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Sample records for cadaverine

  1. Advances in Cadaverine Bacterial Production and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadaverine, a natural polyamine with multiple bioactivities that is widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is becoming an important industrial chemical. Cadaverine exhibits broad prospects for various applications, especially as an important monomer for bio-based polyamides. Cadaverine-based polyamide PA 5X has broad application prospects owing to its environmentally friendly characteristics and exceptional performance in water absorption and dimensional stability. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the biosynthesis, metabolism, and physiological function of cadaverine in bacteria, with a focus on the regulatory mechanism of cadaverine synthesis in Escherichia coli (E. coli. We also describe recent developments in bacterial production of cadaverine by direct fermentation and whole-cell bioconversion, and recent approaches for the separation and purification of cadaverine. In addition, we present an overview of the application of cadaverine in the synthesis of completely bio-based polyamides. Finally, we provide an outlook and suggest future developments to advance the production of cadaverine from renewable resources.

  2. Synthetic redesign of Escherichia coli for cadaverine production from galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hun; Lim, Hyun Gyu; Yang, Jina; Seo, Sang Woo; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2017-01-01

    With increasing concerns over the environment, biological production of cadaverine has been suggested as an alternative route to replace polyamides generated from the petroleum-based process. For an ideal bioprocess, cadaverine should be produced with high yield and productivity from various sugars abundant in biomass. However, most microorganisms are not able to efficiently metabolize other biomass-derived sugars as fast as glucose. This results in reduced growth rate and low carbon flux toward the production of desired bio-chemicals. Thus, redesign of microorganisms is necessary for utilizing those carbon sources with enhanced carbon flux and product formation. In this study, we engineered Escherichia coli to produce cadaverine with rapid assimilation of galactose, a promising future feedstock. To achieve this, genes related to the metabolic pathway were maximally expressed to amplify the flux toward cadaverine production via synthetic expression cassettes consisting of predictive and quantitative genetic parts (promoters, 5'-untranslated regions, and terminators). Furthermore, the feedback inhibition of metabolic enzymes and degradation/re-uptake pathways was inactivated to robustly produce cadaverine. Finally, the resultant strain, DHK4, produced 8.80 g/L cadaverine with high yield (0.170 g/g) and productivity (0.293 g/L/h) during fed-batch fermentation, which was similar to or better than the previous glucose fermentation. Taken together, synthetic redesign of a microorganism with predictive and quantitative genetic parts is a prerequisite for converting sugars from abundant biomass into desired platform chemicals. This is the first report to produce cadaverine from galactose. Moreover, the yield (0.170 g/g) was the highest among engineered E. coli systems.

  3. Exogenous cadaverine induces oxidative burst and reduces cadaverine conjugate content in the common ice plant.

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    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Stetsenko, Larisa A; Shevyakova, Nina I

    2009-01-01

    The effect of free cadaverine (Cad) on its conjugates formation was analyzed in roots of the common ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.). It was found for the first time that Cad could induce oxidative burst in the roots of adult plants, as was evident from the sharp decrease in the content of Cad soluble or insoluble conjugates. This unusual effect was associated with the increased oxidative degradation of exogenous Cad (1mM, 1.5h) and intense H(2)O(2) production in the root cells of adult plants. Root treatment of both juvenile and adult plants with H(2)O(2) (1mM, 1.5h) reduced the content of soluble Cad conjugates and increased the content of their components, free Cad and phenols. We also found that one of the possible reasons of the negative effect of exogenous diamine on the formation of conjugated forms in adult roots was alkalization of the root apoplast at Cad addition to nutrient medium and the unusual O(2)(-) synthase function as a pH-dependent guaiacol peroxidase in the presence of a high content of H(2)O(2). This was confirmed by the data on the accumulation of O(2)(-) and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in adult roots under treatment with Cad. It is possible that the accumulation of O(2)(-) together with H(2)O(2) was also responsible for oxidative burst, which induced a decrease in the content of Cad conjugates in adult roots of the common ice plants.

  4. [Cadaverine and its possible role in parasite and host interrelations in ascaridiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driuchenko, E A; Kulikova, M N

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the formation process of cadaverine in tissues of ascarides, intestine and liver of hen was conducted. Data are given on the activity, pH-optimum of lysine decarboxylase obtained from tissues of helminth and its host. The question on a toxic role of cadaverine during helminthiasis is considered. It has been concluded that the accumulation of cadaverine in the host's intestine can break the permeability of the intestine walls and favour the penetration of toxins of helminths into the host's organism.

  5. Methanol-based cadaverine production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus strains.

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    Naerdal, Ingemar; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Methanol is regarded as an attractive substrate for biotechnological production of value-added bulk products, such as amino acids and polyamines. In the present study, the methylotrophic and thermophilic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus was engineered into a microbial cell factory for the production of the platform chemical 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) from methanol. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of the Escherichia coli genes cadA and ldcC encoding two different lysine decarboxylase enzymes, and by increasing the overall L-lysine production levels in this host. Both CadA and LdcC were functional in B. methanolicus cultivated at 50°C and expression of cadA resulted in cadaverine production levels up to 500 mg l(-1) during shake flask conditions. A volume-corrected concentration of 11.3 g l(-1) of cadaverine was obtained by high-cell density fed-batch methanol fermentation. Our results demonstrated that efficient conversion of L-lysine into cadaverine presumably has severe effects on feedback regulation of the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway in B. methanolicus. By also investigating the cadaverine tolerance level, B. methanolicus proved to be an exciting alternative host and comparable to the well-known bacterial hosts E. coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study represents the first demonstration of microbial production of cadaverine from methanol. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  7. Regulation of the efflux of putrescine and cadaverine from rapidly growing cultured RAW 264 cells by extracellular putrescine.

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandrawinata, R R; Byus, C V

    1995-01-01

    Cultures of the macrophage-like RAW 264 cells were adapted to divide normally in a synthetic serum-supplemented culture medium lacking any polyamines and diamine oxidase activity. These rapidly dividing cells actively effluxed large amounts of putrescine and cadaverine, compared with the intracellular levels, into the culture medium. The efflux of putrescine was stimulated by the amino acid ornithine, whereas efflux of cadaverine was inhibited. Relatively low levels of spermidine and N1-acety...

  8. Decarboxylase gene expression and cadaverine and putrescine production by Serratia proteamaculans in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pennacchia, Carmela; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the molecular basis of microbial metabolic activities that are important for the changes in food quality are valuable in order to help in understanding the behavior of spoiling bacteria in food. The growth of a psychrotrophic Serratia proteamaculans strain was monitored in vitro and in artificially inoculated raw beef. Two growth temperatures (25°C and 4°C) were tested in vitro, while growth at 15°C and 4°C was monitored in beef. During growth, the expression of inducible lysine and ornithine-decarboxylase genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the presence of cadaverine and putrescine was quantified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The expression of the decarboxylase genes, and the consequent production of cadaverine and putrescine were shown to be influenced by the temperature, as well as by the complexity of the growth medium. Generally, the maximum gene expression and amine production took place during the exponential and early stationary phase, respectively. In addition, lower temperatures caused slower growth and gene downregulation. Higher amounts of cadaverine compared to putrescine were found during growth in beef with the highest concentrations corresponding to microbial loads of ca. 9CFU/g. The differences found in gene expression evaluated in vitro and in beef suggested that such activities are more reliably investigated in situ in specific food matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in urocanic acid, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine levels in Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage at different temperatures.

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    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2013-08-15

    Histamine, putrescine cadaverine and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have all been implicated or suggested in scombroid fish poisoning. However, there is little information on UCA especially during storage. Changes in their contents during storage of whole Indian mackerel at 0, 3±1, 10±1 for up to 15 days and 23±2°C for up to 2 days were monitored. Fresh muscles contained 14.83 mg/kg trans-UCA, 2.23 mg/kg cis-UCA and 1.86 mg/kg cadaverine. Histamine and putrescine were not detected. After 15 days at 0 and 3°C, trans-UCA content increased to 52.83 and 189.51 mg/kg, respectively, and decreased to putrescine and cadaverine levels increased significantly (P value<0.05) at all temperatures especially at 23°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single identified glomerulus in the zebrafish olfactory bulb carries the high-affinity response to death-associated odor cadaverine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieris, M.; Ahuja, G.; Krishna, V.; Korsching, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    The death-associated odor cadaverine, generated by bacteria-mediated decarboxylation of lysine, has been described as the principal activator of a particular olfactory receptor in zebrafish, TAAR13c. Low concentrations of cadaverine activated mainly TAAR13c-expressing olfactory sensory neurons,

  11. Structural model of a putrescine-cadaverine permease from Trypanosoma cruzi predicts residues vital for transport and ligand binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysa, R.; Venselaar, H.; Poston, J.; Ullman, B.; Hasne, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    The TcPOT1.1 gene from Trypanosoma cruzi encodes a high affinity putrescine-cadaverine transporter belonging to the APC (amino acid/polyamine/organocation) transporter superfamily. No experimental three-dimensional structure exists for any eukaryotic member of the APC family, and thus the structural

  12. Biotransformation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate from pyridoxal by pyridoxal kinase (pdxY) to support cadaverine production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Song, Hun-Suk; Choi, Yong-Keun; Kim, Yun-Gon; Park, Kyungmoon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2017-09-01

    Cadaverine, a five-carbon diamine (1,5-diaminopentane), can be made by fermentation or direct bioconversion and plays an important role as a building block of polyamides. Lysine decarboxylase (CadA) transforms L-lysine to cadaverine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) can increases conversion rate and yield as a cofactor. Biotransformation of cadaverine using whole Escherichia coli cells that overexpress the lysine decarboxylase has many merits, such as the rapid conversion of l-lysine to cadaverine, possible application of high concentration reactions up to the molar level, production of less byproduct and potential reuse of the enzyme by immobilization. However, the supply of PLP, which is a cofactor of lysine decarboxylase, is the major bottleneck in this system. Therefore, we initiated our study on PLP precursors and PLP-related enzymes and discovered that pyridoxal (PL) can be a viable alternative to supply PLP. Among various PLP systems examined, pyridoxal kinase (PdxY) showed the highest conversion of PL to PLP, resulting in more than 60% conversion of l-lysine to cadaverine with lysine decarboxylase. When the reaction with 0.4M l-lysine, 0.2mM PL and more whole cells was performed, it resulted in an 80% conversion yield. Furthermore, when barium-alginate immobilization was applied, it showed a 90% conversion yield in 1h with PL, suggesting that it is compatible with developed whole-cell systems without a direct supply of exogenous PLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Influence of exogenous putrescine and cadaverine on pro-inflammatory factors in the peripheral blood of rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gui-cheng; Rong, Xin-zhou; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Si-rong; Zhou, Yue-ping; Li, Qing-hui

    2012-12-01

    To explore the influence of exogenous putrescine and cadaverine on pro-inflammatory factors in the peripheral blood of rabbits. Forty ordinary adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into saline, necrotic tissue homogenate (NTH), putrescine, and cadaverine groups according to the random number table, with 10 rabbits in each group. Saline, NTH, 10 g/L putrescine, and 10 g/L cadaverine were respectively peritoneally injected into rabbits of corresponding group in the amount of 1 mL/kg. The blood sample in the volume of 2 mL was collected from the central artery of rabbit ears before injection and at 2, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 hours post injection (PIH). Contents of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the serum were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were processed with repeated measurement data analysis of variance and Spearman correlation analysis, and cubic model curve was applied in curve fitting for the contents of inflammatory factors. (1) The serum contents of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 were increased in NTH, putrescine, and cadaverine groups in different degrees at most post injection time points. There was no significant change in the concentrations of the three pro-inflammatory factors in saline group, and they were significantly lower than those of the other three groups at most post injection time points (with F values from 3.49 to 13.58, P values all below 0.05). The serum contents of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in putrescine group began to increase at PIH 2, 6, and 6, which was similar to the trend of NTH group, but the changes were delayed compared with those of cadaverine group(all at PIH 2). The peak values of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in putrescine group were respectively (339 ± 36), (518 ± 44), and (265.9 ± 33.5) pg/mL, which were significantly lower than those of cadaverine group [ (476 ± 86), (539 ± 22), and (309.4 ± 27.1) pg/mL], with F values respectively 5.11, 1.90, and 5.56, P values all below 0.05. (2) The period of time in which

  14. Production of carbon-13-labeled cadaverine by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum using carbon-13-labeled methanol as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leßmeier, Lennart; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Carnicer, Marc; Heux, Stephanie; Portais, Jean-Charles; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-12-01

    Methanol, a one-carbon compound, can be utilized by a variety of bacteria and other organisms as carbon and energy source and is regarded as a promising substrate for biotechnological production. In this study, a strain of non-methylotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, which was able to produce the polyamide building block cadaverine as non-native product, was engineered for co-utilization of methanol. Expression of the gene encoding NAD+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh) from the natural methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus increased methanol oxidation. Deletion of the endogenous aldehyde dehydrogenase genes ald and fadH prevented methanol oxidation to carbon dioxide and formaldehyde detoxification via the linear formaldehyde dissimilation pathway. Heterologous expression of genes for the key enzymes hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway in this strain restored growth in the presence of methanol or formaldehyde, which suggested efficient formaldehyde detoxification involving RuMP key enzymes. While growth with methanol as sole carbon source was not observed, the fate of 13C-methanol added as co-substrate to sugars was followed and the isotopologue distribution indicated incorporation into central metabolites and in vivo activity of the RuMP pathway. In addition, 13C-label from methanol was traced to the secreted product cadaverine. Thus, this synthetic biology approach led to a C. glutamicum strain that converted the non-natural carbon substrate methanol at least partially to the non-native product cadaverine.

  15. Simultaneous determination of cadaverine and putrescine using a disposable monoamine oxidase based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, Wilder; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Asunción Alonso-Lomillo, M; Julia Arcos-Martínez, M

    2013-12-15

    The selective and simultaneous amperometric determination of putrescine (Put) and cadaverine (Cad) has been carried out using a novel design of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with two working electrodes connected in array mode. A mixture of 3% of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), as mediator, and carbon ink was used for the construction of the screen-printed working electrode. The employment of different amounts of monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme on these modified TTF/SPCEs and the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allowed performing the simultaneous determination of both analytes. The amperometric detection has been performed by measuring the oxidation current of the mediator at a potential of+250 mV vs. screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A linear response in the Cad concentration range from 19.6 till 107.1 µM and from 9.9 till 74.1 μM for Put was obtained at the MAO/AuNPs/TTF/SPCE biosensor. This device showed a capability of detection of 9.9 and 19.9±0.9 µM (n=4 α=β=0.05) and a precision of 4.9% and 10.3% in terms of relative standard deviation for Put and Cad, respectively. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of Put and Cad in octopus samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A high-affinity putrescine-cadaverine transporter from Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Hasne, Marie-Pierre; Coppens, Isabelle; Soysa, Radika; Ullman, Buddy

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whereas mammalian cells and most other organisms can synthesize polyamines from basic amino acids, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is incapable of polyamine biosynthesis de novo and therefore obligatorily relies upon putrescine acquisition from the host to meet its nutritional requirements. The cell surface proteins that mediate polyamine transport into T. cruzi, as well as most eukaryotes, however, have by-in-large eluded discovery at the molecular level. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of two polyamine transporters, TcPOT1.1 and TcPOT1.2, encoded by alleles from two T. cruzi haplotypes. Overexpression of the TcPOT1.1 and TcPOT1.2 genes in T. cruzi epimastigotes revealed that TcPOT1.1 and TcPOT1.2 were high-affinity transporters that recognized both putrescine and cadaverine but not spermidine or spermine. Furthermore, the activities and subcellular locations of both TcPOT1.1 and TcPOT1.2 in intact parasites were profoundly influenced by extracellular putrescine availability. These results establish TcPOT1.1 and TcPOT1.2 as key components of the T. cruzi polyamine transport pathway, an indispensable nutritional function for the parasite that may be amenable to therapeutic manipulation. PMID:20149109

  17. Identifying human diamine sensors for death related putrescine and cadaverine molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Izquierdo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT and cadaverine (CAD, foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs, localized in the olfactory epithelium. However, very little is known about the precise chemosensory receptors that sense these compounds in the majority of organisms and the molecular basis of their interactions. In this work, we have used computational strategies to characterize the binding between PUT and CAD with the TAAR6 and TAAR8 human receptors. Sequence analysis, homology modeling, docking and molecular dynamics studies suggest a tandem of negatively charged aspartates in the binding pocket of these receptors which are likely to be involved in the recognition of these small biogenic diamines.

  18. Resolution of quaternary mixtures of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by the square wave voltammetry and partial least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, W; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by square wave voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode. A multivariate calibration method based on partial least square regressions has allowed the resolution of the very high overlapped voltammetric signals obtained for the analyzed biogenic amines. Prediction errors lower than 9% have been obtained when concentration of quaternary mixtures were calculated. The developed procedure has been applied in the analysis of ham samples, which results are in good agreement with those obtained using the standard HPLC method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Determination and correlation analysis of contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in necrotic tissue, blood, and urine of patients with diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-rong; Rong, Xin-zhou; Fan, Gui-cheng; Li, Qing-hui; Wei, Ya-ming

    2013-12-01

    To determine and perform a correlation analysis of the contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in necrotic tissue, blood, and urine of patients with diabetic foot (DF). Ten patients with severe wet necrotizing DF hospitalized from January 2011 to January 2012 were assigned as group DF, and 10 orthopedic patients with scar but without diabetes or skin ulcer hospitalized in the same period were assigned as control group. Samples of necrotic tissue from feet of patients in group DF and normal tissue from extremities of patients in control group, and samples of blood and 24-hour urine of patients in both groups were collected, and the amount of each sample was 10 mL. Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine were determined with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data got from the determination of blood and urine were processed with t test, and those from necrotic or normal tissue with Wilcoxon rank sum test. The correlation of contents of polyamines between necrotic tissue and blood, blood and urine were processed with simple linear regression analysis. (1) Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in the necrotic tissue of group DF were (186.1 ± 26.8), (78.553 ± 12.441), (33 ± 10) mg/kg, which were significantly higher than those in normal tissue of control group [(2.2 ± 1.2), (1.168 ± 0.014), 0 mg/kg, with Z values respectively -3.780, -3.781, -4.038, P values all below 0.01]. The content of putrescine in necrotic tissue of group DF was significantly higher than those of cadaverine and histamine (with Z values respectively -3.780, -3.630, P values all below 0.01). (2) Contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in the blood of group DF were (0.075 ± 0.013), (0.022 ± 0.003), (0.052 ± 0.014) mg/L, and they were significantly higher than those in the blood of control group [(0.014 ± 0.009), (0.013 ± 0.003), (0.016 ± 0.008) mg/L, with t values respectively 6.591, 2.207, 3.568, P putrescine in the

  20. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl content on in vitro putrescine and cadaverine production through the growth of Serratia marcescens CCM 303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Buňka, František; Taťáková, Monika; Štajnochová, Kateřina; Purevdorj, Khatantuul; Buňková, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of temperature (10, 20 and 37°C), pH (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), and NaCl content (0, 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6% w/v) on the growth and putrescine and cadaverine production of Serratia marcescens CCM 303 under model conditions. The decarboxylase activity of S. marcescens was monitored in broth after cultivation. The cultivation medium was enriched with selected amino acids (ornithine, arginine and lysine; 0.2% w/v each) serving as precursors of biogenic amines. Levels of putrescine and cadaverine in broth were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography after pre-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde reagent. S. marcescens produced higher amounts of putrescine (up to 2096.8 mg L(-1)) compared to cadaverine content (up to 343.3 mg L(-1)) in all cultivation media. The highest putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were reached during cultivation at 10-20°C, pH 5-7 and NaCl content 1-3% w/v. On the other hand, the highest BAs production of individual cell (recalculated based on a cell; so called "yield factor") was observed at 10°C, pH 4 and salt concentration 3-5% w/v as a response to environmental stress.

  1. Structural model of a putrescine-cadaverine permease from Trypanosoma cruzi predicts residues vital for transport and ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Radika; Venselaar, Hanka; Poston, Jacqueline; Ullman, Buddy; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2013-06-15

    The TcPOT1.1 gene from Trypanosoma cruzi encodes a high affinity putrescine-cadaverine transporter belonging to the APC (amino acid/polyamine/organocation) transporter superfamily. No experimental three-dimensional structure exists for any eukaryotic member of the APC family, and thus the structural determinants critical for function of these permeases are unknown. To elucidate the key residues involved in putrescine translocation and recognition by this APC family member, a homology model of TcPOT1.1 was constructed on the basis of the atomic co-ordinates of the Escherichia coli AdiC arginine/agmatine antiporter crystal structure. The TcPOT1.1 homology model consisted of 12 transmembrane helices with the first ten helices organized in two V-shaped antiparallel domains with discontinuities in the helical structures of transmembrane spans 1 and 6. The model suggests that Trp241 and a Glu247-Arg403 salt bridge participate in a gating system and that Asn245, Tyr148 and Tyr400 contribute to the putrescine-binding pocket. To test the validity of the model, 26 site-directed mutants were created and tested for their ability to transport putrescine and to localize to the parasite cell surface. These results support the robustness of the TcPOT1.1 homology model and reveal the importance of specific aromatic residues in the TcPOT1.1 putrescine-binding pocket.

  2. Determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in relation to histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents in tuna (Auxis Thazard) at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Muhammad, Kharidah; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ghazali, H M

    2015-02-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Very little is known about the effects of storage conditions on the production of both UCA isomers and biogenic amines in tuna. Thus, the production of trans- and cis-UCA, histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in tuna during 15 d of storage at 0, 3, and 10 °C and 2 d storage at ambient temperature were monitored. The initial trans- and cis-UCA contents in fresh tuna were 2.90 and 1.47 mg/kg, respectively, whereas the levels of putrescine and cadaverine were less than 2 mg/kg, and histamine was not detected. The highest levels of trans- and cis-UCA were obtained during 15 d storage at 3 °C (23.74 and 21.79 mg/kg, respectively) while the highest concentrations of histamine (2796 mg/kg), putrescine (220.32 mg/kg) and cadaverine (1045.20 mg/kg) were obtained during storage at room temperature, 10 and 10 °C, respectively. Histamine content increased considerably during storage at 10 °C whereas trans- and cis-UCA contents changed slightly. The initial trans-UCA content decreased during storage at ambient temperature. Thus, unlike histamine, concentrations of trans- and cis-UCA did not result in elevated levels during storage of tuna. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Genome-based genetic tool development for Bacillus methanolicus: theta- and rolling circle-replicating plasmids for inducible gene expression and application to methanol-based cadaverine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Irla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic methylotroph able to overproduce amino acids from methanol, a substrate not used for human or animal nutrition. Based on our previous RNA-seq analysis a mannitol inducible promoter and a putative mannitol activator gene mtlR were identified. The mannitol inducible promoter was applied for controlled gene expression using fluorescent reporter proteins and a flow cytometry analysis, and improved by changing the -35 promoter region and by co-expression of the mtlR regulator gene. For independent complementary gene expression control, the heterologous xylose-inducible system from B. megaterium was employed and a two-plasmid gene expression system was developed. Four different replicons for expression vectors were compared with respect to their copy number and stability. As an application example, methanol-based production of cadaverine was shown to be improved from 11.3 g/L to 17.5 g/L when a heterologous lysine decarboxylase gene cadA was expressed from a theta-replicating rather than a rolling-circle replicating vector. The current work on inducible promoter systems and compatible theta- or rolling circle-replicating vectors is an important extension of the poorly developed B. methanolicus genetic toolbox, valuable for genetic engineering and further exploration of this bacterium.

  4. Molecular Characterization of PauR and Its Role in Control of Putrescine and Cadaverine Catabolism through the γ-Glutamylation Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Peng, Yu-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grows on a variety of polyamines as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Catabolism of polyamines is mediated by the γ-glutamylation pathway, which is complicated by the existence of multiple homologous enzymes with redundant specificities toward different polyamines for a more diverse metabolic capacity in this organism. Through a series of markerless gene knockout mutants and complementation tests, specific combinations of pauABCD (polyamine utilization) genes were deciphered for catabolism of different polyamines. Among six pauA genes, expression of pauA1, pauA2, pauA4, and pauA5 was found to be inducible by diamines putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) but not by diaminopropane. Activation of these promoters was regulated by the PauR repressor, as evidenced by constitutively active promoters in the pauR mutant. The activities of these promoters were further enhanced by exogenous PUT or CAD in the mutant devoid of all six pauA genes. The recombinant PauR protein with a hexahistidine tag at its N terminus was purified, and specific bindings of PauR to the promoter regions of most pau operons were demonstrated by electromobility shift assays. Potential interactions of PUT and CAD with PauR were also suggested by chemical cross-linkage analysis with glutaraldehyde. In comparison, growth on PUT was more proficient than that on CAD, and this observed growth phenotype was reflected in a strong catabolite repression of pauA promoter activation by CAD but was completely absent as reflected by activation by PUT. In summary, this study clearly establishes the function of PauR in control of pau promoters in response to PUT and CAD for their catabolism through the γ-glutamylation pathway. PMID:23794626

  5. De bepaling van putrescine en cadaverine in drainwater van begraaf- plaatsen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks; H.J.G.M.; Hagen-Fast; A.K.

    1987-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt het onderzoek beschreven dat nodig was om een analytische methode voor de bepaling van polyamines in weefsels geschikt te maken voor de analyse van drainwatermonsters van begraafplaatsen. De voornaamste aanpassing die werd ingevoerd was concentratie van de monsters d.m.v.

  6. Development and validation of a colorimetric sensor array for fish spoilage monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Mohamed K.; Zor, Kinga; Kostesha, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Given the need for non-destructive methods and sensors for food spoilage monitoring, we have evaluated sixteen chemo-sensitive compounds incorporated in an array for colorimetric detection of typical spoilage compounds (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, cadaverine, putrescine) and characterized...

  7. Reciprocal Interactions between Multiple Myeloma Cells and Osteoprogenitor Cells Affect Bone Formation and Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    dry chloroform (0.5 mL), in dry chloroform, followed by the addition of N,N-diisopropylethylamine ( DIEA ) (3.62 mg, 0.028 mmol), and the reaction was...cadaverine or Alexa405 cadaverine (0.0028 mmol) dissolved in dry DCM (0.5 mL), fol- lowed by the addition of DIEA (3.62 mg, 0.028 mmol), and the reaction

  8. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fish, squid and octopus and their changes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Jian; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-15

    The concentrations of seven biogenic amines (BA) were simultaneously determined in 74 samples of fish, squid and octopus, by the method of HPLC coupled with pre-column derivatisation. The relationship between the formation of BA in aquatic products and the growth of microbial flora during storage was also investigated. Results showed that putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the dominant BA in the studied samples, but the concentrations of histamine and tyramine were mostly less than 50 and 100 mgkg(-1), respectively. Freezing can effectively prevent the formation of BA, but the levels of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine significantly increased (poctopus strongly and positively correlated with the formation of amines (such as putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine) during storage, except for histamine in octopus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acquisition of a heat stable enzyme; S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from selenomonas ruminantium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyong Cheol; Park, Sang Hyun [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kamio, Yoshiyuku [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    In Selenomoans ruminantium, a strictly anaerobic and gram negative bacterium, cadaverine and putrescine are the essential constituents of its peptidoglycan. S. ruminantium does not contain both free and bound types of lipoprotein, but it contains cadaverine as a component of its peptidoglycan. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is a key enzyme for a synthesis of spermidine and spermine in S. ruminantium. The crude extract of S. ruminantium was preincubated at 100 degrees Celcius and its SAMDC activity was measured by using a {sup 14}C labeled substrate. We report here on a heat stable SAMDC which is able to withstand a temperature up to 100 degrees Celcius.

  10. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which

  11. Evolution of a novel lysine decarboxylase in siderophore biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Matthew; Hanfrey, Colin C; Kinch, Lisa N; Elliott, Katherine A; Michael, Anthony J

    2012-10-01

    Structural backbones of iron-scavenging siderophore molecules include polyamines 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine). For the cadaverine-based desferroxiamine E siderophore in Streptomyces coelicolor, the corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster contains an ORF encoded by desA that was suspected of producing the cadaverine (decarboxylated lysine) backbone. However, desA encodes an l-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase (DABA DC) homologue and not any known form of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). The only known function of DABA DC is, together with l-2,4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (DABA AT), to synthesize 1,3-diaminopropane. We show here that S. coelicolor desA encodes a novel LDC and we hypothesized that DABA DC homologues present in siderophore biosynthetic clusters in the absence of DABA AT ORFs would be novel LDCs. We confirmed this by correctly predicting the LDC activity of a DABA DC homologue from a Yersinia pestis siderophore biosynthetic pathway. The corollary was confirmed for a DABA DC homologue, adjacent to a DABA AT ORF in a siderophore pathway in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis, which was shown to be a bona fide DABA DC. These findings enable prediction of whether a siderophore pathway will utilize 1,3-diaminopropane or cadaverine, and suggest that the majority of bacteria use DABA AT and DABA DC for siderophore, rather than norspermidine/polyamine biosynthesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Quality of crude fish oil extracted from herring byproducts of varying states of freshness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.; Luten, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Herring byproducts were stored at 2 and 15degreesC for up to 72 h. Over time, significant increases of total volatile bases (TVB), histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine were detected. However, only tyramine and TVB levels were temperature-dependent. The level of total polyunsaturated

  13. Bacterial lysine decarboxylase influences human dental biofilm lysine content, biofilm accumulation, and subclinical gingival inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohinai, Zsolt; Keremi, Beata; Szoko, Eva; Tabi, Tamas; Szabo, Csaba; Tulassay, Zsolt; Levine, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study are to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR) and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for 1 week. Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm, and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After 1 week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine after OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content, in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis.

  14. BV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-03-29

    Mar 29, 2004 ... (putrescine, cadaverine, and trimethylamine) or a fishy odour after the addition of 10% potassium hydroxide. (whiff test), 2) a vaginal pH >4.5, 3) 20% clue cells in the vaginal fluid, and 4) a milky homogenous,. 13, 14 malodorous vaginal discharge . Individually, each of these criteria varies in its sensitivity ...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period reveals that levels of monoamines—histamine and tryptamine increased, while diamines- putrescine and cadaverine decreased. No significant differences were observad between wine types and amine concentration. Analysis of covariance at or = 0.05 showed that formation of biogenic amines in wines is depended ...

  16. WINES BREWED IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period reveals that levels of monoamines-histamine and tryptamine increased, while diamines- putrescine and cadaverine decreased. No significant differences were observed between wine types and amine concentration. Analysis of covariance at or = 0.05 showed that formation of biogenic amines in wines is depended ...

  17. Molecular and functional profiling of the polyamine content in enteroinvasive E. coli : looking into the gap between commensal E. coli and harmful Shigella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Campilongo

    Full Text Available Polyamines are small molecules associated with a wide variety of physiological functions. Bacterial pathogens have developed subtle strategies to exploit polyamines or manipulate polyamine-related processes to optimize fitness within the host. During the transition from its innocuous E. coli ancestor, Shigella, the aetiological agent of bacillary dysentery, has undergone drastic genomic rearrangements affecting the polyamine profile. A pathoadaptation process involving the speG gene and the cad operon has led to spermidine accumulation and loss of cadaverine. While a higher spermidine content promotes the survival of Shigella within infected macrophages, the lack of cadaverine boosts the pathogenic potential of the bacterium in host tissues. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC display the same pathogenicity process as Shigella, but have a higher infectious dose and a higher metabolic activity. Pathoadaption events affecting the cad locus have occurred also in EIEC, silencing cadaverine production. Since EIEC are commonly regarded as evolutionary intermediates between E. coli and Shigella, we investigated on their polyamine profile in order to better understand which changes have occurred along the path to pathogenicity. By functional and molecular analyses carried out in EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes, we show that speG has been silenced in one strain only, favouring resistance to oxidative stress conditions and survival within macrophages. At the same time, we observe that the content of spermidine and putrescine, a relevant intermediate in the synthesis of spermidine, is higher in all strains as compared to E. coli. This may represent an evolutionary response to the lack of cadaverine. Indeed, restoring cadaverine synthesis decreases the expression of the speC gene, whose product affects putrescine production. In the light of these results, we discuss the possible impact of pathoadaptation events on the evolutionary emergence of a

  18. Molecular and functional profiling of the polyamine content in enteroinvasive E. coli : looking into the gap between commensal E. coli and harmful Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campilongo, Rosaria; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Casalino, Mariassunta; Nicoletti, Mauro; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small molecules associated with a wide variety of physiological functions. Bacterial pathogens have developed subtle strategies to exploit polyamines or manipulate polyamine-related processes to optimize fitness within the host. During the transition from its innocuous E. coli ancestor, Shigella, the aetiological agent of bacillary dysentery, has undergone drastic genomic rearrangements affecting the polyamine profile. A pathoadaptation process involving the speG gene and the cad operon has led to spermidine accumulation and loss of cadaverine. While a higher spermidine content promotes the survival of Shigella within infected macrophages, the lack of cadaverine boosts the pathogenic potential of the bacterium in host tissues. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) display the same pathogenicity process as Shigella, but have a higher infectious dose and a higher metabolic activity. Pathoadaption events affecting the cad locus have occurred also in EIEC, silencing cadaverine production. Since EIEC are commonly regarded as evolutionary intermediates between E. coli and Shigella, we investigated on their polyamine profile in order to better understand which changes have occurred along the path to pathogenicity. By functional and molecular analyses carried out in EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes, we show that speG has been silenced in one strain only, favouring resistance to oxidative stress conditions and survival within macrophages. At the same time, we observe that the content of spermidine and putrescine, a relevant intermediate in the synthesis of spermidine, is higher in all strains as compared to E. coli. This may represent an evolutionary response to the lack of cadaverine. Indeed, restoring cadaverine synthesis decreases the expression of the speC gene, whose product affects putrescine production. In the light of these results, we discuss the possible impact of pathoadaptation events on the evolutionary emergence of a polyamine profile

  19. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  20. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Restuccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis.

  1. Evaluation of Biogenic Amines in Organic and Non-Organic Wines by HPLC OPA Derivatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Üren

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and non-organic wines, selected on the basis of consumers’ preference towards healthy products, were produced from the grapes of Vitis vinifera varieties Semillon, Colombard, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carignan and possible effects of different wine making techniques were considered. Concentrations of histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, ethylamine, methylamine, tryptamine, agmatine and β-phenylethylamine were quantified by HPLC fluorescence detection of o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA derivatives. The order of analyzed parameters in all wines from the highest to the lowest quantities was determined as follows: putrescine > histamine > ethylamine > methylamine > agmatine > tyramine > cadaverine > tryptamine. One of the analyzed compounds (β-phenylethylamine was not detected. The highest average values for organic and non-organic wines were found as follows (in mg/L: putrescine 5.55, ethylamine 0.825 and histamine 0.628 in organic wines, and putrescine 3.68, histamine 1.14 and agmatine 0.662 in non-organic wines. Considering the wine type (organic/non-organic, an important difference was determined for putrescine. Putrescine content in organic wines was significantly greater than in non-organic ones (p=0.008. Evaluating colour of wines (white/red, a statistically significant difference was obtained for methylamine (p=0.028. Taking into account only grape varieties, statistically significant differences were found for histamine, methylamine, tyramine and cadaverine (p<0.05. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated close relations between the following biogenic amines and wines: agmatine and non-organic Colombard; tryptamine or cadaverine and both organic and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

  2. Bacterial Lysine Decarboxylase Influences Human Dental Biofilm Lysine Content, Biofilm Accumulation and Sub-Clinical Gingival Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohinai, Z.; Keremi, B.; Szoko, E.; Tabi, T.; Szabo, C.; Tulassay, Z.; Levine, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study were to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR), and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for a week. Methods Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Results Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After a week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine post-OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. Conclusions After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Clinical Relevance Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. PMID:22141361

  3. Microbiological properties and biogenic amines of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca, linnaeus 1758): a perspective on fish safety during postharvest handling practices and frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

    2012-12-01

    The biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, cadaverine, and puterscine) and microbiological properties (mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonas spp.) of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) was investigated during 2 d prestorage icing and 90 d frozen storage (-24 °C). At the end of ice storage, a noticeable increase only was found for puterscine level (P consumed without any health risks after 2 d icing condition and 90 d frozen storage. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The Trypanosoma cruzi Diamine Transporter Is Essential for Robust Infection of Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Hasne

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is incapable of synthesizing putrescine or cadaverine de novo, and, therefore, salvage of polyamines from the host milieu is an obligatory nutritional function for the parasite. A high-affinity diamine transporter (TcPOT1 from T. cruzi has been identified previously that recognizes both putrescine and cadaverine as ligands. In order to assess the functional role of TcPOT1 in intact parasites, a Δtcpot1 null mutant was constructed by targeted gene replacement and characterized. The Δtcpot1 mutant lacked high-affinity putrescine-cadaverine transport capability but retained the capacity to transport diamines via a non-saturable, low-affinity mechanism. Transport of spermidine and arginine was not impacted by the Δtcpot1 lesion. The Δtcpot1 cell line exhibited a significant but not total defect in its ability to subsist in Vero cells, although initial infection rates were not affected by the lesion. These findings reveal that TcPOT1 is the sole high-affinity diamine permease in T. cruzi, that genetic obliteration of TcPOT1 impairs the ability of the parasite to maintain a robust infection in mammalian cells, and that a secondary low-affinity uptake mechanism for this key parasite nutrient is operative but insufficient for optimal infection.

  5. Finding of primitive polyamine toxins in the venom of a joro spider, Nephila clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T; Akizawa, T; Matsukawa, M; Pan-Hou, H; Yoshioka, M

    1994-09-01

    A series of joro spider toxins, novel polyamines sharing a common moiety of 2,4-dihydroxyphenylacetyl cadaverine, have been identified using various bioassays, such as inhibition of a glutamatergic transmission and insecticidal activity. In this paper, we tried to chemically find still unknown polyamine toxins in the venom of a joro spider, N. clavata, by several analytical methods based on the characteristics of the common moiety. An aqueous extract from 3000 venoms was separated by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The polyamine toxins were detected by monitoring the fluorescence produced in an on-line reaction of o-phthalaldehyde with amino groups and UV absorption of the phenol group. Two compounds in minute quantity were purified and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GC) and HPLC, which we specifically developed for the simultaneous determination of amino acids and polyamines of the toxins. Judging from the constituents of the hydrolysate by GC and HPLC and the molecular weights determined by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, the two compounds were estimated to be N-(2,4-dihydroxyphenylacetyl-L-asparaginyl)-N'- (3-aminopropyl-beta-alanyl) cadaverine and N-(4-hydroxyphenylacetyl-L-asparaginyl)-N'-(3-aminopropyl-beta-ala nyl) cadaverine. These compounds were small in content and molecular weight compared with hitherto known toxins. Both were presumed to be biochemically primitive toxins and were named spidamine and joramine, respectively.

  6. Binding of the biogenic polyamines to deoxyribonucleic acids of varying base composition: base specificity and the associated energetics of the interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Kabir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The thermodynamics of the base pair specificity of the binding of the polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine with three genomic DNAs Clostridium perfringens, 27% GC, Escherichia coli, 50% GC and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 72% GC have been studied using titration calorimetry and the data supplemented with melting studies, ethidium displacement and circular dichroism spectroscopy results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, optical melting studies, ethidium displacement, circular dichroism spectroscopy are the various techniques employed to characterize the interaction of four polyamines, spermine, spermidine, putersine and cadaverine with the DNAs. Polyamines bound stronger with AT rich DNA compared to the GC rich DNA and the binding varied depending on the charge on the polyamine as spermine>spermidine >putrescine>cadaverine. Thermodynamics of the interaction revealed that the binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution. The binding was influenced by salt concentration suggesting the contribution from electrostatic forces to the Gibbs energy of binding to be the dominant contributor. Each system studied exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation. The negative heat capacity changes suggested a role for hydrophobic interactions which may arise due to the non polar interactions between DNA and polyamines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: From a thermodynamic analysis, the AT base specificity of polyamines to DNAs has been elucidated for the first time and supplemented by structural studies.

  7. Species of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eBermúdez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.

  8. Ability of Kocuria varians LTH 1540 To Degrade Putrescine: Identification and Characterization of a Novel Amine Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Sara; Sendra, Ramón; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2015-04-29

    This work describes the identification and characterization of an amine oxidase from Kocuria varians LTH 1540 (syn. Micrococcus varians) primarily acting on putrescine. Data from MALDI-TOF MS/MS and the identification of Δ(1)-pyrroline as degradation product from putrescine indicate that the enzyme is a flavin-dependent putrescine oxidase (PuO). Properties of partially purified enzyme have been determined. The enzyme oxidizes diamines, putrescine and cadaverine, and, to a lesser extent, polyamines, such as spermidine, but not monoamines. The kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for the two major substrates were 94 ± 10 μM and 2.3 ± 0.1 μmol/min·mg for putrescine and 75 ± 5 μM and 0.15 ± 0.02 μmol/min·mg for cadaverine. Optimal temperature and pH were 45 °C and 8.5, respectively. Enzyme was stable until 50 °C. K. varians PuO is sensitive to human flavin-dependent amine oxidase inhibitors and carboxyl-modifying compounds. The new enzyme has been isolated from a bacterial starter used in the manufacture of fermented meat. One of the problems of fermented foods or beverages is the presence of toxic biogenic amines produced by bacteria. The importance of this works lies in the description of a new enzyme able to degrade two of the most abundant biogenic amines (putrescine and cadaverine), the use of which could be envisaged to diminish biogenic amines content in foods in the future.

  9. Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

    2011-07-01

    The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fermented liquid feed - Microbial and nutritional aspects and impact on enteric diseases in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    undesirable consequence of fermentation is the observed degradation of free lysine and concomitant cadaverine production during fermentation of liquid feed. However, the extent of this degradation is affected by various factors, including feed processing and temperature of incubation. Coliform bacteria....... Feeding FLF of good quality results in reduction of the number of enteric pathogens like coliforms and Salmonella, and the few published studies on its effect on important pig diseases like porcine proliferative enteropathy and swine dysentery also indicate reduction of the incidence of these diseases...

  11. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Perez

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  12. Mastitis Modifies the Biogenic Amines Profile in Human Milk, with Significant Changes in the Presence of Histamine, Putrescine and Spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marta; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Del Rio, Beatriz; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan Miguel; Martín, M Cruz; Fernandez, María; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are low molecular weight nitrogenous organic compounds with different biological activities. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for the development of the gut and immune system of newborns, and are all found in human milk. Little is known, however, about the role of histamine, tyramine or cadaverine in breast milk. Nor is it known whether mastitis alters the BA composition of milk. The BA profile of human milk, and the influence of mastitis on BA concentrations, were therefore investigated. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were the main BAs detected. In mastitis-affected milk, the concentrations of putrescine, spermine and histamine were higher.

  13. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Flasarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines have higher concentrations of biogenic amines.

  14. Administration of biogenic amines to Saanen kids: effects on growth performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fusi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present in all organisms. The most common are putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine, histamine, tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine. In low concentrations they are essential for the normal growth and differentiation of cells (Bardócz et al., 1995, but in larger quantities are harmful to humans and livestock. Biogenic amines are naturally present in silage; however their presence in high concentrations may be a sign of undesirable changes in the fermented forage and has been linked to low feed intake in ruminants (Van Os et al., 1996; 1997...

  15. Novel method for chemical modification and patterning of the SU-8 photoresist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Boisen, Anja

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new photochemical method to tailor and pattern the surface of SU-8 negative photoresist. Antraquinone (AQ) derivatives were used to chemically modify and pattern SU-8 surfaces. Using AQ derivatives with electophilic moieties (AQ-E), we could chemo-selectively change...... the wetting behaviour of SU-8. The resolution limit of the AQ photopatterning method was 20 μm when using an uncollimated light source. AQ modification followed by a reaction with amino groups of Alexa-647 cadaverine and a Biotin-amino derivative proved possible modification and patterning of polymeric...

  16. Biogenic amines and hygienic quality of lucerne silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlejnkova Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment examined the influence of two different silage additives of biological (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, enzyme xylanase and chemical (43% formic acid, 30% ammonium formate, 10% propionic acid, 2% benzoic acid types on biogenic amines concentration, nutrient content, fermentation process, and microbiologic indicators in lucerne (Medicago sativa silage after 90 days of fermentation. The biological additive significantly (P < 0.05 increased putrescine (+51%, lactic acid (+11% and protein content (+11% in comparison with control silage. It significantly decreased cadaverine (−29%, histamine (−57%, spermidine (−15%, spermine (−55%, acetic acid (−40%, ethanol (−55%, ammonium (−25% and ash (−9%. After the chemical-additive treatment, greater amounts of histamine and tyramine were recorded. Significant decrease was observed in the concentrations of putrescine (−18%, cadaverine (−55%, spermidine (−47%, spermine (−45%, lactic acid (−16%, acetic acid (−46%, ammonium (−59%, ash (−13% and fat (−24%. Populations of bacteria associated with lactic acid fermentation, moulds, yeasts, enterobacteria and total microorganisms count were also influenced. Both biological and chemical additives can be highly recommended for producing high-quality silages meeting hygienic requirements. In lucerne silage, the chemical preservative showed a stronger effect in achieving the health safety of silage compared to the biological inoculant.

  17. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

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    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  18. Biogenic Amine Production in Olomouc Curd Cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky at Various Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Standarová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and storage time on the formation of biogenic amines (BAs in the traditional Czech curd cheese (Olomoucké tvarůžky. Samples were stored for 7 weeks at 5 °C and 20 °C. BAs were studied as dansyl derivatives by the RP-HPLC method with fluorescence detection, histamine was determined using a photodiode array detector. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed as specified by the Czech National Standard, as were the sensory characteristics (colour, odour, texture and flavour. The major amines found were cadaverine (124–2413 mg kg-1 and tyramine (117–1058 mg kg-1, followed by putrescine (75–767 mg kg-1 and histamine (74–411 mg kg-1. Low concentrations of tryptamine, spermine and spermidine were present. Total concentrations of BAs significantly increased with storage time (P P -1 at the end of storage. The toxicologically critical value of 900 mg kg-1 for the sum of histamine + tyramine + putrescine + cadaverine was reached 17 days later in the cheese stored at 5 °C compared to 20 °C. When stored at 5 °C, the samples retained adequate sensory characteristics for the entire safe storage time. The effects of storage conditions on BAs formation are relevant to reducing the risk associated with consumption of cheese high in BAs.

  19. Transcript profiling of a bitter variety of narrow-leafed lupin to discover alkaloid biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Nagy, Istvan; Mancinotti, Davide; Otterbach, Sophie Lisa; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Asp, Torben; Geu-Flores, Fernando

    2017-11-28

    Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are nitrogen-fixing legumes that accumulate toxic alkaloids in their protein-rich beans. These anti-nutritional compounds belong to the family of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. To unleash the potential of lupins as protein crops and as sources of QAs, a thorough understanding of the QA pathway is needed. However, only the first enzyme in the pathway, lysine decarboxylase (LDC), is known. Here, we report the transcriptome of a high-QA variety of narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius), obtained using eight different tissues and two different sequencing technologies. In addition, we present a list of 33 genes that are closely co-expressed with LDC and that represent strong candidates for involvement in lupin alkaloid biosynthesis. One of these genes encodes a copper amine oxidase able to convert the product of LDC, cadaverine, into 1-piperideine, as shown by heterologous expression and enzyme assays. Kinetic analysis revealed a low KM value for cadaverine, supporting a role as the second enzyme in the QA pathway. Our transcriptomic data set represents a crucial step towards the discovery of enzymes, transporters, and regulators involved in lupin alkaloid biosynthesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products.

  1. Effectiveness of a Lactobacillus sakei starter culture in the reduction of biogenic amine accumulation as a function of the raw material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, S; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of an amine-negative starter culture (Lactobacillus sakei CTC494) in the reduction of biogenic amine production during the ripening of fermented sausages was examined. Four batches were manufactured in parallel: spontaneously fermented and starter-mediated sausages were manufactured from two lots of raw materials of different hygienic quality. Besides the biogenic amine contents, changes in the microbial counts, nitrogenous fractions, pH, and water content were measured at several sampling points during the ripening process. In sausages manufactured from good quality meat, the starter strain of L. sakei reduced and even inhibited biogenic amine accumulation during sausage fermentation, the end products showing extremely low biogenic amine contents (tyramine levels less than 15 mg/kg of dry matter and putrescine and cadaverine levels less than 5 mg/kg of dry matter). Nevertheless, starter-mediated sausages made from poorer-quality raw materials showed much higher amine contents (308, 223, and 36 mg/kg of dry matter of cadaverine, tyramine, and putrescine, respectively), which were only slightly lower than those of the spontaneously fermented sausages made from the same raw materials. The relatively high bacterial numbers of raw materials of poorer-hygienic quality diminished the beneficial effect of the starter strain. Therefore, the effectiveness of the starter was strongly dependent on the hygienic quality of the raw materials used.

  2. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forzale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore” cheeses belonging to same batch were tested during ripening time, up to 5 months. BAs content was analyzed by an HPLC-UV method. The BAs content was significantly higher in the core than in the external part. Tyramine was the amine most frequently detected and largely quantized, followed by putrescine, histamine and cadaverine.

  3. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    . The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink......One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests...

  4. Assessing the quality of sardine based on biogenic amines using a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Davood; Ghazali, H M

    2017-04-15

    There is an increasing concern about the quality and quality assessment procedures of seafood. In the present study, a model to assess fish quality based on biogenic amine contents using fuzzy logic model (FLM) is proposed. The fish used was sardine (Sardinella sp.) where the production of eight biogenic amines was monitored over fifteen days of storage at 0, 3 and 10°C. Based on the results, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were selected as input variables and twelve quality grades were considered for quality of fish as output variables for the FLM. Input data were processed by rules established in the model and were then defuzzified according to defined output variables. Finally, the quality of fish was evaluated using the designed model and Pearson correlation between storage times with quality of fish showed r=0.97, 0.95 and 1 for fish stored at 0, 3 and 10°C, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Recent Applications of Ion Mobility Spectrometry in Diagnosis of Vaginal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeev Karpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal infections (vaginosis globally affect more than 15% of the female population of reproductive age. However, diagnosis of vaginosis and differentiating between the three common types: bacterial vaginosis (BV, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, and trichomoniasis are challenging. Elevated levels of the biogenic amines, trimethylamine (TMA, putrescine, and cadaverine have been found in vaginal discharge fluid of women with vaginosis. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS is particularly suitable for measurement of amines even in complex biological matrices due to their high proton affinity and has been shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of vaginal infections. Recent developments that have increased the accuracy of the technique for diagnosis of BV and simplified sample introduction are described here.

  6. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  7. Physiological and oenological traits of different Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains under wine-model conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; Romano, Andrea; Compagno, Concetta; Merico, Annamaria; Molinari, Francesco; Tirelli, Antonio; Foschino, Roberto; Volonterio, Gaspare

    2008-11-01

    Contamination of wine by Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis is mostly due to the production of off-flavours identified as vinyl- and especially ethyl-phenols, but these yeasts can also produce several other spoiling metabolites, such as acetic acid and biogenic amines. Little information is available about the correlation between growth, viability and off-flavour and biogenic amine production. In the present work, five strains of Dekkera bruxellensis isolated from wine were analysed over 3 months in wine-like environment for growth, cell survival, carbon source utilization and production of volatile phenols and biogenic amines. Our data indicate that the wine spoilage potential of D. bruxellensis is strain dependent, being strictly associated with the ability to grow under oenological conditions. 4-Ethyl-phenol and 4-ethyl-guaiacol production ranged between 0 and 2.7 and 2 mg L(-1), respectively, depending on the growth conditions. Putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine were the biogenic amines found.

  8. Effect of delayed icing on biogenic amines formation and bacterial contribution of iced common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hamzeh, Ali; Moslemi, Mehran; Lashkan, Aria Babakhani; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesús

    2013-12-12

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine) were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05) more than those with 0 and 4 h delay.

  9. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Hosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs and total viable count (TVC in common carp (Cyprinus carpio stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05 more than those with 0 and 4 h delay.

  10. Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2015-05-15

    Eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonin) were determined by LC-UV after derivatization with dansyl-chloride in both ground coffee and coffee beverages obtained by different methods. In ground coffee, the most relevant amine was PUT, followed by SPD, HIS, TYR, CAD, SPM, PHE, and SER, with the total BAs content decreasing as the roasting degree increased. In coffee brews, the order was PUT, SPM, TYR, CAD, SPD, PHE, HIS, and SER, but at a very low level in comparison with the amount of BAs determined in roasted ground coffee. Beverages prepared by espresso, capsule, and pod machines had the lowest BAs contents, as a result of the thermal and physical stress imposed on ground coffee by these methods, while mocha contained the highest BAs amounts owing to lower pressure and longer brewing time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of surface yeast flora of Roquefort cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besançon, X; Smet, C; Chabalier, C; Rivemale, M; Reverbel, J P; Ratomahenina, R; Galzy, P

    1992-09-01

    The change in yeast flora on the surface of two batches of Roquefort cheese was monitored over a period of 6 months. 401 isolates were determined and their technological properties were investigated. The main species isolated were: Debaryomyces hansenii and its non sporulating form Candida famata, Kluyveromyces lactis and its non sporulating form Candida sphaerica and Candida species. The species Debaryomyces hansenii inoculated on the surface of the cheese in one of the batches just before the salting phase was abundant throughout the ripening phases but never exceeded 50% of the yeast count. About 80% of the isolates of each species were resistant to 15% (w/v) of sodium chloride. Most of the species were able to assimilate lactose and lactic acid. 50-90% of the isolates of each species were able to hydrolyze rapeseed oil and glycerol tributyrate. Ten isolates among 401 hydrolyzed gelatin. Most of them were able to assimilate cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine.

  12. Inhibition of in vivo histamine metabolism in rats by foodborne and pharmacologic inhibitors of diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, J.Y.; Taylor, S.L.

    1985-11-01

    When (/sup 14/C)histamine was administered orally to rats, an average of 80% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine at the end of 24 hr. About 10% of the total dose was excreted via the feces. Analysis of 4-hr urine samples found imidazoleacetic acid to be the predominant metabolite (60.6%), with N tau-methylimidazoleacetic acid (8.6%), N tau-methylhistamine (7.3%), and N-acetylhistamine (4.5%) to be the minor metabolites. Histamine metabolism was inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of aminoguanidine, isoniazid, quinacrine, cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, and beta-phenylethylamine. The administration of inhibitors resulted in an increased amount of unmetabolized histamine and a decreased amount of metabolites reaching the urine. Pharmacologic inhibitors were found to be more potent and have a longer duration of action than foodborne ones. The inhibitors could potentiate food poisoning caused by histamine by inhibiting its metabolism.

  13. Effet des polyamines sur la réduction du chrome hexavalent par des souches bactériennes et leur résistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahri Joutey, N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of polyamines on the reduction of hexavalent chromium by bacterial strains and their resistance. Polyamines are involved in several functions in bacteria. In this study, we examined the role of polyamines in hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] reduction by three bacterial strains isolated from sites contaminated by tannery effluents. The strains were identified as Serratia proteamaculans, Leucobacter chromiireducens and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The inhibition of polyamine synthesis by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused a decrease in Cr(VI tolerance in the bacterial isolates, indicating the role of endogenous polyamines in resistance to Cr(VI. The exogenous application of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, cadaverine was found to stimulate growth and Cr(VI reduction by the bacterial strains in Luria-Bertani medium. The results show the importance of polyamines in response to heavy metal stresses, especially Cr(VI toxicity.

  14. Simultaneous determination of histamine and polyamines by capillary zone electrophoresis with 4-fluor-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Yao; Tang, Xing-Chun; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2005-06-25

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with fluorescence detection was applied to the simultaneous determination of histamine and polyamines including spermine, spermidine, diaminopropane, putrescine, cadaverine, diaminohexane with 4-fluor-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) as the fluorescent derivatization reagent. The seven NBD-F labeled amines was separated within 200 s using 85 mM phosphate running buffer at pH 3.0. The concentration limits of these amines ranged from 5.1 x 10(-8) M for spermine to 2.1 x 10(-8) M for histamine. The relative standard deviations for migration time and peak height were less than 1.5% and 6.0%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in the lysate of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, and spermidine and putrescine were detected in the lysate with satisfying recovery.

  15. Influence of packaging conditions on biogenic amines and fatty acids evolution during 15months storage of a typical spreadable salami ('Nduja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Bonesi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Picci, Nevio; Restuccia, Donatella

    2016-12-15

    The study evaluated the fatty acids and the biogenic amines (BAs) in 'Nduja of Spilinga stored in different packaging materials (i.e. natural casing under vacuum, glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®) during 15months of shelf-life. Raw materials and pepper mixture were analysed as well. BAs concentrations increased with time, tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) were the most abundant. BAs in natural casing were always higher than those found in glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®. Total fatty acids were characterized by higher level of unsaturated fatty acid that decreased with time (glass jar>natural casing under vacuum>aluminum tube>OVTENE®). The reduction of PUFA is the consequence of the increase of peroxides and carbonyls reacting with amino acids to form BAs. This was confirmed by Pearson's correlation matrices implying that lipid oxidation processes were in some way linked to the chemical production of BAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Form in Which Nitrogen Is Supplied Affects the Polyamines, Amino Acids, and Mineral Composition of Sweet Pepper Fruit under an Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Maria C; Otálora, Ginés; Porras, Manuel E; Sánchez-Guerrero, Mari C; Lorenzo, Pilar; Medrano, Evangelina; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of supplying nitrogen, as NO3(-) or as NO3(-)/NH4(+), on the composition of fruits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Melchor) plants grown with different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]): ambient or elevated (800 μmol mol(-1)). The results show that the application of NH4(+) and high [CO2] affected the chroma related to the concentrations of chlorophylls. The concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mg, P, and Zn were significantly reduced in the fruits of plants nourished with NH4(+), the loss of Fe being more dramatic at increased [CO2], which was also the case with the protein concentration. The concentration of total phenolics was increased by NH4(+), being unaffected by [CO2]. Globally, the NH4(+) was the main factor that affected fruit free amino acid concentrations. Polyamines were affected differently: putrescine was increased by elevated [CO2], while the response of cadaverine depended on the form of N supplied.

  17. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

    2013-01-03

    The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7ppm for putrescine and cadaverine with all three devices. Considering the uncertainty in the LOD determination there is almost no statistically significant difference between the three devices although they differ in their operating temperature, ionization method, drift tube design and dopant chemistry. This finding may have general implications on the achievable performance of classic IMS devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed.

  19. Lysine-derived Alkaloids: Overview and Update on Biosynthesis and Medicinal Applications with Emphasis on Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    Plants produce a vast variety of specialized metabolites which can be a rich source for lead compounds for the development of new drugs. Alkaloids are one the largest groups of plant specialized metabolites important for natural product based pharmaceuticals. Of these, lysine (Lys)-derived alkaloids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties which are beneficial for humans. For instance they have anticancer, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic and antiarrhtymic effects. Lys-derived alkaloids are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom: they can be found in various species from clubmosses to flowering plants. Lys is one of the most essential amino acids for humans and livestock and is synthesized in the plastids of land plants. Lys-derived alkaloids can be divided into four major groups including quinolizidine, lycopodium, piperidine, and indolizidine alkaloids. Despite the importance of these compounds, the biosynthetic pathways of Lys-derived alkaloids are not well understood. With the exception of indolizidine alkaloids, Lys decarboxylase (LDC) is the enzyme involved in the first committed step of the biosynthesis by catalyzing the transformation of L-Lys into cadaverine. Cadaverine is then oxidized by copper amine oxidase (CuAO) and spontaneously cyclized to Δ1-piperideine Schiff base which is a universal intermediate for the production of various Lys-derived alkaloids. In this review, we briefly summarize the recent understanding about the structures, occurrences, analytical procedures, biosyntheses, and potential health effects and medical applications of Lys-derived alkaloids with emphasis on quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Polyamines as Snake Toxins and Their Probable Pharmacological Functions in Envenomation

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    Steven D. Aird

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid for spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Most venoms contained all four polyamines, although some in essentially trace quantities. Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g; however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine and cadaverine than spermine, but still at levels that are likely to be biologically insignificant. As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey envenomation, prey immobilization via hypotension and paralysis. Most venoms probably do not contain sufficient quantities of polyamines to induce systemic effects in prey; however, local effects seem probable. A review of the pharmacological literature suggests that spermine could contribute to prey hypotension and paralysis by interacting with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors, blood platelets, ryanodine receptors, and Ca2+-ATPase. It also blocks many types of cation-permeable channels by interacting with negatively charged amino acid residues in the channel mouths. The site of envenomation probably determines which physiological targets assume the greatest importance; however, venom-induced liberation of endogenous, intracellular stores of polyamines could potentially have systemic implications and may contribute significantly to envenomation sequelae.

  1. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  2. Potential of starter culture to reduce biogenic amines accumulation in som-fug, a Thai traditional fermented fish sausage

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    Jirasak Kongkiattikajorn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei KM5474 and Lactobacillus plantarum KM1450 on the accumulation of biogenic amines (BAs in Thai traditional fermented fish sausage. BAs formation (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, and tyramine was significantly higher in som-fug fermentation without starter culture. Accumulation of these BAs in som-fug could reduce significantly by the incubation with of L. sakei KM5474 and L. plantarum KM1450. The influence of the availability of free amino acids (FAAs on BA formation during the fermentation of som-fug with and without starter culture was also investigated. The significant differences in the amount of some FAAs among batches would be partially attributed to the distinct proteolytic and BAs accumulation of specific microbiota of each batch. In general, amounts of FAA were related with their corresponding BAs. In batch control of the availability of practically all FAA precursors, BA formation could be observed. The formation of some BAs (histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and phenylethylamine occurring in batch control was related to the amounts of FAA precursors (histidine, arginine, lysine, and phenylalanine. Starter culture L. plantarum KM1450 was more efficient in reducing BA accumulation in som-fug than that of starter culture L. sakei KM5474, while mixed starter cultures of L. sakei KM5474 and L. plantarum KM1450 showed the highest effectiveness in reducing BA accumulation during som-fug fermentation compared with the sample sausage without starter culture or with monostarter culture.

  3. Gamma-Glutamylpolyamine Synthetase GlnA3 Is Involved in the First Step of Polyamine Degradation Pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor M145

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    Agnieszka Bera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor M145 was shown to be able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of polyamines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, or spermine, as a sole nitrogen source. However, hardly anything is known about polyamine utilization and its regulation in streptomycetes. In this study, we demonstrated that only one of the three proteins annotated as glutamine synthetase-like protein, GlnA3 (SCO6962, was involved in the catabolism of polyamines. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of glnA3 was strongly induced by exogenous polyamines and repressed in the presence of ammonium. The ΔglnA3 mutant was shown to be unable to grow on defined Evans agar supplemented with putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine as sole nitrogen source. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the ΔglnA3 mutant accumulated polyamines intracellularly, but was unable to degrade them. In a rich complex medium supplemented with a mixture of the four different polyamines, the ΔglnA3 mutant grew poorly showing abnormal mycelium morphology and decreased life span in comparison to the parental strain. These observations indicated that the accumulation of polyamines was toxic for the cell. An in silico analysis of the GlnA3 protein model suggested that it might act as a gamma-glutamylpolyamine synthetase catalyzing the first step of polyamine degradation. GlnA3-catalyzed glutamylation of putrescine was confirmed in an enzymatic in vitro assay and the GlnA3 reaction product, gamma-glutamylputrescine, was detected by HPLC/ESI-MS. In this work, the first step of polyamine utilization in S. coelicolor has been elucidated and the putative polyamine utilization pathway has been deduced based on the sequence similarity and transcriptional analysis of homologous genes expressed in the presence of polyamines.

  4. Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium from Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Vanessa K; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Golke, Jan; Saw, Jimmy H W; Alam, Maqsudul; Donachie, Stuart P

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, helical bacterium designated PH27AT was cultivated from an anchialine pool on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The obligately halophilic strain was motile by bipolar tufts of flagella and grew optimally at pH 7, and microaerobically or aerobically. Closest neighbours based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence identity are Marinospirillum celere v1c_Sn-redT (93.31 %) and M. alkaliphilum Z4T (92.10 %) in the family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. PH27AT is distinguished phenotypically from members of the genus Marinospirillum by its hydrolysis of gelatin, the absence of growth in media containing ≤ 1 % (w/v) NaCl and the ranges of temperature (12–40 °C) and pH (5–8) for growth. The major compound ubiquinone Q-9 distinguishes the quinone system of strain PH27AT from those in members of the genus Marinospirillum and other members of the Oceanospirillaceae, in which the major quinone is Q-8. Major polar lipids in PH27AT were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine. Spermidine and cadaverine dominated the polyamine pattern; large proportions of cadaverine have not been reported in members of the genus Marinospirillum. Genotypic and chemotaxonomic data show that PH27AT does not belong in the genus Marinospirillum or other genera of the family Oceanospirillaceae or the Halomonadaceae. We propose a new genus, Terasakiispira gen. nov., be created to accommodate Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species, with PH27AT ( = ATCC BAA-995T = DSM 16455T = DSM 23961T) as the type strain.

  5. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

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    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Formation of Biogenic Amines in Chicken Meat Stored under Modified Atmosphere

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    Leo Gallas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of two modified atmospheres with a different combination of gases on selected groups of microorganisms and on concentrations of biogenic amines (BAs in samples of poultry breast muscle. The samples were packaged under modified atmosphere A (75% O2 a 25% CO2 or B (75% N2 and 25% CO2 and stored at temperatures from +2 to +4 °C for 14 days. During the storage period, O2 concentrations in modified atmosphere A (MA A decreased from the initial 74.8 ± 0.3% to 55.9 ± 6.6% at the end of the storage period. In all samples, counts of psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria and coliform microorganism were determined. The tests were made on the packaging day, and then after three, nine and fourteen days of storage. At the end of the storage period, higher numbers of psychrotrophic bacteria (6.5 ± 0.7 log10 cfu g-1, Brochothrix thermosphacta (4.8 ± 0.3 log10 cfu g-1 and lactic acid bacteria (1.7 ± 0.4 log10 cfu g-1 were found on samples packaged under MA A. Samples packaged under modified atmosphere B on the other hand contained higher numbers of coliform bacteria (4.1 ± 0.6 log10 cfu g-1 at the end of the storage period. In addition to microbiological indicators, concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine and β-phenylethylamine were also determined. In fresh samples and after three days of storage, only spermine and spermidine were found. After 9 and 14 days, also other BAs were detected. The biogenic amine totals at the end of the storage period was 60.0 ± 13.2 mg kg-1 in samples packaged under MA A and 129.0 ± 41.3 mg kg-1 in samples packaged under MA B. The most abundantly represented biogenic amines in samples packaged under MA A were putrescine and spermine (49.7 and 24.8%, respectively, at the end of the storage period, and putrescine and cadaverine in samples packaged under MA B (47.0 and 32

  7. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, Zeev, E-mail: karpas4@netvision.net.il [3QBD, Arad (Israel); Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Guaman, Ana V., E-mail: aguaman@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pardo, Antonio, E-mail: apardo@el.ub.edu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Santiago, E-mail: smarco@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-01-03

    Graphical abstract: The response to different amounts of TMA (in {mu}g) that were placed in a headspace vial as a function of time for the VG-Test (top) and the GDA (bottom). Note that the ratio [TMA/(TMA + TEP)] (top) and [TMA/(TMA + RIP)] (bottom) and the clearance time increase with the amount of TMA deposited in the vial. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First comparison of performance of IMS devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gas-phase ion chemistry affected by operational parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limits of detection quite similar despite differences in devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LODs determined in controlled continuous flow and in headspace vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exponential dilution of headspace studies. - Abstract: The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2 ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7 ppm for putrescine and cadaverine

  8. Different sensitivity levels to norspermidine on biofilm formation in clinical and commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón-Peréz, Miriam L; Díaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel; Peralta, Humberto; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino Diaz, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation on medical and surgical devices is the main virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. A recent study has shown that norspermidine inhibits and disassembles the biofilm in the wild-type Bacillus subtilis NCBI3610 strain. In this study, the effect of norspermidine on S. epidermidis biofilm formation of clinical or commensal strains was tested. Biofilm producing strains of S. epidermidis were isolated from healthy skin (HS; n = 3), healthy conjunctiva (HC; n = 9) and ocular infection (OI; n = 19). All strains were treated with different concentrations of norspermidine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine (1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μM), and the biofilm formation was tested on microtiter plate. Besides, cell-free supernatants of S. epidermidis growth at 4 h and 40 h were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect norspermidine. Results showed that norspermidine at 25 μM and 100 μM prevented the biofilm formation in 45.16% (14/31) and 16.13% (5/31), respectively; only in one isolate from OI, norspermidine did not have effect. Other polyamines as spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine did not have effect on the biofilm formation of the strains tested. Norspermidine was also capable to disassemble a biofilm already formed. Norspermidine was detected in the 40 h cell-free supernatant of S. epidermidis by GC-MS. Norspermidine inhibited the biofilm development of S. epidermidis on the surface of contact lens. In this work, it was demonstrated that S. epidermidis produces and releases norspermidine causing an inhibitory effect on biofilm formation. Moreover, this is the first time showing that clinical S. epidermidis strains have different sensitivity to norspermidine, which suggest that the composition and structure of the biofilms is varied. We propose that norspermidine could potentially be used in the pre-treating of medical and surgical devices to inhibit the biofilm formation. Copyright

  9. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis on the Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during Refrigerated Storage

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    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3% of rosemary oil (RO on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food.

  10. The histamine content of dried flying fish products in Taiwan and the isolation of halotolerant histamine-forming bacteria

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    Hsien-Feng Kung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty dried flying fish products were purchased from fishing village stores in Taiwan and tested to detect the presence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Except for histamine and cadaverine, the average content of various biogenic amines in the tested samples was less than 3.5 mg/100 g. Eight (26.6% dried flying fish samples had histamine levels greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration guideline of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or scombroid products, whereas four (13.3% samples contained more than the hazard action level of 50 mg/100 g. One histamine-producing bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by 16S rDNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. This isolate was capable of producing 507.8 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine (TSBH. The S. xylosus isolate was a halotolerant bacterium that had a consistent ability to produce more than 300 ppm of histamine at 3% sodium chloride concentration in TSBH medium after 72 hours.

  11. Effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of tropical red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fillets stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Chopin, Christine; Cornet, Josiane; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2018-02-02

    The effect of vacuum (VP - 4°C) and CO 2 /N 2 -atmosphere (MAP - 4°C) packaging on the quality of red drum fillets compared with whole gutted iced fish was investigated. A metagenomic approach, bacterial enumeration and isolation, biochemical and sensory analyses were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of whole fish was observed at day 15 whereas VP and MAP fillets appeared unacceptable only after 29days. At these dates, total mesophilic counts reached 10 7 -10 8 CFU g -1 . According to Illumina MiSeq sequencing, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus and Kocuria were the main genera of the fresh red drum fillets. At the sensory rejection time, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), particularly Carnobacterium sp., dominated the microbiota of both types of packaging. The pH value of fresh samples was between 5.96 and 6.37 and did not vary greatly in all trials. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA) concentrations were low and not represent reliable indicators of the spoilage, contrary to some biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine). Chilled packed fillets of red drum have an extended shelf-life compared to whole gutted iced fish. Overall, few differences in sensory and microbial quality were observed between the VP and MAP samples. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) provided data on the microbiota of a tropical fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of chitosan oligosaccharides on microbiota composition of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) determined by culture-dependent and independent methods during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shiliang; Liu, Xiaochang; Huang, Zhan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-03-02

    This study evaluated the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on the changes in quality and microbiota of silver carp fillets stored at 4 °C. During storage, 1% (w/v) COS treated samples maintained good quality, as evidenced by retarding sensory deterioration, inhibiting microbial growth, attenuating the production of total volatile basic nitrogen, putrescine, cadaverine and hypoxanthine, and delaying degradation of inosine monophosphate and hypoxanthine ribonucleotide. Meanwhile, variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples was investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of silver carp fillets was 4 days for the control and 6 days for COS treated samples. Meanwhile, Pseudomonas, followed by Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, and Shewanella were dominated in the control samples at day 4 and contributed to fish spoilage at day 6. However, COS inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Shewanella significantly. Consequently, Acinetobacter followed by Pseudomonas became the predominant microbiota in COS treated samples at day 6. With the growth of Pseudomonas, COS treated samples were spoiled at day 8. Therefore, COS improved the quality of fillets and prolonged the shelf life of silver carp fillets by 2 days during chilled storage, which was mainly due to their modulating effects on microbiota. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient Production of Enantiopure d-Lysine from l-Lysine by a Two-Enzyme Cascade System

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    Xin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbial production of d-lysine has been of great interest as a medicinal raw material. Here, a two-step process for d-lysine production from l-lysine by the successive microbial racemization and asymmetric degradation with lysine racemase and decarboxylase was developed. The whole-cell activities of engineered Escherichia coli expressing racemases from the strains Proteus mirabilis (LYR and Lactobacillus paracasei (AAR were first investigated comparatively. When the strain BL21-LYR with higher racemization activity was employed, l-lysine was rapidly racemized to give dl-lysine, and the d-lysine yield was approximately 48% after 0.5 h. Next, l-lysine was selectively catabolized to generate cadaverine by lysine decarboxylase. The comparative analysis of the decarboxylation activities of resting whole cells, permeabilized cells, and crude enzyme revealed that the crude enzyme was the best biocatalyst for enantiopure d-lysine production. The reaction temperature, pH, metal ion additive, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate content of this two-step production process were subsequently optimized. Under optimal conditions, 750.7 mmol/L d-lysine was finally obtained from 1710 mmol/L l-lysine after 1 h of racemization reaction and 0.5 h of decarboxylation reaction. d-lysine yield could reach 48.8% with enantiomeric excess (ee ≥ 99%.

  14. Effect of chitosan treatments on quality parameters of fresh refrigerated swordfish (Xiphias gladius) steaks stored in air and under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligianni, Maria; Papavergou, Eikaterini; Soultos, Nikolaos; Magra, Taxiarhoula; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of chitosan (1.0% w/v) in combination with packaging on the shelf-life of fresh swordfish steaks. Treatments included the following: A (untreated, control samples stored in air), A-CH (treated with chitosan 1.0% w/v, stored in air), VP (untreated, stored under vacuum packaging) and VP-CH (treated with chitosan, stored under vacuum packaging). VP-CH significantly affected Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Production of TMA-N and TVB-N for A-CH, VP and VP-CH swordfish samples was significantly lower than for control (A) samples at day 8 of storage. Histamine formation for all treatments was low. A-CH and VP-CH resulted in significantly lower levels of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (day 8) as compared to A and VP swordfish samples. Results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of swordfish steaks can be extended using, either aerobic or vacuum packaging and in combination with chitosan, by approximately 4 (A-CH), 8 (VP) and 12 (VP-CH) days. Swordfish steaks treated with chitosan and stored under VP were sensorially acceptable up to 17days. The presence of chitosan (A-CH and VP-CH) did not negatively influence the taste of cooked swordfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  16. Stationary-phase genes upregulated by polyamines are responsible for the formation of Escherichia coli persister cells tolerant to netilmicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Alexander G; Kashevarova, Natalya M; Tyuleneva, Elena A; Shumkov, Mikhail S

    2017-05-01

    Persisters are rare phenotypic variants of regular bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses owing to slowing down of their metabolism. Recently, we have shown that polyamine putrescine can upregulate persister cell formation in Escherichia coli via the stimulation of rpoS expression, encoding a master regulator of general stress response. We hypothesized that rmf and yqjD, the stationary-phase genes responsible for ribosome inactivation, might be good candidates for the similar role owing to their involvement in translational arrest and the ability to be affected by polyamines. Using reporter gene fusions or single and multiple knockout mutations in rpoS, rmf and yqjD genes, we show in this work that (i) E. coli polyamines spermidine and cadaverine can upregulate persistence, like putrescine; (ii) polyamine effects on persister cell formation are mediated through stimulation of expression of rpoS, rmf and yqjD genes; (iii) these genes are involved in persister cell formation sequentially in a dynamic fashion as cells enter the stationary phase. The data obtained in this work can be used to develop novel tools relying on a suppression of polyamine metabolism in bacteria to combat persister cells as an important cause of infections refractory to antibiotics. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biodiversity and safety aspects of yeast strains characterized from vineyards and spontaneous fermentations in the Apulia Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristezza, Mariana; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Logrieco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    This work is the first large-scale study on vineyard-associated yeast strains from Apulia (Southern Italy). Yeasts were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) ribotyping and bioinformatic analysis. The polymorphism of interdelta elements was used to differentiate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Twenty different species belonging to 9 genera were identified. Predominant on the grape surface were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Aureobasidium pullulans, whereas M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum were dominant in the early fermentation stage. A total of 692 S. cerevisiae isolates were identified and a number of S. cerevisiae strains, ranging from 26 to 55, was detected in each of the eight fermentations. The strains were tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, either in synthetic media or grape must. Two Pichia manshurica, an Issatchenkia terricola and a M. pulcherrima strains were able to produce histamine and cadaverine, during must fermentation. The production of BAs in wine must was different than that observed in the synthetic medium. This feature indicate the importance of an "in grape must" assessment of BAs producing yeast. Overall, our results suggest the importance of microbiological control during wine-making to reduce the potential health risk for consumer represented by these spoilage yeasts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

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    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  19. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  20. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

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    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  1. Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Morris, Peter C; Keane, Mark A

    2013-04-10

    While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations>1mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (KM)=190μM and maximum rate (kcat)=21.8s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower KM (=60μM) and comparable kcat (=18.2s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of an HPLC-UV method for the identification and quantification of bioactive amines in chicken meat

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    D.C.S. Assis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV method was validated for the study of bioactive amines in chicken meat. A gradient elution system with an ultraviolet detector was used after extraction with trichloroacetic acid and pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine, and spermine standards were used for the evaluation of the following performance parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, recovery, limits of detection, limits of quantification and ruggedness. The results indicated excellent selectivity, separation of all amines, a coefficient of determination greater than 0.99 and recovery from 92.25 to 102.25% at the concentration of 47.2mg.kg-1, with a limit of detection at 0.3mg.kg-1 and a limit of quantification at 0.9mg.kg-1 for all amines, with the exception of histamine, which exhibited the limit of quantification, of 1mg.kg-1. In conclusion, the performance parameters demonstrated adequacy of the method for the detection and quantification of bioactive amines in chicken meat.

  3. Impact of Cell-free Supernatant of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Putrescine and Other Polyamine Formation by Foodborne Pathogens in Ornithine Decarboxylase Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Fatih; Tabanelli, Giulia; Toy, Nurten; Gardini, Fausto

    2015-06-24

    Conversion of ornithine to putrescine by Salmonella Paratyphi A, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was investigated in ornithine decarboxylase broth (ODB) using cell-free supernatants (CFSs) obtained from Leuconostoc mesenterodies subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus. Two groups of cell-free supernatants (25 or 50%) and control (only ODB) were prepared to investigate putrescine (PUT) and other polyamine formation by foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the species for each amine. All of the CFSs reduced the formation of PUT by ≥65%. The production of cadaverine (CAD) was scarcely affected by the presence of CFSs, with the exception of the samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The variation in polyamine was found with respect to the control samples. Spermidine (SPD) was produced in lower amount in many samples, especially in Gram-negative FBPs, whereas spermine (SPN) increased drastically in the major part of the samples concerning the control. Histamine (HIS) was characterized by a marked concentration decrease in all of the samples, and tyramine (TYR) was accumulated in very low concentrations in the controls. Therefore, the ability of bacteria to produce certain biogenic amines such as HIS, TYR, PUT, and CAD has been studied to assess their risk and prevent their formation in food products. The results obtained from this study concluded that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with non-decarboxylase activity are capable of avoiding or limiting biogenic amine formation by FBP.

  4. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

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    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  5. Indicators of protein spoilage in fresh and defrosted crustaceans and cephalopods stored in domestic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Altissimi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In relation to consumer demand, crustaceans and cephalopods are sold as both fresh and defrosted. It is well known that total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and volatile amine values, especially, biogenic amines and biogenic amine index, are expression of freshness of fish products, but there is a lack of knowledge of their acceptability limits, for crustaceans and cephalopods. In order to assess these limits, real-time shelf life tests were carried out, relating the results of TVB-N, biogenic amines and BAI to the sensory evaluation of crustaceans and cuttlefishes, both fresh and defrosted. TVB-N and biogenic amines have been analysed in many shrimp species and cuttlefishes purchased in Perugia (Central Italy, and BAI was calculated as the ratio between different biogenic amines. The results show levels of TVB-N and spermine different between shrimp and cuttlefish (TVB-N: 37 vs. 14 mg/100 g; spermine: 4 vs. 14 mg/kg, respectively while the other biogenic amines and BAI are close to zero in both. Among biogenic amines, cadaverine and even more putrescine significantly affect BAI values and seem to be the most effective in assessing limits of acceptability during storage.

  6. Taxonomic study of anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria from breweries: emended description of Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and description of Pectinatus frisingensis sp. nov., Selenomonas lacticifex sp. nov., Zymophilus raffinosivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Zymophilus paucivorans sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, K H; Leuteritz, M; Weiss, N; Ludwig, W; Kirchhof, G; Seidel-Rüfer, H

    1990-01-01

    A collection of 47 strains of obligately anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated mainly from spoiled beer and pitching yeast was studied to learn more about their taxonomic positions. A new species of the genus Pectinatus, Pectinatus frisingensis, a new species of the genus Selenomonas, Selenomonas lacticifex, and a new genus comprising two species, Zymophilus raffinosivorans and Zymophilus paucivorans, are described. All of the strains contained directly cross-linked meso-diaminopimelic acid-containing peptidoglycan and in addition the diamine cadaverine or (rarely) putrescine. The diamine was covalently linked to the alpha-carboxyl group of D-glutamic acid in the peptide subunit of peptidoglycan. Lipid F was also found as a characteristic cellular compound. The phylogenetic relationships of members of these new species were examined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA or by DNA-DNA hybridization studies or both. All of the organisms belong to the subdivision containing species with gram-negative cell walls within the phylum of gram-positive bacteria. This finding is in good agreement with the presence of a peptidoglycan that contains diamine.

  7. Alteration of metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets with in-feed antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Yu, Kaifan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Chuanjian; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-04-01

    In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.

  8. Changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking of Sauvignon wines

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    Karin Kovačević Ganić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking and maturation processes of wines made from Vitis vinifera cv Sauvignon grapes from Slavonia region (vintage 2008. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. Samples used in this study were obtained during production of Sauvignon wines in three different ways in order to produce quality wine (QW, quality press wine (QPW and macerated wines (MW. The QPW corresponds to the first fraction obtained by direct pressing pomace, while the QW is the free run wine. The MW was obtained by grape mash cryomaceration. Putrescine and tryptamine were the most prevalent amines, followed by histamine, cadaverine and tyramine. The macerated wine posses higher content of biogenic amines than press and free run wines. In all analysed wines the content of biogenic amines tends to increase during winemaking and maturation and the main increase was detected during the malolactic fermentation. The detected content of histamine and tyramine were below the content considered to have an adverse effect on human health.

  9. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  10. Influence of technological conditions of sausage fermentation on the aminogenic activity of L. curvatus CTC273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Bosch-Fusté, J; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2012-02-01

    The influence of technological factors (temperature and relative humidity of the manufacturing process and the diameter of the sausage) on the aminogenic activity of the strain Lactobacillus curvatus CTC273 was evaluated. Inoculation of sausages with L. curvatus CTC273 resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of biogenic amines (higher than 1000 mg/kg dry matter in some samples) during the manufacture of fuet and llonganissa sausages. Sausages produced via process 'A' (3 days at 20-23 °C and 90-95% RH followed by 20 days at 12-14 °C and 70% RH) contained significantly higher amounts (p manufactured via process 'B' (23 days at 12-13 °C and 70-90% RH), specifically tyramine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine in llonganissa and phenylethylamine in fuet. The higher fermentation temperature and relative humidity during the fermentation stage in process 'A' promoted decarboxylase activity in L. curvatus CTC273 and thus favoured amine accumulation. The diameter of the sausages also influenced biogenic amine production. Higher amine levels were found (p manufacturing conditions. The effect of the factors considered on the modulation of aminogenic activity is not necessarily linked to the effect of strain growth, but chiefly favouring proteolytic and decarboxylase reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients.

  12. Application of PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicles to detect pathogenic bacteria in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Taíla V; Soares, Nilda de F F; de Andrade, Nélio J; Silva, Deusanilde J; Medeiros, Eber Antônio A; Badaró, Amanda T

    2015-04-01

    During the course of infection, Salmonella must successively survive the harsh acid stress of the stomach and multiply into a mild acidic compartment within macrophages. Inducible amino acid decarboxylases are known to promote adaptation to acidic environments, as lysine decarboxylation to cadaverine. The idea of Salmonella defenses responses could be employed in systems as polydiacetylene (PDA) to detect this pathogen so important to public health system. Beside that PDA is an important substance because of the unique optical property; that undergoes a colorimetric transitions by various external stimuli. Therefore 10,12-pentacosadyinoic acid (PCDA)/Sphingomyelin(SPH)/Cholesterol(CHO)/Lysine system was tested to determine the colorimetric response induced by Salmonella choleraesuis. PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicles showed a colour change even in low S. choleraesuis concentration present in laboratory conditions and in chicken meat. Thus, this work showed a PCDA/SPH/CHO/Lysine vesicle application to simplify routine analyses in food industry, as chicken meat industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

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    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: marialuciaguerra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  14. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine

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    Nho-Eul Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25 °C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29 mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12 mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66 mg/L from 5.29 mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation.

  17. VARIAÇÕES PLASMÁTICAS DE AMINAS VASOATIVAS EM EQUINOS SOB EFEITO DE SOBRECARGA DE CARBOIDRATOS E ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS NÃO ESTEROIDAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sampaio Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty horses were submitted to carbohydrate overload (CO and plasmatic concentrations of the bioactive amine serotonin (5-HT, putrescin (PUT and cadaverin (CAD were determined by gas chromatography. After 36h of carbohydrate overloading, horses were randomly distributed into four groups (n=5 and were submitted to four intravenous treatments every 12 hours. The treatments were as follows: 10ml of saline (GC, ketoprofen 2.2mg/kg (GK, phenylbutazone 4.4mg/kg (GF, and flunixin meglumine 1.1mg/kg (GFM. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals (0-72h after the CO. After 6h, there were peaks in the concentrations of 5-HT, which rapidly returned to values above the basal standard. No variations of PUT concentrations were observed; however CAD concentrations increased at 6h, remaining elevated (with some variation until the end of the observation period. In conclusion, CO induced early (6h increases in plasmatic concentrations of 5-HT and CAD. Plasmatic concentrations of the amines were not changed by any of the treatments used.

  18. Brevibacterium sandarakinum sp. nov., isolated from a wall of an indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Schäfer, Jenny; Lodders, Nicole; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, orange-pigmented (coloured) actinobacterium (01-Je-003(T)) was isolated from the wall of an indoor environment primarily colonized with moulds. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain 01-Je-003(T) was shown to belong to the genus Brevibacterium and was most similar to the type strains of Brevibacterium picturae (98.8 % similarity), Brevibacterium marinum (97.3 %) and Brevibacterium aurantiacum (97.2 %). Chemotaxonomic data [predominant quinone menaquinone MK-8(H2); polar lipid profile consisting of major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid; characteristic cell-wall diamino acid meso-diaminopimelic acid; polyamine pattern showing major compounds putrescine and cadaverine; major fatty acids anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0)] supported the affiliation of strain 01-Je-003(T) to the genus Brevibacterium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain 01-Je-003(T) from the two most closely related species, B. picturae and B. marinum. Strain 01-Je-003(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Brevibacterium sandarakinum sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 01-Je-003(T) (=DSM 22082(T) =CCM 7649(T)).

  19. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (pfaecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Establishment of Quantitative Severity Evaluation Model for Spinal Cord Injury by Metabolomic Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Chen, Wei; Sun, Ming-Wei; Lu, Charles Damien

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an “Eigen-metabolome” capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD–NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use. PMID:24727691

  1. Establishment of quantitative severity evaluation model for spinal cord injury by metabolomic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin; Zeng, Jun; Cai, Bin; Yang, Hao; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Chen, Wei; Sun, Ming-Wei; Lu, Charles Damien; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an "Eigen-metabolome" capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD-NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use.

  2. Establishment of quantitative severity evaluation model for spinal cord injury by metabolomic fingerprinting.

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    Jin Peng

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an "Eigen-metabolome" capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD-NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use.

  3. Safety and technological characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from traditional Korean fermented soybean foods for starter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Do-Won; Lee, Bitnara; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2016-11-07

    To select starters for the production of meju and doenjang, traditional Korean fermented soybean foods, we assessed the safety and technological properties of their predominant isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance, hemolysis and biofilm formation were strain-specific. None of the S. succinus isolates exhibited antibiotic resistance or hemolytic activities. Thirty-three selected strains, identified through safety assessments of 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates, produced cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine, but not histamine in the laboratory setting. The production of these three biogenic amines may, however, be insignificant considering the high levels of tyramine produced by the control, Enterococcus faecalis. The 33 CNS strains could grow on tryptic soy agar containing 21% NaCl (w/v), exhibited acid producing activity at 15% NaCl, and expressed strain-specific protease and lipase activities. S. succinus 14BME1, the selected starter candidate, produced significant amounts of benzeneacetic acid, 2,3-butanediol, trimethylpyrazine, and tetramethylpyrazine through soybean fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of salt reduction on biogenic amines, fatty acids, microbiota, texture and sensory profile in traditional blood dry-cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Marta; Gomes, Ana; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Potes, Maria Eduarda; Cabrita, Maria João; Garcia, Raquel; Rocha, João Miguel; Roseiro, Luísa Cristina; Fernandes, Maria José; Fraqueza, Maria João; Elias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Meat industry needs to reduce salt in their products due to health issues. The present study evaluated the effect of salt reduction from 6% to 3% in two Portuguese traditional blood dry-cured sausages. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, fatty acids and texture profiles and sensory panel evaluations were considered. Differences due to salt reduction were perceptible in a faint decline of water activity, which slightly favoured microbial growth. Total biogenic amines content ranged from 88.86 to 796.68mgkg-1 fresh matter, with higher amounts, particularly of cadaverine, histamine and tyramine, in low-salt products. Still, histamine and other vasoactive amines remained at low levels, thus not affecting consumers' health. Regarding fatty acids, no significant differences were observed due to salt. However, texture profile analysis revealed lower resilience and cohesiveness in low-salt products, although no textural changes were observed by the sensory panel. Nevertheless, low-salt sausages were clearly preferred by panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of diamines, polyamines and aromatic amines in Port wine and grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J O; Ferreira, M A

    2000-07-21

    An accurate and very sensitive method which allows for the simultaneous determination of the diamines (1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine), of the polyamines (spermidine and spermine), and of the aromatic amines (beta-phenylethylamine and tyramine) found in Port wines and corresponding grape juices is presented. Sample clean-up consisted of the extraction of the amines with the ion-pairing reagent bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate dissolved in chloroform followed by a back-extraction with 0.1 M HCl. The hydrochloric extract obtained was dried and the amines were further derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and analyzed by GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode, with a total run time of 18 min. Under the adopted conditions, the extraction of all the studied compounds was almost complete and the obtained extracts were free of potential interferents present in the samples, namely sugars, and most of the amino acids and polyphenols. Via the use of a set of five selected internal standards (amphetamine, [2H8]putrescine, 1,7-diaminoheptane, norspermidine and norspermine), the data obtained from the linearity, repeatability and recovery experiments were very good for all the compounds assayed. The corresponding limits of detection were invariably below 10 microg l(-1). The method was successfully applied to measure the content of biogenic amines in twelve young and five aged Port wine samples, eleven grape juice samples as well as in ten Portuguese red and white table wines. Results are presented and briefly discussed.

  6. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of biogenic amines production by eliminating the PEP4 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of Chinese rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuewu; Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Yazhou; Li, Lina; Wu, Deguang; Chen, Yefu; Pei, Huadong; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-07-01

    Biogenic amines in Chinese rice wine have a potential threat of toxicity to human health. In this study, PEP4 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was knocked out in order to evaluate its effect on biogenic amines production; the enzyme encodes proteinase A (PrA), an enzyme that is responsible for the production of free amino acids. It was found that compared to the wild type strain, the PrA activity and amino acid concentration decreased significantly, and the production of biogenic amines in this knockout strain decreased by 25.5%, from 180.1mg/L to 134.2mg/L. Especially, tyramine, cadaverine and histamine concentrations were also decreased by 57.5%, 24.6% and 54.3%, respectively. The main reason for the decrease of biogenic amines may be due to the low concentration of free amino acids. Our results provide a new strategy to minimize the biogenic amine production during fermentation of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyamines in conventional and organic vegetables exposed to exogenous ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Maria Rosecler Miranda; Vianello, Fabio; Saeki, Margarida Juri; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between endogenous levels of polyamines by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC), nitrate and response to the application of ethylene were established between organic and conventional vegetables (broccoli, collard greens, carrots and beets), both raw and cooked. Responses to ethylene showed that organic plants were less responsive to the growth regulator. The levels of free polyamines obtained by TLC were higher in organic vegetables. Organic broccoli showed higher levels of putrescine (Put), and cooking resulted in lowering the overall content of these amines. Conventional collard green showed the highest level of putrescine in the leaves compared with organic. Tubers of carrots and beets contain the highest levels of Put. These plants also contain high levels of spermine. GC analysis showed the highest polyamines contents compared with those obtained by TLC. Cooking process decreased putrescine and cadaverine content, both in conventionally and organically grown vegetables. Organic beets contain lower NO3(-) compared with its conventional counterpart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of oxime formation in a radiometric assay of aminooxy compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinänen, T A; Hyvönen, T; Khomutov, A R; Khomutov, R M; Kauppinen, R A; Vepsäläinen, J; Eloranta, T O

    1993-01-01

    A radiometric determination of monoaminooxy analogues of naturally occurring polyamines is described in which [2-14C]acetone is employed as reagent. The reagent is volatile while the oxime product is not allowing unreacted reagent to be removed and the oxime formation to be completed by lyophilization in vacuo. The residual radioactive compound is soluble in water and proportional to the reactive aminooxy content of the reaction mixture and can be quantified by liquid scintillation counting. The assay method is inexpensive and simple and has high specificity and flexibility in sample volume enabling reliable quantification of reactive aminooxy amines in biological extracts at concentrations exceeding 0.25 microM. Optimal pH values for oxime formation of five monoaminooxy analogues of polyamines with acetone were resolved. Reactions via reversible intermediates to irreversible oximes were sped up by removal of water. Complete oxime formation and stability was confirmed by 1H NMR studies. Tested drugs readily formed oximes with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, too. Diaminooxy analogue of cadaverine formed a volatile oxime with acetone. The method was used to monitor the stability of aminooxy analogues of putrescine and spermidine during storage and under culture conditions and to establish their scant accumulation in, but fast catabolism by, cultured baby hamster kidney cells.

  10. Simple and rapid determination of histamine in food using a new histamine dehydrogenase from Rhizobium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuneo; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2005-11-15

    A colorimetric enzyme assay for the quantitative analysis of histamine in food has been developed using a new histamine dehydrogenase (HDH) from Rhizobium sp. The HDH specifically catalyzes the oxidation of histamine but not other biogenic amines such as putrescine and cadaverine. The principle of our photometric assay is as follows. The HDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine in the presence of 1-methoxy PMS (electron carrier), which converts WST-8 (tetrazolium salt) to a formazan. This product is measured in the visible range at 460 nm. The correlation between the histamine level and absorbance was acceptable, ranging from 0 to 96 microM with histamine standard solutions, corresponding to 0 to 30 microM of the reaction solution (r = 1.000, CV = 1.0% or less). Assays of canned tuna (in oil and soup) and raw tuna with 45-675 micromol/kg histamine added showed good recoveries of 96-113, 98-108, and 100-106%. The histamine contents of a commercial canned tuna and fish meal containing histamine at high concentrations were determined using the new method and other reference methods (HPLC method, Association of Official Analytical Chemists official method, and two commercial enzyme immunoassay test kits). This simple and rapid enzymatic method is as reliable as the conventional methods.

  11. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

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    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  12. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  13. Reduction of histamine and biogenic amines during salted fish fermentation by Bacillus polymyxa as a starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus polymyxa D05-1, isolated from salted fish product and possessing amine degrading activity, was used as a starter culture in salted fish fermentation in this study. Fermentation was held at 35°C for 120 days. The water activity in control samples (without starter culture and inoculated samples (inoculated with B. polymyxa D05-1 remained constant throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value rose slightly during fermentation. Salt contents in both samples were constant in the range of 17.5–17.8% during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly. The inoculated samples had considerably lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (p < 0.05 than control samples at each sampling time during 120 days of fermentation. Aerobic bacterial counts in inoculated samples were retarded during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly, whereas those of control samples increased rapidly with increased fermentation time. However, the aerobic bacterial counts of control samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of inoculated samples after 40 days of fermentation. In general, overall biogenic amine contents (including histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in the control samples were markedly higher (p < 0.05 than those of the inoculated samples throughout fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in the inoculated samples were reduced by 34.0% and 30.0%, respectively, compared to control samples. These results emphasize that the application of starter culture with amines degrading activity in salted fish products was effective in reducing biogenic amine accumulation.

  14. Chemical characterization of territorial marking fluid of male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, B V; Viviers, M Z; Bekker, J P I; le Roux, M; Fish, N; Fourie, W B; Weibchen, G

    2008-05-01

    The territorial marking fluid of the male Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris, consists of a mixture of urine and a small quantity of lipid material that may act as a controlled-release carrier for the volatile constituents of the fluid. Using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 98 volatile compounds and elemental sulfur were identified in the marking fluid. Another 16 volatiles were tentatively identified. The majority of these compounds were alkanols, alkanals, 2-alkanones, branched and unbranched alkanoic acids, dimethyl esters of dicarboxylic acids, gamma- and delta-lactones, and compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur. Several samples of the marking fluid contained pure (R)-3-methyl-2-octanone, (R)-3-methyl-2-nonanone, and (R)-3-methyl-2-decanone, but these ketones were partly or completely racemized in other samples. The gamma-lactone (S)-(+)-(Z)-6-dodecen-4-olide and the C(8) to C(16) saturated (R)-gamma-lactones and (S)-delta-lactones were present in high enantiomeric purities. The chiral carboxylic acids, 2-methylnonanoic acid, 2-methyldecanoic acid, 2-methylundecanoic acid, and 2-ethylhexanoic acid were racemates. Cadaverine, putrescine, and 2-acetylpyrroline, previously reported as constituents of tiger urine, were not detected. The dominant contribution of some ketones, fatty acids, and lactones to the composition of the headspace of the marking fluid suggests that these compounds may be important constituents of the pheromone. Although it constitutes only a small proportion, the lipid fraction of the fluid contained larger quantities of the volatile organic compounds than the aqueous fraction (urine). The lipid derives its role as controlled-release carrier of the chemical message left by the tiger, from its affinity for the volatiles of the marking fluid. Six proteins with masses ranging from 16 to 69 kDa, inter alia, the carboxylesterase-like urinary protein known as cauxin, previously identified in the urine of the domestic cat

  15. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on bacterial diversity and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Dongping; Lv, Jian; Li, Qingzheng; Kong, Chunli; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-16

    The present study investigated the effect of cinnamon essential oil on the quality of vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets stored at 4±1°C in terms of sensory scores, physicochemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), biogenic amines, and color), and presence of spoilage microbiota. A total of 290,753 bacterial sequences and 162 different genera belonging to 14 phyla were observed by a high-throughput sequencing technique targeting the V3-V4 region of 16S rDNA, which showed a more comprehensive estimate of microbial diversity in carp samples compared with microbial enumeration. Before storage, Macrococcus and Aeromonas were the prevalent populations in the control samples, but cinnamon essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Macrococcus in the treated samples. Variability in the predominant microbiota in different samples during chilled storage was observed. Aeromonas followed by Lactococcus were the major contaminants in the spoiled control samples. Microbial enumeration also observed relatively higher counts of Aeromonas than other spoilage microorganisms. Compared with the control samples, cinnamon essential oil inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Lactococcus were the predominant components in the treated samples on day 10; plate counts also revealed a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria during refrigerated storage. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the composition of dominant microbiota between these two treatments at the end of the shelf-life. Furthermore, cinnamon essential oil treatment was more effective in inhibiting the increase of TVB-N and the accumulation of biogenic amines (especially for putrescine and cadaverine levels). Based primarily on sensory analysis, the use of cinnamon essential oil extended the shelf-life of vacuum-packaged common carp fillets by about 2days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of age and carbohydrate and protein sources on digestibility, fecal microbiota, fermentation products, fecal IgA, and immunological blood parameters in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, A P J; Ayane, L; Putarov, T C; Loureiro, B A; Neto, B P; Casagrande, M F; Gomes, M O S; Glória, M B A; Carciofi, A C

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet). Data were evaluated using the MIXED procedure and considering the effects and interactions of block, animal, diets, and age. Means were compared using Tukey's test ( dogs had a reduced coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of DM, which was explained by the age and diet interaction of CP and fat digestibility that was lower for old than for adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs fed the NFF diet had increased DM content ( dogs fed the FF and SM diets compared with dogs fed the NFF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs ( dogs fed the SM diet regardless of age ( dogs had reduced peripheral T and B lymphocytes ( dogs fed the SM diet had increased IgA in feces compared with animals fed the NFF and FF diets ( dogs, both the FF and SM diets induced increased IgA compared with the NFF diet ( dogs. The protein and oligosaccharides of soybean meal are digestible by dogs, induce the production of SCFA and spermidine, and increase fecal IgA. Old dogs had increased putrecine, cadaverine, and spermine fecal concentrations.

  17. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gianfranco Spizzirri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs, that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1 and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1 were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1, HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1, and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1 were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts.

  18. Functional characterization of the agtABCD and agtSR operons for 4-aminobutyrate and 5-aminovalerate uptake and regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2014-01-01

    Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on diamines cadaverine, putrescine, and diaminopropane requires the γ-glutamylation pathway to convert these diamines into δ-aminovalerate (AMV), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and β-alanine. From DNA microarrays experiments the agtABCD operon (PA0603-0606) encoding components for an ABC transporter system was found inducible by exogenous AMV, GABA, and β-alanine, but not by diamines. Induction of the agtABCD operon was abolished in the mutants of upstream agtS (PA0600) or agtR (PA0601) genes encoding the membrane-anchored sensor and the response regulator of a two-component regulatory system, respectively. Growth phenotype analysis supports the physiological functions of these agt genes on utilization of AMV and GABA. Through measurements of β-galactosidase activities from an agtA::lacZ fusion, the requirement of a functional AgtS in control of the induction effect by exogenous AMV and GABA was further substantiated. The recombinant hexa-hisidine tagged agtR was constructed and purified to demonstrate its specific interactions with the agtA promoter region by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, this study establishes the functions of agtSR and agtABCD operons in AMV and GABA uptake, and provides a potential linkage between AMV/GABA metabolism and polymicrobial infection through the recently reported function of agtR in sensing of peptidoglycan shed by gram-positive bacteria (Korgaonkar et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:1059-1064, 2013).

  19. The Function of Emulsions on the Biogenic Amine Formation and their Indices of Sea Bass Fillets (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Stored in Vacuum Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Durmus, Mustafa; Kuley Boga, Esmeray; Uçar, Yılmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2018-01-16

    The impacts of emulsions based on commercial oils on the biogenic amine formation and their indices of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that among biogenic amines, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, and agmatine were predominant amines in sea bass fillets stored under vacuum packaging. Significant differences (P sea bass treated with emulsions were observed. All groups contained histamine lower than 5.0 mg/100 g, regarded as the allowable limit by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Polyamine levels were not affected by application of emulsion. Quality index (QI) showed an increase and after 14 d of storage it decreased in all groups. The control generally seemed to higher QI value than those of treatment groups except at 14 and 18 days while soybean and corn gave lower QI among treatment groups. Only biogenic amine index correlated with sensory acceptability of vacuumed packed sea bass, indicating that this index can be used for determination of the degree of spoilage of vacuumed packed sea bass. Emulsions extended the shelf-life (approximately 2 to 4 d) of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets by inhibiting microbial growth compared to the control. Emulsions have become popular since they are regarded as ideal carrier for the delivery of lipophilic substances due to the ease of preparation, small particle size, their enhanced bioavailability, and long term kinetic stability. They have been proven to be self-preserving antimicrobials due to bound water in their structure and thus no available water to microorganisms. Antimicrobial emulsions have potential applications in many fields because they are inexpensive, stable, and nontoxic agents. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. A case-control study on the treatment of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc through PELD and MED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Pu; Sheng, Hong-Feng; Xu, Wei-Xing

    2017-10-01

    We compared the clinical effects between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and microendoscopic discectomy (MED) treatments for protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 60 patients who were diagnosed with single-segment protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc during the period from January 2009 to June 2016. Patients were divided into two groups, the PELD and MED groups, which contained 30 cases each. We evaluated the operation results according to oswestry dysfunction index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and the improved MacNab standard. The average follow-up visit period after the operation was 18 months and the operation time of the two groups was not statistically different. The cadaverine quantity of bleeding in the PELD group is less than that in the MED group. Moreover, the average length of incision and the length of stay were shortened for the PELD group compared to the MED group. The ODI and VAS after operation for the two groups improved significantly compared to that before operation (PMED groups were 93.0 and 90.0%, respectively, as of the improved MacNab method. The complication occurrence rates for the two groups during perioperative period were not different. Therefore, the short-term efficacy of the two minimally invasive operation methods (PELD and MED) on the treatment of protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc is satisfactory. In cases where operation indications are chosen strictly, PELD can be regarded as a method of safety and efficiency due to the advantages of minimal incision, less bleeding, minimal trauma and faster postoperative recovery.

  1. Use of microextraction by packed sorbents and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polyamines and related compounds in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Ferreira, Ana María; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo; Crisolino Pozas, Ángel Pedro; Pérez Pavón, José Luis

    2016-04-29

    A novel methodology for the determination of ornithine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and gamma-amino butyric acid in urine samples has been developed. The method uses in situ aqueous derivatization followed by automated microextraction by packed sorbent coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer. This instrumental configuration minimizes sample manipulation due to from the mixing of the reagents, the process is completely automated. The analytes were derivatized using ethyl chloroformate as derivatization reagent. The reaction occurred in aqueous medium and was carried out in 1min in the vial of an autosampler used to perform microextraction by packed sorbent. The parameters affecting derivatization, extraction and separation were optimized in order to obtain maximum sensitivity. Calibration curves were obtained for five calibration levels in three different matrices. All the calibration models displayed good linearity, with R(2) values higher than 0.95. The validity of the models was checked using ANOVA, and it was observed that they did not exhibit any lack of fit. Repeatability and reproducibility was evaluated, with values below 15% in both cases. LOD and LOQ values were found to be in the low μg/L level. Influence of the matrix was confirmed, thus quantification was performed using the standard additions method and normalization to IS. The method developed was applied to the analysis of these compounds in urine samples from healthy individuals and cancer diagnosed patients (Internal Medicine Unit of the Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Salamanca, Spain). Significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test) were observed for putrescine and ornithine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage from organic and conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jovaišienė

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to investigate biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage (mainly Poaceae family grasses prepared in organic and conventional farms and to relate these parameters to fermentative parameters. The mean dry matter (DM content was 364.10±93.31 and 424.70±95.93g/kg in the silage from organic and conventional farms respectively. The silage samples from organic farms had 17.00% higher (P≤ 0.05 tyramine (TY than the silage from conventional farms. Conventional farm samples were characterized by 46.00% higher histamine (HIS (P≤ 0.05, 9.80% higher putrescine (PUT (P≤ 0.05, 17.30% higher cadaverine (CAD (P≤ 0.05. Aflatoxins (AFL (total and zearalenone (ZEN, T-2/HT-2 concentrations were higher respectively 16.00% (P≤ 0.05 and 13.40% (P≤ 0.05, 1.80% (P≤ 0.05 in the silage prepared in organic farms. Deoxynivalenol (DON concentration was higher 42.40% (P≤ 0.05 in silage from conventional farms. Volatile fatty acids (VFA, lactic acid, ethanol, pH and ammonia nitrogen showed that the silage samples from organic and conventional farms were of good quality. Our study suggests differences in biogenic amine formation or mycotoxins content in silage from organic and conventional farming, but, overall, the measured values are too low to be relevant for animal health. Furthermore, these differences might as well be due to the difference in dry matter content and plant maturity between the organic and conventional silage samples.

  3. Determination of substrate specificity of polyamine transporters in roseobacter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuri, S.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Polyamines, such as cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and norspermine are a class of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) that is ubiquitously found in marine environments. Intracellular polyamines are important in a variety of biological reactions, such as nucleic acid synthesis and protein synthesis. Free polyamines in seawater can be transported into bacterial cells by ABC transporter systems, each of which consists of four components including one substrate binding protein, one ATPase and two permeases. In silico analysis of marine bacterial genomes has revealed that roseobacter, a numerically and ecologically important taxa of marine bacteria, have at least two sets of polyamine transporter genes. This study was to examine the potential preference of roseobacter to different polyamine compounds and the substrate specificity of different polyamine transporters. Eleven roseobacter species, which genomes have been sequenced, were grown in defined media supplied with single polyamine compound as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Growth assay showed a small number of roseobacter isolates to be generalist showing no preference among the tested polyamines (Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, Roseovarius sp. TM1035, Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM, Jannaschia sp. CCS1 and Sagittula stellata E-37), whereas other isolates were specilists and were specific on polyamine compounds (Roseobacter sp. CCS2 and Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114). Primers that probe poly-1 and pot-D genes, the two genes that encode common polyamine-binding genes of polyamine transporter systems were designed using net primer and primer design program. The specificity of the primers was validated by PCR followed by amplicon sequencing. Single step reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) was performed to investigate substrate specificity of poly-1 and pot-D genes. Key-words Roseobacter, polyamine, polyamine transporter, dissolved organic nitrogen

  4. Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbès-Paus, Céline; Pochet, Sylvie; Helinck, Sandra; Veisseire, Philippe; Bord, Cécile; Lebecque, Annick; Coton, Monika; Desmasures, Nathalie; Coton, Emmanuel; Irlinger, Françoise; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2012-05-01

    The impact of Gram-negative bacteria on sensory characteristics and production of volatile compounds as well as biogenic amines (BA) in the core of an uncooked pressed type model cheese was investigated in the presence of a defined complex microbial consortium. Eleven strains of Gram-negative bacteria, selected on the basis of their biodiversity and in vitro BA-production ability, were individually tested in a model cheese. Four out of 6 strains of Enterobacteriaceae (Citrobacter freundii UCMA 4217, Klebsiella oxytoca 927, Hafnia alvei B16 and Proteus vulgaris UCMA 3780) reached counts close to 6 log CFU g⁻¹ in the model cheese. In core of cheeses inoculated with Gram-negative bacteria, only slight differences were observed for microbial counts (Enterococcus faecalis or Lactobacillus plantarum count differences below 1 log CFU g⁻¹), acetate concentration (differences below 200 mg kg⁻¹) and texture (greater firmness) in comparison to control cheeses. Cheese core colour, odour and volatile compound composition were not modified. Although ornithine, the precursor of putrescine, was present in all cheeses, putrescine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16 and never exceeded 2.18 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter. Cadaverine was only detected in cheeses inoculated with H. alvei B16, K. oxytoca 927, Halomonas venusta 4C1A or Morganella morganii 3A2A but at lower concentrations (<1.05 mmol kg⁻¹ cheese dry matter), although lysine was available. Only insignificant amounts of the detrimental BA histamine and tyramine, as well as isopentylamine, tryptamine or phenylethylamine, were produced in the cheese model by any of the Gram-negative strains, including those which produced these BA at high levels in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  6. Content of biogenic amines in Lemna minor (common duckweed) growing in medium contaminated with tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciak, Michał; Sikorski, Łukasz; Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Agnieszka I; Adomas, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic plants are continuously exposed to a variety of stress factors. No data on the impact of antibiotics on the biogenic amines in duckweed (Lemna minor) have been available so far, and such data could be significant, considering the ecological role of this plant in animal food chains. In the tissues of control (non-stressed) nine-day-old duckweed, the following biogenic amines were identified: tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine. Based on the tetracycline contents and the computed EC values, the predicted toxicity units have been calculated. The obtained results demonstrated phytoxicity caused by tetracycline in relation to duckweed growth rate, yield and the contents of chlorophylls a and b. The carotenoid content was not modified by tetracycline. It was found that tetracycline as a water pollutant was a stress factor triggering an increase in the synthesis of amines. Tetracycline at 19, 39 and 78μM concentrations increased biogenic amine synthesis by 3.5 times. Although the content of tyramine increased fourteen times with the highest concentration of the drug (and of spermidine - only three-fold) the increase of spermidine was numerically the highest. Among the biogenic amines the most responsive to tetracycline were spermine and tyramine, while the least affected were putrescine and spermidine. Despite putrescine and spermidine being the least sensitive, their sum of contents increased five-fold compared to the control. These studies suggest that tetracycline in water reservoirs is taken up by L. minor as the antibiotic clearly modifies the metabolism of this plant and it may likely pose a risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering the Metabolic Changes Associated with Diapause Syndrome and Cold Acclimation in the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari, Samira; Moharramipour, Saeid; Larvor, Vanessa; Hidalgo, Kévin; Renault, David

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a common feature in several arthropod species that are subject to unfavorable growing seasons. The range of environmental cues that trigger the onset and termination of diapause, in addition to associated hormonal, biochemical, and molecular changes, have been studied extensively in recent years; however, such information is only available for a few insect species. Diapause and cold hardening usually occur together in overwintering arthropods, and can be characterized by recording changes to the wealth of molecules present in the tissue, hemolymph, or whole body of organisms. Recent technological advances, such as high throughput screening and quantification of metabolites via chromatographic analyses, are able to identify such molecules. In the present work, we examined the survival ability of diapausing and non-diapausing females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the presence (0 or 5°C) or absence of cold acclimation. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic fingerprints of these specimens via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of metabolites revealed that major metabolic variations were related to diapause, indicating in a clear cut-off between diapausing and non-diapausing females, regardless of acclimation state. Signs of metabolic depression were evident in diapausing females, with most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates being significantly reduced. Out of the 40 accurately quantified metabolites, seven metabolites remained elevated or were accumulated in diapausing mites, i.e. cadaverine, gluconolactone, glucose, inositol, maltose, mannitol and sorbitol. The capacity to accumulate winter polyols during cold-acclimation was restricted to diapausing females. We conclude that the induction of increased cold hardiness in this species is associated with the diapause syndrome, rather than being a direct effect of low temperature. Our results provide novel

  8. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli: pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into plasma clots in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, David [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lewis, Joanne; Battle, Mark; Lear, Rochelle; Farrar, Gill; Barnett, D.J.; Godden, Vanessa; Oliveira, Alexandra; Coombes, Catherine [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of NC100668 is similar to a region of human {alpha}{sub 2}-antiplasmin, which is a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was to confirm the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into forming plasma clot and to establish the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in Wistar rats. The in vitro plasma clot uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 and other compounds with known affinities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of radioactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were investigated. The in vitro uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was greater than that for [{sup 14}C]dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine, with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and retention of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than could be accounted for by non-specific accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism. (orig.)

  9. Occurrence of polyamines in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Cobos-Porras, Libertad; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Lluch, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds that have been shown to be an important part of plant responses to salt stress. For that reason in this work we have investigated the involvement of PAs in the response to salt stress in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici. The level and variety of PAs was higher in nodules, compared to leaves and roots, and in addition to the common PAs (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) we found homospermidine (Homspd) as the most abundant polyamine in nodules. UPLC-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 4-aminobutylcadaverine (4-ABcad), only described in nodules of Vigna angularis before. Indeed, the analysis of different nodular fractions revealed higher level of 4-ABcad, as well as Homspd, in bacteroids which indicate the production of these PAs by the bacteria in symbiosis. The genes involved in PAs biosynthesis in nodules displayed an induction under salt stress conditions which was not consistent with the decline of free PAs levels, probably due to the nitrogen limitations provoked by the nitrogenase activity depletion and/or the conversion of free PAs to theirs soluble conjugated forms, that seems to be one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PAs levels. On the contrary, cadaverine (Cad) and 4-ABcad concentrations augmented by the salinity, which might be due to their involvement in the response of bacteroids to hyper-osmotic conditions. In conclusion, the results shown in this work suggest the alteration of the bacteroidal metabolism towards the production of uncommon PAs such as 4-ABcad in the response to salt stress in legume root nodules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(®), Emulsigen(®), Polygen™ or Carbigen™ were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen™, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen(®) (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may

  11. Assessment of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and amino-decarboxylase activity in Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 isolated from Mexican chorizo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cisneros, Y M; Fernández, F J; Sainz-Espuñez, T; Ponce-Alquicira, E

    2017-02-01

    Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 has the ability to produce an antimicrobial compound that belongs to Class IIa of the Klaenhammer classification, and could be used as part of a biopreservation technology through direct inoculation of the strain as a starter or protective culture. However, Enterococcus is considered as an opportunistic pathogen, hence, the purpose of this work was to study the food safety determinants of E. faecium MXVK29. The strain was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested (penicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) and did not demonstrate histamine, cadaverine or putrescine formation. Furthermore, tyrosine-decarboxylase activity was detected by qualitative assays and PCR. Among the virulence factors analysed for the strain, only the genes encoding the sexual pheromone cCF10 precursor lipoprotein (ccf) and cell-wall adhesion (efaA fm ) were amplified. The presence of these genes has low impact on pathogenesis, as there are no other genes encoding for virulence factors, such as aggregation proteins. Therefore, Enterococcus faecium could be employed as part of a bioconservation method, because it does not produce risk factors for consumer's health; in addition, it could be used as part of the hurdle technology in foods. The use of molecular techniques has allowed, in recent years, to detect pathogenicity genes present in the genome of starter cultures used in food processing and preservation. The presence of these genes is undesirable, because horizontal transfer may occur with the natural biota of consumers. For this reason, it is important to analyse the presence of pathogenicity genes in such cultures. In this work, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecium strain MXVK29, producing an antimicrobial compound with high antilisterial activity, were analysed. The results indicate that the strain is safe to be used in food processing as starter

  12. Entrapment of conjunctival goblet cells by desiccation-induced cornification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Rosa Maria; de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William Johnson; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Bergmanson, Jan Per Gustav; Pflugfelder, Stephen Carl

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and the expression of cornified envelope precursors by the ocular surface epithelia. Experimental dry eye (EDE) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Real-time PCR evaluated the expression of cornified envelope (CE) precursor proteins (involucrin and small proline-rich [Sprr] -1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -2f, and -2g proteins), the cross-linking transglutaminase 1 enzyme (Tg-1) and Muc5AC mRNA transcripts by the ocular surface epithelia. Laser scanning confocal microscopy evaluated the expression of the CE precursor proteins Tg-1 and Muc5AC in cryosections. Tg-1 activity was measured by a fluorescein cadaverine assay. Muc5AC concentration was measured by ELISA. Levels of involucrin; Sprr-1a, -1b, -2a, -2b, -2f, and -2g; and Tg1-1 mRNA transcripts in ocular surface tissues increased in response to desiccating stress. Expression and activity of Tg in the conjunctiva markedly increased after EDE. Desiccating stress caused progressive loss of mucin-filled goblet cells. The apical portion of the remaining conjunctival goblet cells became entrapped by adjacent stratified apical epithelia expressing increased levels of cornified envelope precursors. Exposure to desiccating stress stimulates ocular surface epithelia to produce cornified envelope precursors and the tissue transglutaminase enzyme that cross-links them. This effect is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in the remaining ones by cornifying cells that block the egress of mucin contents to the ocular surface. This mechanism may contribute to the conjunctival mucin deficiency that develops in dry eye.

  13. Expression and regulation of cornified envelope proteins in human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Corrales, Rosa M; Chen, Zhuo; Villarreal, Arturo L; De Paiva, Cintia S; Beuerman, Roger; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2006-05-01

    Stratified squamous epithelial cells assemble a specialized protective barrier structure on their periphery, termed the cornified envelope. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of cornified envelope precursors in human corneal epithelium, their expression in human corneal epithelial cell cultures, and the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVB) and transglutaminase (TG) inhibition on their expression. Tissue distribution of small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) and filaggrin and involucrin was studied in human cornea sections by immunofluorescence staining. Primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) from limbal explants were used in cell culture experiments. A single dose of UVB at 20 mJ/cm2 was used to stimulate these cells, in the presence or absence of mono-dansyl cadaverine (MDC), a TG inhibitor. SPRR2 and involucrin protein levels were studied by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Gene expression of 12 proteins was investigated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In human cornea tissue, SPRR1, SPRR2, filaggrin, and involucrin protein expression were detected in the central and peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. In HCECs, SPRR2 and involucrin proteins were detected in the cytosolic fraction, and involucrin levels increased after UVB. Both SPRR2 and involucrin levels accumulated in the presence of MDC. Nine genes including involucrin, SPRR (types 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and 3), late envelope protein (LEP) 1 and 16, and filaggrin were expressed by HCECs. SPRR 4, loricrin, and LEP 6 transcripts were not detected. UVB downregulated SPRR (2A, 2B) and LEP 1 transcripts. Various envelope precursors are expressed in human corneal epithelium and in HCECs, acute UVB stress differentially alters their expression in HCECs. The expression of envelope precursors and their rapid modulation by UVB supports the role of these proteins in the regulation of ocular surface stress. TG function may

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assessment of amines in Port wine and grape juice after fast chloroformate extraction/derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Faria, M A; Fernandes, J O

    2011-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of volatile and nonvolatile biogenic amines in Port wines and grape juices was developed and evaluated. The method was based on a previously reported two-phase derivatization procedure with isobutyl chloroformate in a toluene medium, which provides a quantitative reaction in 10 min. Following the derivatization step, the excess of reagent was eliminated by treatment with alkaline methanol. The derivatization procedure was performed directly on 1 mL of sample, avoiding any fastidious and time-consuming cleanup extraction steps. The method allows the simultaneous quantification of 22 amines, which can be found in wines: methylamine, dimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, propylamine, isopropylamine, butylamine, isobutylamine, amylamine, isoamylamine, 2-methylbutylamine, hexylamine, pyrrolidine, piperidine, morpholine, 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine, cadaverine, 1,6-diaminohexane, 2-phenylethylamine, histamine, and tyramine. Because of the fact that histamine and tyramine derivatives are degraded during the isobutyl chloroformate elimination step, the corresponding determination was made after removal of the excess of derivatizing reagent by evaporating an aliquot of the toluene layer obtained after the reaction. The presented method showed excellent analytical characteristics in what linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detections were respected. It was used to assess the concentration of biogenic amines in juice grapes and Tawny and Vintage Port wines with different aging times. On the whole, the total content of amines in Port wines was low. Most of the amines found in wines have their origin in the raw material used for their elaboration, so the Port winemaking process is not prone to the production of this kind of compounds. Total biogenic amine contents have shown a decrease with the aging of both types of Port wines.

  15. De novo RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 reveal genes related to biosynthesis of huperzine A.

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    Guowei Zhang

    Full Text Available Huperzine A is important in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. There are major challenges for the mass production of huperzine A from plants due to the limited number of huperzine-A-producing plants, as well as the low content of huperzine A in these plants. Various endophytic fungi produce huperzine A. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a huperzine-A-producing plant Huperzia serrata, and this fungus also produces huperzine A. In this study, de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 was carried out with an Illumina HiSeq2000. A total of 4,324,299,051 bp from 50,442,617 high-quality sequence reads of ES026 were obtained. These raw data were assembled into 24,998 unigenes, 40,536,684 residues and 19,790 genes. The majority of the unique sequences were assigned to corresponding putative functions based on BLAST searches of public databases. The molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences were determined using gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG assignments. A gene encoding copper amine oxidase (CAO (unigene 9322 was annotated for the conversion of cadaverine to 5-aminopentanal in the biosynthesis of huperzine A. This gene was also detected in the root, stem and leaf of H. serrata. Furthermore, a close relationship was observed between expression of the CAO gene (unigene 9322 and quantity of crude huperzine A extracted from ES026. Therefore, CAO might be involved in the biosynthesis of huperzine A and it most likely plays a key role in regulating the content of huperzine A in ES026.

  16. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  17. Effects of storage temperature on biogenic amine concentrations in meat of uneviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

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    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hygienic quality of the pheasants reared for high-quality meat production by the biogenic amine concentrations in their meat. The content of biogenic amines was measured in the meat of sixty male pheasants killed by pithing and stored uneviscerated for 21 days under different storage temperatures (0 °C, 7 °C and 15 °C. The samples of breast and thigh muscles of pheasant were tested at weekly intervals. Biogenic amines were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of biogenic amines (except spermin and spermidin in thigh muscle were higher than in breast muscle. Highly significant difference (P < 0.01 was found in tyramine (5.80 mg/kg and 1.38 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, cadaverine (40.80 mg/kg and 14.43 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, putrescine (13.42 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively and histamine (5.51 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively concentrations after 21 days of storage at 15 °C. This study provides information on the dynamics of biogenic amine formation in pheasant meat during 21 days of storage at different temperatures. Based on our results, we can recommend storing pithed uneviscerated pheasants at 0–7°C for up to 21 days, or at 15 °C for up to 7 days. Concentrations of biogenic amines gained in our study can be helpful in evaluating freshness and hygienic quality of the pheasant game meat.

  18. Topology, Dimerization, and Stability of the Single-Span Membrane Protein CadC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Eric; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Under acid stress, Escherichia coli induce expression of CadA (lysine decarboxylase) and CadB (lysine/cadaverine antiporter) in a lysine-rich environment. The ToxR-like transcriptional activator CadC controls expression of the cadBA operon. Using a novel Signal Peptidase I (SPase I) cleavage assay, we show that CadC is a Type II single-span membrane protein (MP) with a cytoplasmic DNA binding domain and a periplasmic sensor domain. We further show that, as long assumed, dimerization of the sensor domain is required for activating the cadBA operon. We prove this using a chimera in which the periplasmic domain of RodZ—a Type II MP involved in the maintenance of the rod shape of E. coli—replaces the CadC sensor domain. Because the RodZ periplasmic domain cannot dimerize, the chimera cannot activate the operon. However, replacement of the TM domain of the chimera with the glycophorin-A (GpA) TM domain causes intramembrane dimerization and consequently operon activation. Using a low-expression protocol that eliminates extraneous TM-helix dimerization signals arising from protein over-expression, we enhanced dramatically the dynamic range of the β-galactosidase assay for cadBA activation. Consequently, the strength of the intramembrane dimerization of the GpA domain could be compared quantitatively with the strength of the much stronger periplasmic dimerization of CadC. For the signal-peptidase assay, we inserted a SPase I cleavage site (AAA or AQA) at the periplasmic end of the TM helix. Cleavage occured with high efficiency for all TM and periplasmic domains tested, thus eliminating the need for the cumbersome spheroplast-proteinase K method for topology determinations. PMID:24946151

  19. Deciphering the metabolic changes associated with diapause syndrome and cold acclimation in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

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    Samira Khodayari

    Full Text Available Diapause is a common feature in several arthropod species that are subject to unfavorable growing seasons. The range of environmental cues that trigger the onset and termination of diapause, in addition to associated hormonal, biochemical, and molecular changes, have been studied extensively in recent years; however, such information is only available for a few insect species. Diapause and cold hardening usually occur together in overwintering arthropods, and can be characterized by recording changes to the wealth of molecules present in the tissue, hemolymph, or whole body of organisms. Recent technological advances, such as high throughput screening and quantification of metabolites via chromatographic analyses, are able to identify such molecules. In the present work, we examined the survival ability of diapausing and non-diapausing females of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the presence (0 or 5°C or absence of cold acclimation. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic fingerprints of these specimens via gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA of metabolites revealed that major metabolic variations were related to diapause, indicating in a clear cut-off between diapausing and non-diapausing females, regardless of acclimation state. Signs of metabolic depression were evident in diapausing females, with most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates being significantly reduced. Out of the 40 accurately quantified metabolites, seven metabolites remained elevated or were accumulated in diapausing mites, i.e. cadaverine, gluconolactone, glucose, inositol, maltose, mannitol and sorbitol. The capacity to accumulate winter polyols during cold-acclimation was restricted to diapausing females. We conclude that the induction of increased cold hardiness in this species is associated with the diapause syndrome, rather than being a direct effect of low temperature. Our results

  20. Characterization of the iron-regulated desA promoter of Streptomyces pilosus as a system for controlled gene expression in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Francisco J; Rincón, Javier; Martín, Juan F

    2003-05-19

    BACKGROUND: The bioavailability of iron is quite low since it is usually present as insoluble complexes. To solve the bioavailability problem microorganisms have developed highly efficient iron-scavenging systems based on the synthesis of siderophores that have high iron affinity. The systems of iron assimilation in microorganisms are strictly regulated to control the intracellular iron levels since at high concentrations iron is toxic for cells. Streptomyces pilosus synthesizes the siderofore desferrioxamine B. The first step in desferrioxamine biosynthesis is decarboxylation of L-lysine to form cadaverine, a desferrioxamine B precursor. This reaction is catalyzed by the lysine decarboxylase, an enzyme encoded by the desA gene that is repressed by iron. RESULTS: The binding of the DmdR (acronym for divalent metal dependent repressor) to the desA promoter in presence of Fe2+ or other divalent ions has been characterized. A 51 bp DNA fragment of the desA promoter containing the 9 bp inverted repeat was sufficient for binding of the DmdR repressor, as observed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The desA mobility shift was prevented by neutralizing DmdR with anti-DmdR antibodies or by chelating the divalent metal in the binding reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyl. Binding to the desA promoter was observed with purified DmdR repressors of Streptomyces coelicolor or Rhodococcus fascians suggesting that there is a common mechanism of iron-regulation in actinomycetes. The complete desA promoter region was coupled using transcriptional fusions to the amy reporter gene (encoding alpha-amylase) in low copy or multicopy Streptomyces vectors. The iron-regulated desA promoter was induced by addition of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl resulting in a strong expression of the reporter gene. CONCLUSIONS: The iron-regulated desA promoter can be used for inducible expression of genes in Streptomyces species, as shown by de-repression of the promoter when coupled to a

  1. Effect of a nano-silver coating on the quality of fresh turkey meat during storage after modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, D; Kehrenberg, C; Schaudien, D; Klein, G; Krischek, C

    2017-02-01

    Nano-silver is used in consumer products due to its antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nano-silver-coated film on the quality of turkey meat during vacuum-sealed and modified atmosphere packaging up to 12 days of storage. In the first part of the experiment, turkey breasts were packaged using either vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) and contained films with or without a nano-silver coating (control film). Parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, color (lightness L*, redness a*), myoglobin redox forms, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), biogenic amines (BAs), total viable bacterial counts, Pseudomonas species counts, and Enterobacteriaceae species counts were evaluated on storage days 4, 8, and 12. In the second part of the study, the antimicrobial effect of a nano-silver-coated film on turkey breast was evaluated after inoculation with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Turkey meat packaged with the nano-silver film exhibited lower a* values on days 1 (3.15 ± 0.62), 4 (3.90 ± 0.68), and 8 (4.27 ± 0.76) compared to the packaged meat with the control film (3.41 ± 0.73, 4.35 ± 0.94, 4.85 ± 0.89, respectively), indicating special optical properties of nanoparticles. Concerning the BAs, silver packaged meat showed higher values of tyramine on day 12 (1274 ± 392 ng/g meat) and cadaverine on day 4 (1224 ± 435 ng/g meat) compared to the normal packaged products (647 ± 576 and 508 ± 314 ng/g meat, respectively). MAP meat revealed higher L* and TBARS values and lower microbial counts than the vacuum packaged products on all days. The MAP meat also showed lower a* results on days 4 and 8 and higher metmyoglobin (metMb) values on days 8 and 12 compared to th E: vacuum products. In the inoculation study, the microbial counts of the turkey meat were comparable between the two film types. The study showed that the nano-silver coating did not exhibit any advantageous

  2. Effect of flow on endothelial endocytosis of nanocarriers targeted to ICAM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Tridib; Berk, Erik; Cui, Xiumin; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Muro, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Delivery of drugs into the endothelium by nanocarriers targeted to endothelial determinants may improve treatment of vascular maladies. This is the case for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a glycoprotein overexpressed on endothelial cells (ECs) in many pathologies. ICAM-1-targeted nanocarriers bind to and are internalized by ECs via a non-classical pathway, CAM-mediated endocytosis. In this work we studied the effects of endothelial adaptation to physiological flow on the endocytosis of model polymer nanocarriers targeted to ICAM-1 (anti-ICAM/NCs, ~180-nm diameter). Culturing established endothelial-like cells (EAhy926 cells) and primary human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) under 4 dyn/cm2 laminar shear stress for 24 h resulted in flow adaptation: cell elongation and formation of actin stress fibers aligned to the flow direction. Fluorescence microscopy showed that flow-adapted cells internalized anti-ICAM/NCs under flow, although at slower rate versus non flow-adapted cells under static incubation (~35% reduction). Uptake was inhibited by amiloride, whereas marginally affected by filipin and cadaverine, implicating that CAM-endocytosis accounts for anti-ICAM/NC uptake under flow. Internalization under flow was more modestly affected by inhibiting protein kinase C, which regulates actin remodeling during CAM-endocytosis. Actin recruitment to stress fibers that maintain the cell shape under flow may delay uptake of anti-ICAM/NCs under this condition by interfering with actin reorganization needed for CAM-endocytosis. Electron microscopy revealed somewhat slow, yet effective endocytosis of anti-ICAM/NCs by pulmonary endothelium after i.v. injection in mice, similar to that of flow-adapted cell cultures: ~40% (30 min) and 80% (3 h) internalization. Similar to cell culture data, uptake was slightly faster in capillaries with lower shear stress. Further, LPS treatment accelerated internalization of anti-ICAM/NCs in mice. Therefore, regulation of endocytosis of

  3. Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from spent mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, ABC02-12(T), was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ABC02-12(T) shared the highest sequence similarities with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) (96.0 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis G(T) (95.7 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis IAM 12369(T) (95.4 %) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (95.3 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain ABC02-12(T) formed a robust cluster with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae KBL009(T). The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C17 : 0 cyclo, and iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and/or an unknown fatty acid (summed feature 2). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminolipid. Putrescine was the principal polyamine, with small amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine and cadaverine. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain ABC02-12(T) is a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenalcaligenes, for which the name Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABC02-12(T) ( = KACC 16537(T) = NBRC 108927(T)).

  4. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong

    2013-10-01

    Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95 % sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92 % to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp

  5. Early activation of wheat polyamine biosynthesis during Fusarium head blight implicates putrescine as an inducer of trichothecene mycotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Donald M; Kazan, Kemal; Praud, Sebastien; Torney, Francois J; Rusu, Anca; Manners, John M

    2010-12-30

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease on wheat which can lead to trichothecene mycotoxin (e.g. deoxynivalenol, DON) contamination of grain, harmful to mammalian health. DON is produced at low levels under standard culture conditions when compared to plant infection but specific polyamines (e.g. putrescine and agmatine) and amino acids (e.g. arginine and ornithine) are potent inducers of DON by F. graminearum in axenic culture. Currently, host factors that promote mycotoxin synthesis during FHB are unknown, but plant derived polyamines could contribute to DON induction in infected heads. However, the temporal and spatial accumulation of polyamines and amino acids in relation to that of DON has not been studied. Following inoculation of susceptible wheat heads by F. graminearum, DON accumulation was detected at two days after inoculation. The accumulation of putrescine was detected as early as one day following inoculation while arginine and cadaverine were also produced at three and four days post-inoculation. Transcripts of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), two key biosynthetic enzymes for putrescine biosynthesis, were also strongly induced in heads at two days after inoculation. These results indicated that elicitation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is an early response to FHB. Transcripts for genes encoding enzymes acting upstream in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway as well as those of ODC and ADC, and putrescine levels were also induced in the rachis, a flower organ supporting DON production and an important route for pathogen colonisation during FHB. A survey of 24 wheat genotypes with varying responses to FHB showed putrescine induction is a general response to inoculation and no correlation was observed between the accumulation of putrescine and infection or DON accumulation. The activation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and putrescine in infected heads prior to

  6. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

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    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  8. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Højberg, O; Badsberg, J H; Jensen, B B

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal diet (DRY); a fermented, liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and a fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLG diet was prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C and adding the remaining dietary ingredients immediately before feeding. The FLF diet was prepared by storing compound feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C. Three times daily, 50% of the fermented cereals or compound feed and water stored in the tanks was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals or feed and water. On d 14, 1 piglet from each pen was killed and samples from the gastrointestinal tract were obtained. The pH of the fermented cereals was 3.85 (SD = 0.10), that of the FLG diet was 5.00 (SD = 0.18), and the pH of the FLF diet was 4.45 (SD = 0.11). The dietary concentration of lysine (g/16 g of N) pointed to a decreased concentration in the FLF (5.46, SD = 0.08) compared with the DRY (6.01) and FLG (6.21, SD = 0.27) diets, and the concentration of cadaverine was greater in the FLF diet (890 mg/kg, SD = 151.3) than in the DRY (32 mg/kg) or FLG (153 mg/kg, SD = 18.7) diets. Fermenting only the cereal component of the diet (FLG) promoted the growth of yeasts to a greater extent than fermenting the whole diet (FLF). Terminal RFLP profiles of diets and digesta from the stomach and midcolon showed differences among dietary groups. The number of yeasts able to grow at 37 degrees C in the stomach and caudal small intestine was greatest in the FLG group compared with the other 2 dietary groups (P liquid feed containing

  9. Selection of Amine-Oxidizing Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria and Identification of the Enzyme and Gene Involved in the Decrease of Biogenic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarcello, Rosa; De Angelis, Maria; Settanni, Luca; Formiglio, Sabino; Gaglio, Raimondo; Minervini, Fabio; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Accumulation of biogenic amines (BAs) in cheese and other foods is a matter of public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify the enzyme activities responsible for BA degradation in lactic acid bacteria which were previously isolated from traditional Sicilian and Apulian cheeses. The selected strains would control the concentration of BAs during cheese manufacture. First, 431 isolates not showing genes encoding the decarboxylases responsible for BA formation were selected using PCR-based methods. Ninety-four out of the 431 isolates degraded BAs (2-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, histamine, putrescine, spermine, spermidine, tyramine, or tryptamine) during cultivation on chemically defined medium. As shown by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 78 of the 94 strains were Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus casei, Lb. fermentum, Lb. parabuchneri, Lb. paracasei, Lb. paraplantarum, and Lb. rhamnosus), Leuconostoc species (Leuconostoc lactis and Ln. mesenteroides), Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus species (Streptococcus gallolyticus and S. thermophilus), Enterococcus lactis, and Weissella paramesenteroides A multicopper oxidase-hydrolyzing BA was purified from the most active strain, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei CB9CT. The gene encoding the multicopper oxidase was sequenced and was also detected in other amine-degrading strains of Lb. fermentum, Lb. paraplantarum, and P. pentosaceus Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei CB9CT and another strain (CACIO6CT) of the same species that was able to degrade all the BAs were singly used as adjunct starters for decreasing the concentration of histamine and tyramine in industrial Caciocavallo cheese. The results of this study disclose a feasible strategy for increasing the safety of traditional cheeses while maintaining their typical sensorial traits. Because high concentrations of the potentially toxic biogenic amines may be found in traditional

  10. Characterization of the iron-regulated desA promoter of Streptomyces pilosus as a system for controlled gene expression in actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Juan F

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioavailability of iron is quite low since it is usually present as insoluble complexes. To solve the bioavailability problem microorganisms have developed highly efficient iron-scavenging systems based on the synthesis of siderophores that have high iron affinity. The systems of iron assimilation in microorganisms are strictly regulated to control the intracellular iron levels since at high concentrations iron is toxic for cells. Streptomyces pilosus synthesizes the siderofore desferrioxamine B. The first step in desferrioxamine biosynthesis is decarboxylation of L-lysine to form cadaverine, a desferrioxamine B precursor. This reaction is catalyzed by the lysine decarboxylase, an enzyme encoded by the desA gene that is repressed by iron. Results The binding of the DmdR (acronym for divalent metal dependent repressor to the desA promoter in presence of Fe2+ or other divalent ions has been characterized. A 51 bp DNA fragment of the desA promoter containing the 9 bp inverted repeat was sufficient for binding of the DmdR repressor, as observed by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The desA mobility shift was prevented by neutralizing DmdR with anti-DmdR antibodies or by chelating the divalent metal in the binding reaction with 2,2'-dipyridyl. Binding to the desA promoter was observed with purified DmdR repressors of Streptomyces coelicolor or Rhodococcus fascians suggesting that there is a common mechanism of iron-regulation in actinomycetes. The complete desA promoter region was coupled using transcriptional fusions to the amy reporter gene (encoding α-amylase in low copy or multicopy Streptomyces vectors. The iron-regulated desA promoter was induced by addition of the iron chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl resulting in a strong expression of the reporter gene. Conclusions The iron-regulated desA promoter can be used for inducible expression of genes in Streptomyces species, as shown by de-repression of the promoter

  11. Brevibacterium jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jin; Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, designated strain SJ5-8(T), was isolated from seau-jeot (shrimp jeotgal), a traditional fermented seafood in South Korea. Cells were non-spore-forming rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain SJ5-8(T) was observed at 10-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.5) and in the presence of 0-14% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 5%). Phylogenetic inference based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain formed a tight phyletic lineage with members of the genus Brevibacterium. Strain SJ5-8(T) was most closely related to Brevibacterium yomogidense MN-6-a(T), Brevibacterium daeguense 2C6-41(T) and Brevibacterium salitolerans TRM 415(T) with similarities of 98.9, 97.5 and 97.4%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain SJ5-8(T) and the type strains of B. yomogidense, B. daeguense and B. salitolerans were 51.7 ± 1.9%, 22.2 ± 4.0% and 52.4 ± 3.8%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data (major sole isoprenoid quinone, MK-8(H₂); major diagnostic diamino acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid; major polyamines, putrescine and cadaverine; major cellular fatty acids, anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0); major polar lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; DNA G+C content, 69.3 mol%) also supported the affiliation of strain SJ5-8(T) to the genus Brevibacterium. Therefore, strain SJ5-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SJ5-8(T) ( =KACC 16911(T) =JCM 18571(T)).

  12. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-02

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of <4°C the correlation between pH and abundance of A. pegreffii larvae in the fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia according to a variety of health indices in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songisepp, E; Hütt, P; Rätsep, M; Shkut, E; Kõljalg, S; Truusalu, K; Stsepetova, J; Smidt, I; Kolk, H; Zagura, M; Mikelsaar, M

    2012-10-01

    Safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain Tensia (DSM 21380) was tested in vitro, in semihard Edam-type cheese, in an animal model and after consumption of the probiotic cheese in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled human intervention studies with different age groups. The susceptibility of L. plantarum Tensia to 8 antibiotics, and the presence of tetracycline (tet M, S, O, K, L) genes and class 1 integron was assessed by applying epsilometer-test and PCR-based methods. Production of biogenic amines by the probiotic strain in decarboxylation medium containing 1% of l-histidine, l-glutamine, l-ornithine, l-arginine, or l-lysine and in cheese was tested by gas chromatography. The biosafety of L. plantarum Tensia was evaluated on National Institutes of Health-line mice fed cheese containing Tensia at a concentration of 9.6 log cfu/g for 30 consecutive days. In human intervention trials in adults and the elderly, the effects of different doses of Edam-type cheese and the probiotic bacterium on BW, gut functionality indices, and host metabolism were evaluated. The strain L. plantarum Tensia was susceptible to all tested antibiotics and did not possess the tetracycline resistance-determining genes tet(L), tet(S) and tet(O), nor did it contain the integron (Int1) gene. However, the strain was tet(K) and tet(M) positive. Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia did not produce potentially harmful biogenic amines, such as histamine or cadaverine. The amount of tyramine produced in the cheese environment during ripening and after 15 wk of storage was below the clinically significant content. In the animal model, no translocation of the administered strain or other microbes into the blood or organs of mice was detected. No harmful effect was observed on body mass index, inflammatory markers, or serum lipidograms during human intervention trials with different age groups at a daily dose of 10.3 or 8.17 log cfu/serving for 3 wk. No negative effect on gastrointestinal

  14. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Licarion [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor [Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, 5800, Río Cuarto (Argentina); Ugulino de Araujo, Mario Cesar, E-mail: laqa@quimica.ufpb.br [Laboratório de Automação e Instrumentação em Química Analítica e Quimiometria (LAQA), Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CCEN, Departamento de Química, Caixa Postal 5093, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL{sup −1}, 3.5–8.8% and 88.08%–99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g{sup −1}, 8.68–25.95 µg g{sup −1}, 4.76–28.54 µg g{sup −1}, 5.18–39.95 µg g{sup −1} and 1.45–52.62 µg g{sup −1} for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and

  15. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  16. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 {mu}g/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito