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Sample records for cadmium 106 target

  1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

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    Chantarawong, Wipa [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Inter Departmental Multidisciplinary Graduate Program in Bioscience, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Pradermwong, Kantimanee [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Shibahara, Shigeki, E-mail: shibahar@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Applied Physiology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure.

  2. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in human melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantarawong, Wipa; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Yoshizawa, Miki; Pradermwong, Kantimanee; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In human melanocytes, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M and tyrosinase and their mRNAs. • In human melanoma cells, cadmium decreases the expression of MITF-M protein and tyrosinase mRNA. • Expression of MITF-H is less sensitive to cadmium toxicity in melanocyte-linage cells. • Cadmium does not decrease the expression of MITF-H in retinal pigment epithelial cells. • MITF-M is the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes. - Abstract: Dietary intake of cadmium is inevitable, causing age-related increase in cadmium accumulation in many organs, including hair, choroid and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Cadmium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and macular degeneration. The functions of cochlea and retina are maintained by melanocytes and RPE, respectively, and the differentiation of these pigment cells is regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we explored the potential toxicity of cadmium in the cochlea and retina by using cultured human melanocytes and human RPE cell lines. MITF consists of multiple isoforms, including melanocyte-specific MITF-M and widely expressed MITF-H. Levels of MITF-M protein and its mRNA in human epidermal melanocytes and HMV-II melanoma cells were decreased significantly by cadmium. In parallel with the MITF reduction, mRNA levels of tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis that is regulated by MITF-M, were also decreased. In RPE cells, however, the levels of total MITF protein, constituting mainly MITF-H, were not decreased by cadmium. We thus identify MITF-M as the molecular target of cadmium toxicity in melanocytes, thereby accounting for the increased risk of disability from melanocyte malfunction, such as hearing and vision loss among people with elevated cadmium exposure

  3. Empirical estimation of astrophysical photodisintegration rates of 106Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Stopani, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    It has been noted in previous experiments that the ratio between the photoneutron and photoproton disintegration channels of 106Cd might be considerably different from predictions of statistical models. The thresholds of these reactions differ by several MeV and the total astrophysical rate of photodisintegration of 106Cd, which is mostly produced in photonuclear reactions during the p-process nucleosynthesis, might be noticeably different from the calculated value. In this work the bremsstrahlung beam of a 55.6 MeV microtron and the photon activation technique is used to measure yields of photonuclear reaction products on isotopically-enriched cadmium targets. The obtained results are compared with predictions of statistical models. The experimental yields are used to estimate photodisintegration reaction rates on 106Cd, which are then used in nuclear network calculations to examine the effects of uncertainties on the produced abundences of p-nuclei.

  4. Cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis

  5. Cadmium carcinogenesis

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    Waalkes, Michael P

    2003-12-10

    Cadmium is a heavy metal of considerable environmental and occupational concern. Cadmium compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. The most convincing data that cadmium is carcinogenic in humans comes from studies indicating occupational cadmium exposure is associated with lung cancer. Cadmium exposure has also been linked to human prostate and renal cancer, although this linkage is weaker than for lung cancer. Other target sites of cadmium carcinogenesis in humans, such as liver, pancreas and stomach, are considered equivocal. In animals, cadmium effectively induces cancers at multiple sites and by various routes. Cadmium inhalation in rats induces pulmonary adenocarcinomas, in accord with its role in human lung cancer. Cadmium can induce tumors and/or preneoplastic lesions within the rat prostate after ingestion or injection. At relatively high doses, cadmium induces benign testicular tumors in rats, but these appear to be due to early toxic lesions and loss of testicular function, rather than from a specific carcinogenic effect of cadmium. Like many other metals, cadmium salts will induce mesenchymal tumors at the site of subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injections, but the human relevance of these is dubious. Other targets of cadmium in rodents include the liver, adrenal, pancreas, pituitary, and hematopoietic system. With the exception of testicular tumors in rodents, the mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis are poorly defined. Cadmium can cause any number of molecular lesions that would be relevant to oncogenesis in various cellular model systems. Most studies indicate cadmium is poorly mutagenic and probably acts through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms, potentially including aberrant activation of oncogenes and suppression of apoptosis.

  6. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  7. miR-106a-5p inhibits the proliferation and migration of astrocytoma cells and promotes apoptosis by targeting FASTK.

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    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Astrocytomas are common malignant intracranial tumors that comprise the majority of adult primary central nervous system tumors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs (20-24 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression by negatively regulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target mRNAs. In our previous studies, we found that the downregulation of miR-106a-5p in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. However, its specific gene target(s and underlying functional mechanism(s in astrocytomas remain unclear. In this study, we used mRNA microarray experiments to measure global mRNA expression in the presence of increased or decreased miR-106a-5p levels. We then performed bioinformatics analysis based on multiple target prediction algorithms to obtain candidate target genes that were further validated by computational predictions, western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and the luciferase reporter assay. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FASTK was identified as a direct target of miR-106a-5p. In human astrocytomas, miR-106a-5p is downregulated and negatively associated with clinical staging, whereas FASTK is upregulated and positively associated with advanced clinical stages, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the reduced expression of miR-106a-5p or the increased expression of FASTK is significantly associated with poor survival outcome. These results further supported the finding that FASTK is a direct target gene of miR-106a-5p. Next, we explored the function of miR-106a-5p and FASTK during astrocytoma progression. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-106a-5p can significantly inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can promote cell apoptosis in vitro. The knockdown of FASTK induced similar effects on astrocytoma cells as those induced by the overexpression of miR-106a-5p. These

  8. Decreased miR-106a inhibits glioma cell glucose uptake and proliferation by targeting SLC2A3 in GBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dong-Wei; Lu, Qiong; Wang, Lai-Xing; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Cao, Yi-Qun; Li, Ya-Nan; Han, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Min; Yue, Zhi-Jian

    2013-10-14

    MiR-106a is frequently down-regulated in various types of human cancer. However the underlying mechanism of miR-106a involved in glioma remains elusive. The association of miR-106a with glioma grade and patient survival was analyzed. The biological function and target of miR-106a were determined by bioinformatic analysis and cell experiments (Western blot, luciferase reporter, cell cycle, ntracellular ATP production and glucose uptake assay). Finally, rescue expression of its target SLC2A3 was used to test the role of SLC2A3 in miR-106a-mediated cell glycolysis and proliferation. Here we showed that miR-106a was a tumor suppressor miRNA was involved in GBM cell glucose uptake and proliferation. Decreased miR-106a in GBM tissues and conferred a poor survival of GBM patients. SLC2A3 was identified as a core target of miR-106a in GBM cells. Inhibition of SLC2A3 by miR-106a attenuated cell proliferation and inhibited glucose uptake. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlated with SLC2A3 expression. Finally, the expression of SLC2A3 largely abrogated miR-106a-mediated cell proliferation and glucose uptake in GBM cells. Taken together, miR-106a and SLC2A3 could be potential therapeutic approaches for GBM.

  9. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

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    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  10. Kinetics of cadmium accumulation and elimination in carp Cyprinus carpio tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conto Cinier, C. de; Petit-Ramel, M.; Faure, R.; Garin, D.; Bouvet, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were tested for cadmium accumulation and elimination during and after a simulated pollution exposure. Fish were distributed in two 1000-l indoor concrete aquaria supplied with a continuous flow (8 l min -1 ) of well water. The cadmium concentration was maintained at 53 μg l -1 in one aquarium and 443 μg l -1 in the other aquarium for 127 days. The exposure phase was followed by a 43-day depuration period. The cadmium accumulation in liver, kidney and muscle was measured by means of ICP-MS. The data showed that cadmium exposure produces significant cadmium uptake in tissues. Cadmium concentrations increased sharply in kidney and liver, whereas the pollutant level in muscle was only significant after 106 days. After 127 days of Cd exposure (53 μg l -1 ), the cadmium concentration in kidney was 4-fold higher than in liver and 50-fold higher than in muscle for a toxic level of 53 μg l -1 . At a Cd of 443 μg l -1 , kidney cadmium content was 2-fold higher than in liver and 100-fold higher than in muscle. In kidney and liver, the toxic concentration increased as the concentration of pollutant in water increased. During the 43 depuration days, the loss of accumulated cadmium was rapid and immediate in muscle. Conversely, no loss of cadmium was observed in kidney and liver. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Gut as a target for cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to review the impact of Cd exposure on gut microbiota and intestinal physiology, as well as to estimate whether gut may be considered as the target for Cd toxicity. The review is based on literature search in available databases. The existing data demonstrate that the impact of Cd on gut physiology is two-sided. First, Cd exposure induces a significant alteration of bacterial populations and their relative abundance in gut (increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio), accompanied by increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, reflecting changed metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome. Second, in intestinal wall Cd exposure induces inflammatory response and cell damage including disruption of tight junctions, ultimately leading to increased gut permeability. Together with increased LPS production, impaired barrier function causes endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation. Hypothetically, Cd-induced increase gut permeability may also result in increased bacterial translocation. On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced impairment of macrophage inflammatory response, increased bacterial translocation may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Such a supposition is generally in agreement with the finding of higher susceptibility of Cd-exposed mice to infections. The changed microbiome metabolic activity and LPS-induced systemic inflammation may have a significant impact on target organs. The efficiency of probiotics in at least partial prevention of the local (intestinal) and systemic toxic effects of cadmium confirms the role of altered gut physiology in Cd toxicity. Therefore, probiotic treatment may be considered as the one of the strategies for prevention of Cd toxicity in parallel with chelation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions on cadmium: production feasibility of no-carrier-added 103Pd in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, I.A.; Subhani, M.S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic studies on fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections of some threshold reactions like (n, p) and (n, α) on cadmium were carried out using the activation technique in combination with radiochemical separations and high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the formation of 103 Pd via the 106 Cd(n,a α) 103 Pd reaction since it is an important therapeutic radionuclide. At a fast flux neutron density of 7.5 x 10 13 cm 2 s -1 and an irradiation time of 120 h, using 100% enriched 106 Cd target 340 MBq of no-carrier-added 103 Pd per batch could be produced. The method is thus suitable for medium-scale production of this radionuclide. (orig.)

  13. Simultaneous determination of oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and cadmium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaeda, K.; Kuriki, T.; Ohsawa, K.; Ishii, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds were analysed for oxygen and cadmium by a modification of the Schutze-Unterzaucher method. Oxygen in some compounds such as cadmium oxide, nitrate and sulphate could not be determined by the usual method. The method of adding carbon was employed for the determination of total oxygen. Total oxygen could be determined by the addition of 5 mg of carbon to a sample boat and heating at 950 0 . The determination was also carried out by addition of naphthalene (2 mg). It was found that the cadmium powder and cadmium flake used contained ca. 1 and 0.15% oxygen, respectively. Oxygen and cadmium in cadmium and its compounds were simultaneously determined by the addition of 2 mg of naphthalene. Cadmium was determined colorimetrically by use of glyoxal-bis-(2-hydroxyanil). Oxygen and cadmium in the samples could be determined simultaneously with an average error of -0.02 and -0.22%, respectively. (author)

  14. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

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    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  15. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  16. MicroRNA-106b-5p regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity by targeting polycystic kidney disease-2 in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaorong; Qin, Xiaobing; Chen, Tingting; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Xiaoyue; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-09-01

    Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of miR-106-5p in the A549 and the A549/DDP cell line of NSCLC. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot were performed to confirm whether polycystic kidney disease-2 (PKD2) is a direct target gene of miR-106b-5p. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the distribution of PKD2 expression in patients who are sensitive and resistant to cisplatin. The experiments indicated that the expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly decreased in A549/DDP compared with that in A549. MiR-106b-5p affected the tolerance of cells to cisplatin by negatively regulating PKD2. Upregulation of miR-106b-5p or downregulation of PKD2 expression can cause A549/DDP cells to become considerably more sensitive to cisplatin. The results showed that miR-106b-5p enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by targeting the expression of PKD2. These findings suggest that the use of miR-106b-5p may be a promising clinical strategy in the treatment of NSCLC.

  17. MiR-17/20/93/106 promote hematopoietic cell expansion by targeting sequestosome 1-regulated pathways in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Meenhuis (Annemarie); P. van Veelen (Peter); H. de Looper (Hans); N. van Boxtel (Nicole); I.J. van den Berge (Iris); S.M. Sun; E. Taskesen (Erdogan); P. Stern (Patrick); A. de Ru (Arnoud); A.J. van Adrichem (Arjan); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); M. Jongen-Lavrencic (Mojca); B. Löwenberg (Bob); I.P. Touw (Ivo); P.A. Sharp (Phillip); S.J. Erkeland (Stefan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal for regulation of hematopoiesis but their critical targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that ectopic expression of miR-17, -20,-93 and -106, all AAAGUGC seed-containing miRNAs, increases proliferation, colony outgrowth and replating capacity of

  18. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 μg per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels

  19. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants: IV. Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, A.S.; Huff, J.E.; Braunstein, H.M.; Drury, J.S.; Shriner, C.R.; Lewis, E.B.; Whitfield, B.L.; Towill, L.E.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of cadmium and specific cadmium derivatives. More than 500 references are cited. The cadmium body burden in animals and humans results mainly from the diet. In the United States, the normal intake of cadmium for adult humans is estimated at about 50 ..mu..g per day. Tobacco smoke is a significant additional source of cadmium exposure. The kidneys and liver together contain about 50% of the total cadmium body burden. Acute cadmium poisoning is primarily an occupational problem, generally from inhalation of cadmium fumes or dusts. In the general population, incidents of acute poisoning by inhaled or ingested cadmium or its compounds are relatively rare. The kidney is the primary target organ for toxicity from prolonged low-level exposure to cadmium. No causal relationship has been established between cadmium exposure and human cancer, although a possible link between cadmium and prostate cancer has been indicated. Cadmium has been shown to be teratogenic in rats, hamsters, and mice, but no such effects have been proven in humans. Cadmium has been reported to increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in human peripheral leukocytes. The major concern about environmental cadmium is the potential effects on the general population. There is no substantial evidence of hazard from current levels of cadmium in air, water, or food. However, because cadmium is a cumulative poison and because present intake provides a relatively small safety margin, there are adequate reasons for concern over possible future increases in background levels.

  20. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planello, R.; Martinez-Guitarte, J.L.; Morcillo, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  1. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  2. A Cadmium Ion-selective Membrane Electrode Based on Strong Acidic Organic-inorganic Composite Cation-exchanger: Polyaniline Ce(IV Molybdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashfaq NABI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium ion-selective composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Ce(IV molybdate was used as electroactive component for the construction of a ion-selective membrane electrode. The membrane electrode showed a Nerstian response for Cd(II ions over a wide concentration range 5 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 with a sub-Nerstian slope of 27 mV per decade change in concentration of cadmium ions. The limit of detection was also ascertained to be 5 × 10-6 M. It has a fast response time 15 s and can be very well utilized for more than three months with out any appreciable divergence in potentials. The optimum pH for the smooth functioning of this electrode was found to be in the Ph range of 2.5 – 7.5. The electrode also showed better selectivity for Cd(II ions over many other interfering ions. The practical utility of membrane electrode was demonstrated by using as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Cd(II with EDTA and determination of cadmium content in drain water.

  3. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs. PMID:28961214

  4. Cadmium and Cadmium/Zinc Ratios and Tobacco-Related Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Faroon, Obaid; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-09-29

    Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations. Cadmium is a carcinogen, and an inducer of proinflammatory immune responses. Elevated exposure to cadmium is associated with reduced pulmonary function, obstructive lung disease, bronchogenic carcinoma, cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, and various oral pathologies. Cadmium and zinc have a toxicologically inverse relationship. Zinc is an essential element and is reportedly antagonistic to some manifestations of cadmium toxicity. This review summarizes associations between blood, urine, and tissue cadmium concentrations with emphasis on cadmium exposure due to tobacco use and several disease states. Available data about zinc and cadmium/zinc ratios and tobacco-related diseases is summarized from studies reporting smoking status. Collectively, data suggest that blood, urine, and tissue cadmium and cadmium/zinc ratios are often significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers and they are also different in smokers for several diseases and cancers. Additional biomonitoring data such as blood or serum and urine zinc and cadmium levels and cadmium/zinc ratios in smokers may provide further insight into the development and progression of diseases of the lung, cardiovascular system, and possibly other organs.

  5. Biosensors paving the way to understanding the interaction between cadmium and the estrogen receptor alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fechner

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal ubiquitously present in the environment and subsequently in the human diet. Cadmium has been proposed to disrupt the endocrine system, targeting in particular the estrogen signaling pathway already at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus far, the reports on the binding affinity of cadmium towards human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα have been contradicting, as have been the reports on the in vivo estrogenicity of cadmium. Hence, the mode of interaction between cadmium and the receptor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the interaction between cadmium and hERα on a molecular level by applying a novel, label-free biosensor technique based on reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS. We studied the binding of cadmium to hERα, and the conformation of the receptor following cadmium treatment. Our data reveals that cadmium interacts with the ligand binding domain (LBD of the ERα and affects the conformation of the receptor. However, the binding event, as well as the induced conformation change, greatly depends on the accessibility of the cysteine tails in the LBD. As the LBD cysteine residues have been reported as targets of post-translational modifications in vivo, we present a hypothesis according to which different cellular pools of ERα respond to cadmium differently. Our proposed theory could help to explain some of the previously contradicting results regarding estrogen-like activity of cadmium.

  6. Determination of cadmium in environmental materials by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esprit, M.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hoste, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium is determined by activation analysis with fast neutrons, obtained by irradiation of a thick beryllium target with 14.5-MeV deuterons. Cadmium-111m is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform and measured with a Ge(Li) γ-spectrometer. For low concentrations, cadmium is precipitated as cadmium ammonium phosphate after the extraction. NBS and BCR reference materials were analyzed: for concentrations between 3 and 500 μg g -1 , the relative standard deviation ranges from 5 to 3%. The results obtained for sewage sludge are compared with those obtained by reactor neutron activation analysis. (Auth.)

  7. MiR-17/20/93/106 promote hematopoietic cell expansion by targeting sequestosome 1–regulated pathways in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenhuis, Annemarie; van Veelen, Peter A.; de Looper, Hans; van Boxtel, Nicole; van den Berge, Iris J.; Sun, Su M.; Taskesen, Erdogan; Stern, Patrick; de Ru, Arnoud H.; van Adrichem, Arjan J.; Demmers, Jeroen; Jongen-Lavrencic, Mojca; Löwenberg, Bob; Touw, Ivo P.; Sharp, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal for regulation of hematopoiesis but their critical targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that ectopic expression of miR-17, -20,-93 and -106, all AAAGUGC seed-containing miRNAs, increases proliferation, colony outgrowth and replating capacity of myeloid progenitors and results in enhanced P-ERK levels. We found that these miRNAs are endogenously and abundantly expressed in myeloid progenitors and down-regulated in mature neutrophils. Quantitative proteomics identified sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), an ubiquitin-binding protein and regulator of autophagy-mediated protein degradation, as a major target for these miRNAs in myeloid progenitors. In addition, we found increased expression of Sqstm1 transcripts during CSF3-induced neutrophil differentiation of 32D-CSF3R cells and an inverse correlation of SQSTM1 protein levels and miR-106 expression in AML samples. ShRNA-mediated silencing of Sqstm1 phenocopied the effects of ectopic miR-17/20/93/106 expression in hematopoietic progenitors in vitro and in mice. Further, SQSTM1 binds to the ligand-activated colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mainly in the late endosomal compartment, but not in LC3 positive autophagosomes. SQSTM1 regulates CSF3R stability and ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. We demonstrate that AAAGUGC seed-containing miRNAs promote cell expansion, replating capacity and signaling in hematopoietic cells by interference with SQSTM1-regulated pathways. PMID:21628417

  8. Cadmium-containing nanoparticles: Perspectives on pharmacology and toxicology of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzigalinski, Beverly A.; Strobl, Jeannine S.

    2009-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly expanding with the development of novel nanopharmaceuticals that have potential for revolutionizing medical treatment. The rapid pace of expansion in this field has exceeded the pace of pharmacological and toxicological research on the effects of nanoparticles in the biological environment. The development of cadmium-containing nanoparticles, known as quantum dots, show great promise for treatment and diagnosis of cancer and targeted drug delivery, due to their size-tunable fluorescence and ease of functionalization for tissue targeting. However, information on pharmacology and toxicology of quantum dots needs much further development, making it difficult to assess the risks associated with this new nanotechnology. Further, nanotechnology poses yet another risk for toxic cadmium, which will now enter the biological realm in nano-form. In this review, we discuss cadmium-containing quantum dots and their physicochemical properties at the nano-scale. We summarize the existing work on pharmacology and toxicology of cadmium-containing quantum dots and discuss perspectives in their utility in disease treatment. Finally, we identify critical gaps in our knowledge of cadmium quantum dot toxicity, and how these gaps need to be assessed to enable quantum dot nanotechnology to transit safely from bench to bedside.

  9. Radiochemical separation of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Mukhtarov, A.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cadmium-109 has a half-life of 461.9 days and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of 88 keV γ-ray (3.79%) along with the characteristic X-ray from the K level of Ag, with energy of 22.5 keV. This radionuclide has found widespread use as a photon source in x-ray fluorescence analysis devices employed in industry for numerous applications such as the direct determination of gold in ores, the analysis of metals and identification of steels. Other applications range from its use as an electron source for measurement of densities of air-pollution samples, to tracer studies in mushrooms and mice and rats. In the nuclear medicine field there is growing interest in employing 109 Cd in a 109 Cd/ 109mA g generator, as an alternative to other biomedical generators of ultra short-lived gamma emitters. There are several methods for the production of 109 Cd in literature: 1. Bombardment of silver cyclotron target via 109 Ag(d,2n) 109 Cd reaction with 16 MeV deuterons. 2. Bombardment of natural silver target via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction with 14 MeV protons. 3. Proton bombardment of natural indium target with 96 MeV protons. 4. Irradiation of enriched 107 Ag target in high-flux nuclear reactor at neutron flux 2x10 15 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 107 Ag(n,γ) 108 Ag → 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. 5. Irradiation of enriched 108 Cd target in nuclear reactor at neutron flux 1x10 14 n·cm -2 ·s -1 via 108 Cd (n,γ) 109 Cd reaction. The production of 109 Cd with proton beam via 109 Ag(p,n) 109 Cd reaction is ideal for the cyclotron U-150, since it is not required the change of the regime for the machine functioning. Because of its relatively long half-life the time required for separation is also not an important factor, but its use as an X-ray source requires a very high radiochemical purity. In the present work we studied two methods for separation of 109 Cd from model solution of silver targets. First method is based on precipitation of silver as

  10. Isolation, identification and cadmium adsorption of a high cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... 1School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, ... Cadmium is a non-essential ... (1994) reported that cadmium might interact ... uptake of cadmium, lead and mercury (Svecova et al.,.

  11. Cadmium nanoparticles citrullinate cytokeratins within lung epithelial cells: cadmium as a potential cause of citrullination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson D

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available David Hutchinson,1,2 Judith Müller,3 Joseph E McCarthy,4 Yurii K Gun’ko,4,5 Navin Kumar Verma,6 Xuezhi Bi,7 Luisana Di Cristo,8 Laura Kickham,8 Dania Movia,8 Adriele Prina-Mello,5,8 Yuri Volkov5,8,9 1Royal Cornwall Hospital NHS Trust, Treliske, 2University of Exeter Medical School Cornwall, UK; 3University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4School of Chemistry, 5Advanced Materials for BioEngineering Research Centre (AMBER, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 6Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 7Bioprocessing Technology Institute, A*STAR Graduate Academy, Singapore; 8Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 9International Laboratory of Magnetically Controlled Nanosystems for Theranostics of Oncological and Cardiovascular Diseases, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether the cadmium-derived materials induce intracellular protein citrullination. Methods: Human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to cadmium in soluble and nanoparticulate forms represented by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 and cadmium oxide (CdO, respectively, and their combinations with ultrafine carbon black (ufCB produced by high temperature combustion, imitating cigarette burning. Protein citrullination in cell lysates was analyzed by Western immunoblotting and verified by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Target citrullinated proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Results: CdO, ufCB and its combination with CdCl2 and CdO after high temperature combustion induced protein citrullination in cultured human lung epithelial cells, as detected by immunoblotting with anti-citrullinated protein antibody. Cytokeratins of type II (1, 2, 5, 6A, 6B and 77 and type I (9, 10 were identified as major intracellular citrullination targets. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed the localization of citrullinated proteins both in the

  12. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dumkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  13. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-06-03

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  14. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  15. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  16. [Investigation of urinary cadmium reference of general population in two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium-polluted in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Dancheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To study the reference of urinary. cadmium of the general population in rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated in China. In rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium contaminated, randomly selected non-occupational-cadmium exposed population 1134 people (male 519, female 615) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P,95 ) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Female median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than men, male smokers median urinary cadmium was significantly higher than male non-smokers (P 30 year-old. According to gender, and 15 -30, 30 years old, analysis the upper limit of cadmium in urine. The 95% upper limit of urinary cadmium of 30 year-old female (12.24 microg/gCr) was significantly higher than other populations ( population exceeded the upper limit (5 microg/gCr) of the occupational cadmium poisoning diagnostic criteria in China (GBZ 17-2002). In the two rural high background areas of soil cadmium and non-cadmium polluted , urinary cadmium reference of non-cadmium-occupational-exposed male is <9.0 microg/gCr, and female <13.0 microg/gCr.

  17. miR-106a suppresses tumor cells death in colorectal cancer through targeting ATG7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haibin; Xia, Guangfeng; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Fuping; Liu, Laipeng; Zhang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) and miR-106a play an important role in cancer cell autophagy and apoptosis, but the outcome of ATG7 and miR-106a in colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains not clear. In this study, we found that ATG7 and miR-106a expression were mutually related with cell death and prognosis in CRC patients. In addition, we also showed that ATG7 and miR-106a expression were changeable in colorectal cancer cell lines when compared with normal cell lines, but ATG7 and miR-106a mRNA level was negatively correlated. Furthermore, ATG7 protein and mRNA levels decreased after over-expression of miR-106a, whereas the suppression of ATG7 had the opposite effect. We confirmed that miR-106a down-regulated ATG7 mRNA level by binding the specific sequence of ATG7 mRNA 3'UTR region. Moreover, the over-expression of ATG7 induced CRC cells death both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our study data demonstrated that ATG7 aggravated the cell death of CRC, which was inhibited by miR-106a.

  18. Solvent extraction studies on cadmium Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Kot, A.

    1976-01-01

    An extraction study was performed on various concentrations of cadmium, zinc and cobalt halides in the presence of sulphuric acid. A long chain amine (Amberlite LA-2) and an organophosphorus solvent (TBP) were used. In most cases the value of the distribution ratio decreases with the increase of metal concentration in the aqueous phase. The various possibilities of chemical and radiochemical separations of cadmium from accompanying metal species are reported: separation of (sup109m)Ag from irradiated Cd targets, separation of (sup115m)In using HDEHP, separation of Cd and Zn from their mixtures. (T.G.)

  19. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  20. Interactions of 10.6 GeV/n gold nuclei with light and heavy target nuclei in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Denes-Jones, P.

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the particle production and fragmentation of nuclei participating in the interactions of 10.6 GeV/n gold nuclei in nuclear emulsions. A new criteria has been developed to distinguish between the interactions of these gold nuclei with the light (H, C, N, O) and heavy (Ag, Br) target nuclei in the emulsion. This has allowed separate analyzes of the multiplicity and pseudo-rapidity distributions of the singly charged particles emitted in Au-(H, C, N, O) and Au-(Ag, Br) interactions, as well as of the models of breakup of the projectile and target nuclei. The pseudo-rapidity distributions show strong forward asymmetries, particularly for the interactions with the light nuclei. Heavy target nuclei produce a more severe breakup of the projectile gold nucleus than do the lighter targets. A negative correlation between the number of fragments emitted from the target nuclei and the degree of centrality of the collisions has been observed, which can be attributed to the total destruction of the relatively light target nuclei by these very heavy projectile nuclei. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  1. Dynamic of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of rats after exposure to cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticules of various sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apykhtina O.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of cadmium accumulation in the internal organs of Wistar rats after prolonged intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride and cadmium sulphide nanoparticles of 4-6 nm and 9-11 nm in size in a dose of 0.08 mg /kg/day calculated as cadmium. Toxic effects were evaluated after 30 injections (1.5 months, 60 injections (3 months, and 1.5 months after the exposure has been ceased. The results of the study showed that the most intensive accumulation of cadmium was observed in the kidneys and liver of experimental animals, which is due to the peculiarities of the toxicokinetics and the route of administration of cadmium compounds. In the kidneys, spleen and thymus of animals exposed to cadmium sulphide nanoparticles, a greater concentration of cadmium than in the organs of animals exposed to cadmium chloride was found. Cadmium accumulated more intensively in the spleen after exposure to larger nanoparticles, than in the kidneys and thymus. In the liver, heart, aorta and brain significant accumulation was observed after cadmium chloride exposure.

  2. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  3. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  4. Improvement of cadmium phytoremediation after soil inoculation with a cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangthong, Chirawee; Setkit, Kunchaya; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221, a plant growth-promoting bacterium, has stimulatory effects on the root lengths of Zea mays L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions compared to uninoculated seedlings. The performance of Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 on promoting growth and cadmium accumulation in Z. mays L. was investigated in a pot experiment. The results indicated that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221significantly promoted the root length, shoot length, and dry biomass of Z. mays L. transplanted in both uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated soils. Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 significantly increased cadmium accumulation in the roots and shoots of Z. mays L. compared to uninoculated plants. At the beginning of the planting period, cadmium accumulated mainly in the shoots. With a prolonged duration of cultivation, cadmium content increased in the roots. As expected, little cadmium was found in maize grains. Soil cadmium was significantly reduced with time, and the highest percentage of cadmium removal was found in the bacterial-inoculated Z. mays L. after transplantation for 6 weeks. We conclude that Micrococcus sp. TISTR2221 is a potent bioaugmenting agent, facilitating cadmium phytoextraction in Z. mays L.

  5. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  6. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Paitip Thiravetyan; Vibol Sao; Woranan Nakbanpote

    2007-01-01

    This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass) and Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv (Carpetgrass) for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with...

  7. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  8. Cadmium, an environmental poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, A K

    1974-04-15

    In recent years, industrial employment of cadmium has increased considerably. Cadmium is now present in the environment and has caused acute and chronic poisoning. Inhalation of cadmium vapor or dust causes pulmonary damage while the kidney is the critical organ in absorption of cadmium. The element accumulates in the kidney and causes tubular damage or 200 ppm in the renal cortex. In animal experiments, cadmium may cause raised blood pressure, sterility and malignant tumors. On account of the pronounced tendency of cadmium to accumulate and its toxicity, it is important to trace sources and to reduce exposure of the population. 62 references.

  9. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  10. Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Together with zinc and mercury, cadmium belongs to group IIb of the periodic table. It can be found in rocks, soil, water, coal, zinc ore, lead ore, and copper ore. In the environment, cadmium is present predominantly as the oxide or as the chloride, sulfide, or sulfate salt. It has no recognizable

  11. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  12. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  13. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  14. A novel imidazopyridine derivative, HS-106, induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells and represses angiogenesis by targeting the PI3K/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Yong; Jung, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hyunseung; Son, Mi Kwon; Seo, JuHyeon; Hong, Sang-Won; Jeong, Yujeong; Hong, Sungwoo; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is an essential step for the formation and growth of tumors in humans. HS-106 is an imidazopyridine derivative that inhibits the kinase activity of PI3K by binding to the ATP-binding cleft. We found that this compound suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting the activity of target proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with HS-106 resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase due to up-regulation of p-cdc25 and down-regulation of cyclin B1. Also, HS-106 induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. In addition, chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were detected in HS-106-treated breast cancer cells. Furthermore, HS-106 decreased the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and inhibited tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and blood vessel formation in an in vivo Matrigel plug assay. These results show that HS-106 may be an effective novel therapeutic candidate in clinical trials as a potential treatment for human breast cancers or other advanced malignancies with aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 μM CdCl2) and ...

  16. Effects of cadmium electrode properties on nickel-cadmium cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Tests have been conducted on a number of nickel-cadmium cells that have exhibited a variety of performance problems, ranging from high voltages and pressures during overcharge to low capacity. The performance problems that have been specifically linked to the cadmium electrode are primarily related to two areas, poor sinter and the buildup of excessive pressure during overcharge. A number of specific nickel-cadmium cell and cadmium electrode characterists have been studied in this work to determine what the effects of poor sinter are, and to determine what factors are important in causing excessive pressures during overcharge in cells that otherwise appear normal. Several of the tests appear suitable for screening cells and electrodes for such problems

  17. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  18. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  19. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H; Iverfeldt, Aa [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H; Lithner, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  20. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  1. Cadmium but not lead exposure affects Xenopus laevis fertilization and embryo cleavage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Lemière, Sébastien [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Hanotel, Julie; Lescuyer, Arlette [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); Demuynck, Sylvain [Univ. Lille Nord de France, EA 4515 – LGCgE – Laboratoire Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, Université de Lille 1, Cité scientifique, SN3, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Bodart, Jean-François [Univ. Lille, CNRS, INRA, UMR 8576 – UGSF – Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • First embryonic steps were studied. • Fertilization success was impacted by cadmium exposures. • Oocytes were most affected instead of spermatozoa by cadmium exposures. • First embryonic cleavages were slown down or stopped by cadmium exposures. • Lead exposures did not affected fertilization and segmentation. - Abstract: Among the toxicological and ecotoxicological studies, few have investigated the effects on germ cells, gametes or embryos, while an impact at these stages will result in serious damage at a population level. Thus, it appeared essential to characterize consequences of environmental contaminant exposures at these stages. Therefore, we proposed to assess the effects of exposure to cadmium and lead ions, alone or in a binary mixture, on early stages of Xenopus laevis life cycle. Fertilization and cell division during segmentation were the studied endpoints. Cadmium ion exposures decreased in the fertilization rates in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting mainly the oocytes. Exposure to this metal ions induced also delays or blockages in the embryonic development. For lead ion exposure, no such effect was observed. For the exposure to the mixture of the two metal ions, concerning the fertilization success, we observed results similar to those obtained with the highest cadmium ion concentration.

  2. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  3. [Investigation of urinary cadmium characteristics of the general population in three non-cadmium-polluted rural areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingxiu; Hu, Ji; Sun, Hong; Jing, Qiqing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenli; Shang, Qi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of urinary cadmium of the non-occupational-cadmium-exposed population in non-cadmium contaminated rural area in China. Randomly selected non-occupational cadmium exposed population 2548 people (male 1290, female 1258) with each gender and age groups, questionnaire surveyed and collected random urine. Urinary cadmium and urinary creatinine (Cr) concentration were tested, excluding urinary Cr 3 g/L. Analyze the impact factors of urinary cadmium and calculated 95% quantile (P95) of urinary cadmium after correction by urinary Cr. Urinary cadmium increased with age and showed an upward trend. The urinary cadmium of the population of ≥ 30 years old was significantly higher than that of populations (China (GB Z17-2002). The urinary cadmium reference value of non-occupational-cadmium-exposed populations is China, but for smoking women over 30 year-old it needs more research to explore.

  4. Aequorin chimeras as valuable tool in the measurement of Ca2+ concentration during cadmium injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioli, M.; Pinton, P.; Scudiero, R.; Ragghianti, M.; Bucci, S.; Rizzuto, R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of cadmium to disrupt calcium homeostasis has been known since a long time, but the precise cellular targets of its toxic action are still debated. A great problem in the interpretation of data has been associated with the ability of cadmium to strongly bind traditional calcium probes. Aequorin, the well-characterized calcium-sensitive photoprotein, was used as intracellular calcium indicator during cadmium injury in NIH 3T3 murine fibroblasts. NIH 3T3 cells were transfected with a cDNA construct containing aequorin fused to a truncated glutamate receptor, which directs the probe to the outer surface of intracellular membranes. At first, we tested if different cadmium concentrations were able to modify the rate of light emission by aequorin showing that cadmium concentrations 2+ /Ca 2+ interference. To directly investigate the role of Cd 2+ in Ca 2+ homeostasis, we have started to selectively measure the free Ca 2+ concentration in different cell compartments. Here, we report that cadmium reduces the transient free calcium signal after stimulation of cells with bradykinin. Further studies are in progress to clarify the role of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in cadmium-induced alterations of Ca 2+ homeostasis in order to link signal transduction modifications with the onset of apoptosis induced by cadmium exposure

  5. Reduction of Cadmium Uptake of Rice Plants Using Soil Amendments in High Cadmium Contaminated Soil: A Pot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Siswanto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of agricultural residues on reducing cadmium uptake in rice plants. The rice plants growing on no cadmium/free cadmium soils (N, Cd soils (Cds, and Cd soils each amended with 1% w/w of coir pith (CP, coir pith modified with sodium hydroxide (CPm and corncob (CC under high cadmium contaminated soil with an average 145 mg Cd kg-1 soil were investigated. The results showed that the cumulative transpiration of rice grown in various treatments under high cadmium contaminated soil followed the order: Cds > CPm ≥ CP ≥ CC. These transpirations directly influenced cadmium accumulation in shoots and husks of rice plants. The CC and CP seemed to work to reduce the cadmium uptake by rice plants indicated by accumulated cadmium in the husk that were 2.47 and 7.38 mg Cd kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Overall, transpiration tended to drive cadmium accumulation in plants for rice grown in high cadmium contaminated soil. The more that plants uptake cadmium, the lower cadmium that remains in the soil.

  6. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  7. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Domyung [Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: paekdm@snu.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 {mu}g/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 {mu}g/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population.

  8. Cadmium in blood and hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eum, Ki-Do; Lee, Mi-Sun; Paek, Domyung

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:: This study is to examine the effect of cadmium exposure on blood pressure in Korean general population. Methods:: The study population consisted of 958 men and 944 women who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), in which blood pressure and blood cadmium were measured from each participant. Results:: The mean blood cadmium level was 1.67 μg/L (median level 1.55). The prevalence of hypertension was 26.2%. The blood cadmium level was significantly higher among those subjects with hypertension than those without (mean level 1.77 versus 1.64 μg/dL). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratio of hypertension comparing the highest to the lowest tertile of cadmium in blood was 1.51 (95% confidence interval 1.13 to 2.05), and a dose-response relationship was observed. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were all positively associated with blood cadmium level, and this effect of cadmium on blood pressure was markedly stronger when the kidney function was reduced. Conclusions:: Cadmium exposures at the current level may have increased the blood pressure of Korean general population

  9. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to

  10. Cadmium induces cadmium-tolerant gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Santa O; Puglisi, Ivana; Faedda, Roberto; Sanzaro, Vincenzo; Pane, Antonella; Lo Piero, Angela R; Evoli, Maria; Petrone, Goffredo

    2015-11-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum, strain IMI 393899, was able to grow in the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury. The main objective of this research was to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of the fungus T. harzianum to cadmium. The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was used for the characterization of the genes of T. harzianum implicated in cadmium tolerance compared with those expressed in the response to the stress induced by mercury. Finally, the effects of cadmium exposure were also validated by measuring the expression levels of the putative genes coding for a glucose transporter, a plasma membrane ATPase, a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and a two-component system sensor histidine kinase YcbA, by real-time-PCR. By using the aforementioned SSH strategy, it was possible to identify 108 differentially expressed genes of the strain IMI 393899 of T. harzianum grown in a mineral substrate with the addition of cadmium. The expressed sequence tags identified by SSH technique were encoding different genes that may be involved in different biological processes, including those associated to primary and secondary metabolism, intracellular transport, transcription factors, cell defence, signal transduction, DNA metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. Finally, the results show that in the mechanism of tolerance to cadmium a possible signal transduction pathway could activate a Cd(2+)/Zn(2+) transporter protein and/or a plasma membrane ATPase that could be involved in the compartmentalization of cadmium inside the cell.

  11. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  12. Excitation functions and isomeric ratios for the isomeric pair sup(106m)Ag and sup(106g)Ag in the 107Ag (d,t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalli, M.E.; Wasilevsky de Lammirato, C.; Herreros, O.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1976-09-01

    Excitation functions and isomeric cross section ratios have been measured for the 107 Ag (d,t), reaction in which the isomeric pair sup(106m/106g)Ag is produced. Thick-target yields have been determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. Stacked silver foils with aluminium foils as monitors were bombarded with deuterons up to 27 MeV and the activities of products measured with a calibrated Ge(Li) counter. (author) [es

  13. Cadmium Adsorption on HDTMA Modified Montmorillionite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Elmuntasir I. Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the possibility of cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified montmorillonite clay is investigated. Batch adsorption experiments performed revealed an enhanced removal of cadmium using HDTMA modified montmorillonite to 100% of its exchange capacity. Modified montmorillonite adsorption capacity increases at higher pHs suggesting adsorption occurs as a result of surface precipitation and HDTMA complex formation due to the fact that the original negatively charged montmorillonite is now covered by a cationic layer of HDTMA. Adsorption isotherms generated followed a Langmuir isotherm equation possibly indicating a monolayer coverage. Adsorption capacities of up to 49 mg/g and removals greater than 90% were achieved. Anionic selectivity of the HDTMA modified monmorillonite is particularly advantageous in water treatment applications where high concentrations of less adsorbable species are present, and the lack of organoclay affinity for these species may allow the available capacity to be utilized selectively by the targeted species.

  14. Cadmium Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    carcinogenic, leachable Trivalent and non- chrome passivates generally struggle with conductivity Major Differences in Trivalent vs. Hexavalent Passivates...for Change Cadmium passivated with hexavalent chromium has been in use for many decades Cadmium is toxic, and is classified as a priority...Executive Orders 13514 & 13423 DoD initiatives – Young memo (April 2009) DFAR restricting use of hexavalent chromium Allows the use of hexavalent

  15. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  16. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  17. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  18. Electron-impact excitation-autoionization in the cadmium isoelectronic sequence: A case of target term dependence in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M.S.; Griffin, D.C.; Bottcher, C.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation-autoionization contributions to electron-impact ionization are calculated for several atomic ions in the cadmium isoelectronic sequence. We calculate excitation cross sections in the distorted-wave approximation and compare them in one case to a calculation in the close-coupling approximation. We focus attention on the 4d 10 5s 2 →4d 9 5s 2 nf inner-shell excitations in In + , Sb 3+ , and Xe 6+ . Hartree-Fock atomic structure calculations for the 4d 9 5s 2 nf configurations are found to be highly term dependent. Thus our predictions for the total ionization cross section from the 5s subshell for these ions exhibit strong target term dependence. Our Xe 6+ results are found to be in excellent agreement with the recent experimental crossed-beam measurements of Gregory and Crandall

  19. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dumková, J.; Vrlíková, Lucie; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Putnová, Barbora; Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Fictum, P.; Hampl, A.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2016), s. 874-893 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanoparticles * cadmium oxide * electron microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  20. Cadmium in the biofuel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aabyhammar, T.; Fahlin, M.; Holmroos, S.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of biofuel depletes the soil of important nutrients. Investigations are being made of possibilities to return most of these nutrients by spreading the ashes remaining after combustion in the forest or on field. Return of ashes implies that both beneficial and harmful substances are returned. This study has been conducted to illustrate that the return of cadmium implies the greatest risk for negative influences. The occurrence, utilization, emissions and effects of cadmium are discussed. The behaviour of cadmium in soil is discussed in detail. Flows and quantities of cadmium in Swedish society are reviewed. Flows and quantities of both total and plant available cadmium in the entire forest and arable areas of Sweden are given. A scenario for a bioenergy system of max 100 TWh is discussed. The cadmium flow in different biofuels and forest raw products, and anticipated amounts of ashes and cadmium concentrations, are calculated. Power production from biofuels is surveyed. Possibilities to clean ashes have been examined in laboratory experiments. Ashes and trace elements occurring as a result of the gasification of biofuels are reviewed. Strategies for handling ashes are discussed. Proposals on continued inputs in both the biological and technical sciences are made. 146 refs, 23 figs, 38 tabs

  1. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  2. Cadmium Handling, Toxicity and Molecular Targets Involved during Pregnancy: Lessons from Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Jacobo-Estrada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element. To give the reader an overview of the possible mechanisms involved in the multiple organ toxic effects in fetuses after the exposure to Cd during pregnancy, we decided to compile some of the most relevant experimental studies performed in experimental models and to summarize the advances in this field such as the Cd distribution and the factors that could alter it (diet, binding-proteins and membrane transporters, the Cd-induced toxicity in dams (preeclampsia, fertility, kidney injury, alteration in essential element homeostasis and bone mineralization, in placenta and in fetus (teratogenicity, central nervous system, liver and kidney.

  3. Biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Z A; Smith, L M

    1986-01-01

    The increasing environmental and occupational exposure of populations to cadmium creates the need for biological indicators of cadmium exposure and toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of monitoring blood cadmium, urinary, fecal, hair, and tissue cadmium, serum creatine, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 1-anti-trypsin and other proteins, and urinary amino acids, enzymes, total proteins, glucose, beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, lysozyme, and metallothionein are discussed. It is concluded that urinary cadmium, metallothionein and beta 2-microglubulin may be used together to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. 66 references.

  4. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  5. 34 CFR 106.71 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Public institutions of undergraduate higher education, 106.15(e) Recruitment, [34, 35]; 106.23 Specific...(d) Pre-Employment Inquiry Recruitment, [83, 90, 91, 95] Sex as a BFOQ, [96]; 106.61 Student... organizations”, 106.31(c) Fraternities/Sororities Social, [53, 27, 28]; 106.14(a) Business/professional, [40, 53...

  6. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  7. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  8. Cadmium - a case of mistaken identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D

    1984-05-01

    New evidence is presented which describes the impact of cadmium in the environment. Cadmium is a persistent material, although its compounds may undergo a range of chemical changes in the environment. In soluble form cadmium and its compounds are toxic at relatively low concentrations to aquatic animals although their bioconcentrations in such animals is in general low, and there is no evidence of biomagnification. In insoluble form cadmium and its compounds are relatively non-toxic to aquatic animals and are unlikely to be bioconcentrated. As such, cadmium is similar to most other heavy metals. Recent studies indicate that cadmium is not implicated in Itai-Itai disease and does not appear to cause hypertension or cancer. In addition, the accepted critical level in the kidney may have been underestimated. Thus, the hazard to man appears to be considerably less than the original estimates. In view of these data, there seems little justification in treating cadmium in any way differently from the other metals and hence no reason for retaining it on the Black List of the international conventions. 19 references.

  9. Health hazards of environmental cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, G F

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium, a metal widely used in industrial processes, has been recognized to be a highly toxic and dangerous environmental pollutant. In this study the author describes the sources and occurrence of cadmium, and the intake by human beings. He states that present standards for daily intake do not allow sufficient safety margins. The fate and known effects of cadmium in human beings are summarized; some effects associated with cadmium are renal (kidney) damage, anemia, hypertension, and liver damage. Cadmium was identified as the main cause of the Itai-Itai disease in Japan, and epidemiological studies from various areas of Japan are presented. 64 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Cadmium removal by Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal K; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. Water samples were collected periodically for estimation of residual cadmium content in aqueous solution. At the end of treatment period plant samples were collected and accumulated cadmium content was measured. Cadmium toxicity was observed through relative growth factor and changes in chlorophyll content Experimental results showed that Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza were capable of removing 42-78% and 52-75% cadmium from media depending upon initial cadmium concentrations. Cadmium was removed following pseudo second order kinetic model Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Conversely in both cases maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest initial cadmium concentrations, i.e., 0.5 mg/L, were 3295.61 and 4752.00 for Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza respectively. The present study revealed that both Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza was potential cadmium accumulator.

  11. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

  12. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Lu, Yong-Hui; Pi, Hui-Feng; Gao, Peng; Li, Min; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Li-Ping; Mei, Xiang; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Qi; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects. © 2016 The

  13. Laser-plasma interaction at 10.6 microns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.; Kindel, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption mechanisms at 10.6μm are considered. Given our best theoretical knowledge, at high intensity, CO 2 absorption is a combination of resonant absorption, critical surface decay processes (rippling), and forward and backward Raman scattering. At low intensities (less than 10 14 W/cm 2 ), in short pulse CO 2 experiments, resonant absorption is believed to dominate. The properties of the self generated magnetic fields are considered. These fields greatly affect the hot electron preheat, the lateral transport of energy along the surface of the target, and the enhanced plasma blowoff. And finally, the properties of the enhanced plasma blowoff will be discussed. In directly driven targets, this blowoff represents an energy loss. It has been suggested, however, that the blowoff itself can be used to drive targets

  14. Cadmium-induced fetal toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Cadmium, a heavy metal environment contaminant, induces fetal death and placental necrosis in the Wistar rat. This study investigated fetal, maternal, and placental responses to cadmium intoxication. Subcutaneous injection of CdCl 2 to dams on day 18 of pregnancy produced a high incidence of fetal death (75%) and placental necrosis. Death in the fetus was produced despite limited fetal accumulations of cadmium. Distribution studies using 109 Cd-labeled CdCl 2 demonstrated that less than 0.1% of the injected dose was associated with the fetus. To determine if fetuses were sensitive to these low levels of cadmium, direct injections of CdCl 2 into fetuses were performed in utero. Direct injections produced fetal accumulations 8-fold greater than those following maternal injections. The 8-fold greater fetal accumulations following direct injection were associated with only a 12% fetal mortality compared to the 75% mortality following maternal injections. The data indicated that the fetal toxicity of cadmium following maternal injections was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus. In conclusion, cadmium-induced fetal death was not the result of direct effects of cadmium on the fetus but may have been induced by placental cellular injury resulting from high accumulations of cadmium in the placenta. A vascular response to placental injury, leading to decreased utero-placental bood flow and cadmium-induced alterations in trophoblastic function, resulted in fetal death

  15. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  17. Cadmium incorporation by the marine copepod Pseudodiaptomus coronatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, L.V.; Baptist, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Pseudodiaptomus coronatus, after exposure to phytoplankton and cadmium in concentrations like those in temperate, coastal environments, incorporated 109 Cd at higher rates from ambient water than from phytoplankton food. When ambient stable cadmium concentrations were increased from 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , cadmium concentration by phytoplankton cells increased and the rate of cell ingestion by P. coronatus decreased. This inverse relation between the accumulation of cadmium in phytoplankton cells and the animal's ingestion rate resulted in relatively small net increases in the cadmium accumulated from phytoplankton by copepods. Rates of stable cadmium ingestion for P. coronatus ranged from 0.18 to 0.38 ng.mg animal dry wt -1 .h -1 , depending on the initial algal cell density and the ambient cadmium concentration. For cadmium concentrations of 0.03 to 1.00 μg.liter -1 , percentage assimilation efficiencies ranged from 13.20 to 68.40. Both rates of cadmium ingestion and assimilation efficiencies were higher than published values for carnivorous zooplankton

  18. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-01-01

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: → Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. → We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. → The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. → Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  19. Hsp27, Hsp70, and metallothionein in MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells: effects of prolonged exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, Rita T.; Fine, Michael R.; Pollock, Fiona M.; Shelden, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a widely distributed industrial and environmental toxin. The principal target organ of chronic sublethal cadmium exposure is the kidney. In renal epithelial cells, acute high-dose cadmium exposure induces differential expression of proteins, including heat shock proteins. However, few studies have examined heat shock protein expression in cells after prolonged exposure to cadmium at sublethal concentrations. Here, we assayed total cell protein, neutral red uptake, cell death, and levels of metallothionein and heat shock proteins Hsp27 and inducible Hsp70 in cultures of MDCK and LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells treated with cadmium for 3 days. Treatment with cadmium at concentrations equal to or greater than 10 μM (LLC-PK1) or 25 μM (MDCK) reduced measures of cell vitality and induced cell death. However, a concentration-dependent increase in Hsp27 was detected in both cell types treated with as little as 5 μM cadmium. Accumulation of Hsp70 was correlated only with cadmium treatment at concentrations also causing cell death. Metallothionein was maximally detected in cells treated with cadmium at concentrations that did not reduce cell vitality, and further increases were not detected at greater concentrations. These results reveal that heat shock proteins accumulate in renal epithelial cells during prolonged cadmium exposure, that cadmium induces differential expression of heat shock protein in epithelial cells, and that protein expression patterns in epithelial cells are specific to the cadmium concentration and degree of cellular injury. A potential role for Hsp27 in the cellular response to sublethal cadmium-induced injury is also implicated by our results

  20. Cadmium induced changes in cell organelles: An ultrastructural study using cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ord, M.J.; Chibber, R.; Bouffler, S.D.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed electron microscopy study of cadmium sensitive and resistant muntjac fibroblast cell lines has identified a wide range of intracellular damage following exposure to cadmium. Damaged organelles included cell membrane, mitochondria, Golgi cisternae and tubular network, chromatin, nucleoli, microfilaments and ribosomes. Although cell membrane damage was generally the earliest indication of adverse cadmium action, particularly with continuous cadmium exposures, cells could tolerate extensive membrane loss. Mitochondrial distortion and some damage to Golgi was also tolerated. The turning point at which cadmium became lethal was generally marked by a cascade of events which included damage to both nuclear and cytoplasmic components. These results for fibroblasts are discussed and compared with damage reported in other types of cells.

  1. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisberg, Michael; Joseph, Pius; Hale, Beverley; Beyersmann, Detmar

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which is widely used in industry, affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In mammals, it exerts multiple toxic effects and has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cadmium affects cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular activities. Cd 2+ does not catalyze Fenton-type reactions because it does not accept or donate electrons under physiological conditions, and it is only weakly genotoxic. Hence, indirect mechanisms are implicated in the carcinogenicity of cadmium. In this review multiple mechanisms are discussed, such as modulation of gene expression and signal transduction, interference with enzymes of the cellular antioxidant system and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibition of DNA repair and DNA methylation, role in apoptosis and disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Cadmium affects both gene transcription and translation. The major mechanisms of gene induction by cadmium known so far are modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways by enhancement of protein phosphorylation and activation of transcription and translation factors. Cadmium interferes with antioxidant defense mechanisms and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species, which may act as signaling molecules in the induction of gene expression and apoptosis. The inhibition of DNA repair processes by cadmium represents a mechanism by which cadmium enhances the genotoxicity of other agents and may contribute to the tumor initiation by this metal. The disruption of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by cadmium probably further stimulates the development of tumors. It becomes clear that there exist multiple mechanisms which contribute to the carcinogenicity of cadmium, although the relative weights of these contributions are difficult to estimate

  2. Cadmium in the bioenergy system - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfont, K.

    1997-12-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal without any known positive biological effects. Both emissions and atmospheric deposition of cadmium have decreased radically in Sweden during recent years. In Sweden, about 150 tonnes of cadmium was supplied to the technosphere in 1990, mostly originating from NiCd batteries. More than 100 tonnes of cadmium accumulated in the technosphere. Mankind takes up cadmium from water, food and particulate atmospheric pollution. Even small amounts may be injurious in the long-term since the half-life in the kidneys is 30 years. Cadmium in biofuel and ashes are generally a cause of discussion. Ashes from biofuel constitute a nutrient resource that should be returned to the soil. A possible risk with spreading ashes is the spreading of heavy metals, and then foremost cadmium, which is among the heavy metals that forest soils are considered to tolerate the least. Several studies on cadmium in the bioenergy system have been made, both within the Research Programme for Recycling of Wood-ash, and within Vattenfall's Bioenergy Project. The present report is intended to provide a picture of the current state of knowledge and to review plans for the future With a 3 page summary in English. 51 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  3. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, Charles J.; Frithsen, Ivar L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ≥0.88 μg/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 μg/g creatinine

  4. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto

    2001-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of 109 CdCl 2 into the amygdala of rats, 109 Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K + , suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 μM CdCl 2 . The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  5. Distribution of cadmium between calcium carbonate and solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Yasushi; Kanamori, Nobuko; Fujiyoshi, Ryoko

    1978-01-01

    The distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has been measured in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions, which forms complexes with cadmium ions. It has been confirmed experimentally that cadmium carbonate is present as a solid solution between calcitic calcium carbonate and cadmium carbonate in the carbonate precipitate formed in the solution system. However, the constant value of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient of cadmium between calcite and solution has not been obtained experimentally in the calcium bicarbonate solution containing cadmium and chloride ions. It may have been caused by the very specific behavior of cadmium ions, but the exact reason remains unsolved and must be studied. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. 48 CFR 3028.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 3028.106 Section 3028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY... 3028.106 Administration. ...

  7. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  8. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2010-01-01

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4±2.3 μg/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0±2.2 μg/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  9. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  10. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  11. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  12. Large silver-cadmium technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlip, S.; Lerner, S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of varying cell design on operation factors on the electrochemical performance of sealed, silver-cadmium cells were determined. A factorial experiment was conducted for all test cells constructed with organic separators. Three operating factors were evaluated: temperature, depth of discharge, and charge rate. The six construction factors considered were separator, absorber, electrolyte quantity, cadmium electrode type, cadmium-to-silver ratio, and auxiliary electrode. Test cells of 4 ampere-hour capacity were fabricated and cycled. The best performing cells, on a 94 minute orbit, at 40% depth of discharge, were those containing silver-treated fibrous sausage casings as the separator, and Teflon-ated, pressed cadmium electrodes. Cycling data of cells with inorganic separators (Astroset) are given. Best performance was shown by cells with nonwoven nylon absorbers. Rigid inorganic separators provided the best barrier to silver migration.

  13. 48 CFR 2828.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration. 2828.106 Section 2828.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General Contracting Requirements BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 2828.106 Administration. ...

  14. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 48 CFR 1028.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 1028.106 Section 1028.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 1028.106 Administration. ...

  16. Cadmium action in synapses in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Akira; Takeda, Atsushi; Nishibaba, Daisuke; Tekefuta, Sachiyo; Oku, Naoto [Department of Radiobiochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Chronic exposure to cadmium causes central nervous system disorders, e.g., olfactory dysfunction. To clarify cadmium toxicity in synaptic neurotransmission in the brain, the movement and action of cadmium in the synapses was examined using in vivo microdialysis. One and 24 h after injection of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} into the amygdala of rats, {sup 109}Cd release into the extracellular space was facilitated by stimulation with high K{sup +}, suggesting that cadmium taken up in amygdalar neurons is released into the synaptic clefts in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. To examine the action of cadmium in the synapses, the amygdala was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 10-30 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. The release of excitatory neurotransmitters, i.e., glutamate and aspartate, into the extracellular space was decreased during perfusion with cadmium, while the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, i.e., glycine and {gamma}-amino butyric acid (GABA), into the extracellular space was increased during the period. These results suggest that cadmium released from the amygdalar neuron terminals affects the degree and balance of excitation-inhibition in synaptic neurotransmission. (author)

  17. Comparison of radioisotopic studied calcium metabolism in the orally administered and inhaled cadmium rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauran-Clavel, M.J.; Oustrin, J.; Godin, J.; Boudene, C.

    1982-01-01

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in the rat after oral administration of cadmium, 8 mg/kg during 13 weeks, has shown two different effects of this ion: 1) in the intestine, cadmium inhibits the absorption of calcium by active transport; 2) in the deep bone compartment, the decrease of the bone calcium used for the crystallization and slowly exchangeable with the calcium central pool (serum, extracellular and soft tissues calcium) is combined with a reduction of the exchange rates between the two compartments. When administered through a microparticle aerosol inhalation (1 mg/m 3 of air, 30 mn a day, during 12 weeks), cadmium's main target organ is the deep bone compartment. For both modes of administration, the slowing down of osteogenesis is confirmed by a drop in serum alkaline phosphatase after a four weeks period which reflects a decrease of the osteoblastic activity. Therefore it appears that the effects on bones observed during the chronic oral cadmium administration, do not result from a malabsorption of intestine calcium but also from the very action the Cd ++ ion on the bone crystallization process [fr

  18. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  19. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. po Fizika na Tvyrdoto Tyalo); Genchev, D. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Metchenov, G. (Research Inst. of Criminalistics and Criminology, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1985-02-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more.

  20. Growth of cadmium oxide whiskers on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as growth activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparanova, N.; Simov, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some results on the growth and morphology of cadmium oxide whiskers, obtained on cadmium sulphide single crystals with copper as a growth activator, are presented in this work. Cadmium oxide whiskers have been obtained on brace 112-bar0 brace faces of cadmium sulphide plates with a copper layer deposited in advance. The whiskers grew during the annealing of the plates in a weak stream of technically pure argon at temperatures 670 to 730 deg C for 15 min to 3.5 h. Details about the procedure have been given elsewhere. The composition and morphology of the whiskers have been studied by an X-ray microanalyser JEOL 35 DDS and a scanning electron microscope JEOL, JSM 35. The optical microscopic observations have shown that after annealing, a gray-black granular layer is formed on the cadmium sulphide single crystals and this layer can easily be separated from the crystal substrate. Under the granular layer the crystal is heavily damaged. The whiskers grow on the granular layer and they are coloured yellow-brown or red-brown. The maximum whisker length attains several hundreds of micrometres and in some cases up to 1 mm or more. (author)

  1. 48 CFR 228.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 228.106 Section 228.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 228.106 Administration. ...

  2. 48 CFR 1228.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 1228.106 Section 1228.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 1228.106 Administration. ...

  3. 48 CFR 828.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 828.106 Section 828.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 828.106 Administration. ...

  4. 48 CFR 428.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 428.106 Section 428.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 428.106 Administration. ...

  5. 48 CFR 1328.106 - Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration. 1328.106 Section 1328.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 1328.106 Administration. ...

  6. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  7. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  8. Influence of protein deficiency on cadmium toxicity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, P C; Jain, V K; Ashquin, M; Tandon, S K

    1986-07-01

    The effects of a low protein diet on the body uptake and retention of cadmium, levels of essential trace elements, and cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in liver and kidneys of the rat were investigated. Low dietary protein disturbs cadmium induced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, essential trace elements metabolism and offsets the hepatic and renal process of cadmium detoxification. Protein malnutrition enhances the susceptibility to cadmium intoxication.

  9. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  10. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Tim S; Van Hecke, Etienne; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Jin, Yu; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Roels, Harry A; Staessen, Jan A

    2008-12-01

    Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality. We monitored blood cadmium (BCd), 24-hr urinary cadmium (UCd), and mortality in an environmentally exposed population. Starting from 1985, we followed BCd (until 2003), UCd (until 1996), and mortality (until 2007) among 476 and 480 subjects, randomly recruited from low- exposure areas (LEA) and high-exposure areas (HEA). The last cadmium-producing plant in the HEA closed in 2002. From 1985-1989 to 1991-1996, BCd decreased by 40.3% and 18.9% in the LEA and HEA, respectively (p fashion without threshold.

  11. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    In Denmark and EU the exposure of cadmium from food is at a level that is relatively close to the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). This report describes an investigation of the bioavailability of cadmium in selected food items known to contain high levels of cadmium. The purpose was to provide data...

  12. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1127 - Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occupational exposure to cadmium as follows: (1) Reassess the employee's work practices and personal hygiene... employee's work practices and personal hygiene; the employee's respirator use, if any; the employee's...; assuring that all employees exposed to air cadmium levels above the PEL wear appropriate personal...

  14. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A & B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan BK

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The present study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed at cadmium plating. Methods 50 subjects using cadmium during cadmium plating formed the study group. An equal number of age-sex matched subjects working in administrative section formed the control group. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B were determined by using spectrophotmetric method. Results A significant increase of urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were noted in study as compared to controls. The levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B profiles were positively and significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of urinary cadmium or life style confounding factors (age, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B. The analysis showed that the study subjects who had urine cadmium levels greater than 5 μg/g of creatinine, work duration >15 years, smoking and body mass index variables were significantly associated with urinary total N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase but not on isoenzymes A&B. Conclusion The results presented in this study shows that the increased levels of urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase observed in cadmium-exposed workers could be used as biomarkers for suggesting preventive measure.

  15. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K + and Na + ) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  16. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  17. Epidemiological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, I.

    1984-04-01

    The study of health problems due to cadmium pollution in Japan originated from an endemic episode of Itai-itai disease in a rural area in north-central Japan after World War II. The disease was defined as osteomalacia with tubular changes in the kidney and considered to be associated with excess intake of cadmium. This episode motivated the Japanese Government to conduct health examinations on the general population in cadmium-polluted and non-polluted areas throughout the country since 1969. Although Itai-itai disease-like bone changes were rarely found, these studies revealed a higher prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction among elderly people in the cadmium-polluted areas. No significant difference was noted in cancer mortality, but mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes tended to be lower in cadmium-polluted areas. Clinical and pathological studies in man as well as experiments on primates have recently been made to elucidate the pathogenesis of Itai-itai disease and the health effects of cadmium. The lack of knowledge on the ecological and biological complex of cadmium resulted in the impediment of studies on this problem. The lesson from this experience is that basic research is essential for promoting the study of pollutants such as heavy metals, though pollution problems usually require urgent solutions.

  18. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; McGeer, James C.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  19. Exposure to environmental levels of waterborne cadmium impacts corticosteroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and compromises secondary stressor performance in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); McGeer, James C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Low level chronic waterborne cadmium exposure did not evoke a plasma cortisol response in rainbow trout. •Chronic cadmium exposure increases liver and gill metabolic capacities. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts head kidney steroidogenic capacity. •Chronic cadmium exposure disrupts glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in target tissues. •Chronic cadmium exposure compromises physiological performances to a secondary stressor in trout. -- Abstract: The physiological responses to waterborne cadmium exposure have been well documented; however, few studies have examined animal performances at low exposure concentrations of this metal. We tested the hypothesis that longer-term exposure to low levels of cadmium will compromise the steroidogenic and metabolic capacities, and reduce the cortisol response to a secondary stressor in fish. To test this, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to 0 (control), 0.75 or 2.0 μg/L waterborne cadmium in a flow-through system and were sampled at 1, 7 and 28 d of exposure. There were only very slight disturbances in basal plasma cortisol, lactate or glucose levels in response to cadmium exposure over the 28 d period. Chronic cadmium exposure significantly affected key genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme. At 28 d, the high cadmium exposure group showed a significant drop in the glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor protein expressions in the liver and brain, respectively. There were also perturbations in the metabolic capacities in the liver and gill of cadmium-exposed trout. Subjecting these fish to a secondary handling disturbance led to a significant attenuation of the stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in the cadmium groups. Collectively, although trout appears to adjust to subchronic exposure

  20. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, Madison, WI (United States); Atkinson, Charlotte [Department of Oral and Dental Science, Bristol Dental School, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bowles, Erin J. Aiello [Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Newton, Katherine M. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, PO Box 19024, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 {mu}g/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 {mu}g/g) and 0.30 {mu}g/g (0.27-0.33 {mu}g/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 {mu}g/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 {mu}g/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: {yields

  1. Sources of cadmium exposure among healthy premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Atkinson, Charlotte; Bowles, Erin J. Aiello; Newton, Katherine M.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cadmium, a persistent and widespread environmental pollutant, has been associated with kidney function impairment and several diseases. Cigarettes are the dominant source of cadmium exposure among smokers; the primary source of cadmium in non-smokers is food. We investigated sources of cadmium exposure in a sample of healthy women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 191 premenopausal women completed a health questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. The cadmium content of spot urine samples was measured with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and normalized to urine creatinine content. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the strength of association between smoking habits and, among non-smokers, usual foods consumed and urinary cadmium, adjusted for age, race, multivitamin and supplement use, education, estimated total energy intake, and parity. Results: Geometric mean urine creatinine-normalized cadmium concentration (uCd) of women with any history of cigarette smoking was 0.43 μg/g (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.48 μg/g) and 0.30 μg/g (0.27-0.33 μg/g) among never-smokers, and increased with pack-years of smoking. Analysis of dietary data among women with no reported history of smoking suggested that regular consumption of eggs, hot cereals, organ meats, tofu, vegetable soups, leafy greens, green salad, and yams was associated with uCd. Consumption of tofu products showed the most robust association with uCd; each weekly serving of tofu was associated with a 22% (95% CI: 11-33%) increase in uCd. Thus, uCd was estimated to be 0.11 μg/g (95% CI: 0.06-0.15 μg/g) higher among women who consumed any tofu than among those who consumed none. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is likely the most important source of cadmium exposure among smokers. Among non-smokers, consumption of specific foods, notably tofu, is associated with increased urine cadmium concentration. - Research highlights: →Urine cadmium, usual

  2. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  3. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  4. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  5. 15 CFR 200.106 - Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publications. 200.106 Section 200.106... FEES § 200.106 Publications. Publications provide the primary means of communicating the results of the... issues some fifteen categories of publications including three periodicals, ten non-periodicals series...

  6. 7 CFR 1924.106 - Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location. 1924.106 Section 1924.106 Agriculture... CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work § 1924.106 Location. (a) General. It is... will not finance development on locations that adversely affect properties which are listed or are...

  7. 34 CFR 106.23 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 106.23 Section 106.23 Education... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 106.23 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall not discriminate on the basis of sex...

  8. 42 CFR 401.106 - Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication. 401.106 Section 401.106 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.106 Publication. (a) Methods of publication. Materials required to be published under the provisions of The Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S...

  9. 29 CFR 4.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true [Reserved] 4.106 Section 4.106 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Introductory § 4.106 [Reserved] Agencies Whose Contracts May Be Covered ...

  10. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  11. Cadmium verification measurements of HFIR shroud assembly 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses radiation-based nondestructive examination methods which have been used to successfully verify the presence of cadmium in High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) spent-fuel shroud assembly number 22 (SA22). These measurements show, in part, that SA22 is certified to meet the criticality safety specifications for a proposed reconfiguration of the HFIR spent-fuel storage array. Measurement of the unique 558.6-keV gamma-ray from neutron radiative capture on cadmium provided conclusive evidence for the presence of cadmium in the outer shroud of the assembly. Cadmium verification in the center post and outer shroud was performed by measuring the degree of neutron transmission in SA22 relative to two calibration shroud assemblies. Each measurement was performed at a single location on the center post and outer shroud. These measurements do not provide information on the spatial distribution or uniformity of cadmium within an assembly. Separate measurements using analog and digital radiography were performed to (a) globally map the continuity of cadmium internal mass, and (b) locally determine the thickness of cadmium. Radiography results will be reported elsewhere. The measurements reported here should not be used to infer the thickness of cadmium in either the center post or outer shroud of an assembly

  12. 21 CFR 106.90 - Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coding. 106.90 Section 106.90 Food and Drugs FOOD... of Infant Formulas § 106.90 Coding. The manufacturer shall code all infant formulas in conformity with the coding requirements that are applicable to thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in...

  13. 34 CFR 106.32 - Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Housing. 106.32 Section 106.32 Education Regulations of... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.32 Housing. (a) Generally... fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to housing, except as provided in...

  14. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 106.51 Section 106.51 Education Regulations... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be...

  15. The effects of primary beam filters on the analysis of rhodium and cadmium using a rhodium target x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelmo, J.A.; Boyer, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1964, the thin end-window rhodium target x-ray tube has been considered to be an excellent general purpose source of excitation. Heavy elements are efficiently excited by high Bremsstrahlung and the K lines of rhodium while the light elements are excited by the L lines of rhodium. The ability to efficiently excite both heavy and light elements is essential to special applications such as auto catalysts, which are composed of precious metals in a clay-like matrix. Close control of the light elements, including sodium, phosphorous, aluminum and silicon, and the heavy element precious metals, such as rhodium, are necessary to keep operating characteristics and manufacturing expense at desired levels. A quick survey of typical x-ray tube targets shows that some targets are more efficient for light elements while others are more efficient for heavy elements. The few general purpose x-ray tubes that are available have characteristic lines which overlap on elements to be determined. The rhodium target, which is a good excitation source for most of the elements mentioned, contains line overlaps on cadmium (RHKB) and rhodium (RHKA). When using a sequential wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometer, the characteristic lines of the tube scattered from the sample can be removed by a programmable primary beam filter having an absorption edge just higher in wavelength than the wavelengths to be removed. The thickness and composition of the filter, as well as the choice of KV and MA, will determine the operating parameter necessary to achieve the optimum precision and lowest limits of detection. For this study, synthetic samples are made up using Kaolin as the matrix

  16. Liquid scintillation counting analysis of cadmium-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.K.; Barfuss, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently the authors have used radiolabled cadmium-109 to measure the transport of inorganic cadmium in renal proximal tubules. An anomaly discovered in the liquid scintillation counting analysis of Cd-109 which is not attributable to normal decay; it consists of a significant decrease in the measured count rate of small amounts of sample. The objective is to determine whether the buffer solution used in the membrane transport studies is causing precipitation of the cadmium or whether cadmium is being adsorbed by the glass. It was important to determine whether the procedure could be modified to correct this problem. The problem does not appear to be related to the use of the buffer or to adsorption of Cd onto glass. Correction based on using triated L-glucose in all of these experiments and calculating a correction factor for the concentration of cadmium

  17. Effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the toxicokinetics of cadmium chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B

    1989-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) efficiently alleviates the acute toxicity of injected cadmium chloride, but enhances the acute toxicity of orally administered cadmium chloride. Further, DDC induces extensive changes in organ distribution of cadmium, and mobilizes aged cadmium depots. The present study...... investigates effects of DDC on the toxicokinetics of cadmium at lower doses of cadmium than those used in previous studies. During single exposure to subtoxic oral doses of cadmium chloride DDC enhanced intestinal cadmium absorption, both after intraperitoneal and oral administration of DDC. In such acute...... exposure experiments orally administered DDC only slightly changed the relative organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, while intraperitoneal administration of DDC induced extensive changes in organ preference of absorbed cadmium. The relative hepatic and testicular deposition was reduced, while...

  18. Cadmium affects the social behaviour of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloman, Katherine A.; Scott, Graham R.; Diao Zhongyu; Rouleau, Claude; Wood, Chris M.; McDonald, D. Gord

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated both the effects of cadmium on the social interactions of rainbow trout and the differential accumulation of waterborne cadmium among social ranks of fish. Fish exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations of 2 μg l -1 for 24 h, followed by a 1, 2 or 3 day depuration period in clean water, had a decreased ability to compete with non-exposed fish. However, the competitive ability of exposed fish given a 5 day depuration period was not significantly impaired. Cadmium accumulated in the olfactory apparatus of fish exposed to waterborne cadmium for 24 h and decreased significantly only after 5 days depuration in clean water. Among groups of ten fish held in stream tanks, where all fish were exposed to cadmium, there were significant effects on social behaviour and growth rate. Dominance hierarchies formed faster among fish exposed to cadmium than among control fish, and overall growth rates were higher in the cadmium treatment. In groups of ten fish, social status also affected tissue accumulation of cadmium during waterborne exposure, with dominant fish accumulating more cadmium at the gill. In conclusion, exposure to low levels of cadmium, affects the social behaviour of fish, in part due to accumulation in the olfactory apparatus, and dominant fish accumulate more gill cadmium than subordinates during chronic waterborne exposure

  19. Metabolism and dosimetry of 106Ru inhaled as 106RuO4 by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides metabolism and dosimetry data for inhaled ruthenium developed from studies in Beagle dogs that were exposed by inhalation to 106 RuO 4 . Twenty-six dogs were exposed nose-only to 106 RuO 4 and sacrificed at times from 2 hr to 512 days after inhalation exposure. Ninety-nine percent of the initial body burden was retained with an effective half-time of 1.2 days, 0.7% with a half-time of 14 days and 0.3% with a half-time of 170 days. Initial deposition was primarily in the nasopharyngeal and tracheobronchial regions. Results for deposition and retention of 106 Ru inhaled as 106 RuO 4 in dogs were similar to what has been observed for humans. The data for dogs were used to develop a model to predict potential radiation exposure patterns for humans after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 . The model indicates that for humans the nasopharyngeal region, lower large intestine, and tracheobronchial epithelium would receive approx. 36, 13 and 10 times, respectively, the dose to 500 days after inhalation exposure to 106 RuO 4 that the lung would receive. The nasopharyngeal region should be considered the critical region for inhalation exposures to 106 RuO 4 . (author)

  20. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  2. Cadmium induces carcinogenesis in BEAS-2B cells through ROS-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, J. Andrew; Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biosciences (BK21 program), Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    -dependent signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cadmium carcinogenesis.

  3. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  4. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  5. Effect of pregnancy on cadmium-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizama, Y. (Akita Univ. School of Medicine, Japan); Nakamura, I.; Kurayama, R.; Hirasawa, F.; Kawai, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that itai-itai disease with the osteopathy is broken out among multiparas, 40 years of age and up Japanese residents. In this paper we described an experimental study of effect of pregnancy on cadmium treated rats. Female mature rats were administered drinking water containing 50 and 200 ppm cadmium as CdCl/sub 2/. During 180 days of the experiment, three times of pregnancy were succesful, though slight depression of body weight gain was noticed in the 200 ppm group. The cadmium was accumulated in the kidneys, liver and bone proportionally to the amount of cadmium administered. No significant change was recognized in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels after 180 days. Though cadmium 200 ppm treated rats showed slight histological lesions in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney, there appeared to be no osteomalacia including excess formation of osteoid tissue.

  6. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the accumulation of cadmium and metallothionein in selected tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waalkes, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of continuous dietary zinc deficiency on the metabolism of the toxic heavy metal cadmium has not been widely studied. This investigation was designed to assess the effects of subadequate dietary zinc intake on the accumulation of dietary cadmium and on metallothionein (MT) and zinc concentrations in target organs of cadmium toxicity. Adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allowed, ad libitum, diets either adequate (60 ppm) or deficient (7 ppm) in zinc for a total of 9 wk. The zinc-deficient diet resulted in an approximately 40% reduction in plasma zinc (assessed at 3, 6, and 9 wk) in the absence of overt signs of zinc deficiency (i.e., reduced weight gain, alopecia, etc.). Separate groups of rats were also maintained on zinc-defined diets for a total of 9 wk, but cadmium was added to the diet (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) a the end of wk 3 and maintained at that level throughout the remaining 6 wk of the study, when the rats were killed. The feeding of the zinc-deficient diet markedly enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the liver, kidney, and testes. Hepatic, renal, and testicular zinc concentrations were not affected by suboptimal zinc intake alone. However, marked reductions in renal and testicular zinc concentrations were caused by zinc deficiency in concert with cadmium exposure. MT levels, when related to tissue cadmium concentrations, were elevated to a significantly lesser extent in the kidneys of zinc-deficient animals. These results indicate that marginal zinc deficiency markedly increases cadmium accumulation in various organs and reduces zinc content and MT induction in some organs.

  7. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S

    2003-03-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC{sub 50} values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12{+-}0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}H{sub 2}O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas.

  8. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Hansen, Jens C.; Riget, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 μg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 μg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 μg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low

  9. Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: poj@dmu.dk; Mulvad, Gert [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Primary Health Care Center, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, University of Aarhus, Universitetsparken, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Riget, Frank [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 {mu}g/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 {mu}g/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 {mu}g/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.

  10. Coprecipitation of cadmium with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu; Kumagai, Tetsu; Shigematsu, Tsunenobu; Matsui, Masakazu

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of cadmium between precipitates of calcite and saturated aqueous solution was measured at 25 0 C to understand the distribution of cadmium in the bivalves. Calcite was precipitated from calcium bicarbonate solution by the gradual release of carbon dioxide. The cadmium ions were coprecipitated in calcite, obeying the logarithmic distribution law. The apparent distribution coefficient was decreased as α, α'-dipyridyl increased, but the true distribution coefficient was found to be an almost constant value, 560. This value is fairly close to the ratio of solubility product constants K sub(calcite)/K sub(CdCO 3 ), 890. This suggests that the deviation of the present solid solution from ideality is not very large. (auth.)

  11. Chlorination leaching of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lach, E.; Pajak, I.; Bojanowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the investigations on chlorination leaching of cadmium from dust coming from dry dust collector of sinter belt, that is leaching with water saturated with gaseous chlorine and leaching with solutions of ammonium chloride and sodium chloride were given. The optimum conditions for these processes were established. It was found, that the method of leaching in the presence of gaseous chlorine is more effective, as it allows to report into the solution over 90% cadmium contained in dust. Owing to technical difficulties, environmental protection and safety conditions more advantageous seems to be the use as leaching agent of the ammonium chloride solutions. When applying 20% NH 4 Cl and temperature of 60 0 C, the time of 2 hours and the ratio of solid to liquid of 1:5, 70% cadmium contained in the dust can be reported into the solution. (auth.)

  12. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes at room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide (CdE, E=S, Se, Te) polycrystalline nanotubes have been synthesized from precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex at room temperature. The precursor was hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cadmium acetate as starting materials. The transformation from the rod-like precursor of CdS/cadmium thiolate complex to CdS, CdSe and CdTe nanotubes were performed under constant stirring at room temperature in aqueous solution containing S 2-, Se 2- and Te 2-, respectively. The nanotube diameter can be controlled from 150 to 400 nm related to the dimension of templates. The XRD patterns show the cadmium chalcogenide nanotubes all corresponding to face-centered cubic structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen [Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng Shukhan [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis.

  15. Cadmium inhibits neurogenesis in zebrafish embryonic brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Elly Suk Hen; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Lin Chunchi; Cheng Shukhan

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal found abundantly in the environment. Children of women exposed to cadmium during pregnancy display lower motor and perceptual abilities. High cadmium body burden in children is also related to impaired intelligence and lowered school achievement. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of developmental neurotoxicity in the sensitive early life stages of animals. In this study, we explore neurological deficits caused by cadmium during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by examining regionalization of the neural tube, pattern formation and cell fate determination, commitment of proneural genes and induction of neurogenesis. We show that cadmium-treated embryos developed a smaller head with unclear boundaries between the brain subdivisions, particularly in the mid-hindbrain region. Embryos display normal anterior to posterior regionalization; however, the commitment of neural progenitor cells was affected by cadmium. We observe prominent reductions in the expression of several proneuronal genes including ngn1 in cell clusters, zash1a in the developing optic tectum, and zash1b in the telencephalon and tectum. Cadmium-treated embryos also have fewer differentiated neurons and glia in the facial sensory ganglia as indicated by decreased zn-12 expression. Also, a lower transcription level of neurogenic genes, ngn1 and neuroD, is observed in neurons. Our data suggest that cadmium-induced neurotoxicity can be caused by impaired neurogenesis, resulting in markedly reduced neuronal differentiation and axonogenesis

  16. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  17. 48 CFR 45.106 - Transferring accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transferring accountability. 45.106 Section 45.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 45.106 Transferring accountability. Government property...

  18. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  19. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrig, Charles W., E-mail: Charles.solbrig@inl.gov [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States); Pope, Chad L. [Batelle Energy Alliance, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 2528, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement.

  20. Cadmium release from a reprocessing electrorefiner falling over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model an accident in a nuclear fuel processing facility caused by an earthquake. ► The earthquake causes the argon cell to breach and the electrorefiner to tip over. ► Cadmium is spilled and a cathode falls on the cadmium and starts to burn. ► Cadmium can be transported to people in the building, the site, and the public. ► The results show negligible doses to all persons except in one low probability case. -- Abstract: The possible biological consequences of a release of cadmium due to a design basis earthquake in the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory's nuclear fuel reprocessing cell are evaluated. The facility is designed to withstand the design basis earthquake except for some non-seismically qualified feedthroughs. The earthquake is hypothesized to breach these feedthroughs (allowing air into the argon atmosphere processing cell) and cause the MK-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the cell to tip over or split and spill its contents of fission product laden salt and cadmium. In addition, the uranium dendrite product cathode is assumed to fall on the cadmium and burn. The heat from the burning cathode results in release of cadmium vapor into the cell atmosphere. Ingestion and inhalation of a sufficient concentration of cadmium for a critical time period can cause irreversible health effects or death. The release of the small quantity of fission products, analyzed elsewhere, results in negligible doses. Analysis reported here shows there is no danger to the general public by the cadmium release or to on-site workers except in one low probability case. This one case requires a fivefold failure where the safety exhaust system fails just after the 4% oxygen concentration combustion limit in the cell is reached. Failure of the SES allows oscillatory inflow and outflow (and hence cadmium outflow) from the cell due to gravity. The dose to a worker in the basement exceeds the mortality limit in this one event if the worker does not leave the basement

  1. 48 CFR 570.106 - Publicizing/Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicizing/Advertising. 570.106 Section 570.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.106 Publicizing/Advertising...

  2. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  3. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  4. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  5. Lead and cadmium content of spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielig, H J; Dreyer, H; Askar, A

    1977-02-02

    The lead and cadmium content of various spices was determined by flameless atomic absorption (AAS). With the exception of one sample, the lead content was lower than 5 ppm, averaging a value of 2,2 ppm Pb. Thus, the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm Pb as recommended by different DIN standards, is not exceeded. The cadmium content was - except for one sample - lower than 0,5 ppm averaging a value of 0,23 ppm Cd. It can be assumed, that by spicing our dishes, the ingestion of lead and cadmium stays at a low level.

  6. Cadmium decontamination using in-house resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sangita; Thalor, K.L; Prabhakar, S.; Srivastava, V.K.; Goswami, J.L.; Tewari, P.K.; Dhanpal, Pranav; Goswami, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A selective and strong in-house chelator has been studied w.r.t. basic parameters like concentration, time, and elution. De-contamination of cadmium, mercury, chromium, lead etc by using high uptake values fro cadmium ions proves its selectivity with high elution ratio ensures further decontamination of run-off water during natural calamities. In three step cascade use the concentration of original cadmium solution (500 ppm) decocted to safe disposable attribute. This polymeric ligand exchanger displayed outlet effluent concentration to 1 ppm and less than 200 ppb when treated for inlet feed concentration of 50 ppm and 500 ppm respectively. (author)

  7. New process to discharge negative cadmium electrodes for Ni/Cd batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiker, B.; Vignaud, R.

    1984-01-01

    The new process relates to the chemical oxidation (whether partial or total) of cadmium metal negative electrodes, as used in alkaline nickel-cadmium or silver-cadmium batteries. This process concerns all cadmium electrodes but more particularly the electrodeposited cadmium electrode developed by the company LES PILES WONDER and described in this publication

  8. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... concentrations alleviated the toxic effect of cadmium on the growth and water status of lettuce plants. The three lettuce varieties ... electroplating, in batteries, in electrical conductors, in the manufacture of alloys ..... Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Third edition, Salt Lake City, UT: Acad. Press. Österås ...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.

  10. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  11. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  12. Cadmium chronic administration to lactating ewes. Reproductive performance, cadmium tissue accumulation and placental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floris, B.; Bomboi, G.; Sechi, P.; Marongiu, M. L. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale; Pirino, S. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Ist. di Patologia Generale, Anatomia Patologica e Clinica Ostetrico-chirurgica Veterinaria

    2000-12-01

    20 lactating ewes were allotted to two groups: 10 subjects received orally 100 mg/day of CdCl{sub 2} for 108 consecutive days, and the remaining 10 acted as control. Reproductive performance in ewes and cadmium tissue accumulation, both in ewes and their lambs, were investigated. The results showed that in ewes: 1) the regular cadmium intestinal intake negatively influences all reproductive parameters; 2) cadmium is particularly accumulated in kidney and liver, bur also in mammary gland, although at distinctly lower level; 3) chronic administration does not increase cadmium placental transfer in lactating pregnant subjects. [Italian] 20 pecore in lattazione sono state suddivise in 2 gruppi: 10 soggetti ricevettero per os 100 mg/giorno di CdCl{sub 2} per 108 giorni consecutivi, e i restanti 10 funsero da controllo. Sono stati studiati i parametri riproduttivi delle pecore e l'accumulo di cadmio nei tessuti, sia delle pecore che dei loro agnelli. I risultati hanno mostrato che negli ovini: 1) il regolare assorbimento intestinale di cadmio influenza negativamente tutti i parametri riproduttivi; 2) il cadmio viene accumulato principalmente nei reni e nel fegato, ma anche dalla ghiandola mammaria, sebbene in misura nettamente inferiore; 3) la somministrazione cronica di cadmio nei soggetti gravidi non incrementa il suo passaggio transplacentare.

  13. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive accidents...

  14. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  15. Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zhou; Yong-hui Lu; Hui-feng Pi; Peng Gao; Min Li; Lei Zhang; Li-ping Pei; Xiang Mei; Lin Liu; Qi Zhao; Qi-Zhong Qin; Yu Chen; Yue-ming Jiang; Zhao-hui Zhang; Zheng-ping Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the preva...

  16. Electrotransport of Uranium from a Liquid Cadmium Anode to a Solid Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.

    2002-01-01

    During anodic dissolution of irradiated binary Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a portion of the electrorefined uranium collects in the underlying cadmium pool. It is periodically recovered by setting up a cell configuration in which the pool is made the anode and uranium is electrodeposited on a solid cathode mandrel. A theoretical model is used to determine the current structure of the liquid cadmium anode. The model is validated by comparing against the measured composition of the cathode deposits. Multinodal simulations are conducted to explain the bell shape of deposits observed with this mode of electrotransport. The simulations also determine the dependence of collection efficiency on the electrical charge passed that is functionally consistent with the experimental data. Finally, a simplified operating map of the electrorefiner is presented that can be used to determine the conditions for growing cathode deposits of target composition

  17. Stabilization of cadmium electrode properties when introducing surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, M.E.; Mansurov, F.Kh.; Nikol'skij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The results of tests of both separate cadmium electrodes and silver-cadmium accumulators, depending on introduction of surfactants (polyethylene oxide - PO - and its derivatives), have been considered. The influence of PO on the course of electrochemical reaction on cadmium is pronounced in facilitation of anodic process. In case of PO introduction in the amount of 1 % instead of sodium lignosulfonate (2 %) into accumulators with silver-cadmium electrodes, the electrode potential is stabilized, while the accumulator capacity increases. The time period of the accumulation maintenance in the charged state increases 2-3 fold (1-1,5 years). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Cadmium exposure and health risks: Recent findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G. [Huddinge Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Renal Medicine; Jaerup, L. [Stockholm City Council (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Health

    1996-08-01

    Environmental and/or occupational exposure to cadmium give rise to a tubular kidney dysfunction which may proceed to more generalized renal damage and bone disease if exposure has been high and prolonged. Recent scientific work shows that early renal effects develop at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Previous risk assessments for cadmium were mainly based on studies on healthy male workers. The general population, however, also include particularly susceptible groups such as elderly and individuals with illnesses (e.g. diabetes) that may predispose to cadmium-induced health effects. A significant proportion of the general population displays early signs of toxicity already at urinary cadmium concentrations around 3 nmol mmol{sup -1} creatinine. In addition to early tubular effects, cadmium may exert direct or indirect effects on mineral metabolism and the mineralization of the skeleton at relatively low levels of exposure. This may have important health implications, as poor and easily fractured bone is a major problem among the elderly in all industrialized countries. 41 refs, 4 figs

  19. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  20. Polarographic studies on the nature of cadmium in scallop, oyster, and lobster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C L; Uthe, J F; Zook, E G

    1978-04-01

    Free and bound forms of cadmium were determined in raw shellfish by use of differential pulse polarography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Free cadmium is defined by its polarographic peak potential of -0.62 +- 0.02 V (saturated calomel electrode) in solvent washed ammonium sulfate extracts. Bound cadmium was determined by subtracting the free cadmium from the total cadmium present in the meat. Both scallop (various species) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) muscle tissues contain no free cadmium. Oyster (various species), on the other hand, had a considerable percentage (approximately 50%) of its total cadmium present as free cadmium, a phenomena as yet unexplained. The detection limit for free cadmium is approximately 0.05 ..mu..g/g raw tissue.

  1. 41 CFR 105-1.106 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 105-1.106 Section 105-1.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.106 Applicability...

  2. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos

  3. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  4. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  5. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  6. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  7. A study on complex formation of cadmium(II) ions, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro

    1984-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of the solution containing a cadmium(II) ion and an amino acid, white precipitates often appear in the test solution, and they disturb the emf measurements. Such precipitates were formes in the solutions, pH ranging 7.5--8.5, during the course of titrations of the test solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and amino acid such as glycine, α-alanine. 2-aminobutanoic acid, 3-aminobutanoic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, 2-aminopentanoic acid, 5-aminopentanoic acid, 2-aminohexanoic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, or glutamine. The identification of the precipitates obtained from the solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, or 6-aminohexanoic acid were carried out by both of elemental analysis and the infrared spectroscopy. These results indicated that the precipitate obtained from the solution containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid was 1:1 cadmium(II)-L-aspartic acid complex and did not contain any cadmium(II) hydroxide, and other two precipitates were mostly cadmium(II) hydroxide and contained a little cadmium(II)-amino acid complexes. (author)

  8. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH,

  9. 5 CFR 960.106 - OPM leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM leadership. 960.106 Section 960.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EXECUTIVE BOARDS § 960.106 OPM leadership. (a) Role of the Director. The Director is responsible to the...

  10. Effect of cadmium on electron and energy transfer reactions in corn mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R J; Bittell, J E; Koeppe, D E

    1973-01-01

    The effects of cadmium on isolated corn shoot mitochondria were determined. In the absence of phosphate cadmium stimulated the oxidation of exogenous NADH optimally at 0.025 mM, but was inhibitory at 0.1 mM and above. The presence of phosphate negated the cadmium stimulation of exogenous NADH oxidation and permitted inhibitions only at higher cadmium concentrations. Succinate or malate + pyruvate oxidation in the absence of phosphate was inhibited to a greater extent by cadmium than when phosphate was present. ADP/O and respiratory control ratios were reduced by cadmium but generally were less sensitive to cadmium than state 4 or minus phosphate respiration. The data suggest that the site of cadmium effect is likely to be early in electron transport. Cadmium had a pronounced effect on mitochondrial swelling under either passive or active conditions. When succinate or exogenous NADH were being oxidized swelling occurred at 0.05 mM cadmium, but with malate + pyruvate the cadmium concentration had to exceed 1.0 mM. Phosphate (2 mM) prevented the swelling. Dithiothreitol, a SH group protector, prevented any effect of cadmium on swelling or respiration which suggests that sulfhydryl groups are likely involved in the cadmium-membrane interaction.

  11. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual complaints. 1614.106 Section 1614.106 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106 Individual... individual and the agency and to describe generally the action(s) or practice(s) that form the basis of the...

  12. 7 CFR 3550.106 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.106 Section 3550.106... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.106 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one... § 3550.63. (b) Post-repair condition. Dwellings repaired with section 504 funds need not be brought to...

  13. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  14. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  15. Cadmium and zinc accumulation in soybean: A threat to food safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shute, Tracy; Macfie, Sheila M.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to quantify cadmium and zinc accumulated by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) when the metals were supplied separately and together. The highest dose of cadmium (100 mg/kg) reduced plant height and dry weight (down to 40% and 34% of control, respectively); the highest dose of zinc (2000 mg/kg) reduced plant height to 55% of control and dry weight to 70% of control. With both metals present, the plants were approximately the same size as those treated with cadmium only. The concentration of cadmium in the roots was unaffected by zinc. In other tissues, the effect of zinc on the accumulation of cadmium depended on the doses provided. At low doses, the addition of zinc reduced the concentration of cadmium in aboveground tissues to 40-50% of that found in plants exposed to cadmium only. However, when applied in high doses, the presence of zinc in cadmium-contaminated soils increased the uptake and accumulation of cadmium in aboveground tissues by up to 42%. In contrast, at high doses, the presence of cadmium in zinc-contaminated soil resulted in approximately 35% lower concentrations of zinc in all tissues. At a lower dose, cadmium had no effect on concentration of zinc in the plant tissues. The effects of high doses of one metal on the uptake of the other metal can be partially explained by the effects of one metal on the bioavailability of the other metal. In soils to which only one metal was added, bioavailable cadmium was 70-80% of the total cadmium, and bioavailable zinc was 50-70% of the total zinc. When both metals were added to the soil, 80-100% of the cadmium and 46-60% of the zinc were bioavailable. Concentrations of both metals were highest in root tissues (10-fold higher for cadmium, and up to 2-fold higher for zinc). Although relatively little cadmium was translocated to pods and seeds, the seeds of all plants (including those from control and zinc-treated plants) had concentrations of cadmium 3-4 times above the limit of 0

  16. Mutagenic effect of cadmium on tetranucleotide repeats in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slebos, Robbert J.C. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: r.slebos@vanderbilt.edu; Li Ming [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Evjen, Amy N. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Coffa, Jordy [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Yarbrough, Wendell G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium is a human carcinogen that affects cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair processes that are all important to carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that cadmium inhibits DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in yeast cells and in human cell-free extracts (H.W. Jin, A.B. Clark, R.J.C. Slebos, H. Al-Refai, J.A. Taylor, T.A. Kunkel, M.A. Resnick, D.A. Gordenin, Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair, Nat. Genet. 34 (3) (2003) 326-329), but cadmium also inhibits DNA excision repair. For this study, we selected a panel of three hypermutable tetranucleotide markers (MycL1, D7S1482 and DXS981) and studied their suitability as readout for the mutagenic effects of cadmium. We used a clonal derivative of the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 to assess mutation levels in microsatellites after cadmium and/or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) exposure to study effects of cadmium in the presence or absence of base damage. Mutations were measured in clonally expanded cells obtained by limiting dilution after exposure to zero dose, 0.5 {mu}M cadmium, 5 nM MNNG or a combination of 0.5 {mu}M cadmium and 5 nM MNNG. Exposure of HT1080-C1 to cadmium led to statistically significant increases in microsatellite mutations, either with or without concurrent exposure to MNNG. A majority of the observed mutant molecules involved 4-nucleotide shifts consistent with DNA slippage mutations that are normally repaired by MMR. These results provide evidence for the mutagenic effects of low, environmentally relevant levels of cadmium in intact human cells and suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is involved.

  17. 34 CFR 106.33 - Comparable facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Comparable facilities. 106.33 Section 106.33 Education... Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.33 Comparable facilities. A recipient may provide separate toilet, locker room, and shower facilities on the basis of sex, but...

  18. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross macroscopic and...

  19. 19 CFR 152.106 - Computed value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed value. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed value. (a) Elements. The computed value of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or value of the...

  20. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Programmers Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    szDataItem. Specific parsers are called for specific attribute types, indicated by the first letter of the code name. After all TMATS attributes are...EnI106Status I106_CALL_DECL enI106Ch10Close(int iHandle) { // If handles have been init’ed then bail if

  1. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  2. Cadmium elemination from phosphoric acid by ionic flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    The ion flotation process for the recovery of cadmium from wet phosphoric acid (30%P2O5) has been studied. This technique combines a chemical recation between the collector and the cadmium to form a precipitate (sublate) which is carried to the surface of the solution by air bubbles. the resulting foam containing the cadmium may then separated from solution. The influence of parameters such as collector and cadmium concentration as well as iron content have been investigated for the case a synthetic acid (30% P2O5). The result have been applied to the industrial phosphoric acid produced from Djebel Onk's phosphates (Algeria)

  3. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates miR-106b-5p to Control Cathepsin S Expression Resulting in Higher Pathogen Survival and Poor T-Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of tuberculosis (TB bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, relies on the ability to survive in host cells and escape to immune surveillance and activation. We recently demonstrated that Mtb manipulation of host lysosomal cathepsins in macrophages leads to decreased enzymatic activity and pathogen survival. In addition, while searching for microRNAs (miRNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation during mycobacteria infection of human macrophages, we found that selected miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p were specifically upregulated by pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we show that miR-106b-5p is actively manipulated by Mtb to ensure its survival in macrophages. Using an in silico prediction approach, we identified miR-106b-5p with a potential binding to the 3′-untranslated region of cathepsin S (CtsS mRNA. We demonstrated by luminescence-based methods that miR-106b-5p indeed targets CTSS mRNA resulting in protein translation silencing. Moreover, miR-106b-5p gain-of-function experiments lead to a decreased CtsS expression favoring Mtb intracellular survival. By contrast, miR-106b-5p loss-of-function in infected cells was concomitant with increased CtsS expression, with significant intracellular killing of Mtb and T-cell activation. Modulation of miR-106b-5p did not impact necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy arguing that miR-106b-5p directly targeted CtsS expression as a way for Mtb to avoid exposure to degradative enzymes in the endocytic pathway. Altogether, our data suggest that manipulation of miR-106b-5p as a potential target for host-directed therapy for Mtb infection.

  5. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  6. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  7. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  8. 12 CFR 347.106 - Going concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Going concerns. 347.106 Section 347.106 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.106 Going concerns. Going concerns. If a bank acquires an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a going concern, no more than 5 percent of either the consolidated assets or...

  9. Bioremoval of cadmium by lemna minor in different aquatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal, Yagmur [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Taner, Fadime [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the cadmium removal efficiency of Lemna minor when it was used for treatment of wastewater having different characteristics, i. e., pH, temperature and cadmium concentration. Plants were cultivated in different pH solutions (4.5-8.0) and temperatures (15-35 C) in the presence of cadmium (0.1-10.0 mg/L) for 168 h. The amount of biomass obtained in the study period, the concentrations of cadmium in the tissues and in the media and net uptake of cadmium by Lemna have been determined for each condition. The percentages of cadmium uptake (PMU) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were also calculated. The highest accumulation was obtained for the highest cadmium concentration of 10.0 mg Cd/L as 11.668 mg Cd/g at pH 6.0, and as 38.650 mg Cd/g at 35 C and pH 5.0. The cadmium accumulation gradually increased with initial concentration of the medium, but the opposite trend was observed for the PMU. However, the maximum PMU was obtained as 52.2% in the solution with the lowest concentration of 0.1 mg Cd/L. A mathematical model was used to describe the cadmium uptake and the equation obtained was seen to fit the experimental data very well. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β 2 -microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β 2 -microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β 2 -microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  11. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  12. Ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for a sensitive determination of cadmium in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengqing; Cai Shun; Hu Wei; Chen Hao; Liu Hanlan

    2009-01-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of cadmium in water samples using ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based USA-DLLME) followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The IL-based USA-DLLME procedure is free of volatile organic solvents, and there is no need for a dispersive solvent, in contrast to conventional DLLME. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6 ), was quickly disrupted by an ultrasonic probe for 1 min and dispersed in water samples like a cloud. At this stage, a hydrophobic cadmium-DDTC complex was formed and extracted into the fine droplets of HMIMPF 6 . After centrifugation, the concentration of the enriched cadmium in the sedimented phase was determined by ETAAS. Some effective parameters of the complex formation and microextraction, such as the concentration of the chelating agent, the pH, the volume of the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the salt effect, have been optimized. Under optimal conditions, a high extraction efficiency and selectivity were reached for the extraction of 1.0 ng of cadmium in 10.0 mL of water solution employing 73 μL of HMIMPF 6 as the extraction solvent. The enrichment factor of the method is 67. The detection limit was 7.4 ng L - 1 , and the characteristic mass (m 0 , 0.0044 absorbance) of the proposed method was 0.02 pg for cadmium (Cd). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 replicates of 50 ng L - 1 Cd was 3.3%. The method was applied to the analysis of tap, well, river, and lake water samples and the Environmental Water Reference Material GSBZ 50009-88 (200921). The recoveries of spiked samples were in the range of 87.2-106%.

  13. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  14. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  15. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Yungang; Liu, Yufei; Liang, Boheng; Zhou, Hongwei; Li, Yingyue; Zhang, Yuhua; Huang, Jie; Yu, Chao; Chen, Kuncai

    2018-03-20

    Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile) cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4) μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW), accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption) was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile) was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  16. An Assessment of Dietary Exposure to Cadmium in Residents of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents. In total, 3074 out of 4039 food samples had cadmium levels above the limit of detection. The mean ± standard deviation (50th, 95th percentile cadmium content in all samples was 159.0 ± 112.7 (8.6, 392.4 μg/kg, with levels ranging from 1.0 to 7830 μg/kg. Using the mean cadmium concentrations, the average monthly dietary exposure of Guangzhou residents to cadmium was 14.4 (μg/kg body weight (BW, accounting for 57.6% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI. Rice, laver, vegetables, and live aquatic products were the main sources of cadmium intake, on average accounting for 89% of the total value. The dietary cadmium exposure in high consumers (95th percentile food consumption was 41.0 μg/kg·BW/month, accounting for 163% of the PTMI. Additionally, dietary cadmium exposure at mean consumption but high cadmium food concentration (95th percentile was 32.3 μg/kg·BW/month, corresponding to 129% of the PTMI. The level of dietary exposure to cadmium in most Guangzhou residents was within the safety limit, thus increased health risk from dietary cadmium exposure is low at present. However, continued efforts by local governments to monitor the levels of cadmium in the four main food categories contributing to exposure are necessary.

  17. Experimental study, in rat wistar, of cadmium distribution and elimination as a function of administration route. Cadmium 109 maximum permissible concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, Marc.

    1979-01-01

    The absorption and the elimination of cadmium have been investigated in rats wistar after oral administration or after inhalation. Before studying gastro-intestinal absorption, it appeared necessary to precise acute toxicity of orally administred cadmium. The distribution of cadmium within organes was determined following a single or multiple oral doses, and we specially studied retention of a Cd dose ingested after several weeks of treatment with Cd-Acetate. Pulmonary and gastro-intestinal absorption of cadmium after ihalation of Cd-microparticles were studied. Data obtained from these studies on rats and extrapolated to man were used to calculate mximum permissible concentration (M.P.C.) of Cd-109 in water and in air [fr

  18. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, Jane A.; Shafer, Martin M.; Hampton, John M.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2007-01-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration

  19. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  20. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  1. Estimates of relative doses of {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh of spherical applicators used in ophthalmic brachytherapy; Estimativas de doses relativas de aplicadores esfericos de {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh usados em braquiterapia oftalmologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Eduardo de, E-mail: edup2112@gmail.com, E-mail: epaiva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Fisica Medica

    2016-11-01

    Spherical ophthalmic applicators containing the beta emitter {sup 106}Ru / {sup 106}Rh are much used in brachytherapy for the treatment of various eye diseases. However, there is great difficulty in dosimetry these sources because of its geometric shape, the short range of the beta particles and the large dose gradient, and because of that calculation methods of dose distributions around these sources take on a great importance. In this work an analytical / numerical method is used to estimate the dose rates for a function of depth for spherical sources containing {sup 106}Ru / {sup 106}Rh. The results of the doses on along the central axis for applicators models CXS, CCX, CCY, CCZ, CCD and CGD and CCC are compared with published values calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and measurement results.

  2. Heat transfer performance of the OPAC 106 heat exchanger; Warmte-overdrachtsprestaties van de OPAC106 warmtewisselaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zwart, H.F.; Janssen, H.J.J. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    The heat transfer performance of a new type compact heat exchanger were studied. It concerns the OPAC106, developed for the horticultural sector. The OPAC 106 combines a compact size with high heat transfer at low consumption of electricity for air circulation. OPAC stands for Oval Pipe Air Conditioner [Dutch] De warmte-overdrachtprestaties van een nieuw type compacte warmtewisselaar zijn bestudeerd. Het betreft de OPAC106, een speciaal voor de tuinbouw ontwikkelde warmtewisselaar. OPAC betekent Ovale Pijpen Air Conditioner.

  3. 0(gs)+ -->2(1)+ transition strengths in 106Sn and 108Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, A; Cederkäll, J; Fahlander, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Ames, F; Butler, P A; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Fincke, F; Görgen, A; Górska, M; Habs, D; Hurst, A M; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Marsh, B A; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Scheit, H; Schwalm, D; Siem, S; Sletten, G; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Zielińska, M

    2008-07-04

    The reduced transition probabilities, B(E2; 0(gs)+ -->2(1)+), have been measured in the radioactive isotopes (108,106)Sn using subbarrier Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Deexcitation gamma rays were detected by the highly segmented MINIBALL Ge-detector array. The results, B(E2;0(gs)+ -->2(1)+)=0.222(19)e2b2 for 108Sn and B(E2; 0(gs)+-->2(1)+)=0.195(39)e2b2 for 106Sn were determined relative to a stable 58Ni target. The resulting B(E2) values are approximately 30% larger than shell-model predictions and deviate from the generalized seniority model. This experimental result may point towards a weakening of the N=Z=50 shell closure.

  4. Cadmium and children: Exposure and health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hond, E. Den; Zuurbier, M.; Naginiene, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Stilianakis, N.; Ronchetti, R.; Koppe, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium exposure and accumulation in the body start at young age. Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis

  5. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation...

  6. Effect of cadmium on lung lysosomal enzymes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.N.; Hollinger, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labilization of lysosomal enzymes is often associated with the general process of inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of the pneumotoxin cadmium on the release and activity of two lung lysosomal enzymes. Incubation of rat lung lysosomes with cadmium resulted in the release of β-glucuronidase but not acid phosphatase. The failure to ''release'' acid phosphatase appears to be the result of a direct inhibitory effect of cadmium on this enzyme. The K I for cadmium was determined to be 26.3 μM. The differential effect of cadmium on these two lysosomal enzymes suggests that caution should be exercised in selecting the appropriate enzyme marker for assessing lysosomal fragility in the presence of this toxicant. Furthermore, the differential basal release rate of the two enzymes from lung lysosomes may reflect the cellular heterogeneity of the lung. (orig.)

  7. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. ► Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. ► Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. ► Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-κB dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  8. 34 CFR 106.53 - Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recruitment. 106.53 Section 106.53 Education... Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been found to be presently...

  9. 13 CFR 106.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legal consideration. (i) Non-Fee Based SBA-Sponsored Activity Record (Non-Fee Based Record) means a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 106.101 Section 106.101 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION COSPONSORSHIPS, FEE AND NON-FEE BASED...

  10. An assessment of the effects of a cadmium discharge ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, J.H.; Schultz, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem facing the MMSD was high levels of cadmium in Milorganite fertilizer. The cause was determined to be discharges from industry, primarily electroplaters. The solution was the cooperative development of an ordinance to limit the discharge of cadmium. Because the dischargers acted responsibly to comply with the ordinance, the ordinance succeeded in achieving its objective of significantly reducing the cadmium loading to the municipal sewerage system and subsequently reducing the cadmium concentration in Milorganite fertilizer

  11. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yong; Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm 2 /h within a temperature range of 773 ∼ 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller

  12. A Study on the Fabrication of Uranium-Cadmium Alloy and its Distillation Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Kim, Si Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycle process, called pyroprocessing, has been known as a promising nuclear fuel recycling technology. Pyroprocessing technology is crucial to advanced nuclear systems due to increased nuclear proliferation resistance and economic efficiency. The basic concept of pyroprocessing is group actinide recovery, which enhances the nuclear proliferation resistance significantly. One of the key steps in pyroprocessing is 'electrowinning' which recovers group actinides with lanthanide from the spent nuclear fuels. In this study, a vertical cadmium distiller was manufactured. The evaporation rate of pure cadmium in vertical cadmium distiller varied from 12.3 to 40.8 g/cm{sup 2}/h within a temperature range of 773 {approx} 923 K and pressure below 0.01 torr. Uranium - cadmium alloy was fabricated by electrolysis using liquid cadmium cathode in a high purity argon atmosphere glove box. The distillation behavior of pure cadmium and cadmium in uranium - cadmium alloy was investigated. The distillation behavior of cadmium from this study could be used to develop an actinide recovery process from a liquid cadmium cathode in a cadmium distiller.

  13. Bioavailability of cadmium from linseed and cocoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the European population to cadmium from food is high compared with the tolerable weekly intake of 2.5 μg/kg bodyweight set by EFSA in 2009. Only few studies on the bioavailability of cadmium from different food sources has been performed but this information in very important...... for the food authorities in order to give correct advises to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of cadmium from whole linseed, crushed linseed, cocoa and cadmium chloride in rats. An experiment where 40 rats were divided into 4 groups and a control group and dosed...... be measured in the kidney compared to the calculated total intake was as follows: Control 2.0 %, Crushed linseed 0.9 %, whole linseed, 1.5 %, cocoa 0.7 % and CdCl2 4.6 %. Based on this study it could not be concluded that the bioavailability in rats form whole linseed is lower that for crushed linseed...

  14. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  15. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  16. 42 CFR 66.106 - Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards. 66.106 Section 66.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL... program leading to the degrees of doctor of medicine and doctor of philosophy. [48 FR 24880, June 3, 1983...

  17. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  18. Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

  19. Cadmium localization and quantification in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, F. J.; Ynsa, M. D.; Domínguez-Solís, J. R.; Gotor, C.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Romero, L. C.

    2002-04-01

    Remediation of metal-contaminated soils and waters poses a challenging problem due to its implications in the environment and the human health. The use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals, including Cd, from soil and aqueous streams has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The process of using plants for environmental restoration is termed phytoremediation. Cd is a particularly favourable target metal for this technology because it is readily transported and accumulated in the shoots of several plant species. This paper investigates the sites of metal localization within Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, when plants are grown in a cadmium-rich environment, by making use of nuclear microscopy techniques. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses were performed on the scanning proton microprobe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), showing that cadmium is sequestered within the trichomes on the leaf surface. Additionally, regular PIXE analyses were performed on samples prepared by an acid digestion method in order to assess the metal accumulation of such plants.

  20. Application of path analysis to urinary findings of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T; Kobayashi, E; Okubo, Y; Suwazono, Y; Kido, T; Shaikh, Z A; Nogawa, K

    2001-01-01

    In order to identify some causal relations among various urinary indices of cadmium-induced renal dysfunction, such as glucose, total protein, amino nitrogen, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m), metallothionein (MT), and cadmium (Cd), we applied path analysis method to previous epidemiological studies targeting the residents of the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. We obtained a diagram-termed path model, representing some causal relations among the above urinary indices. It shows that urinary Cd is located at the beginning point in the diagram, and Cd-induced renal dysfunction develops in the following order: Cd exposure-->increase of beta 2-m and/or MT excretion-->increase of amino-N and/or total protein excretion-->increase of glucose excretion. It was proved mathematically, that in the case of both males and females, increased excretions of beta 2-m and/or MT were the most sensitive urinary indices of the early stage of chronic Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  1. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  2. The concentration of cadmium in hepatoma among Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Goze, C.B.; Paradero, R.R.

    1977-08-01

    The concentration of cadmium in liver hepatoma and in normal liver in Filipinos was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Using NBS Bovine Liver (SRM1577) as reference material, a value of 0.28+-0.025 ug/g dry weight was obtained for cadmium which is close to the certified NBS value of 0.27+-0.04 ug/g. The mean percentage recovery for cadmium determination by AAS was 98.38%. A mean value of 2.14+-1.58 ug Cd/g liver hepatoma was observed for the 12 cases investigated, showing decreased cadmium levels in the cancerous liver compared to the mean value of 12.62 ug Cd/g observed for normal liver obtained from 10 cases of accidental deaths. The values are expressed on a dry weight basis

  3. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  4. Selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium by basic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, P P; Balog, J S [Uzhgorodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Two variants of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium with basic dyes have been developed. In the first one, cadmium is extracted as the iodide by a tributyl phosphate solution in benzene from aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M KI (pH 6-10). Then the cadmium is transformed into a coloured ion associate by treatment of the extracts with Malachite Green in the presence of iodide ions. In the second case, the extract is equilibrated with an equeous solutions of Rhodamine B in the presence of KBr. In this variant, the cadmium is transformed into an anionic iodide-bromide complex which reacts with Rhodamine B cations to form an ion associate. Procedures have been developed of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in sulphur, indium-gallium and zinc concentrates, Zn-As-Cd-Se and Zn-As-Cd-Te films, Cd-S-In and Ga-Sb-Cd-Te alloys.

  5. Dissolution ad uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Bergman, M.; Soeremark, R.

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium ( 115 Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of 115 Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver. (author)

  6. Dissolution and uptake of cadmium from dental gold solder alloy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, B; Bergman, M; Soeremark, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1977-01-01

    Pure metallic cadmium was irradiated by means of thermal neutrons. The irradiated cadmium (/sup 115/Cd) was placed in bags of gold foil and the bags were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. Two and 3 d respectively after implantation the mice were killed, the bags removed and the animals subjected to whole-body autoradiography. The autoradiograms revealed an uptake of /sup 115/Cd in liver and kidney. In another experiment specimens of a cadmium-containing dental gold solder alloy, a cadmium-free dental casting gold alloy and soldered assemblies made of these two alloys were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 6 months; cadmium analysis showed significant increases in the cadmium concentration in liver and kidney of those mice which had been given implants of gold solder alloy. The study clearly shows that due to electrochemical corrosion cadmium can be released from implants and accumulated in the kidneys and the liver.

  7. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  8. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Qureshi, Habib A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 μmol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium

  9. Long non-coding RNAs as novel expression signatures modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Liu, Haibai; Wang, Caixia; Lu, Qian; Huang, Qinhai; Zheng, Chanjiao; Lei, Yixiong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Our study was to investigate whether lncRNAs as novel expression signatures are able to modulate DNA damage and repair in cadmium(Cd) toxicity. There were aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs in 35th Cd-induced cells as compared to untreated 16HBE cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENST00000414355 inhibited the growth of DNA-damaged cells and decreased the expressions of DNA-damage related genes (ATM, ATR and ATRIP), while increased the expressions of DNA-repair related genes (DDB1, DDB2, OGG1, ERCC1, MSH2, RAD50, XRCC1 and BARD1). Cadmium increased ENST00000414355 expression in the lung of Cd-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood ENST00000414355 expression and urinary/blood Cd concentrations, and there were significant correlations of lncRNA-ENST00000414355 expression with the expressions of target genes in the lung of Cd-exposed rats and the blood of Cd exposed workers. These results indicate that some lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in Cd-treated 16HBE cells. lncRNA-ENST00000414355 may serve as a signature for DNA damage and repair related to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the cadmium toxicity and become a novel biomarker of cadmium toxicity.

  10. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  11. Curcumin regulates airway epithelial cell cytokine responses to the pollutant cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennolds, Jessica; Malireddy, Smitha; Hassan, Fatemat; Tridandapani, Susheela; Parinandi, Narasimham [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Boyaka, Prosper N. [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle, E-mail: Estelle.boyaka@osumc.edu [Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium induces secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by two distinct pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium increases NAPDH oxidase activity leading to Erk activation and IL-8 secretion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin prevents cadmium-induced secretion of both IL-6 and IL-8 by airway cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curcumin could be use to suppress lung inflammation due to cadmium inhalation. -- Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal present in the environment and its inhalation can lead to pulmonary disease such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These lung diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation. Here we show that exposure of human airway epithelial cells to cadmium promotes a polarized apical secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, two pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines known to play an important role in pulmonary inflammation. We also determined that two distinct pathways controlled secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells as cadmium-induced IL-6 secretion occurs via an NF-{kappa}B dependent pathway, whereas IL-8 secretion involves the Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the natural antioxidant curcumin could prevent both cadmium-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, curcumin could be used to prevent airway inflammation due to cadmium inhalation.

  12. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  13. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  14. 49 CFR 230.106 - Steam locomotive frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive frame. 230.106 Section 230.106... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.106 Steam locomotive frame. (a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and...

  15. 18 CFR 284.103-284.106 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 284.103-284.106 Section 284.103-284.106 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Interstate Pipelines §§ 284.103-284.106 [Reserved] ...

  16. Gravimetric determination of cadmium with o-phenanthroline and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Kazunori; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium forms insoluble mixed ligand complex with o-phenanthroline and iodide ions. By using the complex a new gravimetric method for the determination of cadmium was investigated. The recommended analytical procedure is as follows: Adjust pH value of a solution containing 5 to 45 mg cadmium to 4 with 3 M acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution. Add over threefold moles of potassium iodide to the solution and heat to just before boiling. To the solution add 0.1% ascorbic acid solution and then 0.1 M o-phenanthroline solution drop by drop in excess with stirring, and cool the mixture to room temperature. Filter the precipitates and wash first with 0.01% potassium iodide solution and then with water. Dry the precipitates at 110 0 C for two hours and weigh as Cd(o-phen) 2 I 2 (I). The gravimetric factor of the complex for cadmium is 0.1547. Chemical composition of the precipitate is variable when o-phenanthroline is added less than twofold moles to cadmium. Adding the o-phenanthroline solution 2.4-fold moles against cadmium, the ternary complex (I) precipitates quantitatively. Though a large excess of iodide ion in the solution contaminated the precipitate, the contamination was avoided when precipitation was carryed out at high temperature and in the presence of ascorbic acid. By the presented procedure 5 to 45 mg of cadmium are determined with a standard deviation of 0 C. (JPN)

  17. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  18. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kisok [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  19. Reduced cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in cultured liver cells following 5-azacytidine pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Wilson, M.J.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work indicated that administration of the pyrimidine analog 5-azacytidine (AZA), either to cells in culture or to rats, results in an enhancement of expression of the metallothionein (MT) gene. Since MT is thought to play a central role in the detoxification of cadmium, the present study was designed to assess the effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium cytotoxicity. Cultured rat liver cells in log phase of growth were first exposed to AZA (8 microM). Forty-eight hours later, cadmium was added. A modest increase in MT amounts over control was detected after AZA treatment alone. Cadmium alone resulted in a 10-fold increase in MT concentrations. The combination of AZA pretreatment followed by cadmium exposure caused a 23-fold increase in MT concentrations over control. Treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) eliminated the enhancing effect of AZA pretreatment on cadmium induction of MT, indicating that cell division is required. AZA-pretreated cells were also harvested and incubated in suspension with cadmium for 0 to 90 min. AZA-pretreated cells showed marked reductions in cadmium-induced cytotoxicity as reflected by reduced intracellular potassium loss, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase loss, and lipid peroxidation following cadmium exposure. Results suggest that AZA pretreatment induces tolerance to cadmium cytotoxicity which appears to be due to an increased capacity to synthesize MT rather than high quantities of preexisting MT at the time of cadmium exposure

  20. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  1. Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofomaja, Augustine E.; Ho, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Biosorption of cadmium ion by coconut copra meal, an agricultural waste product was investigated as a function of initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of biosorption, the equilibrium capacity, and initial biosorption rate. Cadmium biosorption by copra meal was found to be dependent on the initial solution pH and initial cadmium concentration. Ion exchange occurred in the initial biosorption period. In addition, mathematical relationships were drawn to relate the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration with equilibrium biosorption capacity, initial cadmium concentration, and equilibrium biosorption capacity

  2. Cadmium accumulation in Salix in relation to cadmium concentration in the soil; Kadmiumhalten i Salix relaterad till kadmiumhalten i jorden. Studier av olika Salixkloners foermaaga att ta upp kadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, M; Landberg, T [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    1996-05-01

    It has earlier been shown that different clones of Salix accumulate cadmium to a different degree. Moreover, the distribution of cadmium within the plant also differs between clones. If these properties are stable, there will be possibilities to chose clones for different purposes. The aim with this investigation was to find out if the differences between clones were stable and persist even though the clones were collected from different fields. Furthermore, to find out if the differences depend on the soil status and the concentration of cadmium of different soil fractions. The cadmium concentration of stems on different level within a plant and at different age of stems were analysed. The concentration in bark and wood as well as in leaves were examined to increase the knowledge of cadmium distribution within the different clones. The cadmium concentration was always higher in the leaves than in the stems. The difference between leaf content and stem content was highest in those clones which had a high transport to the shoot. The contribution of cadmium to the soil by the leaf shed will therefore be high from the high accumulating and high transporting clones. The conclusions one can draw from this investigation are that the clones possess specific properties to accumulate and transport cadmium, and these properties are independent of where the clones are collected. The differences in cadmium concentration within one clone collected from different fields is therefore to be explained by environmental conditions, other than those studied in this investigation. This work indicates that these unknown environmental factors influence the cadmium accumulation of stems more than the soil conditions and the cadmium level of the soil. It is therefore possible to chose clones with desired properties of cadmium accumulation, while the level of cadmium uptake is determined by the field conditions. 19 refs, 17 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adámik, Matej; Bažantová, Pavla; Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena; Pečinka, Petr; Holaňová, Lucie; Tichý, Vlastimil; Brázdová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed

  4. Impact of cadmium, cobalt and nickel on sequence-specific DNA binding of p63 and p73 in vitro and in cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adámik, Matej [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Bažantová, Pavla [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Navrátilová, Lucie; Polášková, Alena [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Pečinka, Petr [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 701 03 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Holaňová, Lucie [Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic); Tichý, Vlastimil [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Brázdová, Marie, E-mail: maruska@ibp.cz [Institute of Biophysics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Královopolská 135, 612 65 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Chemical Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackého 1/3, 61242 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • DNA binding of p53 family core domains is inhibited by cadmium, cobalt and nickel. • Binding to DNA protects p53 family core domains from metal induced inhibition. • Cadmium, cobalt and nickel induced inhibition was reverted by EDTA in vitro. - Abstract: Site-specific DNA recognition and binding activity belong to common attributes of all three members of tumor suppressor p53 family proteins: p53, p63 and p73. It was previously shown that heavy metals can affect p53 conformation, sequence-specific binding and suppress p53 response to DNA damage. Here we report for the first time that cadmium, nickel and cobalt, which have already been shown to disturb various DNA repair mechanisms, can also influence p63 and p73 sequence-specific DNA binding activity and transactivation of p53 family target genes. Based on results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assay, we conclude that cadmium inhibits sequence-specific binding of all three core domains to p53 consensus sequences and abolishes transactivation of several promoters (e.g. BAX and MDM2) by 50 μM concentrations. In the presence of specific DNA, all p53 family core domains were partially protected against loss of DNA binding activity due to cadmium treatment. Effective cadmium concentration to abolish DNA–protein interactions was about two times higher for p63 and p73 proteins than for p53. Furthermore, we detected partial reversibility of cadmium inhibition for all p53 family members by EDTA. DTT was able to reverse cadmium inhibition only for p53 and p73. Nickel and cobalt abolished DNA–p53 interaction at sub-millimolar concentrations while inhibition of p63 and p73 DNA binding was observed at millimolar concentrations. In summary, cadmium strongly inhibits p53, p63 and p73 DNA binding in vitro and in cells in comparison to nickel and cobalt. The role of cadmium inhibition of p53 tumor suppressor family in carcinogenesis is discussed.

  5. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  6. 7 CFR 4280.106 - Conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict of interest. 4280.106 Section 4280.106... Efficiency Improvements Program § 4280.106 Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest or appearance of conflict of interest will be allowed. For purposes of this subpart, conflict of interest includes, but is...

  7. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy, E-mail: younggy@mcmaster.ca

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Rapid removal of Cd(II) was achieved in 24 h using microbial electrolysis cells. • Cathodic reduction (electrodeposition) of Cd(II) cannot explain the rapid removal. • H{sub 2} evolution in microbial electrolysis cells increases local pH near the cathode. • High local pH induces Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation only with electric current. • Neutral pH caused by low current and depleted substrate dissolves the precipitated Cd. - Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 V; and a fixed cathode potential of −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50–67% in 24 h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation; and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H{sup +} + 2e{sup −} → H{sub 2}); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal.

  8. Cadmium, ATPase-P, yeast. From transport to toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarin, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    Two projects has been developed during my PhD. One consisting in the functional study of CadA, the Cd 2+ -ATPase from Listeria monocytogenes, the other one was focused on the toxicity of cadmium and the associated response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This two studies used a a phenotype of sensitivity to cadmium induced by CadA expression in yeast. This phenotype was used as a screening tool to identify essential amino acids of Cd transport by CadA and to study cadmium toxicity and the corresponding yeast cellular response. CadA actively transports Cd using ATP hydrolysis as energy source. Directed mutagenesis of the membranous polar, sulphur and charged amino-acids revealed that Cd transport pathway implied four transmembrane segments (Tm) and more precisely the cysteine C 354 , C 356 and proline P 355 of the CPC motif located in Tm6, aspartate D 692 in Tm8, glutamate E 164 in Tm4 and methionine M 149 in Tm5. From our studies, 2 Cd ions would be translocated for each hydrolysis ATP. Expression of CadA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces an hypersensitivity to Cd. A wild type cell can grow up to 100 μm cadmium whereas CadA expressing yeast cannot grow with 1 μm cadmium in the culture medium. This cadmium sensitivity was due to the localisation of CadA in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Transport of cadmium in this compartment produces an accumulation of mis-folded proteins that induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). As UPR also occurs in a wild type yeast exposed to low Cd concentration, one can point out endoplasmic reticulum as a extremely sensitive cellular compartment. UPR also appears as an early response to Cd as it happens far before any visible signs of toxicity. (author) [fr

  9. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase regulates cadmium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium ions have a high affinity for thiol groups. Therefore, they may disturb many cellular functions. We recently reported that cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) functions as an antioxidant enzyme to supply NADPH, a major source of reducing equivalents to the cytosol. Cadmium decreased the activity of IDPc both as a purified enzyme and in cultured cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that the knockdown of IDPc expression in HEK293 cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by cadmium. Transfection of HEK293 cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA significantly decreased the activity of IDPc and enhanced cellular susceptibility to cadmium-induced apoptosis as indicated by the morphological evidence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and condensation, cellular redox status, mitochondria redox status and function, and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that suppressing the expression of IDPc enhances cadmium-induced apoptosis of HEK293 cells by increasing disruption of the cellular redox status. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  11. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  12. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  13. 33 CFR 106.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit. 106.415 Section 106.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 106.415 Amendment and...

  14. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Malik, S. A.; Javed, M.; Qamar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  15. Slow recombination centers in cadmium selenide monocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyntyna, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of annealing when concentration of selenium Vacancies decreases due to their diffusion towards the surface, show recombination K-centers begin to influence the photoelectric properties of monocrystalline cadmium selenide layers. Energy levels of K-centers are located by 0.23-0.25 eV over the valent zone ceiling. The nature of K-centers is determined by the presence in the cadmium selenide layer structure of intrisic defects-cadmium vacancies in contrast to r-centers of slow recombination which are bound with impurities in a semiconductor material

  16. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, "omics" methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl2-treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl2. These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  17. Gene expression profiling in rat kidney after intratracheal exposure to cadmium-doped nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Manzo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    While nephrotoxicity of cadmium is well documented, very limited information exists on renal effects of exposure to cadmium-containing nanomaterials. In this work, “omics” methodologies have been used to assess the action of cadmium-containing silica nanoparticles (Cd-SiNPs) in the kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed intratracheally. Groups of animals received a single dose of Cd-SiNPs (1 mg/rat), CdCl 2 (400 μg/rat) or 0.1 ml saline (control). Renal gene expression was evaluated 7 and 30 days post exposure by DNA microarray technology using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K. Gene modulating effects were observed in kidney at both time periods after treatment with Cd-SiNPs. The number of differentially expressed genes being 139 and 153 at the post exposure days 7 and 30, respectively. Renal gene expression changes were also observed in the kidney of CdCl 2 -treated rats with a total of 253 and 70 probes modulated at 7 and 30 days, respectively. Analysis of renal gene expression profiles at day 7 indicated in both Cd-SiNP and CdCl 2 groups downregulation of several cluster genes linked to immune function, oxidative stress, and inflammation processes. Differing from day 7, the majority of cluster gene categories modified by nanoparticles in kidney 30 days after dosing were genes implicated in cell regulation and apoptosis. Modest renal gene expression changes were observed at day 30 in rats treated with CdCl 2 . These results indicate that kidney may be a susceptible target for subtle long-lasting molecular alterations produced by cadmium nanoparticles locally instilled in the lung.

  18. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Taizo; Fujimori, Akira; Kinoshita, Keiji; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by γ-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  19. mRNA expression of a cadmium-responsive gene is a sensitive biomarker of cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, Taizo, E-mail: taizo@ynu.ac.j [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Keiji [Nagoya University Avian Bioscience Research Centre, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Satoshi [Environmental Radiation Effects Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The gene expression of environmental organisms is useful as a biomarker of environmental pollution. One of its advantages is high sensitivity. We identified the cDNA of a novel cadmium-responsive gene in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida. The deduced protein, designated 'metallothionein-like motif containing protein' (MTC), was cysteine-rich and contained a metallothionein-like motif with similarity to metallothionein, but had a much longer sequence than metallothionein and contained repeated sequences of amino acids. Expression of MTC mRNA was sensitively induced by cadmium exposure at 0.3 mg/kg of dry food, a concentration at which toxic effects are not observed, but expression was not affected by gamma-ray exposure (an inducer of oxidative stress). These findings suggest that MTC is involved in cadmium-binding processes rather than in oxidative-stress responses. In conclusion, we suggest that gene expression of MTC may be a candidate biomarker for detecting low levels of cadmium contamination in soil. - The mRNA expression of a gene potentially encoding a metallothionein-like motif containing protein is sensitively induced by cadmium exposure in the soil collembolan Folsomia candida.

  20. 42 CFR 460.106 - Plan of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plan of care. 460.106 Section 460.106 Public Health... ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Services § 460.106 Plan of care. (a) Basic requirement. The interdisciplinary team must promptly develop a...

  1. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail: bill.maher@canberra.edu.au; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  2. Diazinon and Cadmium Neurotoxicity in Rats after an Experimental Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Toman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the changes in cholinesterase activity in separate doses and after coadministration of cadmium and diazinon intraperitoneally and to assess toxicity and interactions of diazinon and cadmium on the nervous system in male rats. 40 male rats were randomly divided into three experimental and one control group (10 rats in each group. Blood analyzes were performed 36 hours after an intraperitoneal administration of observed compounds. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly (P < 0.01 reduced activity of cholinesterase in all experimental groups. The enzyme activity decreased from the control value 3.69 μkat/L to 1.81 μkat/L (diazinon group, 1.83 μkat/L (cadmium group and 1.35 μkat/L (cadmium+diazinon group. These results indicate that both cadmium and diazinon are potent to manifest the neurotoxic effects. Moreover, a synergistic effect of the co-administered cadmium and diazinon in the nervous system has been observed.

  3. Study on transfer of cadmium in soil-plant systems with the isotopic dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qitang; Morel, J.L.; Guckert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transfer rate from endogenous and exogenous cadmium in soil to plants. Soils were labelled with 109 Cd and amended with soluble cadmium salt or Cd containing sewage sludge. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were grown in pots and the effective transfer of cadmium from different sources to shoot of the plant were measured. The soils were also extracted with 0.1 M CaCl 2 , DTPA and 0.1 N HCl. The results showed that the addition of soluble cadmium salt substantially increased the plant cadmium content. Plant absorbed mainly the cadmium from exogenous sources in the soils treated with cadmium. The effective transfer rate of exogenous cadmium was higher than that of endogenous ones, and the soluble salt form was 2 to 3 times higher than that in the sewage sludge. 0.1 M CaCl 2 extracted Cd was significantly correlated with the plant cadmium content. The specific radioactivity of cadmium extracted by this reagent was nearer to the plant cadmium than that extracted by others. 0.1 N HCl extracted cadmium could not be absorbed by plants

  4. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  5. Metallothionein in brook trout (Salvenlinus fontinalis) as a biological indicator of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Mehrle, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cadmium-saturation technique for quantifying metallothionein in mammalian tissues was evaluated for use in fish tissue. Metallothionein characteristically binds 7 gram-atoms of a metal such as cadmium per mole of protein so saturating MT with respect to one metal and then quantifying that metal would thus result in the indirect quantification of MT. The authors administered 3 mg 109 cadmium/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection over a 5-day period to adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to induce MT in liver and kidney tissues. Homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatant was used to quantitate cadmium in three fractions: 100,000 g supernatant, cadmium-saturated MT, and unsaturated MT. The cadmium-saturated MT method involved the following steps: saturation of MT in an aliquot of 100,000 g supernatant with excess cadmium; removal of excess cadmium by addition of 2% hemoglobin; denaturation of hemoglobin by heating at 100 0 C followed by rapid cooling on ice; centrifugation at 10,000 g; digestion of an aliquot of supernatant in concentrated nitric acid for 16 hours at 70 0 C, and quantification of cadmium by atomic absorption and graphite furnace techniques or radiometric measurement with a scintillation counter. The cadmium saturation technique was modified in two ways so the amount of cadmium bound to unsaturated MT could be measured; first, the binding sites on MT were not saturated with excess cadmium, and second, the concentration of hemoglobin added to remove free cadmium and aid in coagulating low-molecular-weight proteins was 1% instead of 2%. The method gave precise measurements of MT concentrations when aliquots of liver homogenate which were analyzed separately were quantified by atomic absorption or radiometric measurements. Two to four times more cadmium and MT concentrated in the liver of treated fish than in the kidney

  6. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries

  7. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  8. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  9. A study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm -3 LiClO 4 as a constan ionic medium at 25 0 C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log βsub(pr)= log([Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+)]/([Cd 2+ ]sup(p)[L 2- ]sup(r))), of the complexes were: log β 11 = 1.98, log β 12 = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log β 11 = 2.28, log β 12 = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log β 11 = 1.78, log β 12 = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log β 11 = 1.85, log β 12 = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes. (author)

  10. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  11. Involvement of PKA/DARPP-32/PP1α and β- arrestin/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling in Cadmium-Induced DA-D2 Receptor-Mediated Motor Dysfunctions: Protective Role of Quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Shukla, Rajendra K; Pandey, Ankita; Sharma, Tanuj; Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Srivastava, Pranay; Singh, Manjul P; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2018-02-06

    Given increasing risk of cadmium-induced neurotoxicity, the study was conducted to delineate the molecular mechanisms associated with cadmium-induced motor dysfunctions and identify targets that govern dopaminergic signaling in the brain involving in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches. Selective decrease in dopamine (DA)-D2 receptors on cadmium exposure was evident which affected the post-synaptic PKA/DARPP-32/PP1α and β-arrestin/Akt/GSK-3β signaling concurrently in rat corpus striatum and PC12 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA and Akt in vitro demonstrates that both pathways are independently modulated by DA-D2 receptors and associated with cadmium-induced motor deficits. Ultrastructural changes in the corpus striatum demonstrated neuronal degeneration and loss of synapse on cadmium exposure. Further, molecular docking provided interesting evidence that decrease in DA-D2 receptors may be due to direct binding of cadmium at the competitive site of dopamine on DA-D2 receptors. Treatment with quercetin resulted in the alleviation of cadmium-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. This is the first report demonstrating that cadmium-induced motor deficits are associated with alteration in postsynaptic dopaminergic signaling due to a decrease in DA-D2 receptors in the corpus striatum. The results further demonstrate that quercetin has the potential to alleviate cadmium-induced dopaminergic dysfunctions.

  12. A biosensor for cadmium based on bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1990-01-01

    An 'in vitro' method for monitoring cadmium, one of the most lethal bivalent heavy metals, can detect biologically active levels. The effects of cadmium tend to concentrate in protozoa far above natural levels and therein begin transferring through freshwater food chains to animals and humans. In a small sample volume (approximately 5 ml) the method uses the toxic response to the protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis, to cadmium. The assay relies on macroscopic bioconvective patterns to measure the toxic response, giving a sensitivity better than 1 micro-g/1 and a toxicity threshold to 7 micro-g/1 for Cd(2+). Cadmium hinders pattern formation in a dose-dependent manner. Arrested organism growth arises from slowed division and mutation to non-dividing classes. Unlike previous efforts, this method can be performed in a shallow flow device and does not require electronic or chemical analyses to monitor toxicity.

  13. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  14. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. Th...

  15. Study on damage of DNA in mice induced by mercury cadmium and/or lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaopan; Zhou Jianhua; Shi Xijing; Yan Liping

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the joint injury actions of mercury, cadmium and/or lead on DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. Methods: The blood specimens were obtained from mice at the 2 day after the peritoneal injections. DNA damages were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and 3 H-TdR incorporation. Results: Acquired by SCGE technique, tail movement of DNA in mercury-cadmium-lead group was significantly greater than that in the single exposure group, the difference was significant too between mercury-cadmium group and cadmium group, cadmium-lead group and cadmium group. The results of 3 H-TdR incorporation showed: the values of DPM in mercury-cadmium group and cadmium-lead group were lower than that in the single exposure group and the value of DPM lowered more significantly after exposure to mercury-cadmium-lead. Conclusion: The combined effects of mercury, cadmium, lead on DNA damage are more significant. (author)

  16. zinc, chromium, cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cadmium also causes destruction of the immune system, thus, predisposes the consumer to infectious diseases like tuberculosis (Khan et al., 2008). ... years, sputum specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by microscopy and clinical and radiographic abnormalities consistent with pulmonary tuberculosis.

  17. Search of the first excited states 0+ of 108Cd and106Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussiere, B.

    1981-01-01

    108 Cd and 106 Cd nuclei have been studied from the β + /EC decay of 108 In and 106 In using the isocele II isotope separator working on-line with the Orsay synchrocyclotron. In order to produce indium nuclei, a molten tin target is irradiated by protons (E = 200 MeV) or 3 He (E = 270 MeV). The comparison of saturation activity measured after mass separation with the one measured before mass-separation has allowed us to determine the average delay-time of indium isotopes and the overall efficiency of the separator. Single γ rays, conversion electrons rays, γ-γ-t and γ-e - -t coincidence measurements have been performed to build level schemes of 108 Cd and 106 Cd. In 108 Cd, the first excited 0 + state has been established unambiguously. This state preferably decays to the 2 2 + and not to the 2 1 + as it does in the even-even neighbouring Cd nuclei. An excited 0 + state is proposed in 106 Cd. These states could not be interpreted as headstate of collective band corresponding to a shape different from the ground state one. On the other hand, the model of G. Alaga (vibrator + two proton holes), as well as the IBA2 F. Iachello one seem to be able to describe the low-lying states properties. Finally, the feeding balance and the deduced log ft values have led us to discuss the possible values of the 108 In and 106 In isomeric state spins [fr

  18. Effect of valine 106 on structure-function relation of cytosolic human thymidine kinase - Kinetic properties and oligomerization pattern of nine substitution mutants of V106

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Berenstein, Dvora; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    Information on the regulation and structure-function relation of enzymes involved in DNA precursor synthesis is pivotal, as defects in several of these enzymes have been found to cause depletion or deletion of mitochondrial DNA resulting in severe diseases. Here, the effect of amino acid 106...... and characterized nine mutants of amino acid 106 differing in size, conformation and polarity. According to their oligomerization pattern and thymidine kinetics, the TK1 mutants can be divided into two groups. Group I (V106A, V106I and V106T) behaves like V106WT, in that pre-assay exposure to ATP induces reversible...... transition from a dimer with low catalytic activity to a tetramer with high catalytic activity. Group II (V106G, V106H, V106K, V106L and V106Q) behaves like V106M in that they are permanently high activity tetramers, irrespective of ATP exposure. We conclude that size and conformation of amino acid 106...

  19. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Michelle S.M.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A.; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  20. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliesmann, S.; Kruse, H.; Kriews, M.; Mangels, H.

    1992-08-01

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG) [de

  1. 20 CFR 726.106 - Type of security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of security. 726.106 Section 726.106... Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.106 Type of security. (a) The Office shall determine the type or types of... which the surety on any such bond is a surety company, such company must be one approved by the U.S...

  2. Modeling cadmium in the feed chain and cattle organs

    OpenAIRE

    Fels-Klerx, van der, H.J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Franz, E.; Raamsdonk, van, L.W.D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate cadmium contamination levels in different scenarios related to soil characteristics and assumptions regarding cadmium accumulation in the animal tissues, using quantitative supply chain modeling. The model takes into account soil cadmium levels, soil pH, soil-to-plant transfer, animal consumption patterns, and transfer into animal organs (liver and kidneys). The model was applied to cattle up to the age of six years which were fed roughage (maize ...

  3. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination has an adverse effect on soil productivity and crop production. Phytoremediation is a long term and environmental friendly technology to remediate Cadmium polluted areas. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Hopea adorata for remediation of soils contaminated with Cd.

  4. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  5. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  6. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  7. Separation of fission produced 106Ru from simulated high level nuclear wastes for production of brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blicharska, Magdalena; Bartoś, Barbara; Krajewski, Seweryn; Bilewicz, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    Brachytherapy is the common method for treating various tumors, and currently 106 Ru and 125 I applicators are the most frequently used. Considering that 106 Ru is a β emitter with maximum energy of 3.54 MeV, it is best indicated in the treatment of small melanomas, with up to 20 mm tissue range. 106 Ru is commercially obtained from neutron irradiated high enrichment 235 U target in process of production 99 Mo. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing the 99 Mo, therefore alternative strategies for production of this key medical isotope are explored. In our work, we propose to use liquid high-level radioactive waste as a source of high activity of 106 Ru. Simple calculations indicate that 1 dm 3 of HLLW solution after 4 years of cooling contains about 500 GBq of 106 Ru. This amount of activity is enough for production of about few thousands of brachytherapy sources. Present communication reports results of our process development studies on the recovery of ruthenium radioisotopes from simulated solution of high level radioactive waste using oxidation-extraction method

  8. Cadmium removal using Cladophora in batch, semi-batch and flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

  9. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r p = 0.70, p p = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium

  10. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.akerstrom@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous

  11. Extensive Variation in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation among Populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Tessa M.; Cory, Wendy; Rutter, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata). We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules. PMID:23667586

  12. Extensive variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation among populations of Chamaecrista fasciculata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M Henson

    Full Text Available Plant populations may vary substantially in their tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals, and assessment of this variability is important when selecting species to use in restoration or phytoremediation projects. We examined the population variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation in a leguminous pioneer species native to the eastern United States, the partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata. We assayed growth, reproduction and patterns of cadmium accumulation in six populations of C. fasciculata grown on a range of cadmium-contaminated soils. In general, C. fasciculata exhibited tolerance in low to moderate soil cadmium concentrations. Both tolerance and accumulation patterns varied across populations. C. fasciculata exhibited many characteristics of a hyperaccumulator species, with high cadmium uptake in shoots and roots. However, cadmium was excluded from extrafloral nectar. As a legume with tolerance for moderate cadmium contamination, C. fasciculata has potential for phytoremediation. However, our findings also indicate the importance of considering the effects of genetic variation on plant performance when screening plant populations for utilization in remediation and restoration activities. Also, there is potential for cadmium contamination to affect other species through contamination of leaves, fruits, flowers, pollen and root nodules.

  13. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study

  14. Analysis of the swimming velocity of cadmium-stressed Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillieul, M.; Blust, R.

    1999-01-01

    The swimming velocity of the waterflea Daphnia magna is dependent on its body size. Therefore, environmental factors like toxic stress that influence growth also influence swimming velocity. An experiment was set up to test whether exposure to cadmium would reduce only growth, with a concomitant decrease in velocity, or whether it would reduce velocity below the swimming velocity of similarly-sized control animals. Daphnids were exposed for 10 days to free cadmium ion concentrations ranging from 1x10 -8 to 1x10 -7 M Cd 2+ , and body size and swimming velocity were measured every 2 days. The results showed that cadmium decreased both growth and velocity, i.e. exposed daphnids swam slower than similarly-sized control daphnids. Swimming velocity provided no indication of successful acclimation in any cadmium treatment. Food consumption and assimilation were reduced by exposure to cadmium. This reduced food intake may have, at least partially, caused the decreased growth rates. However, since reduced food intake does not affect swimming velocity, the reduced swimming velocity must be attributed to toxic effects of cadmium, other than those on food intake. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  17. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Estelle; Richaud, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain; Bouron, Alexandre; Moulis, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 μM of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 μM of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals

  18. Study of soil pollution by cadmium in Qatina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargouth, G.; Johar, Y.; Ashkar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium are specify to form complex compounds in soils make it difficulty to be absorbed from plants, but if prevailing circumstances changeability in soil and make these elements in absorbed actionable case to the plants, direct threatening upon of polluted soil with such elements will begin, and appears on plants, animals and humans. Holding comprehensive environmental evaluation on the agricultural soil field according to the prevailing circumstances in the transplanting zone, considered as important environmental practical stage in reducing environmental cadmium problems risk. Accordingly, we look to terming and controlling environment either to manage a soil pollution problem existed, or prophecy with circumstances lowers upon cadmium concentrations in the environment system (soil-plant) in order not to occurs environmental cadmium problems in the field soil futurity. (author)

  19. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, I.

    1994-01-01

    The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption. In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis. The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. (Author)

  20. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  1. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, Jacob K., E-mail: jkreso2@uic.edu; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-10-15

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  2. Associations of lead and cadmium with sex hormones in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresovich, Jacob K.; Argos, Maria; Turyk, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal exposures are ubiquitous in the environment and their relation to sex hormones is not well understood. This paper investigates the associations between selected heavy metals (lead and cadmium) and sex hormones (testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, free estradiol) as well as other major molecules in the steroid biosynthesis pathway (androstanedione glucuronide and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)). Blood lead and cadmium were selected as biomarkers of exposure, and tested for associations in males using National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999–2004. After adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes and alcohol intake, blood lead was positively associated with testosterone and SHBG while blood cadmium was positively associated with SHBG. After controlling for additional heavy metal exposure, the associations between lead and testosterone as well as cadmium and SHBG remained significant. Furthermore, the association between blood lead and testosterone was modified by smoking status (P for interaction=0.011), diabetes (P for interaction=0.021) and blood cadmium (P for interaction=0.029). The association between blood cadmium and SHBG levels was modified by blood lead (P for interaction=0.004). This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date regarding the association between heavy metals and sex hormones in males. - Highlights: • We used a nationally representative dataset (NHANES) and employed sample weighting. • We examined associations between lead and cadmium with sex-hormone levels. • Blood lead level was positively associated with serum testosterone and SHBG levels. • Blood cadmium level was positively associated with SHBG levels, modified by lead. • Diabetes, smoking and cadmium modified lead and testosterone association.

  3. Pubertal dependent effects of cadmium on episodic prolactin secretion in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Marquez, N. [Fac. de Cienicas, Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia; Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. Bioquimica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    This work was undertaken to assess if exposure to cadmium related to puberty may affect the episodic pattern of prolactin. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life respectively, at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water. Control age-matched rats received cadmium-free water. Prepubertal cadmium administration decreased mean serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses. Subchronic exposure to cadmium of adult rats decreased mean serum prolactin levels, the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses and their duration, and the mean half-life of the hormone. These results suggest that subchronic cadmium exposure changes the secretory pattern of prolactin in adult male rats in a puberty-dependent way. (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 37 refs.

  4. Metallothionein expression during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in cadmium-pretreated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margeli, A.P. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Theocharis, S.E. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Yannacou, N.N. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Spiliopoulou, C. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece)); Koutselinis, A. (Dept. of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1994-10-01

    Metallothionein is a low molecular mass protein inducible mainly by heavy metals, having high affinity for binding cadmium, zinc and copper. In the present study we investigated the expression of metallothionein in regenerating liver, at different time intervals, in cadmium pretreated partially hepatectomized rats. Liver metallothionein is highly expressed during regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats, providing zinc within the rapidly growing tissue. Cadmium pretreatment caused inhibition of the first peak of liver regeneration, while metallothionein expression was markedly more prominent in the liver residues of cadmium-pretreated rats. These results demonstrate that although metallothionein able to bind temporarily metal ions as zinc and cadmium has been highly expressed, the liver regenerative process was inhibited possibly due to the effects of cadmium on other pivotal events necessary to the DNA replication. (orig.)

  5. Chemical composition of stars in Ruprecht 106 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P.

    High resolution spectra of 9 stars belonging to the globular cluster Rup 106 have been used to determine their chemical composition. The results reveal that Ruprecht 106 exhibits abundance anomalies when compared to galactic globular cluster of similar metallicity. The chemical composition of these stars is similar to what is found in Dwarf spheroidal galaxies favoring the hypothesis that Rup 106 has not been formed in our Galaxy.

  6. 48 CFR 9.106-4 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 9.106-4 Section 9... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective Contractors 9.106-4 Reports. (a) The surveying activity... performance. The narrative shall report any persistent pattern of need for costly and burdensome Government...

  7. 38 CFR 17.106 - Authority for disciplinary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disciplinary action. 17.106 Section 17.106 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Disciplinary Control of Beneficiaries Receiving Hospital, Domiciliary Or Nursing Home Care § 17.106 Authority for disciplinary action. The good conduct of beneficiaries receiving hospitalization...

  8. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  9. Introduction to the study of cadmium fixation in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1975-05-01

    Eels weighing an average of about 30 grams were kept without food in fresh-water aquaria containing approximately 10, 30 and 50 p.p.b. of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride. In each case the evolution of the cadmium content in the water was monitored as a function of elapsed time. After dissection, the cadmium concentration in the principal organs of the eels (in p.p.b.) was determined and compared with their live weight. To do so, various methods were used for destruction of biological material and cadmium analysis i.e.: incineration in a 600 deg C furnace, incineration at low temperature in a jet of active oxygen, nitro-sulfuric mineralization followed by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis, and nitro-sulfuro-perchloric mineralization followed by inverse anodic redissolution. The results of these analyses raise a number of methodological questions, in that they differ according to the technique being used. The first content data essentially concern the cadmium content of eels (after nitro-sulfuric mineralization) kept in water containing 10 p.p.b. of cadmium: after 44 days the concentrations in the various organs continue to rise. The highest concentration is found in the spleen - heart - air bladder system (15200 ppb compared with 2680 ppb in the control group), followed - in an order which varies over time - by the kidneys, branchiae and liver; the digestive tract seems to concentrate cadmium more slowly [fr

  10. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  11. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, D.A.; Erlijman, L.H.

    1978-12-01

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author) [es

  12. 5 CFR 9701.106 - Relationship to other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....106 Section 9701.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.106 Relationship to other provisions....S.C. 5545(d); (iv) Recruitment, relocation, and retention payments under 5 U.S.C. 5753-5754; (v...

  13. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-01-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  14. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or...

  15. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-01

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland.

  16. Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hook, R.I.; Yates, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109 Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109 Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day -1 ) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day -1 ). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

  17. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  18. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  19. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  20. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 μg/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status

  1. Effect of and as probiotic on decreased absorption of cadmium in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a wide-spread heavy metal that causes a wide range of health problems in animals and humans. Many reports showed the biosorption of heavy metals by bacteria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potency of probiotics bacteria of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans against cadmium adsorption in rats. Twenty four male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Cadmium treated groups received 1 ml of 100 µg/ml CdCl2 and probiotics groups were administrated 1 ml of (109 CFU/ml of probiotics during 24 days by special gavage needle once daily. Levels of cadmium were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Probiotics B. coagulans and L. plantarum caused 29.8% and 19.3% increasing in removal of cadmium through defecation and decreased 10.9 and 21.5 % of cadmium accumulation in kidney of Wistar rats. The results showed that oral administration of both probiotics offered a significant protective effect against cadmium adsorption in rats.

  2. Cadmium Tolerance and Removal from Cunninghamella elegans Related to the Polyphosphate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília M. L. Rolim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109 growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.

  3. Cadmium in the meat and organs of slaughtered animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, W.; Sansoni, B.; Kracke, W.; Wissmath, P.

    1975-03-01

    The cadmium content of the meat, liver and kidneys of 150 cattle was determined, and in the case of 6 cattle, that of the spleen also. This was done to find out the natural cadmium content of the meat and organs of cattle with a view to laying down limits for the cadmium content of foods, and also to determine whether age, breed, sex, management, feeding or season of the year have any effect on the distribution of cadmium in cattle. 141 animals came from a mainly agricultural region with little traffic or industry in the Swabian/Bavarian foothills of the Alps, while 9 animals came from the Weser marshes near Nordenham. Samples were taken from July 1972 to March 1974. 200 g meat (Mm. adductores), the liver and the kidneys were taken from the carcass of each animal, and in some cases the spleen also was removed. Each 100 g sample was ashed wet with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the cadmium was concentrated by precipitation, separated and determined from a dilute nitric acid solution by flameless atomic absorption in a graphite tube. In view of the results obtained with normally slaughtered cattle from an industrial region and from a country area where there is little traffic, it is recommended that the limit of 0.5 ppm cadmium in organs, which is at present under discussion in the German Federal Republic, should be reconsidered as regards kidneys. 92 references.

  4. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  5. Preparation of new conductive polymer nanocomposites for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoleikani, Leila; Issazadeh, Hossein; ZareNezhad, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Different conductive polymer nanocomposites have been synthesized, characterized and tested, regarding the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewaters. The chemical structure and morphology are studied by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cadmium removal performance, using the produced polypyrrole, polyaniline and polythiophene nanocomposites, are about 40.2 %, 59 % and 99.94 %, respectively, suggesting the superior performance of synthesized polythiophene conductive nanocomposite for cadmium removal from industrial wastewaters. It is shown that the Langmuir adsorption model can be used for accurate description of cadmium removal mechanism using different synthesized conductive nanocomposites. Keywords : wastewater, nanocomposite, polythiophene, cadmium removal, conductive polymer.

  6. Model for cadmium transport and distribution in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, T.L.; Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Cook, J.S.; Hsie, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A compartmental model is developed to study the transport and distribution of cadmium in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Of central importance to the model is the role played by sequestering components which bind free Cd/sup 2 +/ ions. The most important of these is a low-molecular-weight protein, metallothionein, which is produced by the cells in response to an increase in the cellular concentration of Cd/sup 2 +/. Monte Carlo techniques are used to generate a stochastic model based on existing experimental data describing the intracellular transport of cadmium between different compartments. This approach provides an alternative to the usual numerical solution of differential-delay equations that arise in deterministic models. Our model suggests subcellular structures which may be responsible for the accumulation of cadmium and, hence, could account for cadmium detoxification. 4 figures, 1 table.

  7. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  8. Trace elements cadmium and zinc in the pathogenesis of experimental hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, C.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    In human kidneys cadmium is bound by a protein, metallothionein, which also contains zinc, and because cadmium apparently competes with zinc on the same binding sites, the cadmium-zinc ratio is particularly important. An increase in this ratio would mean a relative deficiency in zinc which might result in some forms of hypertension in man and animals. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of small amounts of supplementary dietary cadmium on weanling and adult albino rats. Two colonies of rats were examined. The object of this study was to determine if hypertension could be induced and to investigate its effects on renal function and renin levels in these animals. Sodium and potassium levels and balances, renin, angiotensin II, and urea output were therefore estimated in these animals. In order to assess the effect of length of exposure to cadmium in relation to growth and maturation upon blood pressure, experiments were done on a second colony of male weanling rats. Tissue levels of cadmium and zinc, and serum levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea and urate were measured. All supplemented diets caused hypertension and a significant drop in urinary urea excretion levels. Plasma angiotensin in males, and renal cadmium-zinc ratios were higher than in controls. The results of the studies in adult rats showed slight sodium and water retention. Weanlings showed a more rapid uptake of cadmium and reached higher blood pressure levels. In conclusion, cadmium does seem to be a factor in selected animal hypertension. A possible mechanism is via interference with renal function, and our data regarding urea output support the idea of renal function impairment. The initiation of a renin-angiotensin hypertension is suggested by the raised angiotensin levels which were detected

  9. 27 CFR 28.106 - Consignment, shipment, and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery. 28.106 Section 28.106 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.106 Consignment, shipment, and delivery. The consignment, shipment, and delivery of distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of tax under this subpart shall be...

  10. Functional characterization of Gram-negative bacteria from different genera as multiplex cadmium biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereza-Malcolm, Lara; Aracic, Sanja; Kannan, Ruban; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E

    2017-08-15

    Widespread presence of cadmium in soil and water systems is a consequence of industrial and agricultural processes. Subsequent accumulation of cadmium in food and drinking water can result in accidental consumption of dangerous concentrations. As such, cadmium environmental contamination poses a significant threat to human health. Development of microbial biosensors, as a novel alternative method for in situ cadmium detection, may reduce human exposure by complementing traditional analytical methods. In this study, a multiplex cadmium biosensing construct was assembled by cloning a single-output cadmium biosensor element, cadRgfp, and a constitutively expressed mrfp1 onto a broad-host range vector. Incorporation of the duplex fluorescent output [green and red fluorescence proteins] allowed measurement of biosensor functionality and viability. The biosensor construct was tested in several Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Enterobacter. The multiplex cadmium biosensors were responsive to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10µgml -1 , as well as several other heavy metals, including arsenic, mercury and lead at similar concentrations. The biosensors were also responsive within 20-40min following exposure to 3µgml -1 cadmium. This study highlights the importance of testing biosensor constructs, developed using synthetic biology principles, in different bacterial genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  12. Effects of prenatal exposure to cadmium on neurodevelopment of infants in Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yijun; Hu, Yi; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although animal studies suggested that prenatal cadmium exposure can cause neurodevelopmental deficits, little is explored in human populations, or its mechanism. We investigated the association between prenatal cadmium exposures and infants' developmental quotients (DQs) based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules (gross motor, fine motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) at 12 months of age and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prenatal cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in Shandong, China, by enrolling 300 mothers between September 2010 and December 2011. Maternal blood cadmium concentration (median, 1.24 μg/L) was negatively associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels in cord serum. A 10-fold increase in maternal cadmium levels was associated with a 5.70-point decrease in social domain DQs, a 4.31-point decrease in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. These data suggest that prenatal low-level cadmium exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. BDNF may play an important role in the decline of social domain DQs induced by prenatal low-level cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Cadmium was inversely associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels. • BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. • BDNF may contribute to the decline of DQs induced by prenatal cadmium exposure. - Negative associations were found between prenatal cadmium exposure and social domain DQs as well as BNDF levels in cord serum.

  13. Oxidative stress biomarkers and aggressive behavior in fish exposed to aquatic cadmium contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane A. Almeida

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possible link between cadmium exposure, hepatic markers of oxidative stress and aggressive behavior in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were first exposed to 0.75 mg/L CdCl2 for 15 days (12 isolated fish for each group and afterward a behavioral test was performed. Fish from the control and cadmium-exposed groups were paired for 1 h (6 pairs of fish per group for determination of aggressiveness parameters. Immediately after the behavioral test, the animals were sacrificed and the liver was used to determine biochemical parameters. Cadmium decreased aggression in Nile tilapia. Subordinate animals exposed to cadmium showed decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity compared to dominant ones. No alterations were observed in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase Se-GSH-P and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, but total superoxide dismutase activity was increased in subordinate animals exposed to cadmium compared to subordinate control. Catalase activity was increased in cadmium-exposed fish. Lipoperoxide concentrations also increased in cadmium exposed fish indicating that cadmium toxicity may affect oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia. Social stress induced lipoperoxidation in Nile tilapia, and subordinate animals exposed to cadmium responded with lower activities of liver antioxidant enzymes compared to dominant fish. The present study shows that cadmium exposure is capable of inducing changes in the social status and oxidative stress parameters in this species.

  14. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  15. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  16. Coprecipitation of cadmium with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate from homogeneous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kozen, Terumi; Ueki, Yasuyo; Ishida, Hiromi

    1976-01-01

    The coprecipitation of copper and cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolates from homogeneous solution was conducted from the viewpoint of crystal and analytical chemistry. To the mixed solution containing copper and cadmium ions an 8-acetoxyquinoline solution was added by keeping the pH of the solution at 9 and the resulted solution was stirred at 25 0 C. The precipitate formed at each stage of the reaction was analyzed. The precipitates in an initial stage were composed of needle crystals which characterizes copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, and were associated with a slight amount of cadmium. The first half of the coprecipitation curve for the needle crystal formation resembles the logarithmic distribution curve of lambda equal to about 0.01. The precipitation of most of the copper ions was followed by the precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate crystal in the plate form. The needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate started to dissolve and transformed to plate crystals. In the second half of the coprecipitation, both crystals, owing to the identical crystal structure, precipitated simultaneously and form a solid solution. When cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate was precipitated by the PFHS method (precipitation from homogeneous solution) in the presence of the needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, the above mentioned phenomenon was observed. The precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate in the plate form is due to the seeding effect of the plate crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, which were scantily transformed from the needle crystals. The plate crystals of cadmium compound acts as a seed to transform the needle crystals of copper compound to plate crystals. (auth.)

  17. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  18. Effect of Biochar on Relieving Cadmium Stress and Reducing Accumulation in Super japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen-yu; MENG Jun; DANG Shu; CHEN Wen-fu

    2014-01-01

    It is of great importance to solve the threats induced by cadmium pollution on crops. This paper examined the effect of biochar on cadmium accumulation in japonica rice and revealed the mechanism underlying the response of protective enzyme system to cadmium stress. Biochar derived from rice straw was applied at two application rates under three cadmium concentrations. Shennong 265, super japonica rice variety, was selected as the test crop. The results indicated that cadmium content in above-ground biomass of rice increased with increasing soil cadmium concentrations, but the biochar application could suppress the accumulation of cadmium to some extent. Under high concentrations of cadmium, content of free proline and MDA (malondialdehyde) were high, so did the SOD (superoxide dismutase), POD (peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) activity in the lfag leaf of rice. However, the protective enzyme activities remained at low level when biochar was added.

  19. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E [South Setauket, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2010-07-20

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  20. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinceti, Marco; Venturelli, Marianna; Sighinolfi, Chiara; Trerotoli, Paolo; Bonvicini, Francesca; Ferrari, Angela; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Serio, Gabriella; Bergomi, Margherita; Vivoli, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    A role of cadmium exposure in prostate cancer etiology has been suggested by epidemiologic and laboratory studies, but conclusive evidence on this topic is still lacking. We investigated the relation between cadmium exposure, estimated by determining toenails cadmium levels, and prostate cancer risk in forty patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and fifty-eight hospital controls recruited in two provinces from southern and northern Italy. We found an excess cancer risk in subjects in the third and fourth (highest) quartiles of toenail cadmium concentration (odds ratio 1.3 and 4.7, respectively) compared with subjects in the bottom quartile. Results were basically unchanged when limiting the analysis to each province or entering toenail cadmium concentrations as continuous values in the regression model (P = 0.004). Despite the limited statistical stability of the point estimates, these findings appear to support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure increases prostate cancer risk

  2. A Survey on Lead and Cadmium Content in Bread Produced in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to such complications of absorbing lead and cadmium heavy metals as kidney and liver dysfunction, vascular and heart diseases, anemia, digestive complications, nervous and skeletal problems and due to importance of bread as one of the most important food diets in Iran, especially in Yazd, the amount of lead and cadmium was evaluated in a variety of breads in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013. Out of 69 bakeries, random probability proportionate sampling was applied in order to measure the heavy metals (lead and cadmium content in samples by ash and atomic absorption equipped with grafiti furnace(ETAAS with correction of background time. The study data were analyzed using SPSS (v.17 considering p-value of less than 0.05 as significant. Results: The average amounts of lead and cadmium were 99.05 and 7.49 mg/kg respectively. The amount of lead in Sangak bread was higher than that of other types of breads, whereas lead amounts of fantasy bread was reported less than those of other breads. Cadmium content demonstrated no significant differences among breads. Lead amount was higher in direct heat breads. Whereas, cadmium amount showed no significant differences between direct and indirect heat breads. It is worth mentioning that lead and cadmium content were reported lower than allowable levels in all samples. Conclusions: As the study results revealed and considering per capita consumption of bread in Iran (about 160 kg, it seems that weekly intake of lead and cadmium in Yazd is at an acceptable level, though possible risk of heavy metals(lead and cadmium need to decrease in order to prevent the probable risks of lead and cadmium heavy metals.

  3. 49 CFR 106.10 - Process for issuing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... filing written comments or making oral presentations). (4) Whom to call if you have questions about the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process for issuing rules. 106.10 Section 106.10... PHMSA Rulemaking Documents § 106.10 Process for issuing rules. (a) PHMSA (“we”) uses informal rulemaking...

  4. Effects of Humic Acid on the Germination Traits of Pumpkin Seeds under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoumeh ASADI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study tackled the effect of humic acid and cadmium concentrations on the pumpkin seed germination characteristics throughout were studied. Treatments were cadmium concentrations on three levels: 0, 100 and 200 ppm and humic acid concentration of 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg lit-1. Results showed that interaction of humic acid and cadmium was not significant on germination traits, but there was a significant effect on seedling growth indexes. Radicle and plumule length increased by 86 and 192% in comparison with control, of the mixture of 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Cadmium had stimulatory effect on radicle and cotyledon dry weight and the highest values obtained with 200 ppm in mixture with 200 mg lit-1 of humic acid. Also, maximum plumule dry weight was recorded in 200 ppm cadmium and 300 mg lit-1 of humic acid. The highest of indexes were observed of 200 ppm cadmium and 400 mg lit-1 humic acid. In conclusion, the humic acid had detoxifying effect on cadmium stress in the culture and responded antagonistically against cadmium, but it seems that these concentrations of cadmium are low for the pumpkin seed and can be increased in order to reach the toxicity level.

  5. 34 CFR 106.55 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 106.55 Section 106.55 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF... Prohibited § 106.55 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for...

  6. BRD4 regulates cellular senescence in gastric cancer cells via E2F/miR-106b/p21 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xingchen; Hu, Xiangming; Chen, Jinjing; Hu, Dan; Chen, Lin-Feng

    2018-02-12

    Small molecules targeting bromodomains of BET proteins possess strong anti-tumor activities and have emerged as potential therapeutics for cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms for the anti-proliferative activity of these inhibitors are still not fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that BET inhibitor JQ1 suppressed the proliferation and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells by inducing cellular senescence. Depletion of BRD4, which was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, but not other BET proteins recapitulated JQ1-induced cellular senescence with increased cellular SA-β-Gal activity and elevated p21 levels. In addition, we showed that the levels of p21 were regulated at the post-transcriptional level by BRD4-dependent expression of miR-106b-5p, which targets the 3'-UTR of p21 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-106b-5p prevented JQ1-induced p21 expression and BRD4 inhibition-associated cellular senescence, whereas miR-106b-5p inhibitor up-regulated p21 and induced cellular senescence. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of E2F suppressed the binding of BRD4 to the promoter of miR-106b-5p and inhibited its transcription, leading to the increased p21 levels and cellular senescence in gastric cancer cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which BRD4 regulates cancer cell proliferation by modulating the cellular senescence through E2F/miR-106b-5p/p21 axis and provide new insights into using BET inhibitors as potential anticancer drugs.

  7. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  8. Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils of progressing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Graf, M.; Zehetner, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Initial soil development in river floodplains influences soil properties and processes. In this study, suites of young floodplain soils sampled at three European rivers (Danube/Austria, Ebro/Spain and Elbe/Germany) were used to link soil development to the soils' retention capacity for cadmium. Geochemichal fractionation of original and metal-spiked soils was conducted. Cadmium remained in weakly bound fractions in both original and spiked soils, representing an entirely different behaviour than observed for copper in an earlier study. The tendency of incorporation into more stable forms over time was only slightly expressed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of different sorption surfaces in soil, with no single soil constituent determining cadmium retention behaviour. Nevertheless, in the calcareous soils of the Danube floodplain, we found increased cadmium retention and decreased portions of desorbable cadmium with progressing soil development. - Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils reveals high mobility but increased retention capacity with increasing soil age and development

  9. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  10. Isolation, identification, characterization, and evaluation of cadmium removal capacity of Enterobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Zaghum; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ismail, Norli; Lalung, Japareng

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the isolation and characterization of high cadmium-resistant bacterial strains, possible exploitation of its cadmium-accumulation and cadmium-induced proteins. Cadmium-resistant bacterial strains designated as RZ1 and RZ2 were isolated from industrial wastewater of Penang, Malaysia. These isolates were identified as Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12 on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence based molecular phylogenetic characteristics. Both isolates were Gram negative, cocci, and growing well in Lauria-Bertani broth medium at 35 °C temperature and pH 7.0. Results also indicated that Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12are capable to remove 87.75 and 85.11% of the cadmium from 100 µg ml(-1) concentration, respectively. This study indicates that these strains can be useful as an inexpensive and efficient bioremediation technology to remove and recover the cadmium from wastewater. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determination of cadmium in seawater by chelate vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ma, Guopeng; Duan, Xuchuan; Sun, Jinsheng

    2018-03-01

    A method for the determination of cadmium in seawater by chelate vapor generation (Che-VG) atomic fluorescence spectrometry is described. Several commercially available chelating agents, including ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate (DMDTC), ammonium dibutyl dithiophosphate (DBDTP) and sodium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP), are compared with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) for the Che-VG of cadmium, and results showed that DDTC and DEDTP had very good cadmium signal intensity. The effect of the conditions of Che-VG with DDTC on the intensity of cadmium signal was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 85 ± 3% Che-VG efficiency is obtained for cadmium. The detection limit (3σ) obtained in the optimal conditions was 0.19 ng ml- 1. The relative standard deviation (RSD, %) for ten replicate determinations at 2 ng ml- 1 Cd was 3.42%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the ultratrace determination of cadmium in seawater samples by the standard addition method.

  12. Desorption of cadmium from a natural Shanghai clay using citric acid industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yingying; Yeung, Albert T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CAIW is very effective in desorbing cadmium from soil particle surfaces at soil mixture pHs of lower than 5. → The cadmium desorption efficiency of CAIW also depends on the initial sorbed concentration of cadmium on soil particle surfaces. → Complexions of cadmium with citric acid and acetic acid are the dominant mechanisms for cadmium desorption in the soil mixture pH range of 4-8. → CAIW may be a promising enhancement agent for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. - Abstract: The sorption/desorption characteristics of heavy metals onto/from soil particle surfaces are the primary factors controlling the success of the remediation of heavy-metal contaminated soils. These characteristics are pH-dependent, chemical-specific, and reversible; and can be modified by enhancement agents such as chelates and surfactants. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using citric acid industrial wastewater (CAIW) to desorb cadmium from a natural clay from Shanghai, China at different soil mixture pHs. It can be observed from the results that the proportion of cadmium desorbed from the soil using synthesized CAIW is generally satisfactory, i.e., >60%, when the soil mixture pH is lower than 6. However, the proportion of desorbed cadmium decreases significantly with increase in soil mixture pH. The dominant cadmium desorption mechanism using CAIW is the complexion of cadmium with citric acid and acetic acid in CAIW. It is concluded that CAIW can be a promising enhancement agent for the remediation of cadmium-contaminated natural soils when the environmental conditions are favorable. As a result, CAIW, a waste product itself, can be put into productive use in soil remediation.

  13. Desorption of cadmium from a natural Shanghai clay using citric acid industrial wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Yingying, E-mail: guyong99hg@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), 66 West Changjiang Road, Qingdao 266555 (China); Yeung, Albert T., E-mail: yeungat@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} CAIW is very effective in desorbing cadmium from soil particle surfaces at soil mixture pHs of lower than 5. {yields} The cadmium desorption efficiency of CAIW also depends on the initial sorbed concentration of cadmium on soil particle surfaces. {yields} Complexions of cadmium with citric acid and acetic acid are the dominant mechanisms for cadmium desorption in the soil mixture pH range of 4-8. {yields} CAIW may be a promising enhancement agent for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. - Abstract: The sorption/desorption characteristics of heavy metals onto/from soil particle surfaces are the primary factors controlling the success of the remediation of heavy-metal contaminated soils. These characteristics are pH-dependent, chemical-specific, and reversible; and can be modified by enhancement agents such as chelates and surfactants. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using citric acid industrial wastewater (CAIW) to desorb cadmium from a natural clay from Shanghai, China at different soil mixture pHs. It can be observed from the results that the proportion of cadmium desorbed from the soil using synthesized CAIW is generally satisfactory, i.e., >60%, when the soil mixture pH is lower than 6. However, the proportion of desorbed cadmium decreases significantly with increase in soil mixture pH. The dominant cadmium desorption mechanism using CAIW is the complexion of cadmium with citric acid and acetic acid in CAIW. It is concluded that CAIW can be a promising enhancement agent for the remediation of cadmium-contaminated natural soils when the environmental conditions are favorable. As a result, CAIW, a waste product itself, can be put into productive use in soil remediation.

  14. Use of ion selective electrodes for potentiometric analysis of solutions containing cadmium and cyanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Glazkova, E.N.; Izmajlova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for cadmium potentiometric determination in the cadmium-plating cyanide electrolyte, which countains Cd(CN) n 2-n (n=1,2,3,4) complexes, is developed. Reactions of cadmium precipitation in the form of diethyldithiocarbamate serve as the ground for determination technique. Polycrystalline membrane electrodes with hard contact are used as indicator electrodes. Pd, Ni, Cu, Ag do not interfere with cadmium determination, Fe, Zn, Bi may coprecipitate with cadmium. Determination limit of cadmium ions is 5x10 -3 M

  15. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  16. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  17. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl 2 . Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl 2 . This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: jpeters@hsph.harvard.edu [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Perlstein, Todd S. [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perry, Melissa J.; McNeely, Eileen [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Weuve, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Center, P.O. Box 15697, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Background: It is unclear whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, although recent data suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of measured cadmium exposure with stroke and heart failure (HF) in the general population. Methods: We analyzed data from 12,049 participants, aged 30 years and older, in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for whom information was available on body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic characteristics. Results: At their interviews, 492 persons reported a history of stroke, and 471 a history of HF. After adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, a 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 35% increased odds of prevalent stroke [OR: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.65] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 9% increase in prevalent stroke [OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.19]. This association was higher among women [OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72] than men [OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 0.93-1.79] (p-value for interaction=0.05). A 50% increase in blood cadmium corresponded to a 48% increased odds of prevalent HF [OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.17-1.87] and a 50% increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 12% increase in prevalent HF [OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20], with no difference in sex-specific associations. Conclusions: Environmental exposure to cadmium was associated with significantly increased stroke and heart failure prevalence. Cadmium exposure may increase these important manifestations of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Potentiometric stripping analysis of Cadmium and Lead in superficial waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Juan Miguel; Marciales Castiblanco, Clara

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains the implementation and validation of an analytical method for determining cadmium and lead in surface waters. This is a valuable tool for the description of actual conditions and qualitative and quantitative control of dangerous heavy metals discharge in water bodies. Test were run for selecting stripping potentiometry conditions that as indicated by results were: sample oxidant concentration 36.4 μg/L Hg 2+ stirring frequency 2400 rpm, electrolysis time 80 s., electrolysis potential -950 mV and pH of 2.0. Interference of Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ showed that copper concentrations larger than 150 μg/L and 500 μg/L negatively influence the analytical response for Cadmium and lead respectively; [Fe 3+ ] larger than 60 μg/L and 400 μg/L cause variations in cadmium and lead read content respectively. Linear concentration range for cadmium lies between 5 and 250 μg/L; for lead range goes from 10 to 250 μg/L. Precision expressed as repeatability for both system and method, exhibit good reproducibility with variation coefficients below 6%. Accuracy, assessed from recuperation, is strongly influenced by concentration level therefore standard addition is recommended for lead and cadmium quantification. Analysis performed on surface waters from Colombian Magdalena and Cauca rivers pointed lead and cadmium contents below detection limits

  20. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Feizi, Shahzad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Application Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh [Yazd University, Department of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with {sup 68}Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with {sup 68}Ga NPs ({sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 68}Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 68}Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 68}Ga radionuclide, the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  1. Energy deposition by a 106Ru/106Rh eye applicator simulated using LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M.C.; Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C.; Blanco, F.; Williart, A.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Borge, M.J.G.; Tengblad, O.; Huerga, C.; Tellez, M.; Garcia, G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study introduces LEPTS, an event-by-event Monte Carlo programme, for simulating an ophthalmic 106 Ru/ 106 Rh applicator relevant in brachytherapy of ocular tumours. The distinctive characteristics of this code are the underlying radiation-matter interaction models that distinguish elastic and several kinds of inelastic collisions, as well as the use of mostly experimental input data. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of low-energy electrons for generally being responsible for the deposition of a large portion of the total energy imparted to matter. - Highlights: → We present the Monte Carlo code LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation. → Carefully selected input data from 10 keV to 1 eV. → Application to an electron emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 plaque used in brachytherapy.

  2. Postlactational changes in cadmium retention in mice orally exposed to cadmium during pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sellers, D.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Mice were continuously exposed to 109Cd in drinking water (0.03 microCi/ml; 0.11 ppb total cadmium) during pregnancy and lactation. After cessation of exposure, 109 Cd retention and distribution were examined during a 4-week postlactational period. At the start of the postlactational period (0 time), the fraction of oral 109 Cd retained by the dams was 2.4 times greater than that retained by similarly exposed nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations at 0 time were greater in the dams than in the nonpregnant mice in kidney (5-fold), liver (2.6-fold), mammary tissue (greater than 28-fold), and duodenum (13-fold). No changes in 109 Cd content of the whole body (minus gastrointestinal tract) occurred during the 4 weeks after cessation of exposure in either the dams or the nonpregnant mice; i.e., pregnancy-dependent increases in 109 Cd contents of individual organs were maintained during the 4 weeks of observation. An indication of translocation of 109 Cd from liver to kidney was observed in the dams but not in the nonpregnant mice. 109 Cd concentrations in the mammary tissue of the dams increased 2-fold during the postlactational period concomitant with a 3-fold decrease in mammary tissue mass. 109 Cd in the duodenum of the pregnant/lactating mice decreased, with a half-life of 14 days. Results indicate that multiparous women exposed to environmental levels of cadmium may takeup and retain in their kidneys, livers, and mammary tissue a greater fraction of their dietary cadmium than women with few or no children. Such results may bear on the etiology of Itai-Itai disease, a disease of the skeleton potentially related to oral cadmium exposure, with an incidence predominantly among postmenopausal women with a history of multiple childbirths

  3. Fragmentation and Multifragmentation of 10.6 A GeV Gold Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a study performed on the interactions of 10.6A GeV gold nuclei in nuclear emulsions. In a minimum bias sample of 1311 interac- tions, 5260 helium nuclei and 2622 heavy fragments were observed as Au projec- tile fragments. The experimental data are analyzed with particular emphasis of target separation interactions in emulsions and study of criticalexponents. Multiplicity distributions of the fast-moving projectile fragments are inves- tigated. Charged fragment moments, conditional moments as well as two and three -body asymmetries of the fast moving projectile particles are determined in terms of the total charge remaining bound in the multiply charged projectile fragments. Some differences in the average yields of helium nuclei and heavier fragments are observed, which may be attributed to a target effect. However, two and three-body asymmetries and conditional moments indicate that the breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of target mass. We looked for evidenc...

  4. Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal contamination with cadmium following chronic exposure of rat dams during gestation. ... African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology ... It was concluded that cadmium, contrary to previous reports, can pass through the placenta in appreciable quantity to contaminate the fetus to possibly cause fetal ...

  5. 27 CFR 21.106 - Diethyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethyl phthalate. 21.106....106 Diethyl phthalate. (a) Refractive index at 25 °C. 1.497 to 1.502. (b) Color. Colorless. (c) Odor... °/25 °C. 1.115 to 1.118. (f) Ester content (as diethyl phthalate). Not less than 99 percent by weight...

  6. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their

  8. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  9. X ray emission experiments at 1.06 μm and 0.35 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babonneau, D.; Billon, D.; Bocher, J.L.; Di Bona, G.; Fortin, X.; Thiell, G.

    1982-10-01

    Experiments and analyses on high-Z targets X-ray emission are reported. Two kinds of targets have been used: spherical targets with Octal laser (1.06 μm; 10 13 to 10 13 to 10 15 W/cm 2 ) and planar targets with P102 laser (0.35μm; 3 x 10 13 to 3 x 10 14 W/cm 2 ). The influence of the different parameters (laser flux, laser wavelength, atomic number) on emission rates and spectra is discussed. The results about the emission rates are compared with data from other laboratories and an experimental scaling law is proposed. Temperatures can be evaluated from experimental spectra and related to the different plasma regions. Space-time resolved measurements with a streak camera, from spherical targets, in the (1 - 1.3 keV) energy range allow to determine a velocity: about 6 x 10 6 cm/s for the emission region

  10. Toxicological studies of cadmium and zinc on the crayfish Orconectes virilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirenda, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The acute toxicities of cadmium and of zinc to the crayfish Oronectes virilis were determined. Adult, intermolt crayfish were exposed to a series of concentrations of either cadmium or zinc for a two week period. Cadmium was found to be a cumulative poison to the crayfish; LC50 values decreased from 6.1 mg Cd/I for 96 hours to 0.7 mg Cd/I for two weeks. An incipient LC50 was also estimated to be 0.0604 mg Cd/I. Zinc was found to have a relatively low toxicity to O. virilis under the present exposure conditions. Whole animal and tissue analyses for cadmium or zinc were performed on the crayfish used in the acute toxicity tests. Whole animals concentrations both for cadmium and for zinc exhibited a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations (r = 0.85 and 0.87, respectively). The gills had the highest concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and displayed a linear relationship to exposure concentrations (r = 0.82 and 0.87 respectively). The hepatopancreas displayed a plateau in metal concentrations and is probably the main storage site for both metals in the crayfish. The relationship of cadmium concentration to exposure concentration in the antennal glands also showed linearity (r = 0.65), while zinc levels reached a steady state level. All the remaining tissues analyzed exhibited a plateau in metal concentration

  11. Implications for the human food chain of models of cadmium accumulation in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prankel, S.H.; Nixon, R.M.; Phillips, C.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical limits for cadmium in parts of the human food chain are considered to have too small margins of safety and some limits are regularly exceeded. There is concern about the exposure of some sections of the population to cadmium in the human food chain, in particular regarding offal, which is a major source of cadmium to some sectors. The kidney is the first organ of sheep to reach the limit of fitness for human consumption. A model (based on a meta-analysis) predicts that this would occur after a mean of just 130 days of feeding sheep the maximum permitted cadmium concentration in feed (in the European Union) in the organic form. Thus it is not surprising that sheep organs are found routinely to exceed cadmium limits. Since reduction of maximum cadmium levels in sheep feed or of the duration of their exposure are not economically viable measures of control, routine removal of liver and kidney from older sheep from the food chain is recommended as the best option to reduce human dietary cadmium intake from sheep origin

  12. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  13. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  15. Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerup, Lars; Akesson, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 μg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 μg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.

  16. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D W; Chen, D C.C.; Hsu, J L

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  17. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil: a drawback of phosphorus fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; C.R. Smart, James; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    are exposed to cadmium through their diet causing potential adverse health impacts. Future scenarios for cadmium emissions to soil via agricultural applications of inorganic and organic fertilizers in Denmark were defined. A simplified fate and speciation model allowed the increase in soil cadmium......Abstract: In this study the Impact-Pathway Approach methodology was applied for monetary valuation of health impacts due to cadmium emitted to soil as a micro-pollutant present in phosphorus fertilizers. Due to the high persistency of cadmium in soil, and high soil-to-plant transfer rates, humans...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  18. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  19. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  20. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  1. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLAH, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hend, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  2. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  3. Bireactor Electronuclear Systems with Liquid Cadmium Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Zhamkochyan, V M; ASosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Khudaverdyan, A H

    2002-01-01

    Three main types of bireactor electronuclear systems are discussed. From the point of view of assuring high level of functional characteristics and safety bireactor electronuclear systems with booster using enriched uranium (20 %) and with a liquid cadmium valve appears to be the most effective. It is shown by means of Monte-Carlo modeling that such operation conditions can be achieved which lead to the destruction of the intermediate cadmium layer making the systems supercritical (k_{eff}>1). One can avoid the problem by using a special design of the liquid cadmium valve. In comparison with other nuclear systems (critical reactors, one-reactor electronuclear systems) cascade electronuclear systems have essential advantages allowing the decrease of the proton beam current by one order of magnitude and providing at same time the necessary level of power generation and neutron flux. Availability of both the thermal and fast cones allows one to transmute not only transuranics but also the fission products - cesi...

  4. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  6. Antioxidant study of quercetin and their metal complex and determination of stability constant by spectrophotometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R; Rajendran, M; Devapiriam, D

    2014-03-01

    Quercetin found chelate cadmium ions, scavenge free radicals produced by cadmium. Hence new complex, quercetin with cadmium was synthesised, and the synthesised complex structures were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis techniques (UV-vis, IR, TGA and DTA). The equilibrium stability constants of quercetin-cadmium complex were determined by Job's method. The determined stability constant value of quercetin-cadminum complex at pH 4.4 is 2.27×10(6) and at pH 7.4 is 7.80×10(6). It was found that the quercetin and cadmium ion form 1:1 complex in both pH 4.4 and pH 7.4. The structure of the compounds was elucidated on the basis of obtained results. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the free quercetin and quercetin-cadmium complexes were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Bauomy, Amira A; Diab, Marwa M S; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F

    2014-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg bwt of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of Physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh 1 h before cadmium for 5 days. Cadmium treatment induced marked disturbances in neurochemical parameters as indicating by significant (p Physalis has a beneficial effect in ameliorating the cadmium-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in the brain of rats.

  8. Identification of a New Target slr0946 of the Response Regulator Sll0649 Involving Cadmium Tolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Survival of photosynthetic cyanobacteria is challenged by environmental contaminations like heavy metals. Among them, deciphering the regulatory mechanisms for cadmium (Cd in cyanobacteria would facilitate the construction of Cd-resistant strains. In this study, the DNA-Affinity-Purified-chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was employed to identify the direct targets of Sll0649, which was a Cd2+-related response regulator identified in our previous work in model cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. As a result, the promoter region of slr0946 encoding the arsenate reductase was enriched fourfolds by quantitative real time PCR analysis. Further, deletion of slr0946 led to a sensitive phenotype to Cd2+ stress compared with the wild type (WT and the sensitive phenotype of Δslr0946 could be rescued by complementation assay via introducing slr0946 back into Δslr0946. Finally, individually overexpression of slr0946 as well as two Cd2+-related genes identified priviously (i.e., sll1598 and slr0798 in WT could significantly improve the tolerance of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to Cd2+. This study provided a better understanding of the tolerance mechanism to Cd2+ in cyanobacteria and also feasible strategies for tolerance modifications to heavy metals in the future.

  9. 7 CFR 900.106 - Assignment of mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of mediator. 900.106 Section 900.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Assignment of mediator. The Director of the Division shall assign a mediator, from the group designated by...

  10. Stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated soils using hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Liao, Xiaoyong; Wei, Binggan; Ye, Bixiong; Zhang, Fengying; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Combination of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium chloride (KCl) was used to stabilize lead and cadmium in contaminated mining soils. Pot experiments of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and rape (Brassica rapachinensis) were used to evaluate the stabilization efficiency. The results were the following: (1) the optimal combination decreased the leachable lead by 83.3 and 97.27 %, and decreased leachable cadmium by 57.82 and 35.96% for soil HF1 and soil HF2, respectively; (2) the total lead and cadmium concentrations in both plants decreased 69 and 44 %, respectively; (3) The total lead and cadmium concentrations in the edible parts of both vegetables also decreased significantly. This study reflected that potassium chloride can improve the stabilization efficiency of hydroxyapatite, and the combination of hydroxyapatite and potassium chloride can be effectively used to remediate lead and cadmium contaminated mining soil.

  11. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  12. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, V.; Charmantier, G.; Mons, R.; Geffard, A.; Rousselle, P.; Coquery, M.; Garric, J.; Geffard, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50 96h = 82.1 μg L -1 , LC50 120h = 37.1 μg L -1 , LC50 168h = 21.6 μg L -1 , LC50 264h = 10.5 μg L -1 ). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 μg L -1 ) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca 2+ concentration, but not on haemolymph Na + and Cl - concentrations, whereas the Na + /K + -ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms

  13. Impacts of warming on aquatic decomposers along a gradient of cadmium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, D.; Pascoal, C.; Cássio, F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cadmium and temperature on plant-litter decomposition by examining diversity and activity of aquatic fungi and leaf consumption by Limnephilus sp., a typical invertebrate shredder of Iberian streams. Freshly fallen leaves were immersed in a stream to allow microbial colonization, and were exposed in microcosms to a gradient of cadmium (≤11 levels, ≤35 mg L −1 ). Microcosms were kept at 15 °C, a temperature typically found in Iberian streams in autumn, and at 21 °C to simulate a warming scenario. The increase in temperature stimulated leaf decomposition by microbes, fungal reproduction and leaf consumption by the shredder. Conversely, increased cadmium concentrations inhibited fungal reproduction and diversity, and leaf consumption by the invertebrate. Cadmium concentration inhibiting 50% of fungal reproduction, microbial decomposition and leaf consumption by the shredder was higher at 15 °C than at 21 °C, suggesting that higher temperatures can lead to increased metal toxicity to aquatic decomposers. - Highlights: ► We examined the effects of temperature and cadmium on aquatic detritus food-webs. ► Effects were assessed on plant-litter decomposition, fungi and invertebrate shredders. ► Results suggest that warming may increase cadmium toxicity to freshwater decomposers. - Global warming may increase cadmium toxicity to freshwater decomposers with implications to ecosystem processes.

  14. 40 CFR 90.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 90.106... Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.106 Certificate of conformity. (a)(1) Except as provided in § 90... certificate of conformity covering such engines; however, engines manufactured during an annual production...

  15. 40 CFR 91.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 91.106... Provisions § 91.106 Certificate of conformity. (a) Every manufacturer of a new marine SI engine produced... obtain a certificate of conformity covering each engine family. The certificate of conformity must be...

  16. Effective removal of cadmium ions from a simulated gastrointestinal fluid by Lentinus edodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xin; Huang, Wen; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-12-01

    Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and -NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration.

  17. Livolin Forte Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akomolafe Rufus O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The kidney, which is an integral part of the drug excretion system, was reported as one of the targets of cadmium toxicity. Early events of cadmium toxicity in the cell include a decrease in cell membrane fluidity, breakdown of its integrity, and impairment of its repair mechanisms. Phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E have a marked fluidizing effect on cellular membranes. We hypothesized that Livolin forte (LIV could attenuate kidney damage induced by cadmium in rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each: group I (control group received 0.3 ml/kg/day of propylene glycol for six weeks; group II was given 5 mg/kg/day of cadmium (Cd i.p for 5 consecutive days; group III rats were treated in a similar way as group II but were allowed a recovery period of 4 weeks; group IV was treated with LIV (5.2 mg/kg/day for a period of 4 weeks after inducing renal injury with Cd similarly to group II; and group V was allowed a recovery period of 2 weeks after a 4-week LIV treatment (5.2 mg/kg/day following Cd administration. A significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS were observed in groups II and III compared to the control rats. Significant reductions in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were also recorded. The urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in groups II and III were significantly lower than the control group. Th is finding was accompanied by a significant decrease in creatinine and urea clearance. Post-treatment with LIV caused significant decreases in plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid, and TBARS. Significant increases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity of groups IV and V were observed compared to group II. A significant increase in urine concentrations of creatinine, urea, and uric acid and significant decreases in total protein, glucose, and GSH activity were observed in groups IV and V compared to group II. Photomicrographs of the rat kidneys

  18. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.106 - Servicing of office machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machines. 101-25.106 Section 101-25.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-General Policies § 101-25.106 Servicing of office machines. (a) The determination as to whether office machines are to be serviced by use of annual maintenance contracts or per-call arrangements shall be made...

  20. Multi-generation cadmium acclimation and tolerance in Daphnia magna Straus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyssen, Brita T.A.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran Daphnia magna was acclimated for seven generations to cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 (control) to 250 μg/l Cd (corresponding to a free ion activity of 4.60 nM Cd 2+ ). Acute and chronic cadmium tolerance as well as cadmium accumulation were monitored as a function of acclimation time. After two to three generations of acclimation to concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.11 nM Cd 2+ increases in acute tolerance were maximal (factor 7.2) and significant. Acclimation for seven generations to the same acclimation concentrations did result in an increased chronic cadmium tolerance (21 days EC 50 values increased). Organisms acclimated to 1.93 nM Cd 2+ were equally or more sensitive than non-acclimated daphnids in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Cadmium contents in D. magna increased significantly as a function of the acclimation concentration. Maximum body burdens of 236±30 μg Cd/g dry weight were measured in organisms exposed to 4.60 nM Cd 2+ , but detoxification mechanisms were only successful up to 82±20 μg Cd/g dry weight as this concentration did not cause major decreases in survival and reproduction in chronic toxicity tests. As the potential positive effect of acclimation on cadmium tolerance disappeared with successive acclimation generations and increasing acclimation concentrations, it is concluded that multi-generation acclimation studies are important for the evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental toxicants. - Multi-generation acclimation studies are important for evaluating long-term effects of aquatic pollutants

  1. Evaluation of liquid metal embrittlement of stainless steel 304 by cadmium and cadmium-aluminum solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, N.C.; Peacock, H.B.; Thomas, J.K.; Begley, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility of stainless steel 304 (SS304) to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) by cadmium (Cd) and cadmium-aluminum (Cd-Al) solutions was examined as part of a failure evaluation for SS304-clad cadmium reactor safety rods which had been exposed to elevated temperatures. The safety rod test data and destructive examination of the specimens indicated that LME was not the failure mode. The available literature data also suggest that austenitic stainless steels are not particularly susceptible to LME by Cd or Cd-Al solutions. However, the literature data is not conclusive and an experimental study was therefore conducted to examine the susceptibility of SS304 to LME by Cd and Cd-Al solutions. Temperatures from 325 to 600 C and strain rates from 1x10 -6 to 5x10 -5 s -1 were of interest in this evaluation. Tensile tests carried out in molten Cd-Al and Cd solutions over these temperatures and strain rates with both smooth bar and notched specimens showed no evidence of LME. U-bend tests conducted in liquid Cd at 500 and 600 C also showed no evidence of LME. It is concluded that SS304 is not subject to LME by Cd or Cd-Al solutions over the range of temperatures and strain rates of interest. ((orig.))

  2. 9 CFR 113.106 - Clostridium Chauvoei Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Chauvoei Bacterin. 113.106 Section 113.106 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, shall be used for challenge 14 to 15 days following the last...

  3. Mitochondrial modification and respiratory deficiency in the yeast cell caused by cadmium poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegren, C C; Lindegren, G

    1973-01-01

    Cells of Fleischmann bakers' yeast were grown in standard nutrient broth and in broth to which cobalt, or cadmium, or thallium, had been added. The cells were fixed by glutaraldehyde-permanganate and sectioned. Electron microscopy showed that (a) the endoplasmic reticulum was fixed well in cells grown in cobalt or cadmium, but the endoplasmic reticulum was not fixed in cells grown in normal or thallium broth; (b) the cristate mitochondria were normal in all cells except those grown in cadmium. No cristae were visible in the cristate mitochondria of cells grown in cadmium broth; (c) a large fraction of the cells recovered from cadmium broth were respiratory-deficient; (d) thallic oxide was present in the cristate mitochondria of cells recovered from thallium broth. 13 references, 3 figures.

  4. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  5. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  6. Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezzi, I; Toffoletto, F; Sesana, G; Fagioli, M G; Micheli, A; Di Silvestro, P; Zocchetti, C; Alessio, L

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and beta 2-microglobulins (beta 2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). CdB values were significantly higher in the subgroups of subjects with higher current cadmium exposure and in the subgroups of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but the test levels were not influenced by duration of exposure. CdU levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but were less influenced by current exposure or duration of exposure. Considering the entire population, a rather close correlation was observed between CdB and CdU. When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between the two indicators in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. The data confirm that CdU is prevalently influenced by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.

  7. Chemistry gains a new element: Z=106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Eichler, B.; Tuerler, A.

    1997-01-01

    Even though 112 chemical elements are presently known, for elements with atomic numbers above 105 only nuclear decay properties have been investigated so far. Such data allow to proof the existence of a given nuclide, but they do not yield any information with respect to the position of a chemical element in the Periodic Table. We have performed ever first chemical investigations of element 106. According to the Periodic Table element 106 should be a member of group 6, having similar chemical properties as W, Mo and Cr. Two different techniques were applied to separate and identify element 106: a liquid chromatography system (ARCA = Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus) and a continuous isothermal chromatography device (OLGA = On-Line Gaschemistry Apparatus). With ARCA about 5'000 separations on small cation exchange columns (Aminex A6) with a 0.1 M HNO 3 /5.10 -4 M Hf solution were performed and with OLGA the gas adsorption behaviour of oxychlorides on quartz columns using Cl 2 /SOCl 2 /O 2 as reactive gas were studied. On the basis of only ten detected atoms, it was possible to proof that element 106 forms complexes which are eluted at positions similar to those of Mo and W. In addition, in the gas phase element 106 forms oxychlorides of lower volatility compared to those of Mo and W. (author) 1 ref

  8. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an ..... 1 mM DTT, 0.1 mM Na3VO4) at room temperature for. 30 min ..... a time-dependent manner following exposure to Cu and .... copper and cadmium. .... signaling mechanisms.

  9. Interlaboratory Comparison of Lead and Cadmium in Blood, Urine, and Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulev, P. E.; Solgaard, Per Bent; Tjell, Jens Christian

    1978-01-01

    Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest t...... that laboratories should voluntarily participate in quality control programs. Users of routine laboratories are advised to use their own quality control program......Analysis for lead and cadmium in biological liquids (blood and urine) is difficult. Results of such analyses from five laboratories are compared for samples with known additions of lead and cadmium. The data, evaluated in terms of inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility and accuracy, suggest...

  10. Fabrication of thin cadmium cylinder coated with aluminum for neutron irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Tomonori; Chiba, Masaaki

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate the irradiation capsule screened thermal neutron, a thin cadmium cylinder coated with aluminum was developed. The capsule is used for the fast neutron irradiation test. Requested specification of the cylinder are the thickness of 5.5 mm, the inner diameter of 23 mm, the length of 750 mm and the coated thickness of aluminum of 0.75 mm. Moreover, cadmium and aluminum adhere to each other. The cylinder was developed and fabricated by means of casting. The a new vacuum chamber in which solving and casting work is possible was fabricated to prevent cadmium oxidation and work safely from poison of cadmium. (author)

  11. Cadmium Telluride-Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite for Photodegradation of Organic Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontam, Areeporn; Khaorapapong, Nithima; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium telluride-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was prepared by hydrothermal reaction of sol-gel derived titanium dioxide and organically modified cadmium telluride. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide in the nanocomposite was higher than that of pure titanium dioxide obtained by the reaction under the same temperature and pressure conditions, showing that cadmium telluride induced the crystallization of titanium dioxide. Diffuse reflectance spectrum of the nanocomposite showed the higher absorption efficiency in the UV-visible region due to band-gap excitation of titanium dioxide. The nanocomposite significantly showed the improvement of photocatalytic activity for 4-chlorophenol with UV light.

  12. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  13. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  14. Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by pumice and nano-pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorzughy, Sara Haddadi; Eslamkish, Teymur [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heydartaemeh, Mohammad Reza [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Use of low-cost minerals to eliminate mining and industrial pollutants is the main goal of this study. We investigated the ability of pumice and nano-pumice to remove cadmium from a synthetic aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed to investigate adsorption characteristic; therefore, the effective factors influencing the adsorption process including solution pH, contact time and initial concentration have been considered. Equilibrium data were attempted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to realize the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate. The results show that cadmium adsorption on Pumice follows the Langmuir isotherm model with a R{sup 2} of 0.9996 and shows a homogeneous and mono-layer adsorption. Whereas, cadmium adsorption on nano-Pumice follows a Freundlich model (R{sup 2}=0.9939) and exhibits a multi-layer adsorption. The maximum mono-layer capacity (q{sub max}) of cadmium for pumice and nano-pumice was calculated 26 and 200mg/g, respectively. Two different kinetics models including pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order were studied to evaluate the rate and mechanism of cadmium adsorption by pumice and nano-pumice. The kinetics data indicate that a pseudo second-order model provides the best correlation of the experimental data.

  15. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  16. Phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils using soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Balabanova, Biljana; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Wei, Shuhe

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization and extraction of natural resources have resulted in large scale environmental contamination and pollution. Soil pollution with cadmium is due to strengthened industrial development, especially in the areas of drilling, exploitation and processing of mineral raw materials. On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are several areas with significant higher content of cadmium in the soil, including the vicinity of the mine lead and zinc “Zletovo” near the...

  17. Biomonitoring of lead and cadmium in women from industrial regions of eastern Germany; Biomonitoring von Blei und Cadmium bei Frauen aus industriellen Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.; Wichmann, H.E. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Epidemiologie; GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie; Becker, K.; Lippold, U.; Meyer, E. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Heinrich, J. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Epidemiologie

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to detemine the body burden of lead and cadmium in women aged 50 to 59 years from a mining and smelter area (Hettstedt) and two control areas (Bitterfeld, Zerbst) in eastern Germany. In the years 1992-93 1405 women aged 50 to 59 participated in a cross-sectional survey (response rate: 41.6%). 1188 women provided blood and urine samples and in 411 of these samples blood lead levels and cadmium levels in urine (standardised by creatinine) were determined. The geometric mean of blood lead levels among the 50 to 59 year-old woman was 41.5 {mu}g/l with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 39.6-43.6. The geometric mean of cadmium in urine was 0.417 {mu}g/g Cr (95% C.I. 0.390-0.447). Thus the body burden of lead and cadmium differed only slightly, if at all, from the body burden of the general population. The measured body burden did not pose a risk to the evaluated population. Compared to women from the control regions Bitterfeld and Zerbst, women from Hettstedt did not have elevated blood lead levels. Blood lead levels, which reflect mostly the current exposure to lead, were positively influenced by individual behaviours such as smoking and by the distance of the residential area of Hettstedt from the former smelters. Besides this, elevated lead concentrations in tap water and the release of lead from bone after menopause resulted in increased blood lead levels. Compared to women from the control regions women from Hettstedt had significantly increased cadmium excretion in urine. Cadmium levels in urine reflect mainly the cumulative, lifetime exposure to cadmium. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung hatte zum Ziel, die innere Belastung von Frauen mit Blei und Cadmium in den Regionen Hettstedt (Huettenstandort), Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu untersuchen. 1992/93 nahmen 1405 50- bis 59-jaehrige Frauen an einer Querschnittsuntersuchung teil (Teilnahmerate: 41,6%). In 411 Blut- bzw. Urin-Proben wurden die Bleikonzentration im Blut und die

  18. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Bernard, A.; Stiller-Winkler, R.; Hahn, R.; Manojlovic, N.

    1985-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed to assess whether environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly contaminated by cadmium, lead and other heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population the authors selected 65- and 66-year-old women (n = 286) who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average cadmium levels in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU) revealed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg greater than Duisburg greater than Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. However, with respect to the urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins (beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein), albuminuria, total proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and some other biological findings, no significant differences between the study populations were noted. Similarly, the prevalence of clinically-confirmed hypertension as well as the relative frequency of hypertensive subjects (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mm Hg) did not differ significantly among the three study groups. There was no exposure-response relationship between CdU and tubular proteinuria in the range of the CdU-levels found (0.1 to 5.2 micrograms/g creatinine). However, albuminuria tended to be increased at CdU levels greater than 2 micrograms/g creatinine.

  19. Sex differences in shotgun proteome analyses for chronic oral intake of cadmium in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Yamanobe

    Full Text Available Environmental diseases related to cadmium exposure primarily develop owing to industrial wastewater pollution and/or contaminated food. In regions with high cadmium exposure in Japan, cadmium accumulation occurs primarily in the kidneys of individuals who are exposed to the metal. In contrast, in the itai-itai disease outbreak that occurred in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture in Japan, cadmium primarily accumulated in the liver. On the other hand, high concentration of cadmium caused renal tubular disorder and osteomalacia (multiple bone fracture, probably resulting from the renal tubular dysfunction and additional pathology. In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic cadmium intake. We administered cadmium-containing drinking water (32 mg/l to female and male mice ad libitum for 11 weeks. Metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that cadmium accumulated in the kidneys (927 x 10 + 185 ng/g in females and 661 x 10 + 101 ng/g in males, liver (397 x 10 + 199 ng/g in females and 238 x 10 + 652 ng/g in males, and thyroid gland (293 + 93.7 ng/g in females and 129 + 72.7 ng/g in males of mice. Female mice showed higher cadmium accumulation in the kidney, liver, and thyroid gland than males did (p = 0.00345, p = 0.00213, and p = 0.0331, respectively. Shotgun proteome analyses after chronic oral administration of cadmium revealed that protein levels of glutathione S-transferase Mu2, Mu4, and Mu7 decreased in the liver, and those of A1 and A2 decreased in the kidneys in both female and male mice.

  20. Effects of cadmium on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilly, Karine; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Bonnard, Marc; Thomas-Guyon, Helene; Renault, Tristan; Miramand, Pierre; Lapegue, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, are commonly reared in estuaries where they are exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Much research has been made on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms because the compound recurrently contaminates their environment. Our study examined the influence of cadmium on aneuploidy level (lowered chromosome number in a percentage of somatic cells) and hemocyte parameters in C. gigas at different stages of life. Adults and juveniles were exposed to two different concentrations of cadmium. The first concentration applied was equivalent to a peak value found in Marennes-Oleron bay (Charente-Maritime, France; 50 ng L -1 ) and the second was 10 times higher (500 ng L -1 ). Exposure to 50 ng L -1 cadmium caused a significant decrease in the survival time of C. gigas, but exposure to 500 ng L -1 surprisingly affected the survival time positively. Significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the cadmium treatments and the control in adults but not in juveniles or the offspring of the adult groups. The effects of cadmium on hemocyte parameters were analyzed by flow cytometry. Several hemocyte parameters increased significantly after 21 days of cadmium exposure and subsequently decreased. Phenoloxidase-like activity, evaluated by spectrophotometry, varied over the time of the experiment and increased after 66 days of contact with 500 ng L -1 cadmium. Taken together, cadmium at environmentally relevant concentrations seems to have only moderate effects on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters

  1. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Lorca, Andres [Department of Clinical, Experimental and Social Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Rohlman, Diane S. [Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health and Science University (United States); Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa (United States); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, c/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada (Spain); Molina-Villalba, Isabel [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mendoza, Ramón [Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [Center for Public Health Research (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  2. Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Gil, Fernando; Lorca, Andres; Alguacil, Juan; Rohlman, Diane S.; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Mendoza, Ramón; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in children from a region with high industrial and mining activities in southwestern Spain. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 261 children aged 6–9 years between January and March 2012. Cadmium exposure was measured in urine and hair of children, and neuropsychological development was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and with three computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the association between neuropsychological development and cadmium exposure measured in urine and hair samples. Geometric means of urine and hair cadmium levels were 0.75 μg/g creatinine and 0.01 μg/g, respectively. We observed that doubling of levels of cadmium in urine was associated with a reduction of two points (95% CI: −3.8 to −0.4) in the Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in boys. By domains, association was statistically significant for Verbal Comprehension (β=−2.0; p=0.04) and close to the significance level for Perceptual Reasoning (β=−1.8; p=0.06). Among girls, only Verbal Comprehension showed suggestive associations with cadmium exposure (β=−1.7; p=0.06). Cadmium exposure is associated with cognitive delays in boys in our region. Our results provide additional evidence of the neurotoxic effect of low-level postnatal cadmium exposure among children, and support the hypothesis of differences between sexes in the neurotoxic effect of metals on children. - Highlights: • This study associates Cd exposure and neuropsychological development in children. • Cd exposure was associated with cognitive delay in boys, but not in girls. • Intellectual quotient of boys decreased two points for a

  3. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  4. 9 CFR 354.106 - Travel expenses and other charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 354.106 Section 354.106 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 354.106 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and...

  5. Dunaliella salina as marine microalga highly tolerant to but a poor remover of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folgar, S.; Torres, E.; Perez-Rama, M.; Cid, A.; Herrero, C.; Abalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium tolerance and removal in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina were studied in cultures exposed to different metal concentrations (5-120 mg Cd l -1 ) for 96 h. This microalga can be included in the group of microalgal species most tolerant to cadmium due to the high value of EC50 that it possesses (48.9 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h of culture). The greater percentage of cadmium removed was obtained in cultures exposed to 5 mg Cd l -1 at 96 h, but removing only 11.3% of the added cadmium. In all cultures, the quantity of cadmium removed intracellularly was much lower than the bioadsorbed quantity and it was proportional to the sulfhydryl group levels. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were suitable for describing the short-term biosorption of cadmium by living cells of D. salina.

  6. Investigation into the combined effects of ethanol and cadmium on rat liver and kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopf, G.; Boecker, R.; Bischoff, J.; Werner, M.G.; Estler, C.J. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie)

    1990-08-01

    To examine the combined hepatoxic and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium and ethanol, rats maintained on an ethanol containing liquid diet (5% w/w) were given cadmium either acutely (3 x 1 mg/kg IP) or subacutely (about 14 mg/kg/day PO for 6 weeks). Parameters tested were cadmium, zinc and copper contents of blood and various organs, metallothionein (MT) contents, polysome profile of liver and kidneys, serum SDH and GPT levels and creatinine clearnace. Ethanol reduced the hepatic MT contents without altering the polysome profile and the zinc and copper contents. Cadmium on the other hand raised the MT contents in liver and kidneys. This effect of cadmium predominated in the combined treatment. Morphological examination and functional tests (SDH, GPT, creatinine clearance) indicate that cadmium does not enhance the toxic effects of ethanol, and vice versa. (orig.).

  7. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzanti, R., E-mail: rbarzanti@supereva.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Colzi, I., E-mail: ilariacolzi@hotmail.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Arnetoli, M., E-mail: miluscia@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gallo, A., E-mail: galloalessia@hotmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Pignattelli, S., E-mail: sara.pignattelli@gmail.com [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gabbrielli, R., E-mail: gabbrielli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Gonnelli, C., E-mail: cristina.gonnelli@unifi.it [Department of Evolutionary Biology, Universita di Firenze, via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K{sub m} value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO{sub 4} for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K{sub m} value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V{sub max} values were not significantly different among the

  8. Paradoxes of photoconductive target and optical control of secondary ion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokakh, A. G.; Matasov, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This study of the photoconductivity of semiconductors, in particular, cadmium chalcogenides as materials for targets of vacuum image converters followed the path of overcoming paradoxes. The concepts developed by the classics of photoelectricity also help to understand the paradoxes of the new secondary-ion photoelectric effect, especially, its spectral characteristic. The optical channel of secondary ion yield control via a photoconductive target opens the way to a new branch of nanotechnology, i.e., optoionics.

  9. Irradiation and corrosion behaviour of cadmium aluminate, a burnable poison for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenbach, K.; Ahlf, J.; Hilgendorff, W.; Zimmermann, H.U.

    1979-01-01

    In quest of a cadmium containing material for use as burnable poison cadmium aluminate seemed promising. Therefore irradiation and corrosion experiments on specimens of cadmium aluminate in a matrix of aluminia were performed. Irradiation at 575 K and fast fluences up to 10 25 m -2 showed the material to have good radiation resistance and low swelling rates. Cadmium pluminate was resistant to corrosion attack in demineralized water of 575K. (orig.) [de

  10. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B.; Carter, A. Brent; Rowe, Steven M.; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1+/+, HO-1−/−, and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1−/− mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1+/+ or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1+/+, HO-1−/−, and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1−/− PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1+/+ PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. PMID:26071551

  12. Heme oxygenase-1-mediated autophagy protects against pulmonary endothelial cell death and development of emphysema in cadmium-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surolia, Ranu; Karki, Suman; Kim, Hyunki; Yu, Zhihong; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Mirov, Sergey B; Carter, A Brent; Rowe, Steven M; Matalon, Sadis; Thannickal, Victor J; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary exposure to cadmium, a major component of cigarette smoke, has a dramatic impact on lung function and the development of emphysema. Cigarette smoke exposure induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme. In this study, we employed a truncated mouse model of emphysema by intratracheal instillation of cadmium (CdCl2) solution (0.025% per 1 mg/kg body wt) in HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and overexpressing humanized HO-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (hHO-1BAC) mice. We evaluated the role of HO-1 in cadmium-induced emphysema in mice by analyzing histopathology, micro-computed tomography scans, and lung function tests. CdCl2-exposed HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe emphysema compared with HO-1(+/+) or hHO-1BAC mice. Loss of pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs) from the alveolar capillary membrane is recognized to be a target in emphysema. PECs from HO-1(+/+), HO-1(-/-), and hHO-1BAC were employed to define the underlying molecular mechanism for the protection from emphysema by HO-1. Electron microscopy, expression of autophagic markers (microtubule-associated protein 1B-light chain 3 II, autophagy protein 5, and Beclin1) and apoptotic marker (cleaved caspase 3) suggested induction of autophagy and apoptosis in PECs after CdCl2 treatment. CdCl2-treated HO-1(-/-) PECs exhibited downregulation of autophagic markers and significantly increased cleaved caspase 3 expression and activity (∼4-fold higher). Moreover, hHO-1BAC PECs demonstrated upregulated autophagy and absence of cleaved caspase 3 expression or activity. Pretreatment of HO-1(+/+) PECs with rapamycin induced autophagy and resulted in reduced cell death upon cadmium treatment. Induction of autophagy following CdCl2 treatment was found to be protective from apoptotic cell death. HO-1 induced protective autophagy in PECs and mitigated cadmium-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  14. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  15. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavi, K.; Kholdebarin, B.

    2011-01-01

    n this study the effects of different cadmium chloride concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mu M) on some physiological and biochemical processes including seed germination, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, protein content and peroxidase activity in peas (Cicer arietinum cv. pars) were investigated. Cadmium did not have any significant effect on the rate of pea seed germination. However, it affected the subsequent growth rate in these plants. Higher cadmium concentrations specially at 50 and 100 mu M reduced plant growth significantly. Leaf chlorosis, wilting and leaf abscission were observed in plants treated with cadmium. Protein content in pea roots reduced significantly in the presence of high cadmium concentrations. Low concentrations of CdCl/sub 2/ resulted in higher peroxidase activity both in roots and shoots of pea plants. (author)

  16. Sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Qian, Kang; Wang, Kang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Gao, Song

    2011-09-14

    Homoleptic tetrakis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(butyloxy)phthalocyaninato] dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker complex 1 was isolated in relatively good yield of 43% from a simple one-pot reaction. This compound represents the first sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM that has been structurally characterized. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  17. 28-Homobrassinolide protects chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from cadmium toxicity by stimulating antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.A.; Hayat, S.; Ali, B.; Ahmad, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present experiment the seeds of Cicer arietinum (L.) cv. Uday were inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil and were allowed to grow for 15 days. At this stage, the seedlings were supplied with 0, 50, 100 or 150 μM of cadmium in the form of cadmium chloride and sprayed with 0.01 μM of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 30-day stage. The data indicated that plant fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of cadmium but the content of proline and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased. The ill effect, generated by cadmium, was overcome if the stressed plants were sprayed with HBL. - The cadmium toxicity can be overcome by the foliar application of 28-homobrassinolide

  18. Voltammetric determination of cadmium and lead in human hair as healthy indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasser, H.; Kherbik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium and Lead level were examined in hair of patients and healthy donors. Hair sample were collected and analyzed for their contents of the trace metals (Cd, Pb) by Voltammetry. It was found that the existence of Cadmium and Lead in the hair was significantly higher in the patients (19.7 μg/g - 38.2 μg/g) for lead, (0.4 μg/g - 2.1 μg/g) for cadmium. On the other hand, the healthy had lower concentration (7.8 μg/g - 8.8 μg/g) for Lead, (0.2 μg/g - 0.3 μg/g) for cadmium. In this study, hairs were analyzed to find the effect these elements on health. Correlation coefficients between the levels of the elements in hair found in this study showed that hair is a good indicator of Cadmium and Lead in the hair. The method is applicable as a tool for monitoring pollution level of groups.(author)

  19. Examination of some chelating agents to decorporate fixed body-burdens of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female C57BL/Do mice, five to six months old, were injected intraperitoneally with 2.0 mg/kg cadmium citrate labeled with about 2.0 μCi 109 Cd per mouse. Three days after cadmium injection, male mice were injected subcutaneously with 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and female mice were injected subcutaneously with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate (CaEDTA), salicylic acid (SA), or 2,3 dimercaptopropanesulfonate, alone, or in combination. A total of four treatment injections were administered to each group of mice. Cadmium total-body retention was measured by in vivo counting using NaI(T1) spectrometry. Male mice given DMPS, and groups of females given EDTA, SA, EDTA + DMPS, EDTA + SA, or EDTA + DMPS + SA had total-body retentions of cadmium no different from saline controls (P > 0.05). Measurement of cadmium content in kidneys, livers, gonads, and femora excised from test animals also showed no difference from corresponding organs in control animals

  20. Reversible surface binding of cadmium and lead by lactic acid and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teemu, Halttunen; Seppo, Salminen; Jussi, Meriluoto; Raija, Tahvonen; Kalle, Lertola

    2008-07-15

    Extensive cadmium and lead contamination of water has been reported to occur locally as a result of human activities. Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to remove cadmium and lead from water. The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanisms of cadmium and lead removal from water. In addition, the effect of other metals, reversibility of binding and recyclability of the biomass was assessed. Based on our earlier data, the two most promising lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum ME3 and Bifidobacterium longum 46, were selected for these experiments. The results showed that the presence of other cationic metals and blocking of carboxyl and phosphoryl groups reduced cadmium and lead removal. These results suggest involvement of electrostatic interactions in cadmium and lead removal, and support our earlier findings. Transmission electron micrographs showed large deposits of lead on the bacterial surface suggesting formation of metallic lead precipitates. Both cadmium and lead removal were reversible processes established by full recovery of removed metal after desorption with dilute solutions of EDTA and HNO(3). Resorption capacity of both biomasses tested was reduced after regeneration with 10 mM EDTA and 15 mM HNO(3). Taken together, the results suggest involvement of several reversible mechanisms such as ion exchange and precipitation in cadmium and lead binding by lactic acid bacteria. The results show that specific lactic acid bacteria have the potential for removal of cadmium and lead from water although reduction in resorption capacity after regeneration of the biomass may form a problem. Since the studies so far have mainly focused on removal of single metals from pure water, metal removal in conditions of natural waters should be assessed in further experiments.

  1. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective Removal of Cadmium Ions from a Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluid by Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus edodes, a functional food, was evaluated as a potential antidote for adsorption/removal of cadmium ion from simulated gastrointestinal fluids. An adsorption/removal capacity of 65.12 mg/g was achieved by L. edodes in solutions with a pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.0, while little if any adsorption was observed in solutions with a pH under 2.5. In solutions with pH 6.0, 84% of the cadmium adsorption by L. edodes occurred in the first minute. Scanning electronic microscopic examination showed that the cell wall polysaccharides of L. edodes provided a rough sponge-like surface for effective cadmium adsorption. FTIR indicated that the carboxyl, hydroxyl and –NH groups of the cell wall polysaccharides and proteins were the primary functional groups that chemically bind with cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometry further revealed that cation exchange might be attributed to cadmium biosorption. These results suggested that L. edodes was effective for cadmium detoxication, especially in low concentration.

  4. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. Mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazava, T.; Nishimura, A.

    1999-01-01

    A new mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 is prepared. Data of x-ray diffraction analysis show that benzene molecule is incorporated in cadmium cyanide lattice and a new mineral-like lattice of Cd(CN) 2 belongs to structures of cristobalite type. Clathrate Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 crystallizes in trigonal space group R3m, a=8.953(4), c=21929(6) A [ru

  6. Energy deposition by a {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh eye applicator simulated using LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M.C. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Borge, M.J.G.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G., E-mail: g.garcia@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    The present study introduces LEPTS, an event-by-event Monte Carlo programme, for simulating an ophthalmic {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh applicator relevant in brachytherapy of ocular tumours. The distinctive characteristics of this code are the underlying radiation-matter interaction models that distinguish elastic and several kinds of inelastic collisions, as well as the use of mostly experimental input data. Special emphasis is placed on the treatment of low-energy electrons for generally being responsible for the deposition of a large portion of the total energy imparted to matter. - Highlights: > We present the Monte Carlo code LEPTS, a low-energy particle track simulation. > Carefully selected input data from 10 keV to 1 eV. > Application to an electron emitting Ru-106/Rh-106 plaque used in brachytherapy.

  7. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  8. EFFECT OF CADMIUM(II) ON FREE RADICALS IN DOPA-MELANIN TESTED BY EPR SPECTROSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Chodurek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy may be applied to examine interactions of melanin with metal ions and drugs. In this work EPR method was used to examination of changes in free radical system of DOPA-melanin--the model eumelanin after complexing with diamagnetic cadmium(II) ions. Cadmium(II) may affect free radicals in melanin and drugs binding by this polymer, so the knowledge of modification of properties and free radical concentration in melanin is important to pharmacy. The effect of cadmium(II) in different concentrations on free radicals in DOPA-melanin was determined. EPR spectra of DOPA-melanin, and DOPA-melanin complexes with cadmium(II) were measured by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectrometer produced by Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) and the Rapid Scan Unit from Jagmar (Krak6w, Poland). The DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) to metal ions molar ratios in the reaction mixtures were 2:1, 1:1, and 1: 2. High concentrations of o-semiquinone (g ~2.0040) free radicals (~10(21)-10(22) spin/g) characterize DOPA-melanin and its complexes with cadmium(II). Formation of melanin complexes with cadmium(II) increase free radical concentration in DOPA-melanin. The highest free radical concentration was obtained for DOPA-melanin-cadmium(II) (1:1) complexes. Broad EPR lines with linewidths: 0.37-0.73 mT, were measured. Linewidths increase after binding of cadmium(II) to melanin. Changes of integral intensities and linewidths with increasing microwave power indicate the homogeneous broadening of EPR lines, independently on the metal ion concentration. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in all the tested samples, their EPR lines saturated at low microwave powers. Cadmium(II) causes fastening of spin-lattice relaxation processes in DOPA-melanin. The EPR results bring to light the effect of cadmium(II) on free radicals in melanin, and probably as the consequence on drug binding to eumelanin.

  9. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. CADMIUM AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HAIR AFTER OF ADULTS MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a biological zinc antagonist and may interfere with metabolic zinc-regulated or zincdependent processes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the hair of adults after oral supplementation with magnesium. Material and methods: The levels of elements in the hair were determined by the inverse voltammetry. The analysis was performed on the hair of 32 people from the study group and 10 from the control group. Supplementation was performed using Slow-Mag B6. Results: Cadmium concentration in the study group before supplementation ranged from indeterminable levels, to 1,92 µg per gram of dry matter. The range of cadmium concentration after supplementation was between the indeterminable level, and 0,45 µg per gram of dry matter. Based on the statistical analysis, we found that cadmium concentration was significantly lower after magnesium supplementation with a significance level of p*0,02. Zinc level before supplementation was between 11,66 and 250,48 µg per gram of dry matter, and after supplementation between 68,31 and 185,24 µg per gram of dry matter. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that supplementation with magnesium contributed to the lowering of cadmium concentration in the hair of the people examined.