus adsorption on a platinum (110) single crystal surface. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have found that the adsorbate coverage saturates at around 3 monolayers. Annealing the phosphorus-covered platinum surface at 750 °C gives rise to three different ordered adlayer structures, with symmetries of 2 × 3, 11 × 4 and √{ 2} × 1 , from the lowest to the highest coverage, detected with low-energy electron diffraction. We have studied the sample topography with scanning tunnelling microscopy. We also present a tentative model for the observed structures and their evolution.

  13. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  14. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  15. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  16. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  17. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  18. Toxicity of cadmium to the developing lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daston, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on the developing lung and pulmonary surfactant were studied. Pregnant rats received subcutaneous injections of cadmium chloride on days 12 to 15 of gestation and were sacrificed throughout late gestation. The treatment resulted in high embryonic mortality and growth regardation. Fetal lung weight was reduced 20 to 30% due to hypoplasia, as the number of lung cells (DNA/lung) but not cell size (protein/cell) was lowered. The ultrastructural development of alveolar epithelium was altered; cytodifferentiation was delayed; and the cytoplasmic inclusions which contain pulmonary surfactant, were reduced in the term fetus. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was diminished in the lungs of treated fetuses. The immediate cause of this lowered accumulation was a decreased rate of synthesis of PC from choline. Carbohydrates probably represent a major source of PC precursors and are present in large quantities in the fetal lung as glycogen. The pulmonary glycogen content of cadmium-exposed fetuses was diminished. It is postulated that this is a reason for the lowered rate of PC synthesis. Maternally administered cadmium did not pass through the placenta; thus, the mechanism of fetotoxicity was indirect. Maternal cadmium exposure did result in lowered fetal zinc levels. Coadministration of zinc with cadmium raised fetal zinc concentration to control values and alleviated all fetotoxicity. Fetal zinc deficiency is a possible mechanism for the toxic effects on the developing lung. Several dams were allowed to give birth and their offspring were observed for respiratory problems. Cadmium treatment delayed parturition by about a day. Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were observed in 11% of the treated neonates. All but one of these individuals died and had lungs with hyaline membranes. This is the only known case of an environmental agent causing neonatal RDS.

  19. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  20. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  1. Genotoxic Effect of Atrazine, Arsenic, Cadmium and Nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATZ), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As) and Nitrate (NO3) have both estrogenic activity and carcinogenic potential. Atrazine has clastogenic effects and may also act as tumor promoter as it induces the aromatase enzyme. Arsenic and Cadmium ...

  2. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from cattle...

  3. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  4. Cadmium recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of cadmium is a young and growing industry that has been influenced by environmental concerns and regulatory constraints. Domestic recycling of cadmium began in 1989 as a byproduct of processing of spent nickel-cadmium batteries. In 1995, International Metals Reclamation Co. Inc. expanded its operations by building a dedicated cadmium recycling plant. In 2000, an estimated 13 percent of cadmium consumption in the United States was sourced from recycled cadmium, which is derived mainly from old scrap or, to lesser degree, new scrap. The easiest forms of old scrap to recycle are small spent nickel-cadmium batteries followed by flue dust generated during recycling of galvanized steel and small amounts of alloys that contain cadmium. Most of new scrap is generated during manufacturing processes, such as nickel-cadmium battery production. All other uses of cadmium are in low concentrations and, therefore, difficult to recycle. Consequently, much of this cadmium is dissipated and lost. The amount of cadmium in scrap that was unrecovered in 2000 was estimated to be 2,030 metric tons, and an estimated 285 tons was recovered. Recycling efficiency was estimated to be about 15 percent.

  5. Cadmium uptake by the green alga Chlorella emersonii | Arikpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were carried out on the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by the green alga Chlorella emersonii with the aid of an ion selective electrode. Cadmium uptake by Chlorella was very rapid with 70% of total uptake occurring during the first 10 seconds. Uptake of cadmium by Chlorella showed a direct ...

  6. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-10-29

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 {mu}g l{sup -1} for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure.

  7. Activation cross sections on cadmium: Deuteron induced nuclear reactions up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Király, B.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Csikai, J.; Hermanne, A.; Uddin, M. S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Ido, T.; Shubin, Yu. N.; Kovalev, S. F.

    2007-06-01

    Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions were measured up to 40 MeV using the standard stacked-foil irradiation method and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the reactions natCd(d,x)107g,108g,108m,109g,110g,110m,111g,112m,113m,114m,115m,116m1In, natCd(d,x)111m,115g,115m,117g,117mCd and natCd(d,x)105g,106m,110m,111gAg. No experimental data measured on natural cadmium have been found in the literature for the isotopes 107g,108g,108m,112m,115mIn, 111m,115m,117g,117mCd and 105g,106m,110m,111gAg. The experimental data are analyzed with and compared to the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Applications of the cross sections for data validation, medical radioisotope production, thin-layer activation and dose calculation are discussed.

  8. 38 CFR 4.110 - Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ulcers. 4.110 Section 4... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.110 Ulcers. Experience has shown that the term “peptic ulcer” is not sufficiently specific for rating purposes. Manifest differences in ulcers of the stomach...

  9. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract rents. 886.110 Section 886... for Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.110 Contract rents. (a) The sum of the Contract Rents plus an Allowance for Utilities and Other Services shall not exceed the published Section 8...

  10. 33 CFR 106.110 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 106.110 Section... MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.110 Compliance dates. (a) On or... TWIC under this part may enroll beginning after the date set by the Coast Guard in a Notice to be...

  11. 7 CFR 915.110 - Exemption certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption certificates. 915.110 Section 915.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... the Manager of the Avocado Administrative Committee on its behalf, of one or more exemption...

  12. 17 CFR 200.110 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 200.110 Section 200.110 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex Parte Communications Between Persons...

  13. 27 CFR 21.110 - Gasoline, unleaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gasoline, unleaded. 21.110....110 Gasoline, unleaded. Conforms to specifications as established by the American Society for Testing...-79. Any of the “seasonal and geographical” volatility classes for unleaded gasoline are considered...

  14. 49 CFR 110.70 - Financial administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial administration. 110.70 Section 110.70 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND OIL TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PUBLIC SECTOR TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS ...

  15. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or prohibited...

  16. 7 CFR 762.110 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan application. 762.110 Section 762.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... of debts over $1,000; (3) Three years financial history; (4) Three years of production history (for...

  17. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varietal types. 989.110 Section 989.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...) Natural (sun-dried) Seedless includes all sun-dried seedless raisins possessing similar identifiable...

  18. 33 CFR 155.110 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 155.110 Section 155.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... credential that serves as the mariner's qualification document, certificate of identification, and...

  19. 29 CFR 452.110 - Adequate safeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to be included in the union's constitution and bylaws, but they must be observed. A labor... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate safeguards. 452.110 Section 452.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  20. 50 CFR 600.110 - Intercouncil fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intercouncil fisheries. 600.110 Section 600.110 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Regional Fishery Management Councils § 600...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLB110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SLB110Z (Link to Original site) - - SLB...110Z 574 - - - - Show SLB110 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLB110 (Link to dictyBase) At...las ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLB1-A/SLB...110Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLB110Z (Link to Original site) R...epresentative DNA sequence >SLB110 (SLB110Q) /CSM/SL/SLB1-A/SLB110Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAAATCAGTCGAAATGCATCACGG

  2. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  3. Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Donegan, John

    2013-01-01

    Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign

  4. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.K. (Northrop Services Inc., Corvallis, OR); DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  5. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  6. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in fresh and processed tuna marketed in Galicia (NW Spain): Risk assessment of dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ricardo; García, M Ángeles; Alonso, Julián; Melgar, M Julia

    2018-01-29

    Currently, metal bioaccumulation in fish is increasing and is a cause of concern due to toxicity. Total arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in fresh and processed tuna (110 samples) marketed in Galicia (NW Spain) were determined by ICP-MS spectrometry. The average concentrations of As and Cd, 3.78 and 0.024 mg kg -1 w.w., respectively, in fresh tuna were statistically significantly higher than those in processed tuna (p  natural > pickled sauce. Of the two species studied in canned tuna, Thunnus alalunga showed statistically significant higher levels both for As 1.28 mg kg -1 (p < 0.001) and Pb 0.013 mg kg -1 (p = 0.0496) than Thunnus albacares. No samples surpassed the limits set by the EU for Cd and Pb. The limit for As in fish has not been established, but the arsenic contents in fresh tuna reported here are important, as they are among the highest reported in the literature. Considering public health in children and adults with respect to the investigated metals, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) did not exceed the tolerable intakes. No chronic systemic risk was found since all the target hazard quotients (THQs-TTHQs) were far below 1 (critical value), and the carcinogenic risk (CR) for As did not exceed the acceptable value of 10 -5 . Thus, tuna consumption in the Galician diet does not pose a risk for different population groups in terms of these studied metals/metalloids. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cadmium Exposure and Pancreatic Cancer in South Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Luckett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium has been hypothesized to be a pancreatic carcinogen. We test the hypothesis that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer with a population-based case-control study sampled from a population with persistently high rates of pancreatic cancer (south Louisiana. We tested potential dietary and nondietary sources of cadmium for their association with urinary cadmium concentrations which reflect long-term exposure to cadmium due to the accumulation of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Increasing urinary cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with an increasing risk of pancreatic cancer (2nd quartile OR = 3.34, 3rd = 5.58, 4th = 7.70; test for trend P≤0.0001. Potential sources of cadmium exposure, as documented in the scientific literature, found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer included working as a plumber, pipefitter or welder (OR = 5.88 and high consumption levels of red meat (4th quartile OR = 6.18 and grains (4th quartile OR = 3.38. Current cigarette smoking, at least 80 pack years of smoking, occupational exposure to cadmium and paints, working in a shipyard, and high consumption of grains were found to be statistically significantly associated with increased concentrations of urinary cadmium. This study provides epidemiologic evidence that cadmium is a potential human pancreatic carcinogen.

  8. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  9. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  10. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  11. Phytotoxicity of cadmium on peroxidation, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that Cd destroyed the balance of free radical metabolisms, which resulted in increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the relative cell membrane permeability (RMP). The kernel yield and kernel rate per pot showed significant decrease under cadmium stress (P < 0.05). The varieties FengHua3 ...

  12. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anion-doped cadmium sulphide nanomaterials have been synthesized by using combustionmethod at normal atmospheric conditions. Oxidant/fuel ratios have been optimized in order to obtain CdS with best characteristics. Formation of CdS and size of crystallite were identified by X-ray diffraction and confirmed by ...

  13. Mobiliteit van cadmium in de bodem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of cadmium by twelve Dutch soils was investigated under widely varying circumstances. The adsorption can be described with the Freundlich equation; the parameters of this equation can be predicted using the properties of the soil (pH, organic carbon and clay

  14. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  15. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  16. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  17. Combustion synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanomaterials for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CdS nanomaterials for the hydrogen production from water (2120 μmol/h) can be attributed to high crystallinity, low band gap and less exciton recombination due to the C and N doping. Keywords. Cadmium sulphide; combustion synthesis; anion doping; water splitting; ...

  18. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on reproduction in adult animals previously exposed in ovo or as hatchlings. Adults were raised either from eggs produced during a two week exposure to 0, 1, 5, o...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  20. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  1. antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    (1.51/gm) and selenium (0.25mg) which on their own had little or no effects on the serum basal phosphatases, hormonal and histological stability caused a reversal of the cadmium-induced biochemical, hormonal and histological toxicities of the ..... accessory sex tissues atrophy such as the prostate. (Waalkes et al 1997a).

  2. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Toppo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days. On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, significant (p≤0.01 increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01 decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg, daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFE110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFE110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - SFE110P (Link to Original site) SFE110F 594 SF...E110Z 752 SFE110P 1346 - - Show SFE110 Library SF (Link to library) Clone ID SFE110 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SF/SF...E1-A/SFE110Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SFE110P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SFE110 (SFE110Q) /CSM/SF/SFE1-A/SFE110Q.Seq.d/ TTTTCTCACCAGAAGA

  5. Host transcription factor Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110), a nuclear body protein, is hijacked by hepatitis B virus protein X for viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Isha; Das, Dipanwita; Singh, Shivaram Prasad; Chakravarty, Runu; Das, Chandrima

    2017-12-15

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB) are sub-nuclear organelles that are the hub of numerous proteins. DNA/RNA viruses often hijack the cellular factors resident in PML-NBs to promote their proliferation in host cells. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), belonging to Hepadnaviridae family, remains undetected in early infection as it does not induce the innate immune response and is known to be the cause of several hepatic diseases leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The association of PML-NB proteins and HBV is being addressed in a number of recent studies. Here, we report that the PML-NB protein Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110) is SUMO1-modified and undergoes a deSUMOylation-driven release from the PML-NB in the presence of HBV. Intriguingly, Sp110 knockdown significantly reduced viral DNA load in the culture supernatant by activation of the type I interferon-response pathway. Furthermore, we found that Sp110 differentially regulates several direct target genes of hepatitis B virus protein X (HBx), a viral co-factor. Subsequently, we identified Sp110 as a novel interactor of HBx and found this association to be essential for the exit of Sp110 from the PML-NB during HBV infection and HBx recruitment on the promoter of these genes. HBx, in turn, modulates the recruitment of its associated transcription cofactors p300/HDAC1 to these co-regulated genes, thereby altering the host gene expression program in favor of viral persistence. Thus, we report a mechanism by which HBV can evade host immune response by hijacking the PML-NB protein Sp110, and therefore, we propose it to be a novel target for antiviral therapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. N-Benzyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Derivatives and Cysteine Protease Inhibitor E64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahardika Agus Wijayanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential new targets for antimalarial chemotherapy include parasite proteases, which are required for several cellular functions during the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle. Four new derivatives of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized. Those are (1-N-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1-N-ethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate, (1-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium chloride, and (1-N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium iodide. Those compounds had potential antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values from 260.42 to 465.38 nM. Cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 was used to investigate the mechanism of action of N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives. A modified fixed-ratio isobologram method was used to study the in vitro interactions between the new compounds with either E64 or chloroquine. The interaction between N-alkyl and N-benzyl-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives and E64 was additive as well as their interactions with chloroquine were also additive. Antimalarial mechanism of chloroquine is mainly on the inhibition of hemozoin formation. As the interaction of chloroquine and E64 was additive, the results indicated that these new compounds had a mechanism of action by inhibiting Plasmodium proteases.

  8. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  9. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  10. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Robert O Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHR110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHR110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16366-1 | Contig-U16429-1 CHR...110P (Link to Original site) CHR110F 651 CHR110Z 703 CHR110P 1334 - - Show CHR110 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHR...366-1 | Contig-U16429-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHR1-A/CHR...110Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHR110P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHR110 (CHR...110Q) /CSM/CH/CHR1-A/CHR110Q.Seq.d/ ATTAATTTTAATTTATATAAATTACCTTATTACTTAAAGATGACAACAAATAATCCATTT

  12. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Acute toxicity of cadmium against catfish Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae) in static renewal bioassays. Rubi Rai, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav, Ajai Kumar Srivastav ...

  14. Inactivation of cadmium in contaminated soils using synthetic zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gworek, B

    1992-01-01

    The addition of synthetic zeolite pellets to soils contaminated with cadmium significantly reduced the concentrations of cadmium in the roots and shoots of a range of crop plants. Use of synthetic foyazite group zeolites types 4A and 13X, at application rates of 1% by soil weight, caused reductions in cadmium concentrations of up to 86% in leaves of lettuce grown in pots, compared to controls with no added zeolites. The potential of these substances to reduce cadmium entry into the food chain, and as a clean up method, is noted.

  15. Mercury Cadmium Selenide for Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were grown using elemental mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) sources. The beam equiva- lent pressure ( BEP ) emanating from all sources was...flux), the BEP measured for the cracker source was found to vary with the cracking zone temperature, tracking with the data found in Ref. 7. This sug...The Se BEP measured for the typical cracking zone temperature of 800 C was found to be close to a factor of two lower than at the typical effusion cell

  16. Cadmium-binding proteins from blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) environmentally exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedow, M.A.; Kneip, T.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1982-06-01

    Two heat-stable (90/sup 0/C) cadmium-binding proteins were isolated from the hepatopancreas of Hudson River blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. These proteins have molecular weights of 10,600 and 9,400, and ultraviolet absorbance ratios at 250/280 nm of 12.4 and 5.4, respectively. Repeated freezing and thawing and prolonged (3-6 weeks) storage resulted in protein degradation or loss of Cd-binding activity. These proteins were induced by laboratory injection of CdCl/sub 2/ in blue crabs from pristine (Chesapeake Bay) areas; however, injection of CdCl/sub 2/ into Hudson River animals yielded anomalous chromatography profiles. Cadmium-binding proteins were also identified in blue crab thoracic muscle and gill. The possibility is discussed that these proteins are a type of metallothionein and could contribute to the human toxicity of this cadmium-contaminated edible crustacean.

  17. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R

    1999-01-01

    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  18. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... with whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and CdCl2 for 3 weeks was performed. Linseed or cocoa made up 10% of the feed (by weight) and was added as a replacement for carbohydrate source. The rats were dosed for 3 weeks and the cadmium content in the rats' kidneys was measured by ICPMS as a biomarker...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  20. Acute fatal occupational cadmium poisoning by inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Ueda, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Hattori, H.; Hiraoka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A 43-year-old male smelter was admitted to a hospital on account of severe dyspnea about 2 days after exposure to brownish-yellow smoke produced by melting of ''copper'' scrap. On admission pronounced hypoxemia was revealed, and an oxygen-enriched gas was administered after intubation. Although inspired oxygen concentration was gradually increased, hypoxemia progressed and he died on day 11 in hospital. The principal autopsy finding was chiefly confined to the lungs. Both lungs were heavy (the left weighing 1,470 g; the right 1,710 g) and firm to the touch. Histologically, no normal alveoli were found throughout the entire lung. Some alveolar spaces were occupied by pneumocytes, others by organized exudate with fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was present. Patchy areas of inflammatory cell infiltrations as well as intra-alveolar hemorrhages were observed. On the basis of the above findings a diagnosis of diffuse alveolar damage was made. Based on the available evidence (presence of cadmium in the ''copper'' scrap, feature of the smoke, clinical signs with latent time, and high cadmium concentration of the lung), the diffuse alveolar damage was considered to have been caused by inhaled cadmium. The pulmonary change of the present case was more advanced in pathologic stage in comparison with those reported in the literature.

  1. Correlative characteristic of cadmium in soils of steppe Dnieper region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Tsvetkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is paid to searching for methods of establishing environmental standards for objective assessment of admissibility of anthropogenic load on the biosphere. The main pollutants of the environment are xenobiotics; heavy metals such as cadmium occupy hold a special place among them. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous environmental toxic agents, belonging to the 1stclass of hazard. Due to insufficient and fragmented information available on the distribution of cadmium in the city edaphotopes, it’s necessary to conduct additional research, taking into account the properties of soils and the biological characteristics of every element. The paper shows the ratio of cadmium in soils and soil-forming rocks of steppe Dnieper region. Environmental assessment of cadmium content in Dniprodzerzhinsk city soilsis made, and the problem of topsoil contamination of the city as a territory of high anthropogenic load is considered. It is found that the content of cadmium down the profile in natural soil increases. Enrichment of the topsoil with cadmium occurs due to contamination. The value of movable forms content, expressed as a percentage of the total content, varies from 12% to 70%, providing the evidence of the technogenic origin of cadmium in Dniprodzerzhinsk city topsoil. General and proximate correlation analyses of interrelation of soil cadmium and specifically selected characteristics of soil (pH, humus, sulfate ions, dry solid, chloride ions, total alkalinity, hygroscopic moisture were made. It is established that cadmium concentration in the movable forms of natural soils of the steppe Dnieper region depends primarily on pH value. With the increase in pH value, concentration of movable cadmium in soil increases.

  2. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  3. Cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Tvermoes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+](i and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca(2+](i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60, which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca(2+](i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription.

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFF110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFF110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10843-1 VFF110P (Link... to Original site) VFF110F 496 VFF110Z 306 VFF110P 802 - - Show VFF110 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFF110 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U10843-1 Original site URL http://dict...AVKVMLKQVDQKTLTDF RKEVAIMSKIFHPNIVLFLGACTSTPGKLMICTELMKGNLESLL--- ---XIFKVXXNGGIXXQXIXXPQGKFQXXKSKXXRXKXLITG...VYKGRCRLKDVAVKVMLKQVDQKTLTDF RKEVAIMSKIFHPNIVLFLGACTSTPGKLMICTELMKGNLESLL--- ---qflklxxmxvfxxkxfxxpkvnskxxkv

  5. 13 CFR 108.110 - Qualified management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified management. 108.110... management. An Applicant must show, to the satisfaction of SBA, that its current or proposed management team... or proposed management team has sufficient qualifications, SBA will consider information provided by...

  6. A Concrete View of Rule 110 Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cook

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rule 110 is a cellular automaton that performs repeated simultaneous updates of an infinite row of binary values. The values are updated in the following way: 0s are changed to 1s at all positions where the value to the right is a 1, while 1s are changed to 0s at all positions where the values to the left and right are both 1. Though trivial to define, the behavior exhibited by Rule 110 is surprisingly intricate, and in (Cook, 2004 we showed that it is capable of emulating the activity of a Turing machine by encoding the Turing machine and its tape into a repeating left pattern, a central pattern, and a repeating right pattern, which Rule 110 then acts on. In this paper we provide an explicit compiler for converting a Turing machine into a Rule 110 initial state, and we present a general approach for proving that such constructions will work as intended. The simulation was originally assumed to require exponential time, but surprising results of Neary and Woods (2006 have shown that in fact, only polynomial time is required. We use the methods of Neary and Woods to exhibit a direct simulation of a Turing machine by a tag system in polynomial time.

  7. 6 CFR 27.110 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS General § 27.110 Applicability. (a) This Part applies to chemical facilities and to covered facilities as set out herein. (b) This Part does not apply to facilities regulated pursuant to the Maritime...

  8. 38 CFR 52.110 - Participant assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.110 Participant... in the participant's physical, mental, or social condition. (3) Review of assessments. Program... and scope of interventions to be provided in order to reach desired, realistic outcomes; (iv) Roles of...

  9. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The DRB... regulations. (f) Voting shall be conducted in closed session, a majority of the five members' votes...

  10. 38 CFR 51.110 - Resident assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resident assessment. 51...) PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.110 Resident assessment. The... condition a comprehensive, accurate, standardized, reproducible assessment of each resident's functional...

  11. 45 CFR 159.110 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH CARE REFORM INSURANCE WEB PORTAL § 159.110 Definitions. For purposes of part 159, the following definitions apply unless otherwise provided: Health Insurance Coverage: We adopt the Public Health Service Act (PHSA...

  12. 46 CFR 110.15-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IEC 68-2-52 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 110.10-1) for 200 hours and does not show pitting... Type 304 stainless steel. Corrosive location means a location exposed to the weather on vessels... fan means nonsparking fan as defined in ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  13. 49 CFR 110.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... media; community groups; and owners and operators of facilities subject to the emergency planning... TRAINING AND PLANNING GRANTS § 110.20 Definitions. Unless defined in this part, all terms defined in 49 U.S... CFR 272.2. Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) means a committee appointed by the State...

  14. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  15. Biosorption of arsenic and cadmium from aqueous solutions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of cadmium and arsenic from aqueous solutions onto the unmodified compact biomass of microscopic filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus DESM. was studied in the concentration range of 0.25 – 100 mg.l-1. The experimental biosorption results for arsenic and cadmium followed well the Freundlich ...

  16. Synthesis and characterization of cadmium doped lead–borate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    No boroxol ring formation was observed in the structure of these glasses. Furthermore, doped cadmium atoms were not seen in tetrahedral coordination. But the conversion of three-fold to four-fold coordination of boron atoms in the structure of glasses was observed. Keywords. Cadmium; lead borate glasses. 1. Introduction.

  17. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  18. Levels of cadmium in cigarette brands found in Zamfara state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium were determined in some cigarette brands found in Zamfara state, North-west Nigeria. The solutions of the samples were prepared using the dry-ash method. The levels of cadmium in the solution were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The absorbance readings of the elements were ...

  19. Levels of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium in Oreochromis Niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Chromium (Cr) levels in Oreochromis niloticus, aquatic plants, water and sawdust were collected and analyzed for Lead, Cadmium and Chromium using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained showed that sawdust had the highest Lead and Chromium contents of 32.0 + 0.99 μg/g ...

  20. Evaluation of serum levels of cadmium and Lead in occupationally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium and Lead are extremely toxic metals found in industrial workplaces. They are also found in some industrial paints and may represent hazards when sprayed.Exposure to Cadmium fumes may cause flu-like symptoms including chills, fever and muscle ache sometimes reffered to as "the cadium blues." Occupational ...

  1. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly.

  2. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  3. Elevated cadmium exposure may be associated with periodontal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Dillon, Charles F

    2010-06-01

    Association of environmental cadmium exposure with periodontal disease in US adults. Arora M, Weuve J, Schwartz J, Wright RO. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:739-44. Bruce A. Dye, DDS, MPH, Charles F. Dillon, MD, PhD. Is environmental cadmium associated with periodontal disease? Information not available. Cross-sectional study. Level 3: Other evidence. Not applicable.

  4. Cadmium, an Environmental Pollutant: A Review | Adedapo | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and is considered to be an environmental pollutant. Cadmium levels in the environment vary widely. Several sources of human exposure to Cd, including employment in primary metal industries, production of certain batteries, foods, soil and cigarette smoke, are known. Its inhalation has ...

  5. Comparative Hepatotoxicity Test of Cadmium and Lead in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Studies indicate that liver function is impeded particularly with respect to protein synthesis, detoxification processes and the cellular integrity of the organ is damaged in the group that cadmium and lead were added (p<0.05). But the water sample from the mining pond, though containing higher cadmium and ...

  6. Effect of cadmium stress on antioxidative enzymes during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the influence of high cadmium concentrations on percentage germination, specific activities and isoenzyme patterns of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) during the germination of Serbian spruce [Picea omorika (Pan..) Purkynĕ] was studied. Cadmium chloride concentrations ...

  7. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Flame absorption spectrophotometry was used to investigate the concentration and distribution of cadmium and lead in water, sediments and selected fish species in Makupa and Tudor creeks in Mombasa, Kenya between May 1997 and March ...

  8. Determination and estimation of Cadmium intake from Tarom rice 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    Malaysia. 27.74. Spain. 0.85. Philippines. 20.14. USA. 7.43. Dietary intake of Cadmium: The intake of Cd was estimated by multiplication of daily consumption ... cereals such as rice. JECFA has set PTWI for the. Cadmium at 7 µg/kg of body weight (WHO., 2004). According to the published papers, daily consumption of rice ...

  9. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of S. cerevisiae (Inouhe et al 1989) were used for under- standing the molecular genetics of cadmium toxicity and ... The pH of the medium was adjusted to 6⋅4 before autoclaving. Cadmium-resistant mutants after isolation ..... Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Biochem. Biophys. Acta 993 51–55. Kimura M, Otaki N and Imano M ...

  10. induced by cadmium using random amplified polymorphic DNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    darya

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Jin YH, Clark AB, Slebos, RJC, Al-Refai H, Taylor JA, Kunkel TA,. Resnick MA, Gordenin DA (2003). Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nat. Genet. 34(3):326-329. Joseph P (2009). Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 238:272-279. Azimi et al.

  11. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of varying doses of cadmium on bone and kidney alkaline phosphatase and on testis and prostate acid phosphatase after 4 weeks of administration to separate groups of rats. Relative to the cadmium-free control rats femur bone alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly (P<0.05) ...

  12. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  13. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  14. The effect of phosphate fertilizer cadmium on cadmium in soils and crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, K.W.; Luit, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Een van de oorzaken, waardoor bodemvervuiling met cadmium optreedt en dus een bevordering van cadmiumopname door het gewas, is toepassing van fosfaatkunstmest, waarin zich verschillende gehaltes van dit zware metaal bevinden. Dit rapport behandelt het onderzoek naar de stijging van het

  15. Cadmium content in soil at Heirisson Island, Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosie, D.J.; Bogoiais, A.; De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the cadmium level of soil samples from Heirisson Island, western Australia. Cadmium is a particularly toxic element considered harmful to humans and vegetation. Experimental methods and materials are described. Results indicate that cadmium concentrations decrease markedly with distance from road edges, where the cadmium is thought to originate from automobile tires. Other results are detailed. Despite the fact that the amount of cadmium fallout from vehicular traffic is considerably smaller in Australia than was expected on the basis of overseas studies, it is still apparent that the accession rate in soil adjoining busy highways is sufficiently large to demand that care is taken to avoid growing vegetation for human consumption too close to such roadside locations. (3 graphs, 8 references)

  16. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  17. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions by perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, T; Viraraghavan, T

    2002-10-14

    The present study examined the use of perlite for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH and contact time on the adsorption process were examined. The optimum pH for adsorption was found to be 6.0. Residual cadmium concentration reached equilibrium in 6h and the rate of cadmium adsorption by perlite was rapid in the first hour of the reaction time. Ho's pseudo-second-order model best described the kinetics of the reaction. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (22+/-1 degrees C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum removal of cadmium obtained from batch studies was 55%. Thomas model was used to describe the adsorption data from column studies. The results generally showed that perlite could be considered as a potential adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions.

  19. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  20. Biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, N M; Suvarnakhandi, S S; Mulgund, G S; Ratageri, R H; Taranath, T C

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on biochemical responses of Spirodela polyrhiza to cadmium stresses and its accumulation. The laboratory experiments were conducted for the assessment of biochemical responses and accumulation of cadmium in plants at its various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm) at the regular interval for twelve days exposure. Spirodela showed visible symptoms like withering of roots and chlorosis at higher concentration (2.0 ppm), however the plant showed normal growth at lower concentration (0.1 ppm). The estimation of biochemical parameters (total chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate) of test plants showed a significant increase at lower concentration (0.1 ppm) of cadmium. The biochemical changes decrease with increase in exposure concentration and duration. The toxic effect of cadmium is directly proportional to its concentration and duration. The accumulation of cadmium by Spirodela polyrhiza was maximum at four days exposure duration and gradually decreases.

  1. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  2. Possible mechanism for cadmium-induced hypertension in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.

    1978-02-13

    The mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension was explored by measuring noradrenaline metabolism. Cadmium in vitro was shown to inhibit both monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase, the two enzymes which inactivate the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline. However, rats which were injected or fed (via the drinking water) with cadmium showed that, among the tissues surveyed, these two enzymes were inhibited significantly only in the aorta. In vitro, cadmium was found to inhibit noradrenaline binding to membranes from the heart, lung, and kidney, while stimulating binding to aortic membranes, which suggests that the effects may be specific. These results suggest that, in the aorta, cadmium may inhibit the two catabolic enzymes of noradrenaline, while at the same time stimulating noradrenaline-binding. Thus the effects of noradrenaline on vascular smooth muscle would be increased as well as prolonged.

  3. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  4. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  5. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  6. Dislocation Etching Solutions for Mercury Cadmium Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1–xCdxTe) for infrared (IR) sensor applications, but etch pit density ( EPD ) measurements are required to measure...dislocations that affect device performance. No EPD solutions have been reported for Hg1–xCdxSe, and standard EPD solutions for Hg1–xCdxTe have proved...ineffective. Thus, a new etching solution is required for EPD measurements of Hg1–xCdxSe. Samples were etched in various solutions and the resulting pits

  7. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adámik, Matej [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Bažantová, Pavla [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pečinka, Petr [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Holaňová, Lucie [Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic); Tichý, Vlastimil [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Brázdová, Marie, E-mail: maruska@ibp.cz [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed.

  8. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  9. A common highly conserved cadmium detoxification mechanism from bacteria to humans: heavy metal tolerance conferred by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter SpHMT1 requires glutathione but not metal-chelating phytochelatin peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévéral, Sandra; Gayet, Landry; Moldes, Cristina; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Mounicou, Sandra; Gruet, Antoine; Reynaud, Florie; Lobinski, Ryszard; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Vavasseur, Alain; Forestier, Cyrille

    2009-02-20

    Cadmium poses a significant threat to human health due to its toxicity. In mammals and in bakers' yeast, cadmium is detoxified by ATP-binding cassette transporters after conjugation to glutathione. In fission yeast, phytochelatins constitute the co-substrate with cadmium for the transporter SpHMT1. In plants, a detoxification mechanism similar to the one in fission yeast is supposed, but the molecular nature of the transporter is still lacking. To investigate further the relationship between SpHMT1 and its co-substrate, we overexpressed the transporter in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain deleted for the phytochelatin synthase gene and heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Escherichia coli. In all organisms, overexpression of SpHMT1 conferred a markedly enhanced tolerance to cadmium but not to Sb(III), AgNO(3), As(III), As(V), CuSO(4), or HgCl(2). Abolishment of the catalytic activity by expression of SpHMT1(K623M) mutant suppressed the cadmium tolerance phenotype independently of the presence of phytochelatins. Depletion of the glutathione pool inhibited the SpHMT1 activity but not that of AtHMA4, a P-type ATPase, indicating that GSH is necessary for the SpHMT1-mediated cadmium resistance. In E. coli, SpHMT1 was targeted to the periplasmic membrane and led to an increased amount of cadmium in the periplasm. These results demonstrate that SpHMT1 confers cadmium tolerance in the absence of phytochelatins but depending on the presence of GSH and ATP. Our results challenge the dogma of the two separate cadmium detoxification pathways and demonstrate that a common highly conserved mechanism has been selected during the evolution from bacteria to humans.

  10. How Does Oyster Shell Immobilize Cadmium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Owens, Vance N; Park, Sungkyun; Kim, Jiwoong; Hong, Chang Oh

    2018-01-01

    The exact mechanism of cadmium (Cd) immobilization by oyster shell (OS) has not been reported. The effect of OS on Cd immobilization and the exact mechanism should be known before applying remediation technology using OS to Cd contaminated soils. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cd immobilization by OS. Three grams of OS (< 0.84 mm) was reacted with 30 mL of 0-3.56 mg Cd L-1 solution at 25 °C for 48 h. Cadmium adsorption increased with increasing initial concentration of Cd in solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns clearly demonstrated that precipitation of CdCO3 did not take place in suspensions of OS after reacting with up to 3.56 mol Cd L-1. Interestingly, we found formation of Ca0.67Cd0.33CO3 crystalline in suspension of OS after reacting with maximum initial Cd concentrations. Precipitation and chemisorption might contribute to Cd immobilization together. However, we feel confident that chemisorption is the major mechanism by which Cd immobilization occurs with OS. In conclusion, OS could be an effective bioadsorbent to immobilize Cd through formation of geochemically stable Cd mineral.

  11. Cadmium hampers salt tolerance of Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Martos, Soledad; Pérez-Martín, Laura; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that salinity reduces cadmium toxicity in halophytes. However, the possible interference of Cd with the mechanisms of salt tolerance is poorly explored. The aim of this study was to see whether Cd affects salt tolerance mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. S. portulacastrum plants obtained from cuttings were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks and then exposed to low (0.09 mM) or moderate (200 mM) NaCl concentrations, alone or in combination with 25 μM CdCl 2 . Microscopy observation revealed two strategies of salt tolerance: euhalophytism and secretion of salt by bladder cells. Cadmium exposure hardly influenced the total leaf Na + concentrations. However, Cd supply delayed the salt-induced upregulation of AHA1 (plasma membrane H + -ATPase 1) and SOS1 (plasma membrane Na + transporter "Salt Overly Sensitive 1"), genes that are essential for salt tolerance. Moreover, Cd induced the activation of BADH, coding for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, indicating enhanced osmotic stress due to Cd. Sodium-green fluorescence in protoplasts from plants grown with low or high NaCl, alone or in combination with Cd, revealed higher Na + concentrations in the cytoplasm of Cd-exposed plants. Taken together the results indicate interference of Cd with salt tolerance mechanisms in S. portulacastrum. This may have consequences for the efficient use of halophytes in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated saline soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium-Sensitive Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, R; Cobbett, C S

    1992-09-01

    A screening procedure for identifying Cd-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is described. With this procedure, two Cd-sensitive mutants were isolated. These represent independent mutations in the same locus, referred to as CAD1. Genetic analysis has shown that the sensitive phenotype is recessive to the wild type and segregates as a single Mendelian locus. Crosses of the mutant to marker strains showed that the mutation is closely linked to the tt3 locus on chromosome 5. In addition to Cd, the mutants are also significantly more sensitive to mercuric ions and only slightly more sensitive to Cu and Zn, while being no more sensitive than the wild type to Mn, thus indicating a degree of specificity in the mechanism affected by the mutation. Undifferentiated callus tissue is also Cd sensitive, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is expressed at the cellular level. Both wild-type and mutant plants showed increased sensitivity to Cd in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the cadmium-binding (gamma-glutamylcysteine)(n)-glycine peptides, suggesting that the mutant is still able to synthesize these peptides. However, the effects of a cad1 mutation and buthionine sulfoximine together on cadmium sensitivity are essentially nonadditive, indicating that they may affect different aspects of the same detoxification mechanism. Assays of Cd uptake by intact plants indicate that the mutant is deficient in its ability to sequester Cd.

  13. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  15. Protective effect of cannabidiol against cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Gomaa, Wafaey

    2013-10-01

    The protective effect of cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride (6.5 mgkg(-1) i.p.) was investigated in rats. Cannabidiol treatment (5 mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was applied for five days starting three days before cadmium administration. Cannabidiol significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase, and suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide, and catalase activity, and attenuated the elevation of cadmium level in the liver tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Histopathological examination showed that cadmium-induced liver tissue injury was ameliorated by cannabidiol treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in liver tissue. It was concluded that cannabidiol may represent a potential option to protect the liver tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-zhi; Ruan, Jian-yun; Ma, Li-feng; Han, Wen-yan; Wang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field investigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above-ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants. PMID:18357630

  18. Absorption of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, M. C. V.; Gomez, R.; Arriaga, R. M.

    2003-05-01

    (4) The cadmium is highly toxic and for all biota in very small concentrations, these study was to know the limit of phitotoxicity and nutrition of cadmium in bean cultivars variety black Jamapa, and to measure absorption of cadmium in roots, stem, leaves and grain. The experiment was carried out in plots with bean of the black variety Jamapa, in greenhouse, 6 treatments in the water of irrigation with 0, 25, 50, 100 y 200 micromoles of cadmium, to quantification of cadmium in plant, is carried out with ICP previous acid digest(I) method D4638-86 of ASTM 1990. Was carried out analysis of variation and results indicate that, there were been significant for the variables : number of leaves, foliate area, dry weight from root, height of plant; the threshold of toxicity for the plant in the condition that it was carried out the experiment were 100 200micromoles of cadmium applied in water of irrigation weekly, the visual symptom were: yellow of leaves, morphologic changes in leaves showed leaves bi-foliate and tetra-foliate in treatments upper of 100micromoles of cadmium.

  19. Fine-scale spatial and interannual cadmium isotope variability in the subarctic northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, D. J.; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J. G.; Cullen, J. T.

    2017-08-01

    We present dissolved cadmium (Cd) concentrations, [Cd], and stable isotope compositions, ε 112 / 110Cd, in high-resolution depth profiles from five stations along the Line P transect in the subarctic northeast Pacific Ocean. In addition to profiles collected in 2012, subsurface isopycnal samples and surface samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 respectively, providing both temporal and spatial coverage. Surface waters are characterized by Cd depletion relative to phosphate (4 3-PO) compared to deepwater 4 -3Cd:PO, and high inferred remineralization ratios in the nutricline (0.45nmolμmol-1) are observed, consistent with Cd enrichment relative to phosphorus (P) in surface-derived biogenic particles. The correlation between Cd and 4 3-PO weakens at depths where oxygen is highly depleted as shown by local minima in dissolved [Cd] and the tracer Cd*. The decoupling, which is driven by a deficit of Cd relative to 4 3-PO, appears consistent with the recent hypothesis of dissolved Cd removal in oxygen-depleted regions by insoluble metal sulfide formation. Dissolved ε 112 / 110Cd indicates a biologically driven fractionation in surface waters with more positive (heavy) values in the upper water column and lower (light) values in deeper waters. The highest ε 112 / 110Cd observed in our sample set (5.19 ± 0.23) is comparable to observations from the Southern Ocean but is significantly lighter than maximum reported surface values from the subtropical North Pacific of ε 112 / 110Cd ≥ 15. A global compilation of low [Cd] surface water shows similar differences in maximum ε 112 / 110Cd. A surface water intercalibration should be prioritized to help determine if these differences at low [Cd] reflect true physical or biological variability or are due to analytical artefacts. Surface samples from the 2012 sampling campaign fit a closed-system Rayleigh fractionation model; however, surface waters sampled in 2014 had much lower [Cd] with relatively constant ε 112 / 110Cd

  20. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  1. Effects of cadmium exposure on sea urchin development assessed by SSH and RT-qPCR: metallothionein genes and their differential induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Marco; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Gianguzza, Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    In order to study the defense strategies activated by Paracentrotus lividus embryos in response to sub-lethal doses of CdCl2, we compared the induced transcripts to that of control embryos by suppression subtractive hybridization technique. We isolated five metallothionein (MT) cDNAs and other genes related to detoxification, to signaling pathway components, to oxidative, reductive and conjugative biotransformation, to RNA maturation and protein synthesis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that two of the five P. lividus MT (PlMT7 and PlMT8) genes appeared to be constitutively expressed and upregulated following cadmium treatment, whereas the other three genes (PlMT4, PlMT5, PlMT6) are specifically switched-on in response to cadmium treatment. Moreover, we found that this transcriptional induction is concentration dependent and that the cadmium concentration threshold for the gene activation is distinct for every gene. RT-qPCR experiments showed in fact that, among induced genes, PlMT5 gene is activated at a very low cadmium concentration (0.1 μM) whereas PlMT4 and PlMT6 are activated at intermediate doses (1-10 μM). Differently, PlMT7 and PlMT8 genes increase significantly their expression only in embryos treated with the highest dose (100 μM CdCl2). We found also that, in response to a lethal dose of cadmium (1 μM), only PlMT5 and PlMT6 mRNA levels increased further. These data suggest a hierarchical and orchestrated response of the P. lividus embryo to overcome differential environmental stressors that could interfere with a normal development.

  2. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  3. Cadmium free lead alloy for reusable radiotherapy shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, C R; Amundson, K D

    1990-01-01

    A low melting point cadmium free fusible lead alloy suitable for custom radiotherapy shielding blocks is described. The alloy, referred to here as Alloy-203, differs in composition from the more common Lipowitz's metal (Cerrobend) by being cadmium free, having a slightly higher lead content and a 203 degrees F melting temperature. Attenuation properties have been studied for 4-18 MV X-rays. Alloy-203 has lower transmission than Lipowitz's metal, primarily due to the higher content of lead and bismuth. Daily use for the past 2 years at Mayo Clinic has not indicated any major problems associated with the use of this cadmium free alloy for custom shield fabrication.

  4. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal ...

  5. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B; Carter, A Brent; Rowe, Steven M; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1(+/+) or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1(-/-) PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1(+/+) PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  7. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  8. Studies on growth and nucleation kinetics of cadmium thiourea sulphate and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Mekala [Quaid-e-Milleth College, Chennai 600002 (India)], E-mail: mekaladaniel@rediffmail.com; Malliga, M. Jeyarani [Bharathi Women College, Chennai 600108 (India); Sankar, R. [Kings Engineering College, Irungatukottai, Sriperumbudhur, Chennai 602105 (India); Jayaraman, D. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 004 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Semiorganic materials, in general possess high non-linear coefficient and mechanical strength which will be more applicable for device fabrication. Cadmium thiourea sulphate (CTS) and magnesium cadmium thiourea sulphate (MCTS) are better semiorganic materials which find applications in the field of optoelectronics. Single crystals of CTS and MCTS have been successfully grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique using predetermined solubility data. The basic growth parameters of the crystal nuclei of the grown crystals of CTS and MCTS were evaluated based on the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. The classical nucleation theory makes use of capillarity approximation which has certain limitations. A correction has to be applied for it and the classical nucleation theory has been suitably modified in order to calculate the critical nucleus parameters.

  9. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  10. 21 CFR 110.93 - Warehousing and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehousing and distribution. 110.93 Section 110.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... HUMAN FOOD Production and Process Controls § 110.93 Warehousing and distribution. Storage and...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently installed...

  12. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18... PROHIBITIONS § 110.18 Voting age population. There is annually published by the Department of Commerce in the Federal Register an estimate of the voting age population based on an estimate of the voting age...

  13. 7 CFR 29.110 - Method of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of sampling. 29.110 Section 29.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.110 Method of sampling. In sampling tobacco...

  14. 10 CFR 110.108 - Appearance in an oral hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance in an oral hearing. 110.108 Section 110.108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Hearings § 110.108 Appearance in an oral hearing. (a) A participant may appear in a hearing on his own...

  15. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.110 - Insolvency of lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insolvency of lender. 3565.110 Section 3565.110... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Lender Requirements § 3565.110 Insolvency of lender. The... determination of insolvency by the lender. If the lender fails to transfer a loan when required, the guarantee...

  17. 33 CFR 80.110 - Casco Bay, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Casco Bay, ME. 80.110 Section 80.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.110 Casco Bay, ME. (a) A line drawn from the...

  18. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay. The...

  19. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo Bay...

  20. 14 CFR 1263.110 - Intention to provide guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intention to provide guidance. 1263.110 Section 1263.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION DEMAND FOR INFORMATION OR TESTIMONY SERVED ON AGENCY EMPLOYEES; PROCEDURES § 1263.110 Intention to provide guidance. This...

  1. 42 CFR 401.110 - Publications for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publications for sale. 401.110 Section 401.110... PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.110 Publications for sale.... The information in the Handbook is not of precedent or interpretative force. (f) Medicare/Medicaid...

  2. 1 CFR 500.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 500.110 Section 500.110... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.110 Self-evaluation... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  3. 1 CFR 457.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-evaluation. 457.110 Section 457.110... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.110 Self-evaluation. (a... organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting...

  4. 22 CFR 711.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Self-evaluation. 711.110 Section 711.110 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by September 6, 1989, evaluate its current... participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency...

  5. 49 CFR 1014.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 1014.110 Section 1014.110... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1014.110 Self-evaluation... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  6. 45 CFR 1175.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 1175.110 Section 1175.110 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES § 1175.110 Self-evaluation... organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting...

  7. 49 CFR 807.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 807.110 Section 807.110... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD § 807.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its... participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency...

  8. 22 CFR 530.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Self-evaluation. 530.110 Section 530.110 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS § 530.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The... representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both...

  9. 45 CFR 1153.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 1153.110 Section 1153.110 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS § 1153.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The... representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both...

  10. 19 CFR 201.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 201.110 Section 201.110 Customs... Commission § 201.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies... in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency shall...

  11. 20 CFR 365.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 365.110 Section 365.110... § 365.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by December 27, 1989, evaluate its current policies and... self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency shall, until at...

  12. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. Beginning...

  13. 33 CFR 110.193 - Tampa Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampa Bay, Fla. 110.193 Section 110.193 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193 Tampa Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives...

  14. 33 CFR 110.74a - Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla. 110.74a Section 110.74a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74a Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla. The waters...

  15. 33 CFR 110.73 - St. Johns River, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Fla. 110.73 Section 110.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73 St. Johns River, Fla. (a) Area A. The waters lying...

  16. 33 CFR 110.193a - St. Joseph Bay, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Joseph Bay, Fla. 110.193a Section 110.193a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193a St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  17. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a point...

  18. 33 CFR 110.25 - Salem Sound, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salem Sound, Mass. 110.25 Section 110.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.25 Salem Sound, Mass. (a) Beverly Harbor, north of Salem...

  19. 46 CFR 7.110 - Mamala Bay, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mamala Bay, HI. 7.110 Section 7.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Hawaii § 7.110 Mamala Bay, HI. A line drawn from Barbers Point Light to Diamond Head Light. Pacific Coast ...

  20. 24 CFR 110.15 - Location of posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location of posters. 110.15 Section 110.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF... HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.15 Location of posters. All fair housing posters...

  1. Atomic and molecular adsorption on Fe(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Kirvassilis, Demetrios; Bai, Yunhai; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2018-01-01

    Iron is the principal catalyst for the ammonia synthesis process and the Fischer-Tropsch process, as well as many other heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. It is thus of fundamental importance to understand the interactions between the iron surface and various reaction intermediates. Here, we present a systematic study of atomic and molecular adsorption behavior over Fe(110) using periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT-GGA) calculations. The preferred binding sites, binding energies, and the corresponding surface deformation energies of five atomic species (H, C, N, O, and S), six molecular species (NH3, CH4, N2, CO, HCN, and NO), and eleven molecular fragments (CH, CH2, CH3, NH, NH2, OH, CN, COH, HCO, NOH, and HNO) were determined on the Fe(110) surface at a coverage of 0.25 monolayer. The binding strengths calculated using the PW91 functional decreased in the following order: C > CH >N > O > S > NH > COH > CN > CH2 > NOH > OH > HNO > HCO > NH2 > H > NO > HCN > CH3 > CO > N2 > NH3. No stable binding structures were observed for CH4. The estimated diffusion barriers and pathways, as well as the adsorbate-surface and intramolecular vibrational modes of all the adsorbates at their preferred binding sites, were identified. Using the calculated adsorption energetics, we constructed the potential energy surfaces for a few surface reactions including the decomposition of methane, ammonia, dinitrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. These potential energy surfaces provide valuable insight into the ability of Fe(110) to catalyze common elementary steps.

  2. Interactive effects of cadmium and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacterium) on the growth, antioxidative responses and accumulation of cadmium and microcystins in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiaolin; Gu, Ji-Dong; Tie, BaiQing; Yao, Bangsong; Shao, Jihai

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium pollution and harmful cyanobacterial blooms are two prominent environmental problems. The interactive effects of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria on rice seedlings remain unknown. In order to elucidate this issue, the interactive effects of cadmium(II) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 on the growth and antioxidant responses of rice seedling were investigated in this study, as well as the accumulation of cadmium(II) and microcystins. The results showed that the growth of rice seedlings was inhibited by cadmium(II) stress but promoted by inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905. cadmium(II) stress induced oxidative damage on rice seedlings. Inoculation of M. aeruginosa FACHB905 alleviated the toxicity of cadmium(II) on rice seedlings. The accumulation of cadmium(II) in rice seedlings was decreased by M. aeruginosa FACHB905, but the translocation of cadmium(II) from root to shoot was increased by this cyanobacterium. The accumulation of microcystins in rice seedlings was decreased by cadmium(II). Results presented in this study indicated that cadmium(II) and M. aeruginosa had antagonistic toxicity on rice seedlings. The findings of this study throw new light on evaluation of ecological- and public health-risks for the co-contamination of cadmium(II) and harmful cyanobacteria.

  3. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  4. Integrated photovoltaics in nickel cadmium battery electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This research report presents Connecticut Department of Transportations (ConnDOTs) : evaluation of preproduction prototype nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery-powered electric : vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative-fuel (alt-fuel) option for local trips...

  5. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    –234. Cieslinski G, Van Rees KCJ, Szmigielska AM, Krishnamurti GSR,. Huang PM (1998). Lowmolecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere soils of durum wheat and their effect on cadmium bioaccumulation. Plant Soil, 203: ...

  6. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats and their fetuses at morphological, physiological and molecular level. Ashraf El-Sayed, Salem M Salem, Amany A El-Garhy, Zeinab A Rahman, Asmaa M Kandil ...

  7. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHAR HABIBAR CHOWDHURY SUSHOVAN KONER SUBHASIS ROY BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 1377- ...

  8. Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfer and accumulation of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in plants growing in abandoned mining-district area. HK Chakroun, F Souissi, JL Bouchardon, R Souissi, J Moutte, O Faure, E Remon, S Abdeljaoued ...

  9. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  10. Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran. E Rahimi, M Hajisalehi, HR Kazemeini, A Chakeri, A Khodabakhsh, M Derakhshesh, M Mirdamadi, AG Ebadi, A Rezvani, FM Kashkahi ...

  11. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AXIS OF JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a ubquitous element and a significant inorganic pollutant that has previously been found to bioaccumulate in reproductive organs of fish and disrupt important endocrine processes, especially those involved in synthesis, release and metabolism of hormones. Clearly,...

  12. Cadmium-binding in the pregnant and fetal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, B.J.; Ozga, J.A.; Walter, B.K.; Sasser, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    A cadmium-binding moiety with properties in common with adult cadmium-thionein was identified in the livers of fetal rats at day 18 of gestation. Pregnant rats (approx. 200 g) were subcutaneously injected with 50 ..mu..g of radiolabeled cadmium in the form of /sup 115m/CdCl/sub 2/ daily from days 11 through 15 of gestation. Maternal liver contained 14 to 18 ..mu..g Cd/g tissue; fetal liver contained 44 to 70 ng Cd/g tissue. A soluble (aqueous), heat stable, cadmium-binding molecule(s) was found which had an apparent molecular weight of approx. 10,000 in adult livers and 6000 in fetal livers by gel filtration chromatography. Both fetal and adult proteins absorbed maximally at 254 but not 280 nm.

  13. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  14. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  15. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame absorption ... known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low ... Changes in. pH and electrode potential (Eh) can mobilise heavy.

  16. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97......% of the cadmium had been removed from around 150 g ash on a dry basis. $CPY 2004 Society of Chemical Industry....

  17. Soil biogeochemistry, plant physiology and phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmium (Cd) loading in soil and the environment has been accelerated worldwide due to enhanced industrialization and intensified agricultural production, particularly in the developing countries. Soil Cd pollution, resulting from both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, has posed an increasing chal...

  18. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Stroiński; Monika Kozłowska

    2014-01-01

    Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202) and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP) and catalase (CAT) was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dism...

  19. Protective effect of pre-supplementation with selenium on cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the antioxidant nutrient selenium, Se, on biologic response to cadmium-induced oxidative cytotoxicity was investigated in rats pretreated with Se prior to exposure to mild doses of Cd. Male wistar strain rats (200-250 g b.wt) were exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water ...

  20. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Toman; Svätoslav Hluchý; Jozef Golian; Michal Cabaj; Mária Adamkovičová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group). Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluatio...

  1. Cadmium, lead and bromine in beached microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 103 μg g-1 usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. Bromine, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g-1, was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of brominated flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g-1 and 8 μg g-1, respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  4. Human seminal plasma cadmium: comparison with fertility and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaranen, M; Kantola, M; Saarikoski, S; Vanha-Perttula, T

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium, selenium and zinc were determined in seminal plasma and serum of 64 men by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The mean (+/- SD) cadmium concentrations in seminal plasma and serum were 0.22 +/- 0.22 micrograms and 0.28 +/- 0.10 micrograms, respectively, but they did not correlate with each other. Smokers (n = 31) had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher serum cadmium concentrations than non-smokers (n = 31). Also seminal plasma cadmium in smokers was elevated, but a significant difference to non-smokers was only found if more than 20 cigarettes were consumed daily. No differences were found in semen quality and fertility between smokers and non-smokers. The seminal plasma cadmium had no correlation to selenium or zinc which, however, displayed a positive correlation (r = 0.852, p less than 0.001) to each other. It is concluded that smoking increases the exposure to cadmium. Although no obvious reproductive suppression was observed, heavy smoking may possibly enhance toxic effects in men under other detrimental exposures.

  5. Influence of combined antioxidants against cadmium induced testicular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuturk, Meral; Yanardag, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tunali, Sevim

    2006-05-01

    Acute effects of cadmium (Cd) and combined antioxidants were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rat testes. The rats were subdivided into four groups. Cadmium chloride (2mg/kgday) injected intraperitoneally during 8 days. Vitamin C (250mg/kgday), vitamin E (250mg/kgday) and sodium selenate (0.25mg/kgday) were pretreated by gavage in both of control and cadmium injected rats. Testis lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels were determined by spectrophotometrically. In Cd treated rats, lipid peroxidation levels were increased and glutathione levels were decreased and combined antioxidants treatment was effective in preventing of lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione. In Cd treated animals, the degenerative changes were observed, but not observed in the administrated rats with Cd and antioxidants under the light microscope. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein and caspase-3 activities were evaluated by immunohistochemically. Proliferation activity was not seen in the spermatogonial cells of cadmium treated testis. Treatment with antioxidants in cadmium administrated testis leads to pronounced increase in proliferation activity. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 activity was determined in the spermatogenic cells but not spermatogonia in treatment of antioxidants with Cd. In control and treated with antioxidants animals, metallothionein expressions were localized in the cells of seminiferous tubules, although the expression only was observed in the interstitial cells of cadmium treated rats. Results demonstrated beneficial effects of combined vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium treatment in Cd toxicity.

  6. Trichosporon jirovecii-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ashraf Farag; Sorour, Noha Mohamed; Shetaia, Youssria Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide is one of the most promising materials for solar cells and of great interest due to its useful applications in photonics and electronics, thus the development of bio-mediated synthesis of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) is one of the essential areas in nanoparticles. The present study demonstrates for the first time the eco-friendly biosynthesis of CdS NPs using the yeast Trichosporon jirovecii. The biosynthesis of CdS NPs were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum and characterized by X-ray diffraction assay and electron microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscope analyses shows the formation of spherical CdS NPs with a size range of about 6-15 nm with a mean Cd:S molar ratio of 1.0:0.98. T. jirovecii produced hydrogen sulfide on cysteine containing medium confirmed by positive cysteine-desulfhydrase activity and the colony color turned yellow on 0.1 mM cadmium containing medium. T. jirovecii tolerance to cadmium was increased by the UV treatment and three 0.6 mM cadmium tolerant mutants were generated upon the UV radiation treatment. The overall results indicated that T. jirovecii could tolerate cadmium toxicity by its conversion into CdS NPs on cysteine containing medium using cysteine-desulfhydrase as a defense response mechanism. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2001-08-01

    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  8. Gene expression analysis in cadmium-stressed roots of a low cadmium-accumulating solanaceous plant, Solanum torvum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hirotaka Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Fukuoka; Tomohito Arao; Akio Ohyama; Tsukasa Nunome; Koji Miyatake; Satomi Negoro

    2010-01-01

    Solanum torvum Sw. cv. Torubamubiga (TB) is a low cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the Cd acclimation process in TB roots, transcriptional regulation was analysed in response to mild Cd treatment...

  9. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in a...

  10. The Protective Roles of Zinc and Magnesium in Cadmium-Induced Renal Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasim Babaknejad; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Kahin Shahanipour; Somaye Bahrami

    2014-01-01

    .... Cadmium can cause dysfunction of different body organs. Zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) supplementation can have protective effects against cadmium toxicity due to their antagonistic and antioxidants properties...

  11. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  12. Experimental investigation and theoretical calculation of {sup 3}He-particle induced nuclear reactions on cadmium up to 27 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, B.M. [Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Al-Abyad, M., E-mail: alabyad_m@yahoo.com [Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Seddik, U. [Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); El-Kameesy, S.U. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen H4026 (Hungary)

    2014-02-15

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium were measured using the standard stacked foil technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. From their threshold energies up to 27 MeV, cross-sections for {sup nat}Cd({sup 3}He,xn){sup 117m,113,111,110}Sn, {sup nat}Cd({sup 3}He,xnp){sup 117m,g,116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110m,g,109,108,107}In, and {sup nat}Cd({sup 3}He,X){sup 115g,111m}Cd reactions were measured. The nuclear codes TALYS, and EMPIRE-3,1 were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared to theoretical results and to the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined.

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzengue, Yves; Steiman, Régine; Garrel, Catherine; Lefèbvre, Emmanuel; Guiraud, Pascale

    2008-01-14

    Cadmium affects the cellular homeostasis and generates damage via complex mechanisms involving interactions with other metals and oxidative stress induction. In this work we used a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) as a model to study the oxidative damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity. The cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h with cadmium (3, 15, 50 and 100 microM). High doses of cadmium were required to induce a cytotoxicity: 100 microM lead to 30% mortality after 24h and 50% after 48 h. The oxidation of lipids and proteins and the DNA damage, respectively, assessed by thiobarbituric acid reactants determination, thiol group measurement and comet assay, were observed for 50-100 microM cadmium. The cytotoxic effects were strongly correlated to the cellular cadmium content. The glutathione peroxidase and the catalase activities were decreased, while the glutathione reductase activity and the glutathione concentration were increased after cadmium treatment. The superoxide dismutases activities were unchanged. A depletion in glutathione prior to cadmium exposure increased the cytotoxic effects and provoked DNA damage. Our results suggested that the hydroxyl radical could be the major compound involved in the oxidative stress generated by cadmium and that glutathione could play a major role in the protection of HaCaT cells from cytotoxicity but mostly from DNA damage induced by cadmium.

  14. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  15. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  17. PAQR3 modulates insulin signaling by shunting phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110α to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Lingdi; Zhu, Lu; Pan, Yi; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Guo, Feifan; Liu, Yong; Thomas, Walter G; Chen, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediates insulin actions by relaying signals from insulin receptors (IRs) to downstream targets. The p110α catalytic subunit of class IA PI3K is the primary insulin-responsive PI3K implicated in insulin signaling. We demonstrate here a new mode of spatial regulation for the p110α subunit of PI3K by PAQR3 that is exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus. PAQR3 interacts with p110α, and the intracellular targeting of p110α to the Golgi apparatus is reduced by PAQR3 downregulation and increased by PAQR3 overexpression. Insulin-stimulated PI3K activity and phosphoinositide (3,4,5)-triphosphate production are enhanced by Paqr3 deletion and reduced by PAQR3 overexpression in hepatocytes. Deletion of Paqr3 enhances insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, but not phosphorylation of IR and IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), in hepatocytes, mouse liver, and skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane and glucose uptake are enhanced by Paqr3 ablation. Furthermore, PAQR3 interacts with the domain of p110α involved in its binding with p85, the regulatory subunit of PI3K. Overexpression of PAQR3 dose-dependently reduces the interaction of p85α with p110α. Thus, PAQR3 negatively regulates insulin signaling by shunting cytosolic p110α to the Golgi apparatus while competing with p85 subunit in forming a PI3K complex with p110α.

  18. Klinik for demensudredning--110 konsekutive patienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Peter; Ehlers, L; Abelskov, K E

    1997-01-01

    not; of these, 27 suffered from other non-dementia diseases and 31 were without dementia or other psychiatric or neurological disease. Thirteen patients with Alzheimer's disease were treated with tacrine. Four patients underwent cobalamin substitution treatment and seven started antidepressant...... medication. Ten patients received acetylsalicylic acid (150 mg Q.D.) and two a levo-dopa-type drug. Twenty-six patients were followed by gerontopsychiatric district care. Because only 47% of the patients suspected of dementia actually fulfilled dementia criteria, the evaluation suggests that patients......Case reports of 110 patients referred to a neurological dementia clinic were reviewed to evaluate a standardized diagnostic program. The patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a gerontopsychiatrist, and a neuropsychologist. ICD-10 criteria were used. Fifty-two patients had dementia while 58 had...

  19. The Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Iron and Manganese Concentration of Berssem Clover by Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a factorial experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD with three factors: arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi with two levels (inoculated and non-inoculated soil and cadmium with six levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm. The results showed that effect of cadmium levels on iron and manganese concentration was significant in one percent level of statistical.  In80 ppm cadmium concentration in soil, a reducediron were  on  concentration of Iron (39% and 53% and manganese (48% and 48.5% in root and aerial respectively. Butarbuscularmycorrhiza fungi increasediron concentration 30.2% and 26.7% in theroot and aerial, and manganese concentration36% and 30.9% in root and aerial plant respectively. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  20. In vivo effects of nickel and cadmium in rats on lipid peroxidation and ceruloplasmin activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, J.; Huguet, J.; Arola, L.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Before Ni(II) and Cd(II), or any other metallic ion, can interact intracellulary, it must penetrate the cell membrane. The latter, therefore, is a primary target for toxic metals. Damage to cell membranes may allow a greater uptake of metal and thus injury may extend to more critical targets, although loss of plasmatic membrane functionality may be a crucial factor to explain the interactions of these metals with cellular components. In this sense the present study has been carried out. Factors that have been investigated in order to prove the membrane response of nickel and cadmium toxicity include lipid peroxidation, since divalent ions of transition metals can promote lipid peroxidation and this evidently contributes to the toxicity of certain metals and to metal interaction with ceruloplasmin, as its ferroxidase and scavenger of superoxide radicals activities are important protective mechanisms in vivo against peroxidative damage.

  1. Accumulation and effects of cadmium on guppy (Poecilia reticulata) fed cadmium-dosed cladocera (Moina macrocopa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, S.; Yasuno, M.

    1982-08-01

    The study examines the rate of cadmium uptake and body burdens which cause adverse effects on the survival and growth of guppies when they are exposed to Cd dosed in zooplankton (Moina macrocopa) and Cd dissolved in water. Eight guppies fed Moina dosed at 20 ..mu..g Cd/L water died before 10 days. Growth of the remainder of the guppies exposed at this rate was impaired initially but was returned to control level around the 10th day of the study. (JMT)

  2. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  3. 77 FR 36295 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Cadmium in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... cadmium, to provide medical surveillance, to train workers about the hazards of cadmium in the workplace... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of...

  4. Cadmium assessment on the intertidal water margins from the Óbidos Lagoon (western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S.S. Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Óbidos Lagoon is the largest shallow coastal lagoon in Portugal. Like any other brackish water system, it has been potentially exposed to different sources of contamination (e.g. livestock farming, domestic and industrial sewage. Trace metals are persistent elements present in the water and sediments in their elemental and organic/inorganic forms. In fact, Cadmium is extremely pollutant due to its great solubility in water and high toxicity for organisms. Also, it is classified as a priority substance according to the European Union Water Frame directive. In this context, a seasonal environmental monitoring program was implemented in the intertidal water margins of the Óbidos Lagoon to assess the presence of Cadmium. In 2009 and 2010, eight sampling stations (S distributed on the shores of the Óbidos Lagoon were chosen and water and sediments were seasonally collected. In all samples, cadmium concentrations were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, with Graphite Furnace Technique. Cadmium dissolved in the water samples was only detected during summer months, with the highest values in the Barrosa’s arm (S3: 0.35 mg/l in 2009, and at the station further downstream (S1: 0.19 mg/l in 2010. In the suspended fraction of the water samples the trace metal was detectable in all seasons, with the maximum concentration at the Barrosa’s arm (S4: 1.04 mg/l in the winter of 2010. Cadmium was not detectable in the sediments during the summers and was sporadically present in the autumn and in the winter of 2009. The highest concentration in the sediments was observed at the Barrosa´s arm (S4: 140.78 mg/kg in the spring of 2010. As a whole, cadmium contamination appears to be mostly focused on the inner areas of the lagoon, at the Barrosa´s arm, but a clear seasonal pattern of variation was not detectable. These results allow a better understanding of the environmental quality of this ecosystem and may assist in the definition of coastal

  5. Effect of selenium on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and esterase activity in rat organs

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Dzobo; Yogeshkumar S. Naik

    2013-01-01

    Metal toxicity is a threat mainly in the industrialised world where industry discharges many toxic metals into the environment. We investigated the effects of two metals cadmium and selenium on the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and esterases in the liver, kidneys and testes of rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) were divided equally into four groups: control, cadmium, selenium and cadmium/selenium. Salts of the metals were administered intraperitoneally for 15 days. In the liver, cadmium tr...

  6. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive Gene Expression Alterations in Response to Cadmium Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hanyang Hu; Xing Lu; Xiang Cen; Xiaohua Chen; Feng Li; Shan Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a common toxicant that is detrimental to many tissues. Although a number of transcriptional signatures have been revealed in different tissues after cadmium treatment, the genes involved in the cadmium caused male reproductive toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed that the mice treated with different amount of cadmium in their rodent chow for six months exhibited reduced serum testosterone. We then performed RNA-seq to comprehensively in...

  7. The effect of betaine administration on rat sperm quality following cadmium toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    arash Kheradmand; masoud Alirezaei; omid Dezfoulian

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to survey the protective effects of betaine against cadmium and on sperm quality including progressive motility, sperm membrane integrity, concentration as well as testicular weight. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats were allocated to the following three groups (n=10 in each group): control-saline, cadmium-saline and cadmium-betaine. Induction of testicular injury was achieved by a single injection of cadmium chloride intraperotoneally, and bet...

  8. Electron loss and transfer for 20-110-keV iodine-rare-gas collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, B.; Orakzai, M. W.; Rahman, F.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic cross sections have been measured for the loss and transfer of an electron during a collision between a neutral iodine atom and a rare-gas atom. The neutral iodine beam, with energy between 20 to 110 keV, was unlikely to contain a significant mixture of metastable-state atoms because it was produced by neutralizing a negative-iodine-ion beam. The σ0+ cross section is largest for the argon and krypton targets, not for xenon, as might have been expected. The σ0- cross section is very small for the light targets and only becomes appreciable for xenon at the highest energy used.

  9. The self assembly of thymine at Au(110)/liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Contreras, J.R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Mexico (Mexico); Smith, C.I.; Bowfield, A.; Weightman, P. [Physics Department, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Tillner, F. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    We show that thymine self-assembles into an ordered structure when adsorbed at a Au(110)/liquid interface. Reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) shows that as found for cytosine and adenine the adsorbed thymine molecules are oriented essentially vertically on the Au(110) surface with the molecule aligned along one of the principal axes of the Au(110) surface. Simulations of the RA spectra to an empirical model indicates that as found for adsorbed cytosine and adenine, thymine is aligned along the [1 anti 10] direction on the Au(110) surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Cadmium sorption characteristics of phosphorylated sago starch-extraction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igura, Masato, E-mail: mst_igr@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Okazaki, Masanori [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    The residue produced by the extraction of sago starch is usually discarded as a waste material. In this study, we phosphorylated the sago starch-extraction residue with phosphoryl chloride and used the phosphorylated residue to remove cadmium from wastewater. The phosphoric ester functionality in the phosphorylated residue was evaluated by means of infrared microspectrometry and solid-state NMR. The dependence of the cadmium sorption behavior on pH, contact time, and electrolyte concentration and the maximum sorption capacity of the phosphorylated residue were also studied. The cadmium sorption varied with pH and electrolyte concentration, and the maximum sorption capacity was 25.2 mg g{sup -1}, which is almost half the capacity of commercially available weakly acidic cation exchange resins. The phosphorylated residue could be reused several times, although cadmium sorption gradually decreased as the number of sorption-desorption cycles increased. The phosphorylated residue sorbed cadmium rapidly, which is expected to be favorable for the continuous operation in a column.

  11. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Isotope fractionation of cadmium in lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, S.; Rosman, K. J. R.; de Laeter, J. R.

    2006-03-01

    The double spike technique has been used to measure the isotope fractionation and elemental abundance of Cd in nine lunar samples, the Brownfield meteorite and the Columbia River Basalt BCR-1, by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Lunar soil samples give a tightly grouped set of positive isotope fractionation values of between + 0.42% and + 0.50% per mass unit. Positive isotope fractionation implies that the heavy isotopes are enhanced with respect to those of the Laboratory Standard. A vesicular mare basalt gave zero isotope fractionation, indicating that the Cd isotopic composition of the Moon is identical to that of the Earth. A sample of orange glass from the Taurus-Littrow region gave a negative isotope fractionation of - 0.23 ± 0.06% per mass unit, presumably as a result of redeposition of Cd from the Cd-rich vapour cloud associated with volcanism. Cadmium is by far the heaviest element to show isotope fractionation effects in lunar samples. The volatile nature of Cd is of importance in explaining these isotope fractionation results. Although a number of mechanisms have been postulated to be the cause of isotope fractionation of certain elements in lunar soils, we believe that the most likely mechanisms are ion and particle bombardment of the lunar surface.

  13. Biosynthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum semiconductor crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, C. T.; Reese, R. N.; Mehra, R. K.; Kortan, A. R.; Carroll, P. J.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Brus, L. E.; Winge, D. R.

    1989-04-01

    NANOMETRE-SCALE semiconductor quantum crystallites exhibit size-dependent and discrete excited electronic states which occur at energies higher than the band gap of the corresponding bulk solid1-4. These crystallites are too small to have continuous energy bands, even though a bulk crystal structure is present. The onset of such quantum properties sets a fundamental limit to device miniaturization in microelectronics5. Structures with either one, two or all three dimensions on the nanometer scale are of particular interest in solid state physics6. We report here our discovery of the biosynthesis of quantum crystallites in yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cultured in the presence of cad-mium salts. Short chelating peptides of general structure (γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly control the nucleation and growth of CdS crystallites to peptide-capped intracellular particles of diameter 20 Å. These quantum CdS crystallites are more monodisperse than CdS par-ticles synthesized chemically. X-ray data indicate that, at this small size, the CdS structure differs from that of bulk CdS and tends towards a six-coordinate rock-salt structure.

  14. Collinear laser spectroscopy of atomic cadmium

    CERN Document Server

    Frömmgen, Nadja; Bissell, Mark L.; Bieroń, Jacek; Blaum, Klaus; Cheal, Bradley; Flanagan, Kieran; Fritzsche, Stephan; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kreim, Kim; Krieger, Andreas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Rajabali, Mustafa M.; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Papuga, Jasna; Yordanov, Deyan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfine structure $A$ and $B$ factors of the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\rm{P}_2 \\rightarrow 5s\\,6s\\,\\; ^3\\rm{S}_1$ transition are determined from collinear laser spectroscopy data of $^{107-123}$Cd and $^{111m-123m}$Cd. Nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments are extracted using reference dipole moments and calculated electric field gradients, respectively. The hyperfine structure anomaly for isotopes with $s_{1/2}$ and $d_{5/2}$ nuclear ground states and isomeric $h_{11/2}$ states is evaluated and a linear relationship is observed for all nuclear states except $s_{1/2}$. This corresponds to the Moskowitz-Lombardi rule that was established in the mercury region of the nuclear chart but in the case of cadmium the slope is distinctively smaller than for mercury. In total four atomic and ionic levels were analyzed and all of them exhibit a similar behaviour. The electric field gradient for the atomic $5s\\,5p\\,\\; ^3\\mathrm{P}_2$ level is derived from multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculatio...

  15. Cadmium neurotoxicity to a freshwater planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Lee, Hui-Ling; Li, Mei-Hui

    2014-11-01

    Although freshwater planarians are evolutionarily primitive, they are some of the simplest bilateral animals possessing integrated neural networks similar to those in vertebrates. We attempted to develop planarian Dugesia japonica as a model for investigating the neurotoxicity of environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). This study was therefore designed to study the effects of Cd on the locomotor activity, neurobehavior, and neurological enzymes of D. japonica. After planarians were exposed to Cd at high concentrations, altered neurobehavior was observed that exhibited concentration-dependent patterns. Morphological alterations in Cd-treated planarians included irregular shape, body elongation, screw-like hyperkinesia, and bridge-like position. To study the direct effects of Cd on neurological enzymes, tissue homogenates of planarians were incubated in vitro with Cd before their activity was measured. Results showed that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activities were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. MAO-B activity was significantly induced by Cd at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Changes in the in vivo activity of AChE and ATPase were also found after planarians were treated with Cd at a sublethal concentration (5.56 μM). These observations indicate that neurotransmission systems in planarians are disturbed after Cd exposure.

  16. Teratogenic effect of cadmium on the foetal development of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foetus of pregnant rats exposed to single intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/kg body weight cadmium sulphate on eighth gestational days; were compared with control (saline injected) fetuses to assess the effects of cadmium sulphate on foetal growth and ossification. Cadmium sulphate caused significant reduction in body ...

  17. Various cadmium compounds in the feed for broilers and laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nezel, K.; Matthes, S.; Vogt, H.

    1981-06-01

    The influence of various cadmium compounds on the performance and health of broilers and laying hens and on the residues in tissues and eggs has been investigated. The easily soluble cadmium acetate, cystein cadmium and the low-soluble cadmium sulfide in the doses of 0-20-40 ppm cadmium were compared. Eight x 12 male Lohmann broiler chickens in cages for every ration in the 42-/49-days broiler test and 32 LSL-hens (Leghorn type) in single cages for every ration in the 336-days laying test have been used. Parameters tested in both tests were: mortality, feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency, pathological-anatomical changes as well as cadmium contents in the test rations and in the pectoral muscle, the thigh muscle, the liver, the kidneys and the bones. In the laying test, also the laying rate, egg weight, daily egg output, egg shell stability and cadmium contents in egg white, yolk and in the tissues were tested. In both age groups the negative effect of cadmium acetate and cystein-cadmium employment on performance and health of the birds were similar; comparable concentrations were found in the tissues. Cadmium sulfide had no effect on the performance of the birds and cadmium contents in the tissues were only slightly raised. In the eggs, no cadmium enhancement was noticed.

  18. Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of lead and cadmium on seed germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala. Seed were grown under laboratory conditions at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of metal ions of lead and cadmium. Both lead and cadmium treatments showed toxic ...

  19. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  20. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  1. One-Dimensional Fast Transient Simulator for Modeling Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da

    Solar energy, including solar heating, solar architecture, solar thermal electricity and solar photovoltaics, is one of the primary alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. Being one of the most important techniques, significant research has been conducted in solar cell efficiency improvement. Simulation of various structures and materials of solar cells provides a deeper understanding of device operation and ways to improve their efficiency. Over the last two decades, polycrystalline thin-film Cadmium-Sulfide and Cadmium-Telluride (CdS/CdTe) solar cells fabricated on glass substrates have been considered as one of the most promising candidate in the photovoltaic technologies, for their similar efficiency and low costs when compared to traditional silicon-based solar cells. In this work a fast one dimensional time-dependent/steady-state drift-diffusion simulator, accelerated by adaptive non-uniform mesh and automatic time-step control, for modeling solar cells has been developed and has been used to simulate a CdS/CdTe solar cell. These models are used to reproduce transients of carrier transport in response to step-function signals of different bias and varied light intensity. The time-step control models are also used to help convergence in steady-state simulations where constrained material constants, such as carrier lifetimes in the order of nanosecond and carrier mobility in the order of 100 cm2/Vs, must be applied.

  2. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  3. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pe-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β=0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β=0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation and effect of cadmium in the photosynthetic apparatus of Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yared Michel-López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Prosopis juliflora plants grown in hydroponics solution were exposed to 50,100 and 1000 μM CdCl2. The cadmium uptake, transport and toxicity on the photosynthetic activities in the plants were measured at 48 h after starting cadmium treatments. The results showed that the concentration of Cd2+ in P. juliflora tended to increase with addition of Cd2+ to hydroponics solution. However, the increase of Cd2+ in roots and leaves varied largely. In this sense, the accumulation of Cd2+ in P. juliflora roots increased significantly in proportion with the addition of this metal. In contrast a relatively low level of Cd2+ transportation index, and bioaccumulation factor were found in P. juliflora at 48 h after of treatments. On the other hand the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the activity of photosystem II (Fv/Fo ratios in P. juliflora leaf treated with Cd2+ not showed significantly changes during the experiment. These results suggested that the photosynthetic apparatus of P. juliflora was not the primary target of the Cd2+ action. Further studies will be focused in understanding the participation of the root system in Prosopis plants with the rhizosphere activation and root adsorption to soil Cd2+ under natural conditions.

  5. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  6. Quantification of lead and cadmium in poultry and bird game meat by square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, M; Cecchini, M; Taffetani, L; Vercellotti, L; Rosmini, R

    2011-02-01

    A square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric method for the analysis of lead and cadmium in chicken muscle and liver was developed and validated, and the results of a monitoring study relative to chicken and pigeon meat are reported. The voltammetric method allows the analysis of lead and cadmium at the same time in samples after acid digestion. The use of perchloric acid for digestion and of acetate buffer in the supporting electrolyte are suitable to reduce matrix interferences and obtain limits of quantification which were below 10 ng g⁻¹ for meat and liver samples. The regression between the analytical signal and the concentration of the target analytes in spiked samples and Certified Reference Materials proved to be linear within the 10-100 ng g⁻¹ range for meat and within the 50-500 ng g⁻¹ range for liver. The analytical method was verified using available Certified Reference Materials BCR-184 (cattle meat) and BCR-185R (cattle liver) as well as with spiked chicken samples. Precision (i.e. repeatability and intermediate precision) and accuracy (percentage recovery and bias) were of the order of 0.3-4.5% for both lead and cadmium The level of lead in muscle was in the range between 6.4 and 59.8 ng g⁻¹ in chickens and between 7.9 and 63.6 ng g⁻¹ in farmed pigeons, whereas it was between 8.0 and 84.4 ng g⁻¹ in chicken liver. The cadmium concentration was 0.4-10.4 ng g⁻¹ in chicken muscle, 10.4-90.6 ng g⁻¹ in chicken liver and 2.2-8.0 ng g⁻¹ in farmed pigeons.

  7. Blood Cadmium Concentrations in Women with Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaer, Abdullah; Tuncay, Gorkem; Tanrikut, Emrullah; Ozgul, Onur

    2017-10-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the blood level of cadmium and the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy. Forty-one (41) case patients with ectopic pregnancy and 41 uncomplicated intrauterine pregnant patients as controls were recruited. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd) were measured from blood samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cases and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and smoking habits. The median blood level of Cd was 0.32 μg/l (interquartile range [IQR] 0.00-0.71) in the women with ectopic pregnancies and 0.34 μg/l (IQR 0.09-0.59) in the controls. There was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and ectopic pregnancy.

  8. Study on removal of cadmium by hybrid liquid membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaheb, Hamid R; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Mokhtarani, Babak; Amini, Mohammad H; Mandanipour, Valiollah

    2010-05-15

    Removal of cadmium as a hazardous heavy metal is studied by applying a new design of hybrid cell for liquid membrane process. Tri-iso-octyl amine (TIOA) is used as the carrier in the organic phase. The concentration of cadmium in the samples is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The effect of various parameters including type of supporting membrane, pH of feed and stripping phases, initial concentration of cadmium, carrier concentration, solvent nature, and also organic film resistance on mass transfer rate and removal efficiency are studied. The effect of temperature on mass transfer flux is studied by proposing a prediction model. The optimum carrier concentration is found to be about 0.05 M. The appropriate values of pH for feed and stripping phases are about 3 and 13, respectively. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium toxicity: a possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Shittu, Olayiwola B; Anetor, John I

    2006-03-01

    Serum and seminal plasma cadmium (Cd) concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 60 infertile adult male Nigerians (40 oligozoospermics and 20 azoospermics). The results were compared with Cd level in 40 normozoospermic subjects (matched age, with proven evidence of fertility). The relationship between Cd levels and spermatograms or the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) -axis was investigated by correlating serum and seminal plasma Cd levels with semen characteristics and hormone levels. The seminal plasma Cd level was significantly higher than those of serum in all studied groups (pcadmium as a cause of infertility in male Nigerians as well as extend and support previous findings concerning cadmium toxicity and male infertility. The strong deleterious effect of cadmium on spermatogenesis may be due to the systemic and cellular toxicity. A possible relationship between this element and the HPG axis is also suggested.

  10. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in potato tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stroiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term treatment of tuber discs of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with cadmium chloride elevated the concentration of active oxygen species (.O-2, H202 and activated the antioxidative system. Two cultivars, Bintje and Bzura, susceptible and tolerant, respectively, to cadmium were examined. In more tolerant, control tissues the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (AAP and catalase (CAT was higher than in the sensitive ones. During first hours of stress, the inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD, CAT and AAP was observed and it comes from inactivation of enzymes by cadmium ions. A subsequent activity increase of the enzymes aroused earlier in tolerant tissues. It seems therefore, that tolerant tissues possess a more efficient antioxidative system.

  11. Removal of cadmium by pleurotus sajor-caju basidiomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihangir, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Saglam, N. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Education

    1999-11-01

    The bioaccumulation of cadmium by the white rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju onto dry biomass was investigated using aqueous media with concentrations in the range of 0.125 mM-1.0 mM. The highest cadmium uptake (between 88.9 and 91.8%) was observed with aerobic fungal biomass from the exponential growth phase. Up to 1.0 mM cadmium gradually inhibited mycelium development, but never blocked it completely. Freeze-dried, oven-dried and non-metabolizing live Pleurotus sajor-caju biomass types were tested for their capacity to adsorb the test ion Cd{sup 2+} within the pH range of 4.5 to 6.0. Freeze-dried biomass proved to be the most efficient biomass type for Cd{sup 2+} metal adsorption. Therefore, Pleurotus sajor-caju may be used for heavy metal removal and bioremediation. (orig.)

  12. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  13. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Feizi, Shahzad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Application Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh [Yazd University, Department of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with {sup 68}Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with {sup 68}Ga NPs ({sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 68}Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 68}Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 68}Ga radionuclide, the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  14. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  16. 33 CFR 110.232 - Southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... yards, having its center at latitude 55°12′52″ N., longitude 131°25′52″ W. (b) The regulations. (1... sufficient size to permit target indication on the radar screen of commercial type radar; or (ii) Have steel...

  17. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any of...

  18. 33 CFR 110.186 - Port Everglades, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Everglades, Florida. 110.186... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.186 Port Everglades, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds. The... entrance to Port Everglades, is an area bounded by a line connecting points with the following North...

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) shall be forwarded with supporting documentation by the Organizational Property Management Officer (OPMO... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation procedures. 109-1.110-50 Section 109-1.110-50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  20. 24 CFR 15.110 - What fees will HUD charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What fees will HUD charge? 15.110... INFORMATION BY HUD EMPLOYEES FOIA Disclosure of Information § 15.110 What fees will HUD charge? (a) How will HUD determine your fee? HUD will determine your fee based on which category of requester you are in...

  1. Metal complexes of salicylhydroxamic acid and 1,10-phen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) complexes involving 1,10-phenanthroline were studied pH-potentiometrically in 0.15 mol.L-1 NaNO3 aqueous solutions at 37 oC. The protonation constants of salicylhydroxamic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline as well their binary and mixed ...

  2. 7 CFR 1463.110 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1463.110... PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.110 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. A person... program determination made in accordance with this subpart; (b) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to...

  3. 42 CFR 436.110 - Individuals receiving cash assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals receiving cash assistance. 436.110... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.110 Individuals receiving cash assistance. (a) A Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to individuals receiving cash assistance under OAA, AFDC, AB, APTD...

  4. 10 CFR 601.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification and disclosure. 601.110 Section 601.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 601... representation shall be borne solely by the tier filing that representation and shall not be shared by any tier...

  5. 40 CFR 211.110-2 - National security exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National security exemptions. 211.110... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-2 National security exemptions. (a) A new product which is produced to conform with specifications developed by national security agency...

  6. 7 CFR 900.110 - Application for arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for arbitration. 900.110 Section 900.110... Application for arbitration. An application for arbitration by a cooperative shall be in writing and shall... time and place for arbitration hearing. The applicant shall send a copy of the application to each...

  7. ATOMIC POSITIONS ON OXYGEN-COVERED CU(110) SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DORENBOS, G; BREEMAN, M; BOERMA, DO

    The reconstructed Cu(110)-p(2 x 1)O and Cu(110)-c(6 x 2)O surfaces were studied using low-energy ion scattering combined with time of flight. Azimuthal scans were measured with 6 keV Ar ions for recoiling O, scattered Ar and recoiling Cu atoms. Part of the scans were analysed using a newly developed

  8. 34 CFR 110.3 - What definitions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply? 110.3 Section 110.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION....3 What definitions apply? The following definitions apply to these regulations: Act means the Age...

  9. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a 300-foot...

  10. 34 CFR 110.39 - Exhaustion of administrative remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 110.39 Section... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Investigation, Conciliation, and Enforcement Procedures § 110.39 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action following the exhaustion of administrative...

  11. 21 CFR 136.110 - Bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bread, rolls, and buns. 136.110 Section 136.110... Bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Bread, white bread, and rolls, white rolls, or buns, and white buns are the... be additional optional ingredients in the bread, rolls, or buns. All ingredients in any flour...

  12. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  13. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.

    1995-01-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...

  14. TCP/IP communication between two USRP-E110

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria-Russo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This short report intends to provide an overview of the procedure and statistics of establishing a TCP/IP link between two USRP-E110. The testings are performed using an example GNURadio code and the networking protocol stack provided by the Linux operating system embedded in the USRP-E110.

  15. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria and...

  16. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in producing...

  17. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping joint used shall be suitable for the design conditions and shall be selected with consideration of...

  18. 21 CFR 801.110 - Retail exemption for prescription devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail exemption for prescription devices. 801.110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.110 Retail exemption for prescription devices. A device subject to § 801.109 shall be exempt at the time of delivery to the...

  19. 31 CFR 17.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 17.110 Section 17... § 17.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by two years after the effective date of this part... handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation process. (c) The agency shall, until three years following...

  20. 25 CFR 720.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-evaluation. 720.110 Section 720.110 Indians THE...-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by August 24, 1987, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  1. 45 CFR 1181.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 1181.110 Section 1181.110 Public...-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies and practices, and the... or organizations representing handicapped persons, to participate in the self-evaluation process by...

  2. 36 CFR 406.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluation. 406.110... COMMISSION § 406.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency shall, by April 9, 1987, evaluate its current policies... in the self-evaluation process by submitting comments (both oral and written). (c) The agency shall...

  3. 44 CFR 16.110 - Self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-evaluation. 16.110... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.110 Self-evaluation. (a) The agency... handicaps or organizations representing individuals with handicaps, to participate in the self-evaluation...

  4. 33 CFR 110.59 - Eastern Long Island, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Long Island, NY. 110.59... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.59 Eastern Long Island, NY. (a) Huntington Harbor... adjacent to the easterly side of Centre Island, westerly of a line on range with Cold Spring Harbor Light...

  5. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage restraint measurement systems. 213.110... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.110 Gage restraint measurement systems. (a) A track owner may elect to implement a Gage Restraint Measurement System (GRMS...

  6. 7 CFR 959.110 - Reestablishment of districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reestablishment of districts. 959.110 Section 959.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... of Zapata, Webb, Jim Hogg, De Witt, Wilson, Atascosa, Karnes, Val Verde, Frio, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina...

  7. 24 CFR 110.20 - Availability of posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of posters. 110.20... HOUSING FAIR HOUSING POSTER Requirements for Display of Posters § 110.20 Availability of posters. All persons subject to this part may obtain fair housing posters from the Department's regional and area...

  8. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. 520.110 Section 520.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking water...

  9. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  10. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  11. A Model of Cadmium Uptake and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, T N; Senyavina, N V; Anisimov, N U; Tonevitskaya, S A

    2016-05-01

    We created a physiologically substantiated kinetic model of cadmium transport and toxicity in intestinal cell model (Caco-2 cells). Transcriptome profiling of Caco-2 cells revealed high content of transporter DMT1 and ZIP14 and intensive expression of some calcium channels of the CACN family. The mathematical model describing three types of transporters, as well as intracellular cadmium binding with metallothionein and excretion through the basolateral membrane allowed us to construct cadmium uptake and transport curves that approximated the previously obtained experimental data. Using the proposed model, we determined toxic intracellular cadmium concentration leading to cell death and impairing the integrity of cell monolayer and described cadmium transport in this case.

  12. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  13. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P<0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  15. Potentiation of cadmium nephrotoxicity by acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, A.M.; Russis, R. de; Ouled Amor, A.; Lauwerys, R.R.

    1988-10-01

    The possible interactions between acetaminophen and cadmium (Cd) on the kidney were investigated in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Acetaminophen was administered in the food at an average dose of 900 mg/kg and Cd in drinking water at the concentration of 200 ppm. The treatment with acetaminophen and Cd lasted 2 and 10 months, respectively. No interaction between Cd and acetaminophen was observed during the period of their concomitant administration: the increase in albuminuria caused by Cd and acetaminophen was additive, while the tubular impairment caused by acetaminophen (increased ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulinuria and decreased kidney concentrating ability) was not exacerbated by Cd. None of these treatments affected the glomerular filtration rate. Four months after the end of acetaminophen treatment, the renal changes had almost completely disappeared in the rats which had received the analgesic alone. Those continously exposed to Cd had developed slight tubular damage, as evidenced by an increased urinary excretion of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin and ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase. By contrast, rats pretreated with acetaminophen for 2 months and exposed to Cd showed a marked increase in urinary excretion of albumin and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, suggesting an interaction between both treatments. At the end of the study, only the interaction with ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin excretion was still evident; that with the urinary excretion of ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase and albumin having been masked by the chronic progessive nephrosis affecting most animals at that stage. As acetaminophen had no effect on the renal accumulation of Cd, it may be concluded that pretreatment with this analygesic at a dose causing slight tubular dysfunction renders rat kidney more sensitive to the nephrotoxic action of Cd. This observation may be of clinical relevance for population groups occupationally or environmentally exposed to Cd.

  16. Cadmium Concentration in Human Autopsy Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Sadlik, Józefa K

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of cadmium in human tissues obtained on the basis of autopsies of non-poisoned Polish people (n = 150), aged from 1 to 80 years, examined between 1990 and 2010, is presented. The following values were found in wet digested samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (mean ± SD, median, and range, μg/g of wet weight): brain 0.020 ± 0.031, 0.084, 0-0.120 (n = 41); stomach 0.148 ± 0.195, 0.084, 0-1.25 (n = 89); small intestine 0.227 ± 0.231, 0.130, 0-0.830 (n = 39); liver 1.54 ± 1.55, 1.01, 0.015-9.65 (n = 99); kidney 16.0 ± 13.2, 14.0, 0.62-61.3 (n = 91); lung 0.304 ± 0.414, 0.130, 0-1.90 (n = 25); and heart 0.137 ± 0.107, 0.140, 0.017-0.250 (n = 4). Additionally, results (n = 13 people, aged from 2 to 83 years, 63 samples) obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) between 2010 and 2015 are given. The obtained data on Cd concentration in the human body can be used to estimate the amounts occurring in "healthy" people and those occurring in cases of chronic or acute poisonings with Cd compounds, which are examined for forensic purposes or to assess environmental exposure levels.

  17. Influence of co-contaminant exposure on the absorption of arsenic, cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollson, Cameron J; Smith, Euan; Herde, Paul; Juhasz, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Incidental ingestion of contaminated soil and dust is a major pathway for human exposure to many inorganic contaminants. To date, exposure research has focused on arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), however, these studies have typically assessed metal(loid) bioavailability individually, even when multiple elements are present in the same matrix. As a consequence, it is unclear whether interactions between these elements occur within the gastro-intestinal tract, which may impact absorption and accumulation. In this study, the influence of contaminant co-exposure was assessed using a mouse bioassay and soluble forms of As, Cd and Pb supplied in mouse chow as individual, binary and tertiary elemental combinations. Arsenic urinary excretion and Pb-liver accumulation were unaffected by As-Pb co-exposure (1-10 mg As kg-1 and 3-30 mg Pb kg-1) while Cd-kidney accumulation was unaffected by the presence of As and/or Pb. However, Cd co-exposure decreased As urinary excretion and increased Pb-liver accumulation. It was hypothesized that Cd influenced arsenate absorption as a consequence of the impairment of phosphate transporters. Although the reason for increasing Pb-liver accumulation following Cd co-exposure is unclear, enhanced Pb accumulation may occur as a result of transport protein overexpression or changes in divalent metal compartmentalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exposure of rainbow trout milt to mercury and cadmium alters sperm motility parameters and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Grzegorz J., E-mail: dietrich@pan.olsztyn.pl [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dietrich, Mariola; Kowalski, R.K. [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Dobosz, Stefan [Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute, Rutki 83-330 Zukowo (Poland); Karol, Halina; Demianowicz, Wieslaw; Glogowski, Jan [Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-05-10

    In the current work, seminal plasma was used for the first time as an incubation medium for monitoring short-time exposure effects of sublethal concentrations of mercury and cadmium ions on rainbow trout sperm. Sperm motility parameters (CASA) and hatching rates were used as gamete quality markers. Additionally live/dead sperm viability test and comet assay of DNA fragmentation were performed. We demonstrated that computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) may serve as a predictor of reproductive success, when milt contaminated with heavy metals is used. Results presented in this study demonstrate that mercury ions altered sperm motility characteristics at 1-10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l and hatching rates at 10 mg Hg{sup 2+}/l and 10 mg Cd{sup 2+}/l after 4 h of exposure. Although mercury ions affected sperm motility parameters immediately after dilution with milt as well as at 4 h of exposure, no differences in sperm motility parameters were found between intact and mercury-treated milt after 24 h of exposure. Our results suggest that rainbow trout seminal plasma has a protective role against the toxic effects of mercury ions of rainbow trout sperm motility.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gao

    Full Text Available The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd, as well as zinc (Zn and lead (Pb in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0 and down-regulated (Fold Change

  20. Cadmium restores in vitro splicing activity inhibited by zinc-depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong Jin; Ayaki, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Keiko; Nishio, Hisahide [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Kobe (Japan); Goji, Junko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Hyogo (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    Zinc (Zn)-depletion inhibits the second step of RNA splicing, namely exon-ligation. To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and other metal ions on RNA splicing inhibited by Zn-depletion, we measured in vitro splicing activities in the presence of these metals. Zn-depletion in the splicing reaction mixture was achieved by addition of a Zn-chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline. Cd(II) at 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M restored the splicing activity to 2, 24 and 72% of that in the control reaction mixture, while higher concentrations of Cd(II) decreased the splicing activity, and more than 50 {mu}M Cd(II) showed a complete absence of spliced products. Hg(II) also restored the splicing activity, albeit to a lesser extent, since 5 and 10 {mu}M Hg(II) restored the splicing activity to 3 and 4% of the control value. The other metal ions examined in this study, Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II) and Mn(II), did not show any restoration of the splicing activity. We concluded that Cd(II) could restore the in vitro splicing activity inhibited by Zn-depletion, although higher concentrations of Cd(II) prevented progress of the RNA splicing reaction. These results suggest that Cd(II) has a bifunctional property regarding RNA splicing, and is stimulatory at low concentrations and inhibitory at high concentrations. (orig.)

  1. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  2. Sexual dimorphism of cadmium-induced toxicity in rats: involvement of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

    2012-09-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium varies with sex in experimental animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that pretreatment of male Fischer 344 (F344) rats with the female sex hormone progesterone markedly enhances the susceptibility to cadmium, suggesting a role for progesterone in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity. In the present study, we attempted to further elucidate the mechanism for sex differences in cadmium-induced toxicity in F344 rats. A single exposure to cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg, sc) was lethal in 10/10 (100 %) female compared with 6/10 (60 %) male rats. Using a lower dose of cadmium (3.0 mg Cd/kg), circulating alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, was highly elevated in the cadmium treated females but not in males. However, no gender-based differences occurred in the hepatic cadmium accumulation, metallothionein or glutathione levels. When cadmium (5.0 mg Cd/kg) was administered to young rats at 5 weeks of age, the sex-related difference in lethality was minimal. Furthermore, although ovariectomy blocked cadmium-induced lethality, the lethal effects of the metal were restored by pretreatment with progesterone (40 mg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) or β-estradiol (200 μg/kg, sc, 7 consecutive days) to ovariectomized rats. These results provide further evidence that female sex hormones such as progesterone and β-estradiol are involved in the sexual dimorphism of cadmium toxicity in rats.

  3. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, G.; Klavis, G.; Schaller, K. H.; Haas, T.

    1969-01-01

    Lehnert, G., Klavis, G., Schaller, K. H., and Haas, T. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 156-158. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in the urine and serum of 18 workers exposed to cadmium dust and fume in a zinc smelting plant. In all cases the concentrations of cadmium in the serum were within the normal range, but those in the urine were elevated. The elevated urine concentrations showed that the exposed group had taken up more cadmium than normal, although they showed no clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning. Analysis of urine for cadmium is therefore of value in preventive medicine, and should be used for periodic check-ups on those occupationally exposed. PMID:5780108

  4. Antagonism between cadmium and magnesium: a possible role of magnesium in therapy of cadmium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matović, Vesna; Plamenac Bulat, Zorica; Djukić-Cosić, Danijela; Soldatović, Danilo

    2010-03-01

    One of the important mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) toxicity is its interactions with bioelements, including magnesium (Mg). Exposure to Cd leads to disturbances in Mg metabolism in the organism, while Mg supplementation has an adverse effect on Cd absorption, accumulation and toxicity. According to the available results, which indicate a protective role of Mg against Cd toxicity, it remains to be seen whether magnesium may influence the important unsolved problem of Cd intoxication therapy. In this review, the interactions between the toxic metal Cd and the bioelement Mg are discussed on the basis of the available literature and our own results. We discuss these interactions mainly based on experimental data because data from human studies are scarce.

  5. Cadmium and cadmium-tolerant soil bacteria in cacao crops from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Pardo-Díaz, S; Benavides-Erazo, J; Rengifo-Estrada, G; Braissant, O; Leon-Moreno, C

    2018-01-18

    This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3·74 mg kg -1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2·76 and 1·16 mg kg -1 , respectively). Coefficient of determination between total soil Cd and CFU of CdtB was high (R 2  = 0·83) for the farm in Boyacá. Moreover, a pool of 129 CdtB was isolated, and phylogeny of 21 CdtB was discussed. Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Among CdtB strains isolated, Enterobacter sp. CdDB41 showed major Cd immobilization capacity (Q max of 2·21 and 2·32 J at 6 and 24 mg l -1 of CdCl 2 ), with an immobilization rate of 0·220 mg kg -1  h -1 . Nothing is known about soil CdtB in cacao. Our data showed that CdtB such as Enterobacter sp. has high immobilization capacity. Furthermore, the otavite found in situ might be mineralized due to the bacterial metabolic activity of CdtB. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen bond density and strength analysis on hydrated Rutile (110) and Cassiterite (110) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul; Bandura, Andrei; Wesolowski, David; Kubicki, James; Sofo, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We study the dynamics of water on the surface of cassiterite (110) and rutile (110) using ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation. Water adsorbs and dissociates on these surfaces. This dynamic equilibrium is dominated by the hydrogen bond (h-bond) network at the surface. The h-bond density analysis shows that adsorbed water molecules form higher average number of h-bonds on rutile (˜2.3) as compared to the cassiterite surface (˜2.1). On the other hand, bridging oxygen atoms form higher average number of h-bonds on cassiterite (˜1.4) than rutile surface (˜1.2). Dissociated species are found to have same average number of hydrogen bonds on both surfaces. As a consequence, the rutile surface has higher density of h-bonds at the surface than cassiterite, however, their strength is lower [N. Kumar et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 044706 (2011)]. This delicate balance is responsible for the different dynamical properties of both surfaces.

  8. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shute, Tracy [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Macfie, Sheila M. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)]. E-mail: smacfie@uwo.ca

    2006-12-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  9. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried ...

  10. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  11. Mechanism of cadmium ion removal by base treated juniper fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Hong Min; J.K. Park; James S. Han; Eun Woo Shin

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, Juniperus Monosperma, is a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material. Evaluated were efficacy of base-treated juniper fiber (BTJF) sample for cadmium (Cd 2+ ) sorption and the viability of juniper fiber as a sorbent for the removal of Cd 2+ from water. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that...

  12. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  13. Homogeneity and Magnetic Susceptibility in Some Substituted Cadmium Spinels,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-25

    the excess cadmium was removed. Analysis of the rhodium complex precursor was performed by reduction under flowing 85% argon/1S% hydrogen at 500C...Acta Cryst. B25, 925 (1969). 11. P.W. Selwood, " Magnetochemistry " 2nd ed., Interscience: New York, 1956, p. 78. *l m .. .. ...- 5 -10- TABLE I

  14. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed ...

  15. Effects of cadmium on the growth and physiological characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf ...

  16. Monitoring the distribution of cadmium in sediment samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of cadmium species in sediments of different depths from Obajana stream was investigated by sequential extraction procedure and flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Index of geoaccumulation was used to assess the level of sediment pollution and it was found not to be polluted. However, the ...

  17. Copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead contamination of soil at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed heavy metals such as coppper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the soil collected from three sites from the solid waste dumping ground at Kureepuzha, very close to Ashtamudi Lake. Also, control samples were collected and analyzed for the said heavy metals. The levels of all ...

  18. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties. DIPU SUTRADHARa, HABIBAR CHOWDHURYb,∗, SUSHOVAN KONERa, SUBHASIS ROYa and BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSHa,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry, The University of ...

  19. Effect of exposure to cadmium on the tropical freshwater prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) on mortality, resistance and bioaccumulation in the tropical freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Egypt were studied. Survival of prawns exposed to Cd doses over 60 μg l-1 were sig nificantly lower than that of prawns exposed to lower doses. After 96 h prawns ex posed to >40 μg ...

  20. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum). Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light ...

  1. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally ...

  2. Biosorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Using A local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) (II) resistant strain of a marine fungus, named Aspergillus cristatus was isolated from heavy metals polluted area in the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria, Egypt during autumn, 2009. It could tolerate up to 100 mg l–1. Optimization of culture conditions for production of fungal biomass fortifying maximum Cd (II) ...

  3. The Determination of Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium Contents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of sixty samples per variety of fish used in this study was prepared for analysis by processes of homogenization and digestion of the whole fish (after their intestines have been removed); after which their individual lead, cadmium, arsenic and chromium contents were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry ...

  4. Cadmium accumulation and antioxidative defenses in leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn (Zea Mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd) concentration levels (0 - 1 mg/l) in a hydroponic system to analyze the antioxidant enzyme system, Cd concentration in the shoots and roots of plants, proline contents, growth responses and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of ...

  5. Fertility of male workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennart, J P; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Ghyselen, P; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R

    1992-06-01

    The effect of exposure to cadmium, lead, or manganese on male reproductive function was examined in 1988-1989 in Belgian blue-collar workers. The workers were exposed to cadmium in two smelters (n = 83; geometric mean urinary cadmium level = 6.94 micrograms/g of creatinine; mean duration of exposure = 24 years), to lead in a battery factory (n = 74; mean blood lead level = 46.3 micrograms/dl; mean duration of exposure = 10.7 years), or to manganese (manganese dioxide) in a dry alkaline battery plant (n = 70; median atmospheric concentration of total manganese dust = 0.71 mg/m3; mean duration of exposure = 6.2 years). Fertility in these workers and in an unexposed population (n = 138) was assessed by examining the birth experiences of their wives through a logistic regression model. The probability of a live birth was not different between the unexposed workers and the cadmium- or manganese-exposed workers before or after the onset of exposure. While the fertility of the lead-exposed workers was somewhat greater than that of the unexposed before the onset of exposure, a significant decrease in fertility was observed during the period of exposure to the metal (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.98).

  6. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Lead accumulation in plant tissue impairs various morphological, physiological, and biochemical functions .... chlorophyll meter (based on light transmittance through leaves) was used as a non-destructive tool for .... of cadmium on the photosynthetic system cause several structural and functional disorders.

  7. Biosorption of cadmium (ii) ion from aqueous solution by Afzelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The batch adsorption of cadmium (II) ion from aqueous solution using low-cost adsorbent of biological origin, Afzelia africana shell under different experimental conditions was investigated in this study. The influences of initial Cd (II) ion concentration, initial pH, contact times and temperature were reported. Adsorption of Cd ...

  8. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  9. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  10. Operational speciation of lead, cadmium, and zinc in farmlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the geochemical fractions and risk potential of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in farmlands around a polluted goldmine in Dareta, northern Nigeria. The total heavy metal concentrations were obtained through a mixed acid digestion. A modified sequential extraction procedure ...

  11. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  12. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  13. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  14. The biosorption of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption potentiality of Musa paradisiaca stalk at removing cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The biosorption experiment was carried out as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dose. Adsorption equilibria were obtained from batch ...

  15. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  16. Cadmium distribution in coastal sediments and mollusks of the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeti, Dennis A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Riedel, Gerhardt F

    2009-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the coastal United States were assessed using the National Status and Trends (NS&T) Mussel Watch dataset, which is based on the analysis of sediments and bivalves collected from 280 sites since 1986. Using the 1997 sediment data, Pearson correlation (r=0.44, pmollusk Cd content were not well correlated.

  17. Adsorption kinetics of cadmium and lead by chitosan | Bamgbose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the kinetics and capacity of chitosan to trap lead and cadmium ions in aqueous solution was carried out at 25oC using concentration and contact time as parameters. The experiments were done as batch process. Our results show that the adsorption process is concentration-driven with high capacity of ...

  18. Phytoextraction potential of cadmium and lead contamination using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative growth, biomass, chemical content and uptake of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry) and Populus alba L. (white poplar) seedlings were investigated using a 2-year pot experiment. The results indicated that P. alba and M. azedarach are tolerant to contaminated soil by Cd or Pb ...

  19. Hydrogen bonding in thiobenzamide synthon and its Cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1403. 3.4 Thermal behavior of [Cd(TBA)Cl2]. Several complexes of Cadmium with sulfur- contain- ing ligands have been used as precursors to synthesize. CdS nanoparticules.37,38 Accordingly, thermal stability of [Cd(TBA)Cl2] complex (Figure S9) was carried out in the temperature range 0–900. ◦. C under nitrogen atmo-.

  20. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... the metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil), translocation factor (TF, the metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to .... pH (1:2.5 soil to water). 4.62 ..... with high levels of CdSo4 (50 µM) in hydroponic culture. Cadmium ...

  1. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  2. Cadmium, copper and nickel levels in vegetables from industrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of cadmium, copper and nickel in five different edible vegetables viz Talinum triangulare, Celosia trigyna, Corchorus olitorus, Venomia amygydalina and Telfaria accidentalis, and the soils on which they were grown from three industrial and three residential areas of Lagos City, in Nigeria, were determined using ...

  3. Impact of cadmium on the ecdysteroids production in Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Sondes; Abbaci, Khedidja Tair; Geffard, Olivier; Boumaiza, Moncef; Dumet, Adeline; Garric, Jeanne; Mondy, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism which is currently used as a bio-indicator as well as in ecotoxicological tests. Nevertheless, data on ecdysteroids in endocrine toxicity test are not yet available for these species, despite its crucial role in molting and reproduction. In the present paper, ecdysteroids concentrations were studied during the molt cycle (in females) and embryonic development in G. fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in order to propose an ecdysteroids toxicity test. Ecdysteroids levels in G. fossarum showed a single peak during premolt at stage Dl-D2. In embryos, ecdysteroids levels progressively increased over stages 3 and 4, with peak levels at stage 4. A Cadmium toxicity test was proposed to examine if the molting and embryogenesis disturbances previously observed after cadmium exposure (Geffard et al. 2010) could be attributed to changes in ecdysteroids titers. Exposure to the different cadmium concentrations (3; 9; 300; 900 µg/l) increased ecdysteroids secretion by Y-organs in vitro, but it had no significant effect on exposed embryos (in vivo). Based on previous findings, we are led to conclude that the molting impairments in cadmium-exposed females of G. fossarum is connected to the changes in ecdysteroids concentrations.

  4. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  5. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... species such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), cabbage. (Brassica oleracea L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. L.) with ability to accumulate high concentrations of Cd in leaves rather than roots (Jadia and Fulekar, 2008a). Total cadmium concentration in the plant. Total plant Cd concentration varied under ...

  6. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    phenomena linked to the natural medium complexity and to evaluate the interactions between two heavy metals cadmium, (Cd) and copper (Cd), and a fungicide, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). The choice of these three chemicals was based on the fact that Cd and Cu are common and worrying environmental pollutants ...

  7. Effects of cadmium stress on growth, metal accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study quantifying the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd) on growth, Cd bioaccumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora was conducted. The experiment consisted of three levels of exogenous Cd2+ concentrations: 0, 50, and 200 mg/kg. Total Cd and water-soluble Cd were determined. Plant height, tiller number ...

  8. Concentration and bioavailability of cadmium by some plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the existing level of cadmium in three plant species within and around a refuse site at Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. Concentration ranged from background levels to levels well in excess of the maximum tolerable limit in agricultural soils. In the leaves, the least (highest in bracket) of ...

  9. Extraction of cadmium(II) from acidic medium with macroporous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction of cadmium(II) from acidic medium with macroporous resin impregnated with bis(2-ethylhexyl) ammonium bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithiocarbamate. I Fall, M Diaw, S A Ndiaye, R N Mendoza, M A Rodriguez, T I Saucedo Medina ...

  10. Rapid biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell-associated biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles has been reported to be rather slow and costly. In this study, we report on a rapid and low cost biosynthesis of CdS using culture supernatants of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079T.

  11. Lead and Cadmium Levels of Five Commonly and Widely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Corchorus olitorius, and Corchorus tridens) consumed by Kano inhabitants were investigated and found to be at concentration below the environmental lead action level set by US EPA/WHO. Cadmium was not detected in the samples. Low concentration of Pb and absence of Cd in all the plant samples analyzed are clear ...

  12. Effects of Cadmium on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... The effects of cadmium (Cd) stress on the growth and physiological characteristics were studied in 3 sorghum species viz., sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. cv. Hunnigreen], sorghum hybrid sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum sudanense, cv. Everlush) and sudangrass [Sorghum.

  13. Purification of cadmium by selective volatilization in vacuum in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    experiments were conducted at the level of nearly 1·5 kg a batch to study the impurities behaviour due to upscaling. The detailed chemical analysis of 58 impurity elements in Cd in presence and absence of oxide layer was carried out by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Keywords. High purity; cadmium; selective ...

  14. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Group one received distilled water and served as control. The other three groups were exposed to 100, 200 ...

  15. Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the ACP and ACPT changed from 32.6±0.72 and 7 ±Units in the control to 54 and 17 units respectively at 40mg/kg of CD. Furthermore Cadmium also caused positively correlated dose- and time-dependent destruction of the histology of the liver, kidney and testes. These were characterized by vascular congestion, ...

  16. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  17. Lead and Cadmium in Vinyl Children's Products. A Greenpeace Expose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gangi, Joseph

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is a substance widely used in children's products. Because children in contact with these products may ingest substantial quantities of potentially harmful chemicals during normal play, especially when they chew on the product, this Greenpeace study examined the levels of lead and cadmium in a variety of consumer…

  18. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    pesticides, as plant nutrients and as a constituent of waste products. These heavy metals may include cadmium, zinc ... effluent might contain non-biodegradable matter, toxic heavy metals, organic matter and also might ..... (2003) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and. Reuse, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing.

  19. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Bone and Kidney Alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were given chow (('lu.inca Feed, Nig. Plc) and water ad Iibitum and left to acclimatisc for at period of two weeks before the experiment was commenced. Clremicals and Reagents: Cadmium sulphate. (3CdS().,.8ll2()), chloroform, sodium chloride (E. Merck, Darmstadt, W. Germany). Acid and alkaline phosphatase assay kits ...

  20. Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Hattink, J.; Polanen, van A.; Oostrom, van J.J.; Verbunt, J.T.; Traag, W.A.; Kan, K.A.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Boeck, de G.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the

  1. Cadmium uptake by Telfaria Occidentalis Hook F.(cucurbitaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anova tests showed that the differences between cadmium levels accumulated for control and treatment plants were significant (no overlap in standard error) at 5% level of probability. There were no such significant differences (P 0.05) for the amount of crude protein yields when the control was compared to the treatments.

  2. Physiological and molecular characterisation of cadmium stress in Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusquin, Michelle; Stevens, An-Sofie; Van Belleghem, Frank; Degheselle, Olivier; Van Roten, Andromeda; Vroonen, Jessica; Blust, Ronny; Cuypers, Ann; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a well-studied model organism for developmental research, because of its stem cell system. This characteristic also provides a unique opportunity to study stress management and the effect of stress on stem cells. In this study, we characterised the stress signature at different levels of biological organization. The carcinogenic metal cadmium was used as a model chemical stressor. We focused on stem cell activity and its interaction with other known stress parameters. Here, we have found that S. mediterranea is able to cope with high internal levels of cadmium. At endpoints such as size and mobility, cadmium-related stress effects were detected but all of these responses were transient. Correspondingly, cadmium exposure led to an elevated mitotic activity of the neoblasts, at the same time points when the other responses disappeared. At the molecular level, we observed redox-related responses that can be linked with both repair as well as proliferation mechanisms. Together, our results suggest that these animals have a high plasticity. The induction of stem cell activity may underlie this 'restoring' effect, although a carcinogenic outcome after longer exposure times cannot be excluded.

  3. Cadmium, lead and zinc contents of sporocarps of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc, cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in sporocarps of Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.ex Wallr.), Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Fr., Heteroporus biennis (Bull.exFr.), Lycoperdon molle (Pers.: Pers), Lycoperdon pyriforme (Schaeff.ex Pers.), Peniophora incarnata (Fr.) Karst.syn, Pisolithus tinctorius (Mich.ex ...

  4. Phosphate-induced cadmium adsorption in a tropical savannah soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of phosphate (P) on cadmium (Cd) adsorption was examined in a savanna soil with long history of different fertilizer amendment. The soil was incubated with P at 0, 250 and 500 mg P kg-1 soil and left to equilibrate for 2 weeks. Cd was added to the P-incubated soil at concentrations ranging from 27, 49 and ...

  5. Phytoextraction trials of cadmium and lead contaminated soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) artificially contaminated soil using 3 weed species (Ageratum conyzoides, Syndrella nodiflora and Cleome rutidosperma) was carried out at the Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt. A Randomized Complete Block Design consisting of 2 sets of ...

  6. Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Niraj; Kumar, G; Upadhyay, A D; Patel, D K; Gupta, Y K; Chaturvedi, P K

    2014-09-01

    Environmental toxicants viz lead or cadmium and phthalate esters (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [DEHP], dibutyl phthalate [DBP], and diethyl phthalate [DEP]) widely found in different environmental strata are linked to deteriorating male reproductive health. The objective was to assess the relationships between the seminal lead, cadmium, and phthalate (DEHP, DBP, DEP) concentrations at environmental level and serum hormone levels and semen quality in non-occupationally exposed men and specify the effect of individual and combined exposure of toxicants on semen quality. A study of 60 male partners of couples attending the Andrology Laboratory of the Reproductive Biology Department, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India for semen analysis to assess their inability to achieve a pregnancy was selected for the study. The results of univariate and stepwise multiple regression analysis in the unadjusted model showed a significant correlation between lead or cadmium and phthalates DEHP/DBP/DEP and sperm motility, sperm concentration, and DNA damage. After adjusting for potential confounders, an association with lead or DEHP was only observed. The present data shows that lead (Pb) or cadmium (Cd) or phthalates might independently contribute to decline in semen quality and induce DNA damage. Phthalates might influence reproductive hormone testosterone. These findings are significant in light of the fact that men are exposed to a volley of chemicals; however, due to the small sample size, our finding needs to be confirmed in a larger population.

  7. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation of the Surface Waters in a Mining Area Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Chen, Y.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The pollution of natural waters and sediments with metals derived from acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental problem. However, the processes governing the behaviors of transportation and transformation of metals like Cd in mountain area are poorly understood, the complicated hydro-geomorphic settings of mountain catchments are difficult to access . And few reports have been reported about the effects of. In this study, the concentration and the isotopic composition of Cd selected filtered stream samples from the Hengshi river affected by AMD have been determined. The Cd concentrations were determined for collected sediments samples, which cover the entire river valley from upstream to the downstream regions. Results showed that reducing concentrations for Cd were found in the river water from upstream to downstream, and also high enrichment factor for Cd in all the sediments, suggest that Cd mainly is derived from Liwu dam and easily enter into solid phase. The isotopic data show that the dissolved Cd in rivers is characterized by δ114/110Cd, ranged from 0.09 ‰ to 0.40 ‰ in term of δ114/110Cd , the mean is 0.25 ± 0.06 ‰, and the content of Cd from the sediments is 0.18 to 39.85 μg/g. The river isotope values are similar to the isotope signature of Liwu dam, which contain significant amounts of contaminants under a deep water cover, such as mine tailings, sulfide-rich rocks and minerals. Large fractionated Cd (δ114/110Cd = 0.40 ± 0.09 ‰) was found in water sample collected from midstream near a farmland, which imply there is a new source different from the LIWU dam depend on the heavier Cd signature. We hypothesize that this shift results from either hydrology changes over time in the main and tributaries stream, and some new pollution source imported. The change in the behavior of sorption of cadmium on oxides and hydroxides in the sediment system under low pH cause indistinguishable fractionation. Our result is encouraging for

  8. Recent developments in cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, D. E.

    1982-09-01

    A II-VI compound, cadmium mercury telluride, has dominated recent advances in the detection of infrared radiation. Although the main application is in thermal imaging, other applications include instrumentation and guidance. In this paper we describe the history of the development of cadmium mercury telluride as a detector material, with emphasis on the importance of material parameters and the role of the material scientist. High purity material, free from defects and of good crystal quality, is needed in order to ensure good minority carrier lifetime. Because of the segregation of impurities during solidification, material produced by the Bridgman technique offers considerable advantages over material produced by cast recrystallize techniques. Detectors based on a principle established by C.T. Elliott of the RSRE, Malvern, have led to families of thermal imagers that produce near perfect imagery. These detectors incorporate signal processing in the element by providing the time delay and integration functions that are normally performed off the focal plane in conventional serial scanned systems. A particular requirement of these SPRITE detectors is for long minority carrier lifetime. This has called for improvements in both material and fabrication technology which have led to an advanced technology that has benefited all aspects of the manufacture of cadmium mercury telluride detectors. Near background limited performance will be described in both the 8-14 and the 3-5 μm atmospheric transmission bands. There is, however, more image blurring in the 3-5 μm band than occurs in the 8-14 μm band. The direction of present work is towards detectors combining cadmium mercury telluride elements with advanced integrated circuits to provide more complex signal processing in the focal plane. This has been driven by the need to improve the sensitivity of thermal imaging systems where the scan rates are too low to allow useful time delay and integration in SPRITE detectors

  9. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  10. Uptake of cadmium by Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magela Paula Casiraghi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata was used for the removal of the cadmium in liquids. The accumulations of metal ions by the alga occur in two stages: a very fast absorption (passive adsorption proceeded by a slower absorption (activate absorption. A mathematical model based on the surface absorption and on the transport into the interior of the cellular membrane was developed. The simulation model kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained. Through the results observed, the mathematical model was shown to be suitable when compared to the experimental results, confirming the validation of the mathematical model.Neste trabalho utilizou-se a microalga Pseudokirchneriella supcapitata para a remoção do cádmio em líquidos. A metodologia consistiu de três conjuntos de experimentos: o primeiro conjunto teve como objetivo a avaliação do crescimento da alga, o segundo foi à avaliação da remoção de cádmio e o terceiro a avaliação do crescimento da alga sendo adicionado o cádmio junto com o inóculo no tempo igual a zero, também foi avaliada a remoção de cádmio neste terceiro experimento. O acúmulo de íons metálicos pela alga ocorre em duas etapas: uma absorção muito rápida (adsorção passiva seguida por uma absorção mais lenta (absorção ativa Desenvolveu-se um modelo matemático baseado na absorção da superfície e no transporte para o interior da membrana celular. A obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos do modelo de simulação foi obtida experimentalmente. Pelos resultados observados o modelo matemático proposto mostrou-se adequado quando comparado aos resultados experimentais, confirmando a validação do modelo matemático proposto.

  11. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals are the major source of environmental pollution in this new millennium. Lead, mercury, and cadmium are the most common toxic heavy metals in the environment. There is no known function of these toxic heavy metals in the human body. In females, toxic heavy metals can be accumulated in maternal body before pregnancy and may be transferred to fetus through placenta and later, via breast milk. Lead previously accumulated in maternal bones can be mobilized along with calcium in order to meet increased calcium needs of the fetus in pregnant women and for the calcium needs in human milk during lactation. Human fetus and infants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity passing through placenta and breastmilk due to rapid growth and development of organs and tissues, especially central nervous system. However most of the damage is already done by the time the infant is born. Intrauterine lead exposure can cause growth retardation, cognitive dysfunction, low IQ scores on ability tests, and low performance in school. Biological samples, such as umbilical cord blood and breast milk, and less commonly infant hair, are used for biomonitoring of intra-uterine exposure to these toxic chemicals. Although toxic metals and other pollutants may be excreted into breast milk, their effects are unknown and this topic is subject of a growing body of research. Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding is still recommended as the best infant feeding method. In fact, the species-specific components present in breast milk protect infants against infections; promote immune and neurologic system development; and may decrease the risk of disease, including allergies, obesity, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, and sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding also facilitates maternal-infant attachment. The potential risk of environmental contaminants that can be transferred from

  12. 1,10-Phenanthroline–dithiooxamide (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H8N2·0.5C2H4N2S2, contains one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule and a half-molecule of dithiooxamide, which lies across a crystallographic inversion center. The 1,10-phenanthroline unit is not strictly planar, with dihedral angles between the central benzene ring and the pyridine rings of 1.42 (10 and 1.40 (10°. In the crystal structure, two 1,10-phenanthroline molecules are linked together by one dithiooxamide via intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  13. GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLICATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF (1-N-4’-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  14. Toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minling; Zhang, Ze; Lv, Mengting; Song, Wenhua; Lv, Yuhua

    2018-02-01

    Chemical immobilization technologies involving the use of chemical absorbents such as nanomaterials have been recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated water and soil. The impact of nanomaterials or nanomaterials coexisting with other contaminants on aquatic organisms has been reported, but information on the toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium (Nano-Cd) on aquatic organisms is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Nano-Cd on Daphnia magna by using a method developed based on the standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 202 guidelines. The toxicity of cadmium chloride (Cd 2+ ), nano-manganese dioxide-cadmium (nMnO 2 -Cd), 20nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 20 -Cd), and 40nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 40 -Cd) to D. magna was in the following order: Cd 2+ > nMnO 2 -Cd > nHAP 20 -Cd > nHAP 40 -Cd. Further, nMnO 2 -Cd, nHAP 20 -Cd, and nHAP 40 -Cd showed acute toxicity to D. magna of level II grade according to the Commission of the European Communities and OECD standards. Exposure to low and medium, but not high, Nano-Cd concentrations increased the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and anti-superoxide anion. Thus, Nano-Cd, particularly at high concentrations, could exert oxidative damage in D. magna. An increase in Cd 2+ and Nano-Cd concentrations gradually increased the malondialdehyde content, indicating cell membrane damage caused by the production of excessive O 2 - . Thus, the use of nanomaterials after adsorption of Cd is associated with a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, April F., E-mail: april.mohanty@va.gov [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Farin, Fred M., E-mail: freddy@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Bammler, Theo K., E-mail: tbammler@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); MacDonald, James W., E-mail: jmacdon@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Afsharinejad, Zahra, E-mail: zafshari@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way N.E., Suite #100, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Burbacher, Thomas M., E-mail: tmb@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box: 357234, 1705 N.E. Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Siscovick, David S., E-mail: dsiscovick@nyam.org [Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these

  16. Health effects of cadmium exposure--a review of the literature and a risk estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järup, L; Berglund, M; Elinder, C G; Nordberg, G; Vahter, M

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a review of the cadmium exposure situation in Sweden and updates the information on health risk assessment according to recent studies on the health effects of cadmium. The report focuses on the health effects of low cadmium doses and the identification of high-risk groups. The diet is the main source of cadmium exposure in the Swedish nonsmoking general population. The average daily dietary intake is about 15 micrograms/day, but there are great individual variations due to differences in energy intake and dietary habits. It has been shown that a high fiber diet and a diet rich in shellfish increase the dietary cadmium intake substantially. Cadmium concentrations in agricultural soil and wheat have increased continuously during the last century. At present, soil cadmium concentrations increase by about 0.2% per year. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys. Human kidney concentrations of cadmium have increased several fold during the last century. Cadmium in pig kidney has been shown to have increased by about 2% per year from 1984-1992. There is no tendency towards decreasing cadmium exposure among the general nonsmoking population. The absorption of cadmium in the lungs is 10-50%, while the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is only a few percent. Smokers have about 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations (about 1.5 micrograms/l), and twice as high kidney cortex cadmium concentrations (about 20-30 micrograms/g wet weight) as nonsmokers. Similarly, the blood cadmium concentrations are substantially elevated in persons with low body iron stores, indicating increased gastrointestinal absorption. About 10-40% of Swedish women of child-bearing age are reported to have empty iron stores (S-ferritin body iron stores, and people habitually eating a diet rich in cadmium. According to current knowledge, renal tubular damage is probably the critical health effect of cadmium exposure, both in the general population and in occupationally exposed

  17. Nuclear toxicology file: the cadmium: mechanisms to elucidate; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: le cadmium: des mecanismes a elucider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarre, J. [CEA Saclay, IbiTec-S, Lab. de Biologie Integrative, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Forestier, C. [CEA Cadarache, IBEB, Lab. des Echanges Membranaires et Signalisation, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2008-09-15

    Spread in the environment by the human activities, the cadmium is a toxic and mutagen metal and its mechanisms of toxicity are still badly understood. We review here the molecular mechanisms of the transport, the toxicity and the detoxication of this metal by relying us on the cellular model of baker's yeast. (N.C.)

  18. Analysis of aerospace nickel-cadmium battery cells. [cadmium migration as seen by scanning electron microscopy and metallographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Various steps followed in analyzing the electrolyte, separator, and electrodes are reviewed. Specific emphasis is given to scanning electron microscopic and metallographic analysis of the plates. Cadmium migration is defined, its effects and causes are examined, and methods for its reduction in cells are suggested.

  19. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  20. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  1. Chronic cadmium exposure stimulates SDF-1 expression in an ERα dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Ponce

    Full Text Available Cadmium is an omnipotent environmental contaminant associated with the development of breast cancer. Studies suggest that cadmium functions as an endocrine disruptor, mimicking the actions of estrogen in breast cancer cells and activating the receptor to promote cell growth. Although acute cadmium exposure is known to promote estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression associated with growth, the consequence of chronic cadmium exposure is unclear. Since heavy metals are known to bioaccumulate, it is necessary to understand the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure. This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on breast cancer progression. A MCF7 breast cancer cell line chronically exposed to 10(-7 M CdCl2 serves as our model system. Data suggest that prolonged cadmium exposures result in the development of more aggressive cancer phenotypes - increased cell growth, migration and invasion. The results from this study show for the first time that chronic cadmium exposure stimulates the expression of SDF-1 by altering the molecular interactions between ERα, c-jun and c-fos. This study provides a mechanistic link between chronic cadmium exposure and ERα and demonstrates that prolonged, low-level cadmium exposure contributes to breast cancer progression.

  2. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow the procedures at PGI 249.110 for preparation of a settlement negotiation memorandum. ...

  3. Growth after thinning in 110-year old Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes

    1960-01-01

    A 6-year record of growth after thinning indicates that 110-year-old Douglas-fir stands on site 111 land have passed the age when growth capacity can be fully transferred to fewer stems through thinning.

  4. 7 CFR 110.8 - Rules of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING ON RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDES BY CERTIFIED APPLICATORS; SURVEYS AND REPORTS § 110.8 Rules of... ruling by the Presiding Officer or a party who alleges a deprivation of rights, may appeal the Presiding...

  5. Specific inhibition of PI3K p110δ inhibits CSF-1-induced macrophage spreading and invasive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchemore, Kellie A; Sampaio, Natalia G; Murrey, Michael W; Stanley, E Richard; Lannutti, Brian J; Pixley, Fiona J

    2013-11-01

    Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) stimulates mononuclear phagocytic cell survival, growth and differentiation into macrophages through activation and autophosphorylation of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). We have previously demonstrated that CSF-1-induced phosphorylation of Y721 (pY721) in the receptor kinase insert triggers its association with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K). Binding of p85 PI3K to the CSF-1R pY721 motif activates the associated p110 PI3K catalytic subunit and stimulates spreading and motility in macrophages and enhancement of tumor cell invasion. Here we show that pY721-based signaling is necessary for CSF-1-stimulated PtdIns(3,4,5)P production. While primary bone marrow-derived macrophages and the immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophage cell line M-/-.WT express all three class IA PI3K isoforms, p110δ predominates in the cell line. Treatment with p110δ-specific inhibitors demonstrates that the hematopoietically enriched isoform, p110δ, mediates CSF-1-regulated spreading and invasion in macrophages. Thus GS-1101, a potent and selective p110δ inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential by targeting the infiltrative capacity of tumor-associated macrophages that is critical for their enhancement of tumor invasion and metastasis. © 2013 FEBS.

  6. [Microcontroller temperature regulator MPT110 for drying-sterilizing cabinets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, N N; Gavrishchuk, V I; Zelepukin, S A; Shkulepa, V M; Zharov, E N

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a MPT-110 temperature microcontroller developed by the closed joint-stock company "OPLEKS" (Orel, Russia) and the results of comparative tests performed in the @IIICC-80 drying sterilizing cabinet. The use of the MPT-110 controller is shown to improve the quality of control and to shorten the times that is taken for the cabinet to reach the preset temperature point.

  7. Growth and electronic structure of graphene on semiconducting Ge(110)

    OpenAIRE

    Tesch, Julia; Voloshina, Elena; Fonin, Mikhail; Dedkov, Yuriy S.

    2017-01-01

    The direct growth of graphene on semiconducting or insulating substrates might help to overcome main drawbacks of metal-based synthesis, like metal-atom contaminations of graphene, transfer issues, etc. Here we present the growth of graphene on n-doped semiconducting Ge(110) by using an atomic carbon source and the study of the structural and electronic properties of the obtained interface. We found that graphene interacts weakly with the underlying Ge(110) substrate that keeps graphene's ele...

  8. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    OpenAIRE

    Kmieć M.; Karpiński B.; Szkodo M.

    2016-01-01

    The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The...

  9. The association between urinary kidney injury molecule 1 and urinary cadmium in elderly during long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewitte Harrie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 is a recently discovered early biomarker for renal damage that has been proven to be correlated to urinary cadmium in rats. However, so far the association between urinary cadmium and kidney injury molecule 1 in humans after long-term, low-dose cadmium exposure has not been studied. Methods We collected urine and blood samples from 153 non-smoking men and women aged 60+, living in an area with moderate cadmium pollution from a non-ferrous metal plant for a significant period. Urinary cadmium and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 as well as other renal biomarkers (alpha1-microglobulin, beta2-microglobulin, blood urea nitrogen, urinary proteins and microalbumin were assessed. Results Both before (r = 0.20; p = 0.01 and after (partial r = 0.32; p Conclusions We showed that urinary kidney injury molecule 1 levels are positively correlated with urinary cadmium concentration in an elderly population after long-term, low-dose exposure to cadmium, while other classical markers do not show an association. Therefore, urinary kidney injury molecule 1 might be considered as a biomarker for early-stage metal-induced kidney injury by cadmium.

  10. Single or combined cadmium and aluminum intoxication of mice liver and kidney with possible effect of zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Ibraheem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we planned to test toxic effects of cadmium, aluminum either alone or combined with each other on sensitive organs as kidney and liver. The cadmium alone decreased the animal’s body weight. Meanwhile, aluminum did not affect the changes in body weight of cadmium treated animals; adding the zinc significantly reduced the loss of body weight. Serum creatinine and urea were significantly lower in treated group than in control group. Cadmium aluminum or combination of them resulted in a significant increase in serum GPT and GOT activity. Zinc did not prevent the changes caused by aluminum, however, the changes resulted by cadmium intoxication were almost healed or ameliorated by zinc. Treating with Zn alone resulted in drastic effects on kidney tissues more than either cadmium or aluminum. Treating with cadmium or aluminum resulted in infiltration of the liver parenchyma with lymphocytes, fibrosis, micro vesicular steatosis of the hepatocytes for both and appearance of many phagocytic cells, pyknotic cells and vacuolation for cadmium. Combined cadmium and aluminum treatment resulted in less damage than cadmium alone with exception of fatty degeneration. Unexpectedly, zinc induced acute cell vacuolation and steatosis. Cadmium and aluminum combined together did not worsen the situation as expected but was less damaging than cadmium alone, which suggests a possible synergistic effect of combination. Meanwhile, zinc failed to protect kidney from aluminum intoxication, which strengthens the suggestion of two different pathways of cadmium and aluminum intoxication. This finding meant that cadmium is more hepatotoxic than aluminum.

  11. Deletion in HSP110 T17: correlation with wild-type HSP110 expression and prognostic significance in microsatellite-unstable advanced gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ju; Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Nam-Yun; Kim, Woo Ho; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Deletion of the HSP110 T17 mononucleotide repeat has recently been identified as a prognostic marker that is correlated with wild-type HSP110 (HSP110wt) expression in microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between deletion of the HSP110 T17 repeat and expression of HSP110wt using DNA testing and immunohistochemistry and to determine the prognostic implications of HSP110 T17 deletion in MSI-H advanced gastric cancers (GCs). The status of HSP110wt expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using an HSP110wt-specific antibody in 142 MSI-H advanced GCs. The size of the HSP110 T17 repeat deletion was analyzed in 96 MSI-H advanced GCs; deletions were divided into small (0-2base pairs) and large deletions (3-5base pairs). Low and high expressions of HSP110wt were detected in 38 (26.8%) and 104 (73.2%) of the 142 cases, respectively. The HSP110 T17 deletion was observed in 45 (46.9%) of the 96 MSI-H GC samples. Tumors with high expression of HSP110wt showed a tendency to have small or no deletion of HSP110 T17. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, tumors with a large HSP110 T17 deletion were associated with favorable overall survival and disease-free survival compared with those with small/no deletion of HSP110 T17. However, HSP110 T17 deletion size was not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. In summary, deletion of the HSP110 T17 repeat was frequently observed in MSI-H GCs, and HSP110 T17 deletion size was inversely correlated with HSP110wt expression status. Large HSP110 T17 was not a prognostic indicator in MSI-H GCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined...... or osteodystrophy. This might be explained by the composition of the ringed seals diet, which contains high levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium and protein. These elements are all likely to counteract cadmium-induced damage. It is speculated that ringed seal are not particularly vulnerable......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...

  13. SINTESIS SENYAWA N-(2-NITROBENZIL-1,10 FENANTROLINIUM KLORIDA DARI 2-NITROBENZIL KLORIDA DAN 1,10-FENANTROLIN MONOHIDRAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artie Noor Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The compound N-(2-nitrobenzyl-1,10-phenantrolinium chloride has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction bimolecular (SN2 between the 2-nitrobenzyl chloride with 1,10-fenantrolin monohydrate. This study is an experimental research of Organic Synthesis. Synthesis is done by varying the compound 2-nitrobenzyl chloride to 1.10 Phenantroline monohydrate ie 1:1, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1. The purity of the compounds synthesized are determined based on the melting range data and TLC. Identification of the structure of the compounds synthesized done by spectrometry UV/Visible, IR and GC-MS. The results of this research is a colorless amorphous solid from N-(2-nitrobenzyl-1,10-phenantrolinium chloride with an optimal yield 37%+5% and the variation of mole 2-nitrobenzyl chloride effect on the amount of yield product, there is an optimal yield in the mole ratio of 1:1.

  14. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folgar, S. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Torres, E., E-mail: torres@udc.es [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain); Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J. [Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna, Alejandro de la Sota no 1, 15008 La Coruna (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l{sup -1}) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l{sup -1} at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  16. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  17. Low cadmium (LCD), a novel gene related to cadmium tolerance and accumulation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, Hugo; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; An, Gynheung; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2011-11-01

    The contamination of food crops by cadmium (Cd) is a major concern in food production because it can reduce crop yields and threaten human health. In this study, knockout rice plants (Oryza sativa) tagged with the gene trap vector pGA2707 were screened for Cd tolerance, and the tolerant line lcd was obtained. The lcd mutant showed tolerance to Cd on agar plates and in hydroponic culture during early plant development. Metal concentration measurements in hydroponically grown plants revealed significantly less Cd in the shoots of lcd plants compared with wild-type (WT) shoots. When cultured in the field in soil artificially contaminated with low levels of Cd, lcd showed no significant difference in the Cd content of its leaf blades; however, the Cd concentration in the grains was 55% lower in 2009 and 43% lower in 2010. There were no significant differences in plant dry weight or seed yield between lcd and wild-type plants. LCD, a novel gene, is not homologous to any other known gene. LCD localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus, and was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues in the roots and phloem companion cells in the leaves. These data indicate that lcd may be useful for understanding Cd transport mechanisms and is a promising candidate rice line for use in combating the threat of Cd to human health.

  18. Cadmium accumulation and metallothionein biosynthesis in cadmium-treated freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of cadmium (Cd and the protein level of metallothionein (MT and examined the relationship of Cd accumulation and the MT concentration in different tissues of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana following Cd treatment. The mussels were exposed to Cd (4.21, 8.43, 16.86, 33.72 and 67.45 mg L-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. After Cd treatment, the gills, mantle, foot, visceral mass and digestive gland tissues were collected for analysis. We found that, in the controls, Cd distributed in all tissues in the concentration order of gills>mantle>foot>visceral mass>digestive gland. Upon Cd treatment, Cd concentration significantly increased in all tissues. The highest Cd accumulation was found in the digestive gland, which was 0.142 mg g-1 (P<0.05. MT levels in the gills and mantle of the mussels increased significantly (P<0.05, which were in positive correlation with Cd accumulation in the tissues (P<0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a correlation between Cd accumulation and MT up-regulation in gills and mantle of the mussels after Cd treatment. It is suggested that the protein level of MT in gills and mantle of Anodonta woodiana is a good biomarker for Cd contamination.

  19. Cadmium Uptake by Cuttings of Impatiens walleriana in Response to Different Cadmium Concentrations and Growth Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Lam, Chun-Ming; Wang, Wei-Zhe; Ji, Ya-Jhu

    2017-03-01

    Impatiens walleriana (I. walleriana), a potential cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, can propagate by cuttings, which are less expensive to grow than seedlings. Different growth periods for cuttings, however, may lead to different physiological characteristics. In this study, I. walleriana cuttings were hydroponically grown in Cd-containing solutions (1.0-10.0 μM) for various growth periods (10-60 days). Experimental results showed that the Cd treatments had negative effects on growth compared to the controls that were not spiked with Cd. The extension of the growth period promoted most of the growth exhibitions of I. walleriana, except for SPAD readings for cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The accumulation of Cd also increased over time, except in the roots of the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions. The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd showed that I. walleriana developed better tolerance and detoxification capacities in the cuttings grown in the 5.0 and 10.0 μM solutions than in the cuttings grown in the other two Cd treatments.

  20. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted