WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadaverine

  1. Improving the secretion of cadaverine in Corynebacterium glutamicum by cadaverine-lysine antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Dongxia; Huang, Yunyan; Liu, Meng; Wang, Hongxin; Tang, Qi; Lu, Fuping

    2014-04-01

    Cadaverine (1,5-pentanediamine, diaminopentane), the desired raw material of bio-polyamides, is an important industrial chemical with a wide range of applications. Biosynthesis of cadaverine in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been a competitive way in place of petroleum-based chemical synthesis method. To date, the cadaverine exporter has not been found in C. glutamicum. In order to improve cadaverine secretion, the cadaverine-lysine antiporter CadB from Escherichia coli was studied in C. glutamicum. Fusion expression of cadB and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene confirmed that CadB could express in the cell membrane of C. glutamicum. Co-expression of cadB and ldc from Hafnia alvei in C. glutamicum showed that the cadaverine secretion rate increased by 22 % and the yield of total cadaverine and extracellular cadaverine increased by 30 and 73 %, respectively. Moreover, the recombinant strain cultured at acid and neutral pH separately hardly had any difference in cadaverine concentrations. These results suggested that CadB could be expressed in the cell membrane of C. glutamicum and that recombinant CadB could improve cadaverine secretion and the yield of cadaverine. Moreover, the pH value did not affect the function of recombinant CadB. These results may be a promising metabolic engineering strategy for improving the yield of the desired product by enhancing its export out of the cell. PMID:24510022

  2. Methanol-based cadaverine production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerdal, Ingemar; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Methanol is regarded as an attractive substrate for biotechnological production of value-added bulk products, such as amino acids and polyamines. In the present study, the methylotrophic and thermophilic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus was engineered into a microbial cell factory for the production of the platform chemical 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) from methanol. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of the Escherichia coli genes cadA and ldcC encoding two different lysine decarboxylase enzymes, and by increasing the overall L-lysine production levels in this host. Both CadA and LdcC were functional in B. methanolicus cultivated at 50°C and expression of cadA resulted in cadaverine production levels up to 500 mg l(-1) during shake flask conditions. A volume-corrected concentration of 11.3 g l(-1) of cadaverine was obtained by high-cell density fed-batch methanol fermentation. Our results demonstrated that efficient conversion of L-lysine into cadaverine presumably has severe effects on feedback regulation of the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway in B. methanolicus. By also investigating the cadaverine tolerance level, B. methanolicus proved to be an exciting alternative host and comparable to the well-known bacterial hosts E. coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study represents the first demonstration of microbial production of cadaverine from methanol. PMID:25644214

  3. Effects of putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and beta-phenylethylamine on cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Eleonora; Baldi, Antonella; Cheli, Federica;

    2008-01-01

    A bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1) and three-dimensional collagen primary bovine organoids were used to evaluate the effects of cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, spermicline and beta-phenylethylamine on mammary epithelial cells. Each biogenic amine was diluted in several concentratio...

  4. Histamine and cadaverine production by bacteria isolated from fresh and frozen albacore (Thunnus alalunga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Vieites Baaptista de Sousa, J M; Villa, T G; Barros-Velazquez, J

    1999-08-01

    Two hundred twenty-seven bacterial strains were isolated from fresh and frozen albacore stored either at -18 or -25 degrees C and investigated for their abilities to produce biogenic amines. As a preliminary screening, all 227 strains were tested in either Niven or Niven modified medium, which allowed the selection of 25 presumptive histamine-producing strains. High-pressure liquid chromatography revealed that only 10 of the 25 strains selected were able to produce low histamine concentrations (<25 ppm) in tryptic soy broth medium supplemented with 2% histidine. None of the 25 strains tested produced putrescine or spermine, whereas 6 strains produced spermidine. Histamine production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain 25MC6 was not prevented at 4 degrees C, and the levels of this amine reached concentrations of 25.8 ppm after 6 days. Three S. maltophilia strains showed strong lysine-decarboxylating activity. Their cadaverine formation capacity was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% lysine; this revealed that the three S. maltophilia strains tested produced more than 700 ppm of cadaverine during the first 24 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. S. maltophilia strain 15MF, initially obtained from fresh albacore tuna, produced up to 2,399 ppm and 4,820 ppm of cadaverine after 24 and 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on histamine and cadaverine production by strains of the species S. maltophilia, previously known as Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas maltophilia, isolated from fresh and frozen albacore tuna. PMID:10456749

  5. Direct production of cadaverine from soluble starch using Corynebacterium glutamicum coexpressing alpha-amylase and lysine decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Okada, Yusuke; Tsuchidate, Takeyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    Here, we demonstrated the one-step production of cadaverine from starch using a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain coexpressing Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA) and Escherichia coli K-12 lysine decarboxylase (CadA). We constructed the E. coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vector, which produces CadA under the control of the high constitutive expression (HCE) promoter, and transformed this vector into C. glutamicum CSS secreting AmyA. The engineered C. glutamicum expressed both CadA and AmyA, which retained their activity. We performed cadaverine fermentation using 50 g/l soluble starch as the sole carbon source without pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which is the coenzyme for CadA. C. glutamicum coexpressing AmyA and CadA successfully produced cadaverine from soluble starch and the yield of cadaverine was 23.4 mM after 21 h. CadA expression levels under the control of the HCE promoter were assumed to be sufficient to convert L-lysine to cadaverine, as there was no accumulation of L-lysine in the culture medium during fermentation. Thus, we demonstrated that C. glutamicum has great potential to produce cadaverine from biomass resources. PMID:18989633

  6. Construction of Synthetic Promoter-Based Expression Cassettes for the Production of Cadaverine in Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Hoon; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Eun Young; Song, Bong Keun; Jeong, Ki Jun; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Il-Kwon; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2015-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important microorganism in the biochemical industry for the production of various platform chemicals. However, despite its importance, a limited number of studies have been conducted on how to constitute gene expression cassettes in engineered C. glutamicum to obtain desired amounts of the target products. Therefore, in this study, six expression cassettes for the expression of the second lysine decarboxylase of Escherichia coli, LdcC, were constructed using six synthetic promoters with different strengths and were examined in C. glutamicum for the production of cadaverine. Among six expression cassettes, the expression of the E. coli ldcC gene under the PH30 promoter supported the highest production of cadaverine in flask and fed-batch cultivations. A fed-batch fermentation of recombinant C. glutamicum expressing E. coli ldcC gene under the PH30 promoter resulted in the production of 40.91 g/L of cadaverine in 64 h. This report is expected to contribute toward developing engineered C. glutamicum strains to have desired features. PMID:26047931

  7. Production of carbon-13-labeled cadaverine by engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum using carbon-13-labeled methanol as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leßmeier, Lennart; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Carnicer, Marc; Heux, Stephanie; Portais, Jean-Charles; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-12-01

    Methanol, a one-carbon compound, can be utilized by a variety of bacteria and other organisms as carbon and energy source and is regarded as a promising substrate for biotechnological production. In this study, a strain of non-methylotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum, which was able to produce the polyamide building block cadaverine as non-native product, was engineered for co-utilization of methanol. Expression of the gene encoding NAD+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh) from the natural methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus increased methanol oxidation. Deletion of the endogenous aldehyde dehydrogenase genes ald and fadH prevented methanol oxidation to carbon dioxide and formaldehyde detoxification via the linear formaldehyde dissimilation pathway. Heterologous expression of genes for the key enzymes hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway in this strain restored growth in the presence of methanol or formaldehyde, which suggested efficient formaldehyde detoxification involving RuMP key enzymes. While growth with methanol as sole carbon source was not observed, the fate of 13C-methanol added as co-substrate to sugars was followed and the isotopologue distribution indicated incorporation into central metabolites and in vivo activity of the RuMP pathway. In addition, 13C-label from methanol was traced to the secreted product cadaverine. Thus, this synthetic biology approach led to a C. glutamicum strain that converted the non-natural carbon substrate methanol at least partially to the non-native product cadaverine. PMID:26276544

  8. Resolution of quaternary mixtures of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by the square wave voltammetry and partial least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Escobar, W; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by square wave voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode. A multivariate calibration method based on partial least square regressions has allowed the resolution of the very high overlapped voltammetric signals obtained for the analyzed biogenic amines. Prediction errors lower than 9% have been obtained when concentration of quaternary mixtures were calculated. The developed procedure has been applied in the analysis of ham samples, which results are in good agreement with those obtained using the standard HPLC method. PMID:26078134

  9. Molecular Characterization of PauR and Its Role in Control of Putrescine and Cadaverine Catabolism through the γ-Glutamylation Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Peng, Yu-Chih; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grows on a variety of polyamines as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Catabolism of polyamines is mediated by the γ-glutamylation pathway, which is complicated by the existence of multiple homologous enzymes with redundant specificities toward different polyamines for a more diverse metabolic capacity in this organism. Through a series of markerless gene knockout mutants and complementation tests, specific combinations of pauABCD (polyamine utilization) genes...

  10. [Progress in biosythesis of diaminopentane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxia; Li, Ming; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Shuya; Lu, Fuping

    2014-02-01

    Air pollution and global warming are increasingly deteriorating. Large amounts of polyamides derived from fossil fuel sources are consumed around the world. Cadaverine is an important building monomer block of bio-based polyamides, thus biotechnological processes for these polymers possess enormous ecological and economical potential. Currently, the engineered strains for biological production of cadaverine are Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli. We review here the latest research progress of biosynthesis of cadaverine including metabolism of cadaverine in microorganisms, key enzymes and transport proteins in cadaverine synthesis pathway, optimum pathways and cadaverine yields. PMID:24941739

  11. Polyamine Distribution Patterns in Coryneform Bacteria and Related Gram-Positive Eubacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Koei

    1996-01-01

    Polyamines of the nine genera of coryneform and related Gram-positive eubacteria were analyzed by HPLC. Authentic species of Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas and Corynebacterium were devoid of polyamines. Arthrobacter species were divided into polyamine-absent, putrescine, cadaverine and putrescine-cadaverine types. Clavibacter contained putrescine and cadaverine. Spermidine was detected in some species of Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium and Curtobacterium and diaminopropane in so...

  12. Cadaverine’s Functional Role in Plant Development and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancewicz, Amy L.; Gibbs, Nicole M.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    Cadaverine derives from lysine in a pathway that is distinct from that of the other well-characterized ornithine- or arginine-derived polyamines. Despite a multitude of studies in bacterial systems, cadaverine has garnered little attention in plant research. Nonetheless, many plants have been found to synthesize it. For instance, the Leguminosae have been shown to produce cadaverine and use it as a precursor in the biosynthesis of quinolizidine alkaloids, secondary metabolites that are involved in insect defense and also display therapeutic pharmacological properties. Cadaverine is also present in the environment; it can be produced by rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbes. Markedly, exogenous cadaverine application causes alterations in root-system architecture. Previous research suggests cadaverine has a role in stress response, with groups reporting an increase in content upon exposure to heat, drought, salt, and oxidative stress. However, data regarding the role of cadaverine in stress response remains conflicted, as some plant systems show enhanced tolerance to stresses in its presence, while others show increased sensitivity to the same stresses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the role of cadaverine in plant growth, development, and stress response. We also address the possible roles rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbes may play in the delivery of exogenous cadaverine near plant organs, and discuss our current understanding of the molecular pathways that contribute to cadaverine homeostasis and response in plants. PMID:27446107

  13. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine.

  14. Site of lupanine and sparteine biosynthesis in intact plants and in vitro organ cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wink, M.

    (/sup 14/C)Cadaverine was applied to leaves of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. perennis, L. mutabilis, L. pubescens, and L. hartwegii and it was preferentially incorporated into lupanine. In Lupinus arboreus sparteine was the main labelled alkaloid, in L. hispanicus it was lupanine. A pulse chase experiment with L. angustifolius and L. arboreus showed that the incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine and sparteine was transient with a maximum between 8 and 20 h. Only leaflets and chlorophyllous petioles showed active alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas no incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine was observed in roots. Using in vitro organ cultures of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. succulentus, L. subcarnosus, Cytisus scoparius and Laburnum anagyroides the inactivity of roots was confirmed. Therefore, the green aerial parts are the major site of alkaloid biosynthesis in lupins and in other legumes.

  15. Determination of biogenic amines in squid and white prawn by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Xi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Chang-Hu; Sheng, Wen-Jing; Gao, Rui-Chang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhao-Jie

    2007-04-18

    A simple method was developed for the determination of biogenic amines in aquatic food products using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn automatic o-phthalaldehyde derivatization and fluorescence detection. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method for seven amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine, and spermine) were evaluated. This optimized method was applied to detect biogenic amines in squid and white prawn during refrigerated storage. Sensory analysis, pH value, and total volatile base nitrogen value were combined to evaluate the freshness quality of these two raw materials. Agmatine and cadaverine in squid, cadaverine, and putrescine in white prawn were the most obviously changed amines during the storage at two different temperatures, and these biogenic amines could be the effective quality indicators for the freshness of the raw aquatic materials. PMID:17381105

  16. Roles of LysP and CadC in mediating the lysine requirement for acid induction of the Escherichia coli cad operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, M. N.; C L; Olson, E R

    1994-01-01

    Expression of the Escherichia coli cadBA operon, encoding functions required for the conversion of lysine to cadaverine and for cadaverine excretion, requires at least two extracellular signals: low pH and a high concentration of lysine. To better understand the nature of the lysine-dependent signal, mutants were isolated which expressed a cadA-lacZ transcription fusion in the absence of lysine while retaining pH regulation. The responsible mutation in one of these isolates (EP310) was in cad...

  17. Novel method for chemical modification and patterning of the SU-8 photoresist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagoi, Gabriela; Keller, Stephan Urs; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    wetting behaviour of SU-8. The resolution limit of the AQ photopatterning method was 20 μm when using an uncollimated light source. AQ modification followed by a reaction with amino groups of Alexa-647 cadaverine and a Biotin-amino derivative proved possible modification and patterning of polymeric...

  18. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  19. Thermodynamics of the DNA binding of biogenic polyamines: Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DNA binding of spermine > spermidine >> putrescine > cadaverine. ► Binding of the polyamines stabilized the DNA melting temperature by 6–17 K. ► Binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution at all temperatures. ► Electrostatic interaction is the major contributing force to the Gibbs energy term. ► Small but negative heat capacity changes indicate the role of hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: The thermodynamics of the reaction of biogenic polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine and cadaverine with calf thymus DNA was studied by thermal melting, differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. These results were supplemented by ethidium bromide displacement and circular dichroism experiments. Melting studies show enhanced stabilization of DNA melting temperature by spermine (17 K) > spermidine (11 K) > putrescine (7 K) > cadaverine (6 K). The binding affinity of the polyamines to DNA as determined from calorimetry experiments was in the order, spermine > spermidine > putrescine > cadaverine with KiSPM = 6.20 × 105 M−1, KiSPD = 3.10 × 105 M−1, KiPUT = 1.80 × 104 M−1, and KiCAD = 1.60 × 104 M−1 at T = 293.15 K, which correlated with their increasing number of positive charges. The trend in the binding affinity was also in agreement with the IC50 values of ethidium bromide displacement ability and circular dichroism perturbations. Absorbance and circular dichroism studies showed perturbation of DNA conformation within the B-form by spermine to be the highest and that by cadaverine to be the least. The binding of all the four polyamines was entropy driven with small enthalpy contributions that were unfavourable. Electrostatic interaction is judged to be the major contributing force to the Gibbs energy term. The heat capacity values denote some extent of hydrophobic interaction between the polyamines and DNA.

  20. Influence of selected plant amines on probing behaviour of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempruch, C; Goławska, S; Osiński, P; Leszczyński, B; Czerniewicz, P; Sytykiewicz, H; Matok, H

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the influence of common plant polyamines and tyramine on probing behaviour in the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.). Electrical penetration graphs (DC) were used to monitor the probing and feeding behaviour of R. padi exposed to the amines agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and tyramine. The study results showed that the analyzed amines tended to shorten the stylet activity of aphids in the gels (as indicated by the g-C pattern), prolong the duration of non-probing behaviour (g-np pattern) and decrease salivation into the gels (g-E1pattern) and ingestion from the gels (g-G pattern). The 10 mM concentration of the studied amines, especially cadaverine, reduced or completely inhibited aphid ingestion. The obtained results demonstrate that plant amines participate in plant defence responses to R. padi through disturbance of its probing behaviour and the intensity of such effects is concentration dependent. PMID:26898153

  1. Bacterial Lysine Decarboxylase Influences Human Dental Biofilm Lysine Content, Biofilm Accumulation and Sub-Clinical Gingival Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohinai, Z.; Keremi, B.; Szoko, E.; Tabi, T.; Szabo, C.; Tulassay, Z.; Levine, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study were to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR), and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for a week. Methods Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Results Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After a week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine post-OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. Conclusions After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Clinical Relevance Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. PMID:22141361

  2. Administration of biogenic amines to Saanen kids: effects on growth performance and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    E. Fusi; R. Rebucci; C. Pecorini; Rossi, L.; F. Cheli

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases present in all organisms. The most common are putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine, histamine, tryptamine and β- phenylethylamine. In low concentrations they are essential for the normal growth and differentiation of cells (Bardócz et al., 1995), but in larger quantities are harmful to humans and livestock. Biogenic amines are naturally present in silage; however their presence in high concentrations may be a sign of u...

  3. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Pleva; Leona Buňková; Eva Theimrová; Vendula Bartošáková; František Buňka; Khatantuul Purevdorj

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci...

  4. The Effect of Different Temperature and Time in Storage on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sucuks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Hilal; UĞUR, Muammer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturating and storing time at different temperatures on biogenic amine formation in fermented sucuk produced in Turkey. For this purpose, fermented sucuks were analysed for biogenic amines (tryptamine, b-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) by means of HPLC using a fluorescence detector, for physicochemical characteristics (humidity, pH, water activity) and for microbiological characterist...

  5. Control of Biogenic Amines in Food—Existing and Emerging Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Naila, Aishath; Flint, Steve; Fletcher, Graham; Bremer, Phil; Meerdink, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been reported in a variety of foods, such as fish, meat, cheese, vegetables, and wines. They are described as low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic structures. The most common biogenic amines found in foods are histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, tryptamine, and agmatine. In addition octopamine and dopamine have been found in meat and meat products and fish. The formation of biogeni...

  6. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  7. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN SELECTED WINES DURING WINEMAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Radka Flasarová; Leona Buňková; Barbora Ivičičová; František Buňka; Stanislav Kráčmar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine; tyramine; phenylethylamine; putrescine; agmatine; and cadaverine) during the winemaking in 10 selected species grown in Central Europe in 2008. The analysis was performed using ion-exchange chromatography by the sodium-citrate buffers with the post-column ninhydrin derivatization and photometric detection. A comparison of the content of biogenic amines in red and wine varieties showed that red wines ...

  8. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.

  9. Metodi analitici per la caratterizzazione e la valutazone della sicurezza alimentare di prodotti tradizionali della filiera lattiero-casearia ovina della Sardegna

    OpenAIRE

    Zazzu, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are compounds formed in fresh and fermented food. Cheese provide a good substrate for the production of BA. In this study a RP-HPLC method was developed, optimized and validated to determine eight BA (tryptamine, 2phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) in a traditional PDO sheep cheese: Fiore Sardo. The method was validated in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was used to analyse 36 samples of...

  10. Methodology for histamine and biogenic amines analysis. Seafoodplus Traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and agmatine are produced from the decarboxylation of histidine, ornithine, lysine tyrosine and arginine respectively. Histamine is associated of scombroid poisoning in conjonction with the ingestion of some fish species such as tuna, mackerel, sardine, herring,anchovy. The formation of histamine in fish products is directly correlated with the concentration of histidine in the tissue and the level of microorganisms present in the product, due to ...

  11. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos; Eliane Teixeira Mársico; César Aquiles Lázaro; Rose Teixeira; Laís Doro; Carlos Adam Conte Júnior

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue) and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count) characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)...

  12. Part 1: Method Development for the Analysis of Polyamines by Derivatives with Benzoyl Chloride by HPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry Part 2: Detection of Volatile Organic Compound Tracers in Human Breath

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Kim

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Development and validation of an analytical method by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, n8-acetylspermidine, and n1-acetylspermine as benzyl amide derivatives in biological samples were completed. The derivatization conditions were optimized for all PAs, and method validation was completed for putrescine (PUT) and spermidine (SPD) using isotope dilution techniques. The method exhibited: high accuracy (

  13. The Trypanosoma cruzi Diamine Transporter Is Essential for Robust Infection of Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasne, Marie-Pierre; Soysa, Radika; Ullman, Buddy

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is incapable of synthesizing putrescine or cadaverine de novo, and, therefore, salvage of polyamines from the host milieu is an obligatory nutritional function for the parasite. A high-affinity diamine transporter (TcPOT1) from T. cruzi has been identified previously that recognizes both putrescine and cadaverine as ligands. In order to assess the functional role of TcPOT1 in intact parasites, a Δtcpot1 null mutant was constructed by targeted gene replacement and characterized. The Δtcpot1 mutant lacked high-affinity putrescine-cadaverine transport capability but retained the capacity to transport diamines via a non-saturable, low-affinity mechanism. Transport of spermidine and arginine was not impacted by the Δtcpot1 lesion. The Δtcpot1 cell line exhibited a significant but not total defect in its ability to subsist in Vero cells, although initial infection rates were not affected by the lesion. These findings reveal that TcPOT1 is the sole high-affinity diamine permease in T. cruzi, that genetic obliteration of TcPOT1 impairs the ability of the parasite to maintain a robust infection in mammalian cells, and that a secondary low-affinity uptake mechanism for this key parasite nutrient is operative but insufficient for optimal infection. PMID:27050410

  14. Species of Staphylococcus and Bacillus isolated from traditional sausages as producers of biogenic amines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eBermúdez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.

  15. Binding of the biogenic polyamines to deoxyribonucleic acids of varying base composition: base specificity and the associated energetics of the interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Kabir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The thermodynamics of the base pair specificity of the binding of the polyamines spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine with three genomic DNAs Clostridium perfringens, 27% GC, Escherichia coli, 50% GC and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 72% GC have been studied using titration calorimetry and the data supplemented with melting studies, ethidium displacement and circular dichroism spectroscopy results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, optical melting studies, ethidium displacement, circular dichroism spectroscopy are the various techniques employed to characterize the interaction of four polyamines, spermine, spermidine, putersine and cadaverine with the DNAs. Polyamines bound stronger with AT rich DNA compared to the GC rich DNA and the binding varied depending on the charge on the polyamine as spermine>spermidine >putrescine>cadaverine. Thermodynamics of the interaction revealed that the binding was entropy driven with small enthalpy contribution. The binding was influenced by salt concentration suggesting the contribution from electrostatic forces to the Gibbs energy of binding to be the dominant contributor. Each system studied exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation. The negative heat capacity changes suggested a role for hydrophobic interactions which may arise due to the non polar interactions between DNA and polyamines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: From a thermodynamic analysis, the AT base specificity of polyamines to DNAs has been elucidated for the first time and supplemented by structural studies.

  16. 以生物胺变化评价冷藏罗非鱼片腐败进程%Assessment of spoilage progress for chilled tilapia fillets according to biogenic amines changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寿春; 钟赛意; 马长伟; 李平兰; 杨信廷

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility and safety ranges of biogenic amines indicators for evaluating fish spoilage progress, reversed-phase high-performance-liquid-chromatography method was employed to detect the biogenic amines changes of tilapia fillets during chilled storage. The results showed that initial content of monoamines and polyamines in fresh fillets was high, and those of diamines was low. During chilled storage, monoamines and polyamines content showed fluctuating and decreasing trend. Cadaverine and putrescine content were decreased quickly and became the major biogenic amines. The cadaverine and putrescine relative indicators like diamines, biogenic amines index and total biogenic amines showed a similar increasing trend of cadaverine and putrescine. The correlation analysis showed that there were high correlation among cadaverine, putrescine, diamine, biogenic amines index, total biogenic amines with storage time, microbial counts and amine nitrogen. The regression analysis indicated that the relationship among the growth of pseudomonas, enterobacteriaceae and cadaverine and putrescine was inseparable. The indicators of cadaverine, putrescine and diamine could be used for evaluating fillet spoilage progress simply and effectively. Considering the toxicity of histamine and tyramine, biogenic amines index (BA1) were more suitable. The preliminary range of BAI for evaluating spoilage progress of chilled tilapia fillets were as follows: 40 mg/kg, spoiled. These results would offer the basic data for standard limits of biogenic amines in chilled tilapia fillets.%为了探讨生物胺指标评价鱼肉腐败进程的可能性及其安全范围,应用反相高效液相色谱法测定冷藏罗非鱼片贮藏过程的生物胺变化,用以判断鱼片的腐败进程.结果表明:新鲜鱼片初始单胺和多胺总量较高,二胺总量很低.贮藏过程中单胺和多胺波动变化并呈下降趋势,尸胺、腐胺含量快速增加成为主要生物胺.

  17. Regulation of Vibrio cholerae Genes Required for Acid Tolerance by a Member of the “ToxR-Like” Family of Transcriptional Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Merrell, D. Scott; Camilli, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The ability of the intestinal pathogen Vibrio cholerae to undergo an adaptive stress response, known as the acid tolerance response (ATR), was previously shown to enhance virulence. An essential component of the ATR is CadA-mediated lysine decarboxylation. CadA is encoded by the acid- and infection-induced gene cadA. Herein, cadA is shown to be the second gene in an operon with cadB, encoding a lysine/cadaverine antiporter. cadC, which is 5′ of cadB, encodes an acid-responsive, positive trans...

  18. CadC-mediated activation of the cadBA promoter in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kuper; Jung, K.

    2005-01-01

    The transcriptional activator CadC in Escherichia coli, a member of the ToxR-like proteins, activates transcription of the cadBA operon encoding the lysine decarboxylase CadA and the lysine-cadaverine antiporter CadB. cadBA is induced under conditions of acidic external pH and exogenous lysine; anoxic conditions raise the expression level up to 10 times. To characterize the binding mechanism of CadC, procedures for the purification of this membrane-integrated protein and its reconstitution in...

  19. Crystal structure of the sensory domain of Escherichia coli CadC, a member of the ToxR-like protein family

    OpenAIRE

    Eichinger, Andreas; Haneburger, Ina; Koller, Christiane; Jung, Kirsten; Skerra, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-integral transcriptional activator CadC comprises sensory and transcriptional regulatory functions within one polypeptide chain. Its C-terminal periplasmic domain, CadCpd, is responsible for sensing of environmental pH as well as for binding of the feedback inhibitor cadaverine. Here we describe the crystal structure of CadCpd (residues 188–512) solved at a resolution of 1.8 Å via multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using a ReCl62− derivative. CadCpd reveals a novel fo...

  20. Pea Seedling Histaminase as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Anaphylactic and Inflammatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Masini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amine oxidases (AOs are ubiquitous enzymes involved in the metabolism of biogenic amines. Copper AOs (Cu-AOs catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amine groups of several biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine. In the present review, the effects of a plant amine oxidase (Cu-AO, histaminase, EC1.4.3.6 purified from pea seedlings in the modulation of IgE-mediated allergic reactions, and in the prevention of cardiac and splachnic postischemic reperfusion damage are reported.

  1. Effect of Delayed Icing on Biogenic Amines Formation and Bacterial Contribution of Iced Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Vali Hosseini; Ali Hamzeh; Mehran Moslemi; Aria Babakhani Lashkan; Antonio Iglesias; Xesús Feás

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine ...

  2. Evaluation of N-nitrosopiperidine formation from biogenic amines during the production of dry fermented sausages

    OpenAIRE

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Peeters, Christine; Derdelinckx, Guy; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the precursors cadaverine and piperidine in the N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) formation during the production of dry fermented sausages. The influences of pH (4.9 and 5.3), sodium nitrite (0 and 150 mg/kg) and ascorbate (0 and 500 mg/kg) were investigated by the use of a dry fermented sausage model. The biogenic amines and volatile N-nitrosamines were analyzed by HPLC-UV and GC-TEA. The major biogenic amines were tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT)...

  3. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Ehsani, Ali; Hassanzadazar, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BA) are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production. PMID:25653782

  4. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. PMID:23768392

  5. Evaluation of biogenic amines levels, and biochemical and microbiological characterization of Italian-type salami sold in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, histamine, spermidine and spermine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the physicochemical (moisture, lipids, proteins, pH, water activity and fixed mineral residue and microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count characteristics of six Italian-type salami brands sold in the city of Niteroi (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The salami showed lactic acid bacteria count from 5.7 to 8.6 CFU•mL-1, and heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria count from 5.8 to 8.7 CFU•mL-1. Three brands showed moisture contents above 35% and one brand had protein content below 25%. The mean values obtained for the amines were: 197.43, 143.29, 73.02, 4.52, 90.66 and 36.17 mg•kg-1 for tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, histamine, and spermine respectively. Two brands presented histamine contents above the legal limit established in 100 mg•kg-1. We concluded that the evaluated salami presented a wide variation in the count of the bacterial groups with a predominance of lactic acid bacteria. The moisture contents indicate insufficient drying before commercialization and protein content had values below the minimum limit determined by the Brazilian legislation. Finally, the levels of biogenic amines found could cause adverse reactions in susceptible consumers, depending of the amount and frequency of intake of these products.

  6. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  7. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ITALIAN FORMAGGIO DI FOSSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particular reference to the presence of the most important biogenic amines ( -Phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine, compared with a control cheese fully ripened in factory. Formaggio di Fossa showed higher values of Aw, pH, humidity, proteins, pH 4,6-soluble nitrogen (NCN and water soluble nitrogen (NPN and much lower amounts of fat. Much higher amounts of total biogenic amines were detected in Formaggio di Fossa than in control cheese, where their concentration was very low. Cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine were the most concentrated biogenic amines. Nevertheless, thyramine was present at levels suggested as compatible with GMPs. Histamine was detected at low amounts, far from potentially toxic levels.

  8. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  9. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Razavi Rohani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BA are nitrogenous compounds that possess biological activity. The source of production is the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. This compounds are found in various types of cheese. The aim of this work was to evaluate the BA content of some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province Iran. For this purpose, 70 samples of Koopeh, 10 samples of Lighvan and 5 samples of Red Salmas cheeses were obtained from local supermarkets of different cities of West Azerbaijan province. After preparation of samples, biogenic amines content was evaluated by modified HPLC method. The presence of histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine in tested cheeses were observed. Total amount of biogenic amines was highest in Red Salmas cheese with 1426.91 ppm. It followed by Lighvan cheese and Koopeh cheese with 1008.98 and 517.71 ppm, respectively. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were detected in Koopeh cheese at levels up to 156.09, 282.34, 70.80, 8.48 ppm respectively. These amines were detected also in Lighvan cheese at levels up to 277.53, 342.74, 37.58, 351.12 ppm and in Red Salmas cheese samples at levels up to 438.03, 701.05, 105.21, 182.62 ppm, respectively. Large amounts of biogenic amines can indicate non hygienic conditions and contamination of used milk for cheese production.

  10. Determination of biogenic amines in traditional Chinese fermented foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoxi; Qi, Ningli; Li, Jihua; Lin, Lijing; Han, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    A survey of biogenic amine content of traditional Chinese fermented foods (douchi, sufu, fermented sausage, yulu, and shrimp paste) was carried out. Eight major biogenic amines including putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine and tryptamine were separated by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD on Inertsil ODS-SP column after pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride. The results showed that spermine (1.65-3.96 mg 100 g(-1)), putrescine (0.20-10.89 mg 100 g(-1)), cadaverine (3.60-12.14 mg 100 g(-1)), and histamine (0.57-20.24 mg 100 g(-1)) were the most represented amines. All amines were detected in yulu, while sufu showed a much higher content of most amines. Shrimp paste showed the lowest level of total biogenic amines. Moreover, the composition and content of eight biogenic amines in the selected samples varied among different food types, origins and batches. Although the average content for each amine is within the range that may elicit direct adverse reactions, consumers should be aware of the potential synergistic effect among different amines and limit their consumption at each meal. PMID:24844287

  11. Determination of biogenic amine profiles in conventional and organic cocoa-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Donatella; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Puoci, Francesco; Picci, Nevio

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa contains many compounds such as biogenic amines (BAs), known to influence consumer health. Spermidine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found in several cocoa-based products using HPLC with UV detection after derivatisation with dansyl-chloride. Once optimised in terms of linearity, percentage recovery, LOD, LOQ and repeatability, this method was applied to real samples. Total concentrations of BAs ranged from 5.7 to 79.0 µg g(-)(1) with wide variations depending on the type of sample. BAs present in all samples were in decreasing order: histamine (1.9-38.1 µg g(-)(1)) and tyramine (1.7-31.7 µg g(-)(1)), while putrescine (0.9-32.7 µg g(-)(1)), spermidine (1.0-9.7 µg g(-)(1)) and spermidine (0.6-9.3 µg g(-)(1)) were present in most of the samples. Cadaverine, serotonine and β-phenylethylamine were present in a few samples at much lower concentrations. Organic samples always contained much lower levels of BAs than their conventional counterparts and, generally speaking, the highest amounts of BAs were found in the most processed products. PMID:25833003

  12. Changes in biogenic amines and microbiological analysis in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J M; Villa, T G; Barros-Velazquez, J

    1998-05-01

    Albacore specimens of extra quality were analyzed for their biogenic amine contents after 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage at -18 degrees C or -25 degrees C. A high-performance liquid chromatography method involving a linear elution gradient was optimized for the identification and determination of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, spermidine, and spermine in albacore tuna. Putrescine was the biogenic amine that showed the highest increase, reaching concentrations of 59.04 ppm (815% of the initial level) and 68.26 ppm (942% of the initial level) in the white muscle of albacore after 9 months of frozen storage at -18 and -25 degrees C, respectively. Cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine concentrations were below 3, 5, and 11 ppm, respectively, after 9 months of frozen storage, while spermidine underwent a significant decrease at both storage temperatures. Microbiological analysis confirmed the absence of species of Enterobacteriaceae in 75% of the albacore specimens after 9 months of frozen storage; coliforms were always below 3 CFU/g. The survival rate of the psychrotrophic microorganisms after 9 months of frozen storage at -25 degrees C was 4.6%, while 38.9 and 92.1% of the aerobic mesophiles present in the white muscle of albacore before freezing survived 9 months of storage at -18 and -25 degrees C, respectively. PMID:9709235

  13. Changes of biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) during chilled storage and effect on biogenic amines during thermal processing%草鱼冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月美; 包玉龙; 罗永康; 王航

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the changes in biogenic amines and other quality indicators during chilled storage(4 ℃) and effect of thermal processing on biogenic amines (85 ℃,15 min) of grass carp (Ctenpharyngodon idellus) by observing the drip loss,sensory assessment,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),total viable counts and content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine,2-phenylethyl-amine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine).The correlation was analyzed between biogenic amines and quality indicators of grass carp.The resuhs showed that drip loss,TVB-N and total viable counts increased with storage time,which accorded with the changes of sensory scores.The preservation life of grass carp at 4 ℃ was 9 days.During the storage,putrescine and cadaverine changed most significantly that putrescine content reached (17.12 ± 4.40) mg·kg-1 and cadaverine content reached (237.47 ±3.96) mg·kg-1 at 15th day.Besides,cadaverine and putrescine had good correlation with drip loss,sensory assessment,TVB-N and total viable counts.After thermal processing,contents of putrescine,cadaverine,histamine and spermine decreased slightly,saying that thermal processing could not remove the biogenic amines of grass carp effectively.%文章研究了草鱼(Ctenpharyngodon idellus)冷藏过程鱼肉品质与生物胺的变化及热处理对生物胺的影响.将经过前处理的草鱼鱼片于4℃条件下贮藏,对其感官品质、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、菌落总数、汁液流失率以及生物胺等指标进行测定,另外经过85℃、15 min的热处理后对草鱼鱼片的生物胺进行测定,探求其变化规律及草鱼的生物胺与其品质指标的相关性.结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长,草鱼的汁液流失率、TVB-N、菌落总数均呈现明显的上升趋势,与感官分值的变化趋势相符,草鱼的感官接受极限为9d.草鱼鱼片在冷藏加工过程中变化最显著的生物胺是腐胺和尸胺,第15

  14. BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT IN “PECORINO DEL PARCO DI MIGLIARINO - SAN ROSSORE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Forzale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs can be naturally present in several foods. They are mainly produced in large amounts by amino acid decarboxylases activity of bacteria. The BAs content has been associated to the quality of raw material and to fermentation or spoilage processes. The aim of the present study was to asses the content of BAs (single and total value in the core and in the external part of a Tuscan traditional pecorino cheese. Sixteen “Pecorino del Parco di Migliarino-San Rossore” cheeses belonging to same batch were tested during ripening time, up to 5 months. BAs content was analyzed by an HPLC-UV method. The BAs content was significantly higher in the core than in the external part. Tyramine was the amine most frequently detected and largely quantized, followed by putrescine, histamine and cadaverine.

  15. Influence of packaging conditions on biogenic amines and fatty acids evolution during 15months storage of a typical spreadable salami ('Nduja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Bonesi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Picci, Nevio; Restuccia, Donatella

    2016-12-15

    The study evaluated the fatty acids and the biogenic amines (BAs) in 'Nduja of Spilinga stored in different packaging materials (i.e. natural casing under vacuum, glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®) during 15months of shelf-life. Raw materials and pepper mixture were analysed as well. BAs concentrations increased with time, tyramine (TYR), putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) were the most abundant. BAs in natural casing were always higher than those found in glass jar, aluminum tube and OVTENE®. Total fatty acids were characterized by higher level of unsaturated fatty acid that decreased with time (glass jar>natural casing under vacuum>aluminum tube>OVTENE®). The reduction of PUFA is the consequence of the increase of peroxides and carbonyls reacting with amino acids to form BAs. This was confirmed by Pearson's correlation matrices implying that lipid oxidation processes were in some way linked to the chemical production of BAs. PMID:27451162

  16. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  17. Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncalvo, Alessandro; Marinoni, Laura; Dordoni, Roberta; Duserm Garrido, Guillermo; Lavelli, Vera; Spigno, Giorgia

    2016-07-01

    Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in extracts at very low levels, while potential allergenic amines, tyramine and histamine, were never detected. Different pesticides were present in both skins and extracts. Pb and Cd were found in trace only in the powders, and K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in both skin powders and extracts. Concentrations of the different contaminants were related to fibre content or total phenolics content of powders and extracts, respectively, in order to evaluate their use in the food sector. PMID:27295010

  18. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  19. Fluorescence-based Sensing of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT Using a Multi-channeled Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA Microimmunosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne W. Kusterbeck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence immunoassays employing monoclonal antibodies directed against the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT were conducted in a multi-channel microimmunosensor. The multi-channel microimmunosensor was prepared in poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA via hot embossing from a brass molding tool. The multi-channeled microfluidic device was sol-gel coated to generate a siloxane surface that provided a scaffold for antibody immobilization. AlexaFluor-cadaverine-trinitrobenzene (AlexaFluor-Cad-TNB was used as the reporter molecule in a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was 1-10 ng/mL (ppb with a linear dynamic range that covered three orders of magnitude. In addition, antibody crossreactivity was investigated using hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, HMX, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT, 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT and 2-amino-4,6-DNT.

  20. Production of Avaroferrin and Putrebactin by Heterologous Expression of a Deep-Sea Metagenomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki J. Fujita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The siderophore avaroferrin (1, an inhibitor of Vibrio swarming that was recently identified in Shewanella algae B516, was produced by heterologous expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster cloned from a deep-sea sediment metagenomic DNA, together with two analogues, bisucaberin (2 and putrebactin (3. Avaroferrin (1 is a macrocyclic heterodimer of N-hydroxy-N-succinyl cadaverine (4 and N-hydroxy-N-succinyl-putrescine (5, whereas analogues 2 and 3 are homodimers of 4 and 5, respectively. Heterologous expression of two other related genes from culturable marine bacteria resulted in production of compounds 1–3, but in quite different proportions compared with production through expression of the metagenomic DNA.

  1. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.; Larsen, Erling; Engelsen, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests. The...... spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink...

  2. Studies of fish meal in aquafeeds%鱼粉在水产饲料中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 解绶启; 刘建康

    2004-01-01

    As a main protein source in aquafeeds, fish meal has been extensively studied. Fish sources, freshness, processing temperature, lipid quality and microbiological index are five main aspects of the evaluation of fish meal quality. This paper reviewed the researches on fish meal including the evaluation of fish meal quality, the use of fishmeal and the environmental problems. Biogenic amine is the main potential toxin in decomposed fish meal including mainly histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine and most studies showed that they could affect the fish growth performance and health. The determination of protein digestibility of fish meal includes pepsin-digestion method, animal test, capillary electrophoresis, etc. The content of phosphorus in fish meal and its utilization can introduce pollution to water bodies and the use of alternative protein and improvement of utilization of fish meal can help to reduce the pollution from fish meal.

  3. Recent Applications of Ion Mobility Spectrometry in Diagnosis of Vaginal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeev Karpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal infections (vaginosis globally affect more than 15% of the female population of reproductive age. However, diagnosis of vaginosis and differentiating between the three common types: bacterial vaginosis (BV, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, and trichomoniasis are challenging. Elevated levels of the biogenic amines, trimethylamine (TMA, putrescine, and cadaverine have been found in vaginal discharge fluid of women with vaginosis. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS is particularly suitable for measurement of amines even in complex biological matrices due to their high proton affinity and has been shown to be suitable for the diagnosis of vaginal infections. Recent developments that have increased the accuracy of the technique for diagnosis of BV and simplified sample introduction are described here.

  4. 国内消费市场葡萄酒与啤酒中生物胺污染水平的分析%Analysis of Biogenic Amines in Wine and Beer in Chinese Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 钟其顶; 邢江涛; 熊正河; 吴永宁

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,an improved RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitation of eight biogenic amines (Tryptamine,Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Spermine) in wine and beer.Eight biogenic amines were analyzed in 38 samples of domestic wine,33 samples of wine from eleven countries,and 26 samples of domestic beer.Tryptamine was not found in any of the samples.β-Phenylethylamine,Putrescine,Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spennidine,and Spermine were found in the Chinese red wine samples.Most of the red wines presented low concentrations (less than 8 mg/l).Tryptamine was not found in any of the red wine samples.Putrescine was detected in all samples (100%),followed by β-Phenylethylamine (84.2%),Spermidine (60.5%),Histamine (57.8%),Tyramine(57.8%),Cadaverine(47.4%),and Spermine(36.8%).Putrescine and β-Phenylethylamine were found in white wines,meanwhile the other biogenic amines were not found.The mean total biogenic amines in imported wine sample slightly higher than the domestic wine.The primary biogenic amines in Chinese beer were Putrescine,Tyramine,Spermidine,and Cadaverine.These beers presented contents of Histamine lower than 2 mg/L.With the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the method was feasible for the determination of biogenic amines in wine and beer.Domestic wine,beer and wine importing are safe for the lower biogenic amines content in them.%研究建立一种同时检测葡萄酒和啤酒中8种生物胺的高效液相色谱法,对国内消费市场部分葡萄酒和啤酒中生物胺的污染情况进行分析.结果显示:在所有酒类样品中均未检出色胺;从干红葡萄酒中检出其它生物胺,如腐胺检出率100%,其次为β-苯乙胺;干白葡萄酒中的生物胺主要为腐胺,还检出微量的β-苯乙胺,其它生物胺未检出.国产与进口葡萄酒样品中生物腰污染水平无显著差异(P>0.05).啤酒中常见的生物胺是腐胺、

  5. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L-1, and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L-1. (author)

  6. Biogenic amines in commercially produced Yulu, a Chinese fermented fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Ying; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Seven biogenic amines were determined in 35 commercially produced Yulu samples from three provinces of China by pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the major biogenic amines (more than 100 mg kg(-1)), while tryptamine, spermidine and spermine were regarded as minor biogenic amines (less than 25 mg kg(-1)). Twenty samples contained more than 50 mg kg(-1) histamine (the limit for histamine in seafood products as suggested by the Food and Drug Administration). Twenty-one samples contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) tyramine and 10 contained more than 1000 mg kg(-1) total biogenic amines. This study provided data on biogenic amine levels in Chinese fermented fish sauce. The results suggested that biogenic amine content should be monitored in commercially produced Yulu. PMID:24779975

  7. Simultaneous determination of selected biogenic amines in alcoholic beverage samples by isotachophoretic and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Piasta, Anna; Szłyk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A simple and useful method for the determination of biogenic amines in beverage samples based on isotachophoretic separation is described. The proposed procedure permitted simultaneous analysis of histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine. The data presented demonstrate the utility, simplicity, flexibility, sensitivity and environmentally friendly character of the proposed method. The precision of the method expressed as coefficient of variations varied from 0.1% to 5.9% for beverage samples, whereas recoveries varied from 91% to 101%. The results for the determination of biogenic amines were compared with an HPLC procedure based on a pre-column derivatisation reaction of biogenic amines with dansyl chloride. Furthermore, the derivatisation procedure was optimised by verification of concentration and pH of the buffer, the addition of organic solvents, reaction time and temperature. PMID:24350674

  8. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin

    2014-02-15

    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively. PMID:24128513

  9. Pathological changes in platelet histamine oxidases in atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Kiehl

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma histamine levels were associated with significantly lowered diamine and type B monoamine oxidase activities in platelet-rich plasma of atopic eczema (AE patients. The diamine oxidase has almost normal cofactor levels (pyridoxal phosphate and Cu2+ but the cofactor levels for type B monoamine oxidase (flavin adenine dinucleotide and Fe2+ are lowered. The biogenic amines putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and serotonin in the sera, as well as dopamine and epinephrine in EDTA-plasma were found to be normal. It is unlikely, therefore, that these amines are responsible for the decreased activities of monoamine and diamine oxidase in these patients. The most likely causative factors for the inhibition of the diamine oxidase are nicotine, alcohol, food additives and other environmental chemicals, or perhaps a genetic defect of the diamine oxidase.

  10. Effet des polyamines sur la réduction du chrome hexavalent par des souches bactériennes et leur résistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahri Joutey, N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of polyamines on the reduction of hexavalent chromium by bacterial strains and their resistance. Polyamines are involved in several functions in bacteria. In this study, we examined the role of polyamines in hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] reduction by three bacterial strains isolated from sites contaminated by tannery effluents. The strains were identified as Serratia proteamaculans, Leucobacter chromiireducens and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The inhibition of polyamine synthesis by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused a decrease in Cr(VI tolerance in the bacterial isolates, indicating the role of endogenous polyamines in resistance to Cr(VI. The exogenous application of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, cadaverine was found to stimulate growth and Cr(VI reduction by the bacterial strains in Luria-Bertani medium. The results show the importance of polyamines in response to heavy metal stresses, especially Cr(VI toxicity.

  11. Color and chemical composition and of green corn produced under organic and conventional conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Pinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical properties of green corn, grown in both organic and conventional farming systems, using a completely randomized factorial design. Four corn varieties (AG 1051, BR 106, SWB 551 and VIVI of green corn kernels were evaluated for color, proximate composition, total calories, carotenoids and bioactive amines. The farming system affected some chemical and physical characteristics of green corn, but this effect was dependent upon variety. In general, organic green corn kernels were reddish (a* color component and had higher levels of β-carotene compared to the conventional ones, suggesting that these characteristics are related. Moreover, organic green corn had higher levels of total carbohydrates and total energy compared to conventional varieties. On the other hand, crude fiber levels were higher in conventional grains - an unexpected result that deserves further investigation. Finally, the levels of cadaverine and spermine bioactive amines were not affected either by the corn variety or by the farming system.

  12. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets. PMID:26939658

  13. Using Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Detect ss- and ds-Oligodeoxynucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Tsen; Huang, Ming-Feng; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg2+ (7.5 μM), and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag+ (1 μM) and cadaverine (10 μM) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the β-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.

  14. Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium from Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Vanessa K; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Golke, Jan; Saw, Jimmy H W; Alam, Maqsudul; Donachie, Stuart P

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, helical bacterium designated PH27AT was cultivated from an anchialine pool on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The obligately halophilic strain was motile by bipolar tufts of flagella and grew optimally at pH 7, and microaerobically or aerobically. Closest neighbours based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence identity are Marinospirillum celere v1c_Sn-redT (93.31 %) and M. alkaliphilum Z4T (92.10 %) in the family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. PH27AT is distinguished phenotypically from members of the genus Marinospirillum by its hydrolysis of gelatin, the absence of growth in media containing ≤ 1 % (w/v) NaCl and the ranges of temperature (12–40 °C) and pH (5–8) for growth. The major compound ubiquinone Q-9 distinguishes the quinone system of strain PH27AT from those in members of the genus Marinospirillum and other members of the Oceanospirillaceae, in which the major quinone is Q-8. Major polar lipids in PH27AT were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine. Spermidine and cadaverine dominated the polyamine pattern; large proportions of cadaverine have not been reported in members of the genus Marinospirillum. Genotypic and chemotaxonomic data show that PH27AT does not belong in the genus Marinospirillum or other genera of the family Oceanospirillaceae or the Halomonadaceae. We propose a new genus, Terasakiispira gen. nov., be created to accommodate Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species, with PH27AT ( = ATCC BAA-995T = DSM 16455T = DSM 23961T) as the type strain. PMID:26297573

  15. HISTAMINE BIOSENSOR: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj*, M. M. Gupta and Shweta Pandey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some biogenic amine like Histamine, cadaverine and putrescine have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, meat and fermented foods. Histamine is toxic at high intakes, while cadaverine and putrescine potentiate the effects of Histamine. Histamine has regulated level of 200 mg/kg (200 ppm. Basic principle involved in Biogenic amines biosensor is the action of diamine oxidase (DAO that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Two different approaches for the histamine biosensor design were studied, i.e. the enzyme DAO was directly immobilized on the surface of the oxygen electrode membrane using glutaraldehyde or entrapped in a hydrogel film. In histamine biosensor consisting of diamine oxidase (DAO and a conventional oxygen electrode transducer was developed and applied for the determination of standard histamine solutions. For immobilisation with glutaraldehyde, the enzyme was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde as a bifunctional reagent on the electrode surface. For entrapment, DAO was entrapped in a polymeric hydrogel film, i.e. poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (pHEMA polymer and deposited onto the teflon membrane of the oxygen electrode. Good linear correlation response obtained of the histamine biosensors with immobilized DAO showed between the changes of oxygen level with changes in concentration of histamine at both high concentration ranges (200-1000 mg/L and low concentrations (20-100 mg/L. However, the sensitivity of the biosensor response decreased at high concentration range of histamine, for the direct DAO immobilisation with glutaraldehyde. Biogenic amines concentration can be measured by monitoring either the decrease in oxygen or the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.

  16. Crystal structure of the sensory domain of Escherichia coli CadC, a member of the ToxR-like protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Andreas; Haneburger, Ina; Koller, Christiane; Jung, Kirsten; Skerra, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-integral transcriptional activator CadC comprises sensory and transcriptional regulatory functions within one polypeptide chain. Its C-terminal periplasmic domain, CadCpd, is responsible for sensing of environmental pH as well as for binding of the feedback inhibitor cadaverine. Here we describe the crystal structure of CadCpd (residues 188–512) solved at a resolution of 1.8 Å via multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using a ReCl62− derivative. CadCpd reveals a novel fold comprising two subdomains: an N-terminal subdomain dominated by a β-sheet in contact with three α-helices and a C-terminal subdomain formed by an eleven-membered α-helical bundle, which is oriented almost perpendicular to the helices in the first subdomain. Further to the native protein, crystal structures were also solved for its variants D471N and D471E, which show functionally different behavior in pH sensing. Interestingly, in the heavy metal derivative of CadCpd used for MAD phasing a ReCl62− ion was found in a cavity located between the two subdomains. Amino acid side chains that coordinate this complex ion are conserved in CadC homologues from various bacterial species, suggesting a function of the cavity in the binding of cadaverine, which was supported by docking studies. Notably, CadCpd forms a homo-dimer in solution, which can be explained by an extended, albeit rather polar interface between two symmetry-related monomers in the crystal structure. The occurrence of several acidic residues in this region suggests protonation-dependent changes in the mode of dimerization, which could eventually trigger transcriptional activation by CadC in the bacterial cytoplasm. PMID:21308846

  17. ``Black Holes" and Bacterial Pathogenicity: A Large Genomic Deletion that Enhances the Virulence of Shigella spp. and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Anthony T.; Fernandez, Reinaldo E.; Bloch, Craig A.; Rode, Christopher K.; Fasano, Alessio

    1998-03-01

    Plasmids, bacteriophages, and pathogenicity islands are genomic additions that contribute to the evolution of bacterial pathogens. For example, Shigella spp., the causative agents of bacillary dysentery, differ from the closely related commensal Escherichia coli in the presence of a plasmid in Shigella that encodes virulence functions. However, pathogenic bacteria also may lack properties that are characteristic of nonpathogens. Lysine decarboxylate (LDC) activity is present in ≈ 90% of E. coli strains but is uniformly absent in Shigella strains. When the gene for LDC, cadA, was introduced into Shigella flexneri 2a, virulence became attenuated, and enterotoxin activity was inhibited greatly. The enterotoxin inhibitor was identified as cadaverine, a product of the reaction catalyzed by LDC. Comparison of the S. flexneri 2a and laboratory E. coli K-12 genomes in the region of cadA revealed a large deletion in Shigella. Representative strains of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive E. coli displayed similar deletions of cadA. Our results suggest that, as Shigella spp. evolved from E. coli to become pathogens, they not only acquired virulence genes on a plasmid but also shed genes via deletions. The formation of these ``black holes,'' deletions of genes that are detrimental to a pathogenic lifestyle, provides an evolutionary pathway that enables a pathogen to enhance virulence. Furthermore, the demonstration that cadaverine can inhibit enterotoxin activity may lead to more general models about toxin activity or entry into cells and suggests an avenue for antitoxin therapy. Thus, understanding the role of black holes in pathogen evolution may yield clues to new treatments of infectious diseases.

  18. Changes and the relationship of inosine-5'-monophosphate and biogenic amine of chilled pork during storage%冷藏期内猪肉肌苷酸与生物胺两者变化关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚振乐; 刘国庆; 严伟民; 谢科; 高潮; 朱明

    2012-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法测定生鲜猪肉的背最长肌在4℃温度条件下肌苷酸(IMP)和腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺、精胺这六种生物胺含量的变化情况,从而进一步分析它们之间的相关性。结果表明,随着货架期的延长,IMP含量呈先上升后降低的趋势,并在第2d达到最高;精胺含量基本保持在4.0mg/kg左右,组胺的含量始终很低,其它的胺类物质都有所增加,尸胺的变化最为突出;虽然腐胺和亚精胺的含量比较低,但是仍然有明显的变化;酪胺变化也非常明显。从Person积差相关系数可以看出,IMP与其他指标相关系数呈负相关显著,有的指标是不显著的;在0.01水平上,IMP与亚精胺之间的负相关性最强,达到了-0.981;其次是尸胺与IMP之间,相关系数是-0.960,呈显著负相关;酪胺也与IMP显著负相关;IMP与腐胺、组胺、精胺的相关系数都不显著。因此,通过测定IMP含量变化可以预测猪肉新鲜度,且可作为猪肉保藏与加工过程中品质控制的重要指标之一。%Changes of inosine-5'-monophosphate(IMP),putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine contents in longissimus dorsi at 4℃ were analyzed by HPLC,and the relationship was further discussed.The results showed that storage time affected the concentration of IMP,concentration of IMP increased until reached the top on the next day,then decreased gradually;The content of spermine basically maintained at about 4.0mg/kg.The content of histamine kept low during the storage.Others all increased,especially cadaverine.Although the contents of putrescine and spermidine were low,but the changes were significant,so as tyramine.From the part of the person correlation coefficient,IMP had remarkable negative relationship with spermidine,cadaverine and the correlation coefficient were-0.981 and-0.960 respectively,which was the highest between spermidine and IMP on the level of 0.01.IMP also had

  19. Intestinal metabolism of weaned piglets fed a typical United States or European diet with or without supplementation of tributyrin and lactitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, A; Grilli, E; Fabbri, L; Pizzamiglio, V; Gatta, P P; Galvano, F; Bognanno, M; Fiorentini, L; Woliński, J; Zabielski, R; Patterson, J A

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of supplementation of a microencapsulated blend of tributyrin and lactitol (TL) to a standard European (EU) diet without antibiotic growth promoters on intestinal metabolism and mucosa development of weaned piglets and to compare it with a standard US diet containing animal proteins, zinc oxide, copper sulfate, and carbadox. Ninety piglets weaned at 21 d were divided into 3 dietary groups consisting of 5 replicates each: 1) US diet supplemented with 55 mg/kg of carbadox, and 2.5% each of plasma proteins and spray-dried blood cells in the first phase, 3,055 mg/kg of Zn in the first and second phases, and 180 mg/kg of Cu in the third phase; 2) EU diet based on vegetable proteins and no antibiotics; and 3) the same EU diet supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of microencapsulated TL. The study was divided into 3 phases: 0 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 35 d. On d 7, 21, and 35, animals were weighed, and feed consumption and efficiency were determined. On d 14 and 35, one pig per pen was killed, and the intestinal contents and mucosa from the proximal, middle, distal jejunum and the ileum were sampled. Intestinal wall sections were fixed for histological analysis, and intestinal content was used for VFA, ammonia, and polyamine analysis. Throughout the study (d 0 to 35), the US diet had greater ADG and ADFI than the EU diet (P < 0.05). The EU diet supplemented with TL tended to have 11% greater ADG (P = 0.17). Feeding the EU diet caused a reduction in proximal and middle jejunum villi length by 10% (P < 0.05) and an increase in crypt size in proximal jejunum (P < 0.05) compared with the US diet, probably due to an increased rate of cell loss and crypt cell production. The TL supplementation resulted in longer villi along the jejunum and less deep crypts in the proximal jejunum (+15.9 and -8.9%, respectively; P < 0.05) than the unsupplemented EU diet. The TL diet increased the concentrations of cadaverine and putrescine in the small

  20. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpas, Zeev, E-mail: karpas4@netvision.net.il [3QBD, Arad (Israel); Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Guaman, Ana V., E-mail: aguaman@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pardo, Antonio, E-mail: apardo@el.ub.edu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Santiago, E-mail: smarco@ibecbarcelona.eu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artificial Olfaction Lab, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Baldiri i Rexach, 4-8, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-01-03

    Graphical abstract: The response to different amounts of TMA (in {mu}g) that were placed in a headspace vial as a function of time for the VG-Test (top) and the GDA (bottom). Note that the ratio [TMA/(TMA + TEP)] (top) and [TMA/(TMA + RIP)] (bottom) and the clearance time increase with the amount of TMA deposited in the vial. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First comparison of performance of IMS devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gas-phase ion chemistry affected by operational parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limits of detection quite similar despite differences in devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LODs determined in controlled continuous flow and in headspace vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exponential dilution of headspace studies. - Abstract: The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2 ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7 ppm for putrescine and cadaverine

  1. Comparison of the performance of three ion mobility spectrometers for measurement of biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The response to different amounts of TMA (in μg) that were placed in a headspace vial as a function of time for the VG-Test (top) and the GDA (bottom). Note that the ratio [TMA/(TMA + TEP)] (top) and [TMA/(TMA + RIP)] (bottom) and the clearance time increase with the amount of TMA deposited in the vial. Highlights: ► First comparison of performance of IMS devices. ► Gas-phase ion chemistry affected by operational parameters. ► Limits of detection quite similar despite differences in devices. ► LODs determined in controlled continuous flow and in headspace vapor. ► Exponential dilution of headspace studies. - Abstract: The performance of three different types of ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) devices: GDA2 with a radioactive ion source (Airsense, Germany), UV-IMS with a photo-ionization source (G.A.S. Germany) and VG-Test with a corona discharge source (3QBD, Israel) was studied. The gas-phase ion chemistry in the IMS devices affected the species formed and their measured reduced mobility values. The sensitivity and limit of detection for trimethylamine (TMA), putrescine and cadaverine were compared by continuous monitoring of a stream of air with a given concentration of the analyte and by measurement of headspace vapors of TMA in a sealed vial. Preprocessing of the mobility spectra and the effectiveness of multivariate curve resolution techniques (MCR-LASSO) improved the accuracy of the measurements by correcting baseline effects and adjusting for variations in drift time as well as enhancing the signal to noise ratio and deconvolution of the complex data matrix to their pure components. The limit of detection for measurement of the biogenic amines by the three IMS devices was between 0.1 and 1.2 ppm (for TMA with the VG-Test and GDA, respectively) and between 0.2 and 0.7 ppm for putrescine and cadaverine with all three devices. Considering the uncertainty in the LOD determination there is almost no statistically significant

  2. Effect of mixed starter cultures on the changes of biogenic amines contents during fermentation and ripening of Sichuan-style sausage%混合发酵剂对川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 杨勇; 巩洋; 杨敏; 卿丹丹; 李跃文; 张雯; 李诚; 胡滨

    2015-01-01

    The Sichuan-style sausage was processed by being inoculated Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediocossus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus as starter cultures (A group).Changes of biogenic amines contents in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.The results showed that the contents of biogenic amines including tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and spermidine in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (natural fermentation) at the end of ripening, except the content of phenylethylamine (P < 0.01) , which indicated that the mixed starter culture could significantly inhibit the formation of biogenic amines in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening (P < 0.01).The contents of biogenic amines were less than 100 mg/kg in group A during fermentation and ripening, except the tyramine content up to 103.05 mg/kg, meanwhile, the content of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were more than 100 mg/kg in group B, which indicated the mixed starter culture could ensure the safety of Sichuan-style sausage.%以植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌和葡萄球菌作为发酵剂接种至川味香肠,采用高效液相色谱法测定川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量的变化.结果表明:成熟结束时,除苯乙胺外,A组(接种组)中的色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量显著低于B组(自然发酵组)(P<0.01),说明混合发酵剂能显著抑制川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺的形成(P<0.01).A组香肠在发酵成熟过程中除酪胺含量最高达到103.05 mg/kg外,其余生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;B组香肠在发酵成熟过程中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量超过100 mg/kg,因此接种混合发酵剂可以更好地保障川味香肠的安全性.

  3. Effects of Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis on the Shelf-Life of Minced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three concentrations (0.2%, 1% and 3% of rosemary oil (RO on the freshness indicators, oxidative stability, fatty acid and biogenic amine (BA contents of minced rainbow trout muscle (MTM were investigated after different periods of storage (three and nine days at 4 ± 1 °C. Moreover, the terpene and sesquiterpene contents in the treated MTM were also measured. RO treatment improves the pH, oxidative stability of the lipids and the FA profile, which resulted in a significant extension of MTM shelf-life. Storage time influenced all freshness indicators, with the exception of yellowness and chroma. Treatment with RO had a positive effect, leading to low BA content, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine. Differences in BA were also found to be due to storage time, with the exception of spermidine, which was not influenced by time. Moreover, the presence of the terpenoid fraction of RO in MTM improved the quality of this ready-to-cook fish food.

  4. Sensitive quantitation of polyamines in plant foods by ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Edgar; Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-05-14

    A new method involving ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was optimized with the aid of chemometrics for the extraction, cleanup, and determination of polyamines in plant foods. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine were derivatized with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial design and central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and extraction conditions. The developed method was linear in the 0.5-10.0 mg/L range, with a R(2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.8 to 6.9% and from 3.0 to 10.3%, respectively, and the limit of detection ranged between 0.018 and 0.042 μg/g of fresh weight. This method was applied to the analyses of six different types of plant foods, presenting recoveries between 81.7 and 114.2%. The method is inexpensive, versatile, simple, and sensitive. PMID:24773181

  5. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  6. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrPC), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrPC and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrPC by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases

  7. Identification of the Enterobacteriaceae in Montasio cheese and assessment of their amino acid decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifreni, Michela; Frigo, Francesca; Bartolomeoli, Ingrid; Innocente, Nadia; Biasutti, Marialuisa; Marino, Marilena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the species of Enterobacteriaceae present in Montasio cheese and to assess their potential to produce biogenic amines. Plate count methods and an Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) approach, combined with 16S rDNA sequencing, were used to investigate the Enterobacteriaceae community present during the cheesemaking and ripening of 6 batches of Montasio cheese. Additionally, the potential decarboxylation abilities of selected bacterial isolates were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed against tyrosine, histidine, ornithine and lysine. The most predominant species detected during cheese manufacturing and ripening were Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Hafnia alvei. The non-limiting physico-chemical conditions (pH, NaCl% and a(w)) during ripening were probably the cause of the presence of detectable levels of Enterobacteriaceae up to 120 d of ripening. The HPLC test showed that cadaverine and putrescine were the amines produced in higher amounts by almost all isolates, indicating that the presence of these amines in cheese can be linked to the presence of high counts of Enterobacteriaceae. 44 isolates produced low amounts of histamine (agglomerans, Esch. fergusonii and R. ornithinolytica. PMID:23298547

  8. Study on biogenic amines in various dry salted fish consumed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Yang, Shaoling; Lin, Wanling; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Jianchao

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the biogenic amines (BAs), physicochemical property and microorganisms in dry salted fish, a traditional aquatic food consumed in China. Forty three samples of dry salted fish were gathered from retail and wholesale markets and manufacturers, which had been produced in various regions in China. Cadaverine (CAD) and putrescine (PUT) were quantitatively the most common biogenic amines. About 14% of the samples exceeded the histamine content standards established by the FDA and/or EU. The highest histamine content was found in Silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) (347.79 mg kg-1). Five of forty three samples exceeded the acceptable content of TYR (100 mg kg-1), and 23.26% of dried-salted fish contained high contents of biogenic amines (above 600 mg kg-1). In addition, species, regions, pickling processes and drying methods made the physicochemical property, microorganisms and biogenic amines in dry salted fish to be different to some extents. The total plate count (TPC) was much higher than that of total halophilic bacteria in all samples. The biogenic amines, physicochemical property and microbiological counts exhibited large variations among samples. Furthermore, no significant correlation between biogenic amines and physicochemical property and TPC was observed. This study indicated that dry salted fish may still present healthy risk for BAs, depending on the processing methods, storage conditions among others.

  9. Assessment of the genetic polymorphism and biogenic amine production of indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramateftaki, P V; Metafa, M; Karapetrou, G; Marmaras, G

    2012-02-01

    In the warm climate country of Greece malolactic fermentation (MLF) has received limited attention. Molecular techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to study the genetic polymorphism of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria developing towards the end of spontaneous MLF of Greek red wines and for the assessment of their potential to produce harmful biogenic amines. This research revealed that native Oenococcus oeni isolates are very much adapted to specific winery conditions since the majority of spontaneous MLF were driven mostly or exclusively by a single strain of O. oeni. Native O. oeni strains showed only limited dispersion since cluster analysis uncovered only few common genotypes among indigenous isolates from different wineries. The genotype of a frequently used malolactic starter was more than often detected among autochthonous isolates without nevertheless compromising the biodiversity of natural microflora residing in wineries but rather becoming a part of it. For the majority of the wine samples studied, MLF implementation and storage in bottles resulted in negligible changes on the levels of the BA histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, cadaverine as well as of ethylamine, methylamine, isobutylamine. We provide evidence that autochthonous O. oeni isolates can only contribute to putrescine accumulation in Greek wines but still the specific trait behaves as strain-specific with a limited dispersion. PMID:22029925

  10. Chryseobacterium frigidisoli sp. nov., a psychrotolerant species of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from sandy permafrost from a glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Ganzert, Lars; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Padur, Lisa; Lipski, André; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    During diversity studies of the glacier forefields of the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, a novel psychrotolerant, non-motile Gram-negative, shiny yellow, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain PB4(T) was isolated from a soil sample. Strain PB4(T) produces indole from tryptophan and hydrolyses casein. It grows between 0 and 25 °C with an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. A wide range of substrates are used as sole carbon sources and acid is produced from numerous carbohydrates. The major menaquinone is MK-6. Identified polar lipids are ethanolamines and ornithine lipids. Major fatty acids (>10 %) are iso-C15 : 0 (13.0 %) and iso-2OH-C15 : 0 (51.2 %). G+C content is 33.7 mol%. The polyamine pattern is composed of sym-homospermidine (25.1 µmol g(-1) dry weight), minor amounts of cadaverine (0.2 µmol g(-1) dry weight) and spermidine (0.4 µmol g(-1) dry weight) and traces of putrescine and spermine (26000(T) = LMG 27025(T)). PMID:23291884

  11. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: marialuciaguerra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  12. A multiresidual method based on ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity detection for the determination of biogenic amines in food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Carmen; Muscarella, Marilena; Nardiello, Donatella; Iammarino, Marco; Centonze, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In the present work a sensitive and accurate method by ion chromatography and conductimetric detection has been developed for the determination of biogenic amines in food samples at microgram per kilogram levels. The optimized extraction procedure of trimethylamine, triethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine, and spermine from real samples, as well as the separation conditions based on a multilinear gradient elution with methanesulfonic acid and the use of a weak ionic exchange column, have provided excellent results in terms of resolution and separation efficiency. Extended calibration curves (up to 200 mg/kg, r > 0.9995) were obtained for all the analyzed compounds. The method gave detection limits in the range 23-65 μg/kg and quantification limits in spiked blank real samples in the range 65-198 μg/kg. Recovery values ranged from 82 to 103 %, and for all amines, a good repeatability was obtained with precision levels in the range 0.03-0.32 % (n = 4). The feasibility and potential of the method were tested by the analysis of real samples, such as tinned tuna fish, anchovies, cheese, wine, olives, and salami. PMID:23052881

  13. Histamine-producing bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and their abilities to produce histamine and other biogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xia

    2014-08-01

    Using decarboxylation medium and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) were isolated and identified, and the histamine-producing abilities of the isolated HPB were determined. Nine mesophilic strains (H1-H9) isolated from the muscle of blue scad were identified as the genera of HPB, including Arthrobacter bergeri (H1), Pseudomonas sp. (H2, H5 and H6), Psychrobacter sp. (H3), Shewanella baltica (H4 and H7), and Aeromonas salmonicida (H8 and H9), respectively. Results showed that most of the HPB strains were weak on histamine formation (13.0-20.4 mg/l), except for the H8 strain with the ability of producing 115 mg of histamine/l in trypticase soy broth containing 1.0 % L-histidine. As the strongest HPB in blue scad, bacterial strain H8 also presented a strong ability to produce other biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and tryptamine. Therefore, the H8 strain identified as the genus of A. salmonicida was the dominant mesophilic HPB strain for producing histamine and other biogenic amines in blue scad at room temperature. PMID:24668182

  14. Characteristics of cellular polyamine transport in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2010-07-01

    Polyamine content in cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation and transport. In Escherichia coli, there are two polyamine uptake systems, namely spermidine-preferential (PotABCD) and putrescine-specific (PotFGHI), which belong to the family of ATP binding cassette transporters. Putrescine-ornithine and cadaverine-lysine antiporters, PotE and CadB, each consisting of 12 transmembrane segments, are important for cell growth at acidic pH. Spermidine excretion protein (MdtJI) was also recently identified. When putrescine was used as energy source, PuuP functioned as a putrescine transporter. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are four kinds of polyamine uptake proteins (DUR3, SAM3, GAP1 and AGP2), consisting of either 12 or 16 transmembrane segments. Among them, DUR3 and SAM3 mostly contribute to polyamine uptake. There are also five kinds of polyamine excretion proteins (TPO1-5), consisting of 12 transmembrane segments. Among them, TPO1 and TPO5 are the most active proteins. Since a polyamine metabolizing enzyme, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase, is not present in yeast, five kinds of excretion proteins may exist. The current status of polyamine transport in mammalian and plant cells are reviewed. PMID:20159658

  15. Effect of irradiation and storage on biogenic amine contents in ripened Egyptian smoked cooked sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of γ-irradiation upon the biogenic amine inventory in Egyptian smoked cooked sausages were investigated for the first time during storage for up to 90 days at 4 ° C. Typical contents of biogenic amines in non-irradiated sausages ranged between 125.50 and 596.18 mg/kgDW; irradiation with 4 and 6 kGy decreased said total contents to 105.20-94.82 and 104.98-26.44 mg/kgDW respectively, by the end of storage. Putrescine and cadaverine were the major amines in non-irradiated samples - where it accounted for 33% and 29% respectively, of the total by 90 days; however, tyramine dominated in irradiated samples with 2, 4 and 6 kGy, where it accounted for 44, 52 and 42%. On the other hand, the histamine content in non-irradiated sausage by 90 days of storage (i.e. 109.12 mg/kgDW) clearly exceeded the maximum allowable of 50 mg/kg, unlike happened in their irradiated counterparts. Therefore, the dramatic reduction observed in the histamine levels suggests use of this preservation technique for that traditional meat food. (author)

  16. Control technique about poisonous biogenic amine in smoked firewoodfish%烟熏柴鱼干中有毒生物胺控制技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊玉; 黄艺辉; 郑育莉; 黄峰

    2015-01-01

    研究烟熏柴鱼干中有毒生物胺(包括腐胺、色胺、组胺、苯乙胺、亚精胺、尸胺、章鱼胺等)变化机理及生产的关键加工环节、加工条件对有毒生物胺的质量分数及其变化态势影响,分析烟熏柴鱼干中有毒生物胺含量的关键控制点及加工工艺条件,取得烟熏柴鱼干中有毒生物胺质量安全控制技术。%In this paper,study on the variation mechanism of biogenic amine including putrescine,tryptamine,histamine,phenethylamine, spermidine,cadaverine,octopamine in smoked firewoodfish.Study on mass faction affecting food production and processing,processing condition. The key control points and processing conditions of the poisonous biogenic amine contents in smoked dried firewoodfish were analyzed and acquired quality and safety control technology.

  17. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  18. Metabolic profiling of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba invadens revealed activation of unpredicted pathway during encystation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Jeelani

    Full Text Available Encystation, which is cellular differentiation from the motile, proliferative, labile trophozoite form to the dormant, resistant cyst form, is a crucial process found in parasitic and free-living protozoa such as Entamoeba, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia. Since encystation is an essential process to deal with the adverse external environmental changes during the life cycle, and often integral to the transmission of the diseases, biochemical understanding of the process potentially provides useful measures against the infections caused by this group of protozoa. In this study, we investigated metabolic and transcriptomic changes that occur during encystation in Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian sibling of mammal-infecting E. histolytica, using capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and DNA microarray-based expression profiling. As the encystation progressed, the levels of majority of metabolites involved in glycolysis and nucleotides drastically decreased, indicating energy generation is ceased. Furthermore, the flux of glycolysis was redirected toward chitin wall biosynthesis. We found remarkable temporal increases in biogenic amines such as isoamylamine, isobutylamine, and cadaverine, during the early period of encystation, when the trophozoites form large multicellular aggregates (precyst. We also found remarkable induction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during encystation. This study has unveiled for the first time the dynamics of the transcriptional and metabolic regulatory networks during encystation, and should help in better understanding of the process in pathogenic eukaryotes, and further development of measures controlling infections they cause.

  19. A screen-printed disposable biosensor for selective determination of putrescine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed screen-printed carbon electrodes for the determination of putrescine (Put) via the enzyme monoamine oxidase that was immobilized on the surface of the electrode by cross-linking it with bovine serum albumin using glutaraldehyde. A mixture of 5 % of tetrathiofulvalene (TTF) and carbon ink was used for the fabrication of the screen-printed working electrode. Put was amperometrically detected by measurement of the current due to the oxidation of the mediator TTF. The use of TTF lowers the working potential to +250 mV (vs. a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode). Response is linear in the range from 16 to 101 μM, and the detection limit is 17.2 ± 4.6 μM, with a reproducibility of 9.6 % (n = 4) in terms of relative standard deviation. The effects of potentially interfering biogenic amines such as cadaverine, histamine, spermine, spermidine and tryptamine were also evaluated. The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of Put in zucchini and anchovies. (author)

  20. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. PMID:26471583

  1. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nho-Eul; Cho, Hyoun-Suk; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs) usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25°C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66mg/L from 5.29mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation. PMID:26991285

  2. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  3. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  4. Bacteria isolated from Korean black raspberry vinegar with low biogenic amine production in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nho-Eul Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high concentration of histamine, one of the biogenic amines (BAs usually found in fermented foods, can cause undesirable physiological side effects in sensitive humans. The objective of this study is to isolate indigenous Acetobacter strains from naturally fermented Bokbunja vinegar in Korea with reduced histamine production during starter fermentation. Further, we examined its physiological and biochemical properties, including BA synthesis. The obtained strain MBA-77, identified as Acetobacter aceti by 16S rDNA homology and biochemical analysis and named A. aceti MBA-77. A. aceti MBA-77 showed optimal acidity % production at pH 5; the optimal temperature was 25 °C. When we prepared and examined the BAs synthesis spectrum during the fermentation process, Bokbunja wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that the histamine concentration increased from 2.72 of Bokbunja extract to 5.29 mg/L and cadaverine and dopamine was decreased to 2.6 and 10.12 mg/L, respectively. Bokbunja vinegar prepared by A. aceti MBA-77 as the starter, the histamine concentration of the vinegar preparation step was decreased up to 3.66 mg/L from 5.29 mg/L in the wine preparation step. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate acetic acid bacteria isolated from Bokbunja seed vinegar with low spectrum BA and would be useful for wellbeing vinegar preparation.

  5. Evolution of histamine oxidase activity for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosini, Elena; Tonin, Fabio; Vasylieva, Natalia; Marinesco, Stephane; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2014-01-01

    Histamine is present to various degrees in many foods, and concentrations in fish samples are considered a good indicator of freshness and hygienic food quality. Seeking for innovative methods to quantify histamine in foods, we used a synthetic gene designed on the sequence of histamine oxidase from Arthrobacter crystallopoietes (HOD) as the starting point in this study to develop a biosensor. HOD was expressed in Escherichia coli cells with a yield of ∼7 mg protein/L of fermentation broth. Recombinant wild-type HOD oxidized histamine and tyramine whereas it was inactive toward putrescine and cadaverine (two amines present in fish samples). The putative residues involved in substrate binding were identified by an in silico docking procedure based on a model of the structure of HOD: site-saturation mutagenesis was performed on 8 positions. The most significant changes in kinetic properties were observed for the P143M HOD: this variant showed higher histamine affinity and lower substrate inhibition by tyramine than wild-type enzyme. Biosensor prototypes were produced using both the wild-type and the P143M variant HOD. These biosensors showed a good sensitivity and selectivity with respect to biogenic amines present in food specimens. Accordingly, the HOD-based biosensor was successfully used to assess histamine in fish samples, yielding values in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC analyses but in a few seconds and at a significantly lower cost per analysis. PMID:23995223

  6. 新疆熏马肠中生物胺含量的调查%An Investigation on Biogenic Amines Contents in Xinjiang Smoked Horse Intestines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海萍; 李开雄; 卢壬玲; 李蕊婷; 李宝坤; 唐明祥

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) derivatized with dns-cl chloride method was de- veloped for the determination of eight biogenic amines in smoked horse intestines from different countries in Xinjiang. The result showed that BAs content was higher than FDA standard in about 4.6% of the samples. The contents of ty- ramine, tryptamine, and spermidine were more than the standard of safety content in different extent. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were consistent with that reported by investigators from other countries.%利用高效液相色谱丹磺酰氯柱前衍生法,检测了从新疆自治区4个县市采集的44个熏马肠中8种生物胺含量。结果显示:4.6%熏马肠样品的生物胺(BAs)总量超过FDA规定的1 000 mg/kg限量标准,色胺、酪胺和亚精胺含量在不同程度上超过生物胺安全用量标准,腐胺和尸胺含量与国外报道基本一致。

  7. Determination of biogenic amines by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) in probiotic cow's and goat's fermented milks and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marion P; Balthazar, Celso F; Rodrigues, Bruna L; Lazaro, Cesar A; Silva, Adriana C O; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte Junior, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the presence of biogenic amines in fermented cow's and goat's milks containing probiotic bacteria, during the first 10 days of chilled storage (4 ± 2°C), when the probiotic strains are most viable. The overall acceptance of both fermented milks, produced using the same starter culture and probiotics, was tested. In both products, the initially high levels of tyramine (560 mg kg(-1) means for both fermented milks), the predominant biogenic amine, increased during the storage period, which may be considered this amine as a quality index for fermented milks. The other principal biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine) were produced on days 1-5 of storage, and thereafter decreased. At the end of the 10th day, these amines, respectively, showed values of fermented cow's milk 20.26, 29.09, 17.97, and 82.07 mg kg(-1); and values of fermented goat's milk 22.92, 29.09, 34.85, and 53.85 mg kg(-1), in fermented cow's and goat's milk. Fermented cow's milk was well accepted compared to fermented goat's milk. The results suggested that the content of biogenic amines may be a criterion for selecting lactic acid bacteria used to produce fermented milks. PMID:25987991

  8. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients. PMID:23815565

  9. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking. PMID:24929723

  10. Effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid on the level of polyamines, anthocyanins and photosynthetic pigments in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the effects of α-aminooxyacetic acid (AOA on contents of polyamines, anthocyanins, photosynthetic pigments and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. AOA clearly decreased light-induced formation of anthocyanins and inhibited PAL activity in buckwheat hypocotyls, although a slight stimulatory effect on anthocyanins content in buckwheat cotyledons was observed. AOA declined the contents of chlorophylls a and b and total carotenoids in buckwheat cotyledons. The results show that AOA inhibits phenylpropanoids biosynthesis in buckwheat hypocotyls, and suppress photosynthesis in cotyledons. Moreover, the experiments show that AOA enhances the level of free putrescine in hypocotyls and the level of spermidine in buckwheat cotyledons. AOA also diminished the content of putrescine in cotyledons, but did not affect its level in buckwheat hypocotyls. AOA also substantially declined the level of cadaverine in buckwheat cotyledons, and did not affect its content in hypocotyls. Differences in effect of AOA on anthocyanins and polyamines accumulation indicate various physiological roles of the compounds in buckwheat hypocotyls and cotyledons.

  11. VARIAÇÕES PLASMÁTICAS DE AMINAS VASOATIVAS EM EQUINOS SOB EFEITO DE SOBRECARGA DE CARBOIDRATOS E ANTI-INFLAMATÓRIOS NÃO ESTEROIDAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sampaio Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty horses were submitted to carbohydrate overload (CO and plasmatic concentrations of the bioactive amine serotonin (5-HT, putrescin (PUT and cadaverin (CAD were determined by gas chromatography. After 36h of carbohydrate overloading, horses were randomly distributed into four groups (n=5 and were submitted to four intravenous treatments every 12 hours. The treatments were as follows: 10ml of saline (GC, ketoprofen 2.2mg/kg (GK, phenylbutazone 4.4mg/kg (GF, and flunixin meglumine 1.1mg/kg (GFM. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals (0-72h after the CO. After 6h, there were peaks in the concentrations of 5-HT, which rapidly returned to values above the basal standard. No variations of PUT concentrations were observed; however CAD concentrations increased at 6h, remaining elevated (with some variation until the end of the observation period. In conclusion, CO induced early (6h increases in plasmatic concentrations of 5-HT and CAD. Plasmatic concentrations of the amines were not changed by any of the treatments used.

  12. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. PMID:24934102

  13. Comparison of biogenic amine profile in cheeses manufactured from fresh and stored (4 degrees C, 48 hours) raw goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella-Rodríguez, Sonia; Veciana-Nogués, M Teresa; Roig-Sagués, Artur X; Trujillo-Mesa, Antonio J; Vidal-Carou, M Carmen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the evolution of microbial counts, biogenic amine contents, and related parameters (pH, moisture, and proteolysis) in goat cheese made from fresh raw milk or raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C was examined. In both cases the milk was nonpasteurized. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of milk quality on the profile of biogenic amines in relation to the evolution of the microbial population during cheese making. Cheese made from raw milk stored for 48 h at 4 degrees C showed the highest microbial counts and biogenic amine levels. The storage of milk under refrigeration caused significant increases in the levels of some microbial and biogenic amines during ripening, but not initially. Tyramine was the main biogenic amine in the two cheeses tested, followed by cadaverine. However, the main differences in amine contents between batches were found for putrescine, histamine, and beta-phenylethylamine, whose levels were more than twofold higher in samples from raw milk refrigerated for 48 h than in samples from fresh milk. PMID:14717360

  14. Biotechnological production of polyamines by bacteria: recent achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jens; Wendisch, Volker F

    2011-07-01

    In Bacteria, the pathways of polyamine biosynthesis start with the amino acids L-lysine, L-ornithine, L-arginine, or L-aspartic acid. Some of these polyamines are of special interest due to their use in the production of engineering plastics (e.g., polyamides) or as curing agents in polymer applications. At present, the polyamines for industrial use are mainly synthesized on chemical routes. However, since a commercial market for polyamines as well as an industry for the fermentative production of amino acid exist, and since bacterial strains overproducing the polyamine precursors L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-arginine are known, it was envisioned to engineer these amino acid-producing strains for polyamine production. Only recently, researchers have investigated the potential of amino acid-producing strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli for polyamine production. This mini-review illustrates the current knowledge of polyamine metabolism in Bacteria, including anabolism, catabolism, uptake, and excretion. The recent advances in engineering the industrial model bacteria C. glutamicum and E. coli for efficient production of the most promising polyamines, putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), and cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane), are discussed in more detail. PMID:21552989

  15. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2015-10-16

    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine. PMID:26362807

  16. Characterisation of "Catalão" and "Salsichão" Portuguese traditional sausages with salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Marta; Gomes, Ana; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Potes, Maria Eduarda; Cabrita, Maria João; Garcia, Raquel; Rocha, João Miguel; Roseiro, Luísa Cristina; Fernandes, Maria José; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Fraqueza, Maria João; Elias, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of salt reduction on traditional dry-cured sausages' safety, quality and product acceptance, comprising physicochemical and microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, fatty acids, texture profile and sensory analysis. According to our results, salt content had a major effect on microbiological counts, although not compromising the products' safety. Marked differences were identified regarding biogenic amines, in particular for histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, which were detected in larger amounts in products with 3%. Moreover, significant differences in the fatty acids profile have also been found, but only in less abundant components such as linoleic, lauric and heneicosanoic acids. Texture profile analysis of low-salt products, revealed a decrease in hardness and chewiness, along with an increase in adhesiveness values. Sensory evaluations revealed that despite the less intense aroma, products with 3% salt, had a more balanced salt perception. Our results suggest that salt content may be reduced to 50% in dry-cured products, with the obvious health-related advantages. PMID:26848738

  17. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  18. Electropolymerization of taurine on gold surface and its sensory application for determination of captopril in undiluted human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Pournaghi-Azar, Mohammad Hossein; Shadjou, Nasrin; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2014-05-01

    Polytaurine film was electrodeposited on gold (Au) electrode through cyclic voltammetry from taurine and phosphate buffer solution. The electrocatalytic effect of polytaurine modified Au (PT/Au) electrode was investigated for electro-oxidation of captopril (CAP). Electrocatalytical activity of PT/Au electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). DPV was used to evaluate the analytical performance of CAP in the presence of phosphate buffer solution and good limit of detection was obtained by this sensor. The experimental conditions influencing the determination of CAP were optimized and under optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to CAP concentration in the range of 0.06-0.2 μM, while the detection limit was 0.03 μM (S/N=3). The results revealed that PT promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current. Finally, the applicability of the method to direct assay of human serum is described. The proposed sensor was successfully applied to determine cadaverine in fish samples, yielding satisfactory results. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 96.0-105.0%. PMID:24656369

  19. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  20. Analysis of biogenic amines using corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Z; Mardihallaj, A; Khayamian, T

    2010-05-15

    A new method based on corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) was developed for the analysis of biogenic amines including spermidine, spermine, putrescine, and cadaverine. The ion mobility spectra of the compounds were obtained with and without n-Nonylamine used as the reagent gas. The high proton affinity of n-Nonylamine prevented ion formation from compounds with a proton affinity lower than that of n-Nonylamine and, therefore, enhanced its selectivity. It was also realized that the ion mobility spectrum of n-Nonylamine varied with its concentration. A sample injection port of a gas chromatograph was modified and used as the sample introduction system into the CD-IMS. The detection limits, dynamic ranges, and analytical parameters of the compounds with and without using the reagent gas were obtained. The detection limits and dynamic ranges of the compounds were about 2ng and 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The wide dynamic range of CD-IMS originates from the high current of the corona discharge. The results revealed the high capability of the CD-IMS for the analysis of biogenic amines. PMID:20298897

  1. New enzymatic methods for selective assay of L-lysine using an L-lysine specific decarboxylase/oxidase from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Asami; Matsui, Daisuke; Yamada, Miwa; Asano, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Kimiyasu

    2015-03-01

    We developed new enzymatic methods for the selective assay of L-lysine by utilizing an oxidase reaction and a decarboxylation reaction by the L-lysine-specific decarboxylase/oxidase (L-Lys-DC/OD) from Burkholderia sp. AIU 395. The method utilizing the oxidase reaction of this enzyme was useful for determination of high concentrations of L-lysine. The method utilizing the decarboxylase reaction, which proceeded via the combination of the L-Lys-DC/OD and putrescine oxidase (PUO) from Micrococcus rubens, was effective for determination of low concentrations of L-lysine. Both methods showed good linearity, and neither was affected by other amino acids or amines. In addition, the within-assay and between-assay precisions of both methods were within the allowable range. The coupling of L-Lys-DC/OD with PUO was also useful for the differential assay of L-lysine and cadaverine. These newly developed methods were applied to the assay of L-lysine in biological samples and found to be effective. PMID:25282636

  2. A radiometric microassay for ornithine decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for purifying [3H]L-ornithine and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-ornithine decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycle cation exchange procedures for separating putrescine from ornithine are outlined. Blanks using the routine cation exchange method average approx. 0.04% of the radioactivity contained in the substrate; product recovery is approx. 94%. The L-ornithine decarboxylase assay is proportional to time for at least 8 h. The relationship between substrate purity and the sensitivity of the cation exchange procedures is assessed. Radiochemical purity is the critical determinant of sensitivity for recycled assays. The cation exchange method is compared with the commonly used CO2-trapping method. The cation exchange method is more specific and approximately three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the CO2-trapping method. L-ornithine decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissues having wet-weights of approx. 1 μg. L-ornithine decarboxylase activity in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo decreases 25-30 fold from day 5 to day 18 of embryonic development. A cation exchange procedure for estimating L-lysine decarboxylase activity is also described. Failure to detect L-lysine decarboxylase activity in the chick embryo lumbar spinal cord is contrasted with the previous report of high cadaverine levels in chick embryos. (author)

  3. Remaining Mysteries of Molecular Biology: The Role of Polyamines in the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Campbell, Kate; Ralser, Markus

    2015-10-23

    The polyamines (PAs) spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine are an essential class of metabolites found throughout all kingdoms of life. In this comprehensive review, we discuss their metabolism, their various intracellular functions and their unusual and conserved regulatory features. These include the regulation of translation via upstream open reading frames, the over-reading of stop codons via ribosomal frameshifting, the existence of an antizyme and an antizyme inhibitor, ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation, a complex bi-directional membrane transport system and a unique posttranslational modification-hypusination-that is believed to occur on a single protein only (eIF-5A). Many of these features are broadly conserved indicating that PA metabolism is both concentration critical and evolutionary ancient. When PA metabolism is disrupted, a plethora of cellular processes are affected, including transcription, translation, gene expression regulation, autophagy and stress resistance. As a result, the role of PAs has been associated with cell growth, aging, memory performance, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer. Despite comprehensive studies addressing PAs, a unifying concept to interpret their molecular role is missing. The precise biochemical function of polyamines is thus one of the remaining mysteries of molecular cell biology. PMID:26156863

  4. Serum nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Martin; Pedersen, Anders; Hasselblom, Sverker; Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Karlsson, Bengt Göran; Pinto, Rui; Andersson, Per-Ola

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with early relapse or refractory disease is dismal. To determine if clinical outcome correlated to diverse serum metabolomic profiles, we used (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and compared two groups of DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy: i) refractory/early relapse (REF/REL; n=27) and ii) long-term progression-free (CURED; n = 60). A supervised multivariate analysis showed a separation between the groups. Among discriminating metabolites higher in the REF/REL group were the amino acids lysine and arginine, the degradation product cadaverine and a compound in oxidative stress (2-hydroxybutyrate). In contrast, the amino acids aspartate, valine and ornithine, and a metabolite in the glutathione cycle, pyroglutamate, were higher in CURED patients. Together, our data indicate that NMR-based serum metabolomics can identify a signature for DLBCL patients with high-risk of failing immunochemotherapy, prompting for larger validating studies which could lead to more individualized treatment of this disease. PMID:26887805

  5. Radiosensitivity of Type E Botulinus Toxin and its Protection by Proteins, Nucleic Acids and some Related Substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three preparations of different purities of type E botulinus toxin containing toxicity or potential toxicity of about 50 000 LD50 per ml were irradiated with cobalt-60 in 0.05M acetate or 0.2M phosphate buffer, pH 6.0. The D values were about 2.1 Mrad for the cell suspension, about 0.21 Mrad for the cell extract and about 0.04 Mrad for the purified preparation. Tryptic activation did not change the radiosensitivity of the toxin except for the cell suspension. Serum albumin, casein, desoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid protected the purified and activated toxin against radiation detoxification; sugars or ascorbic acid showed little or no protection. The same extent of protection was afforded by sulphur-containing, aromatic or some heterocyclic amino acids and also by purines. Pre-irradiation of amino acid solutions with 7.7 Mrad did not appreciably change the protecting effect on type E toxin, except for the irradiated lysine which was shown to be protective in some experiments. Some amino acid derivatives, methionine sulphoxide, aminoethyl mercaptan, and cadaverine, were shown to be protective to different extents. (author)

  6. The Detection of Biogenic Amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar by using the HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定福建红曲醋的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖新

    2015-01-01

    We establish optimal detection conditions for the histamine,putrescine,cadaverine,spermine,spermidine, phenethylamine,tyramine and tryptamine in the Fujian monascus vinegar by using the HPLC. The HPLC analysis were car⁃ried out in the C18 column at a temperature of 30℃and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min,UV-detection at 254nm,in the acetoni⁃trile-water mobile phases. The biogenic amines were separated by gradient elution. The limits of detection (LODs)were 0.05μg/kg(histamine,putrescine,cadaverine),1.0μg/kg(tyramine,spermidine),1.5μg/kg(phenethylamine,trypt⁃amine ),0.02μg/kg(spermine). The recovery of each component was from 93.6%to 99%,RSD from 0.14%to 0.26%. Our result showed that the biogenic amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar could be precisely detected and quantified ,and the maximum content of biogenic amine in the Fujian Monascus vinegar was lower than the limitation of fermented foods that suggested by the international organization.%采用高效液相色谱技术建立检测福建红曲醋中组胺、腐胺、尸胺、精胺、亚精胺、2-苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺共8种生物胺的分析方法。以色谱柱为C-18柱,柱温30℃,流速1.2ml/min,紫外检测波长为254nm,流动相A为超纯水,流动相B为乙腈,采用梯度洗脱方式,检测红曲醋中生物胺。检测限为组胺、尸胺、腐胺为0.05μg/kg;酪胺、亚精胺1.0μg/kg;苯乙胺、色胺为1.5μg/kg;精胺为0.02μg/kg,回收率在93.6%至99.0%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)在0.14%~0.26%之间。结果表明:高效液相色谱法可以对红曲醋中生物胺进行准确的定性和定量。检测红曲醋样品中生物胺最高含量低于国际的发酵食品的建议限量要求。

  7. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  8. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  9. Structural Investigations of N-carbamoylputrescine Amidohydrolase from Medicago truncatula: Insights into the Ultimate Step of Putrescine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Bartosz; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Malinska, Maura; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Putrescine, 1,4-diaminobutane, is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of more complexed polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Unlike other eukaryotes, plants have evolved a multistep pathway for putrescine biosynthesis that utilizes arginine. In the final reaction, N-carbamoylputrescine is hydrolyzed to putrescine by N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (CPA, EC 3.5.1.53). During the hydrolysis, consecutive nucleophilic attacks on the substrate by Cys158 and water lead to formation of putrescine and two by-products, ammonia and carbon dioxide. CPA from the model legume plant, Medicago truncatula (MtCPA), was investigated in this work. Four crystal structures were determined: the wild-type MtCPA in complex with the reaction intermediate, N-(dihydroxymethyl)putrescine as well as with cadaverine, which is a longer analog of putrescine; and also structures of MtCPA-C158S mutant unliganded and with putrescine. MtCPA assembles into octamers, which resemble an incomplete left-handed helical twist. The active site of MtCPA is funnel-like shaped, and its entrance is walled with a contribution of the neighboring protein subunits. Deep inside the catalytic cavity, Glu48, Lys121, and Cys158 form the catalytic triad. In this studies, we have highlighted the key residues, highly conserved among the plant kingdom, responsible for the activity and selectivity of MtCPA toward N-carbamoylputrescine. Moreover, since, according to previous reports, a close MtCPA relative from Arabidopsis thaliana, along with several other nitrilase-like proteins, are subjected to allosteric regulation by substrates, we have used the structural information to indicate a putative secondary binding site. Based on the docking experiment, we postulate that this site is adjacent to the entrance to the catalytic pocket. PMID:27066023

  10. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay

  11. Optimization for determining derivative conditions of biogenic amines by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定生物胺衍生条件的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤庆; 翟红蕾; 郝淑贤; 岑剑伟; 魏涯; 石红; 黄卉; 周娟娟

    2012-01-01

    Using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization, we determined 8 biogenic amines(histamine, trptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The optimal derivative conditions are determined by investigating the effects of dansyl chloride concentration, pH, reaction time and reaction temperature on the derivatization of biogenic amines. The result shows that all amines are well resolved with dansyl chloride whose concentration is 10 times of that of biogenic amines at pH 11.0 and 40 t in darkness for 45 min. The good repeatability of all biogenic a-mines with relative standard deviation ≤3% is considered acceptable.%利用荧光检测器(FLD),采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对组胺(HIS)、色胺(TRP)、2-苯乙胺(2-PHE)、腐胺(PUT)、尸胺(CAD)、酪胺(TYR)、亚精胺(SPD)和精胺(SPM)8种生物胺(BA)进行测定分析.通过探究丹酰氯(Dns-CL)质量浓度、反应体系的pH、衍生时间及衍生温度对生物胺衍生反应的影响,确定最优的衍生条件.结果显示,当Dns-Cl的质量浓度为BA质量浓度的10倍、pH 11.0、40℃下避光反应45 min,所有BA均能有效分离.BA的相对标准偏差(RSD)在3%以内,能够满足分析要求.

  12. 酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺的影响%Effects of Different Vintage Technologies on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Dry Red Wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英; 李记明; 姜文广; 赵荣华

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different vintage technologies(pectases,yeasts,malolactic bacterias and fermentation temperature) on the formation of biogenic amines(histamine,2-phenylethylamine,tyramine,tryptamine,putrescine, cadaverine,spermidine and spermine) in Cabernet Gernischt wines during vinification were studied using high pressure liquid chromatography.The results showed that biogenic amines were generated mainly from alcoholic fermentation and malo-lactic fermentation during winemaking,and the former had low concentrations of biogenic amines.The concentrations of putrescine and spermine produced during alcoholic fermentation could be controlled by pectases,inoculum concentration of yeast,fermentation temperature.The biogenic amines in dry red wines were produced mostly by malolactic bacterias,and histamine and tryptamine were largely from malo-lactic fermentation.%探讨了不同酿酒工艺对葡萄酒中生物胺(组胺、苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺、腐胺、尸胺、精胺和亚精胺)含量的影响。结果显示,葡萄酒酿造过程中生物胺主要在酒精发酵和苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程产生。酒精发酵过程生成量较少,主要产生腐胺和精胺,果胶酶的使用、酵母接种量、发酵温度等因素可以调节酒精发酵过程生物胺的生成量;乳酸菌是葡萄酒生物胺最主要来源,在苹果酸-乳酸发酵过程中会产生大量的组胺和色胺。

  13. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  14. Influence of ripening time on the amount of certain biogenic amines in rind and core of cow milk Livno cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonela Marijan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the levels of biogenic amines in cheese except that it has significance for determining the nutritional value and hygienic accuracy, cheese as food can be used as a parameter to evaluate the conditions of production and/or ripening of products, and particularly in the selection of bacterial cultures. The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of the ripening process on the amount of biogenic amines in cheese. For this purpose were conducted physico-chemical analysis, determination of biogenic amines and microbiological analysis. During the process of ripening Livno cheese from three different batches was taken one cheese from prime day and 9th, 20th, 29th, 50th, 60th and 105th day. From each cheese two samples were taken, one from the middle and one from the cheese rind. During 105th day of ripening Livno cheese, the presence of triptamin, ß-feniletlamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermine and spermidine were determinated. The maximum total values of searched biogenic amines were found 105th day, in the middle 184.13 mg/kg and 76.26 mg/kg in the rind of cheese. With an indication that the largest share of value rep¬resent histamine with 43.9 % and tyramine with 38.2 % in the middle, respectively histamine with 31.6 % and tyramine with 31.5 % in the rind of cheese. The values of putrescine and spermine were in small ranges and they are not identified in all samples. The values of histamine and tyramine are almost a third more at 105th than 60th day. There was a significant difference between the middle and the rind of cheese in the values of biogenic amines. Correlation between biogenic amines and microorganisms has not been determined.

  15. 高效液相色谱串联质谱检测地表水中五种生物胺%Determination of Five Biogenic Amines in Surface Water by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小艳; 杨秋红; 雷鄂蓉; 张渝; 王英英

    2011-01-01

    采用固相萃取及高效液相色谱串联质谱技术,建立了地表水中5种生物胺(腐胺、尸胺、2-苯乙胺、酪胺、色胺)的测定方法.水样中2-苯乙胺、酪胺和色胺可直接进样测定,腐胺和尸胺经HLB固相萃取柱富集,乙腈洗脱,氮吹浓缩至1.0mL后进样液相色谱串联质谱分析,以选择离子监测(SRM)模式定量分析.在本实验条件下,加标回收率在89.4%~122%之间,相对标准偏差2.15%~11.9%(n=7),检出限在0.05~5μg/L.%A novel method for determination of five biogenic amines in surface water with solid-phase extraction and HPLCMS/MS was developed.The biogenic amines 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine in water were directly injected into LC-MS/MS.As to putrescine and cadaverine in water sample, before injection, they were concentrated by HLB extraction column, then eluted with acetonitrile eluants.The solvent was concentrated by nitrogen blow to 1.0mL.Quantifies were analyzed by SRM mode.At the conditions of this experiment, the spiked recoveries and relative standard deviations ( RSD, n = 7 ) were 89.4% ~ 122% and 2.15% ~ 11.9% respectively, The detection limit was 0.05 ~5μg/L.

  16. Biogenic Amines in Salted Duck Analyzed by TLC Combined with HPLC%TLC和HPLC法相结合分析盐水鸭中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤芹; 刘芳; 孟勇; 王道营; 诸永志; 徐为民

    2011-01-01

    The composition and contents of biogenic amines in salted duck were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Six biogenic amines including putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine were detected in salted duck samples by TLC. Similarly, six biogenic amines were also detected by HPLC, and the concentration of each biogenic amine was less than 204 ~t g/g. The analytical results obtained by both methods were consistent. Therefore, TLC can be used as an economic and rapid method for the qualitative analysis of biogenic amines in meat products.%应用薄层层析(TLC)和高效液相色谱(HPLC)两种方法分析盐水鸭中生物胺的组成及含量。薄层层析结果显示,盐水鸭样品中存在着腐胺、尸胺、亚精胺、精胺、酪胺和2.苯乙胺;利用高效液相色谱法也检测到了以上6种生物胺,且各生物胺的含量均在204μg/g以下。两种方法结果相吻合,TLC法可以作为肉制品中生物胺定性分析的一种经济便捷的方法。

  17. Investigation and Analyse the Content of Biogenic Amines in Western Style Fermented Sausage%西式发酵香肠中生物胺含量的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榕; 孙杰; 余恒琳

    2015-01-01

    综述生物胺的种类、危害及在西式发酵香肠中存在的可能,采集了西式发酵香肠的样本,检测了其5种生物胺(尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺、精胺)及4种微生物(乳酸菌、微球菌、肠细菌、假单胞菌)的含量.经分析得出结论:5种生物胺在西式发酵香肠中普遍存在;肠细菌的数量与生物胺的含量有显著的相关性,未发现其他3种微生物与生物胺含量之间的关系.%Summarize the biogenic amines species,toxicity,the presence of these compounds in western style fermented sausage.This paper collecting the western style fermented sausage samples ,detecting five species of biogenic amines (Cadaverine,Histamine,Tyramine,Spermidine,Spermine) and four kinds of microbes (Lactobacillus、Micrococcu、Enteric bacteria、Pseudomonadaceae).Analysis the following conclusions:the five species of biogenic amines are widespread in western style fermented sausage;there were a significant correlation between the auantity of Enteric bacteria and the content of biogenic amines;no relationship was found between the the content of biogenic amines and the other microbes.

  18. Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyeock; Park, Jung Hyuck; Choi, Ari; Hwang, Han-Joon; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2015-09-01

    An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedure for the determination of biogenic amines, including tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, in each matrix. The LODs and LOQs for the biogenic amines were within the range of 0.01~0.10 mg/kg and 0.02~0.31 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intraday for biogenic amine concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 5.95%, whereas the RSD of interday ranged from 2.08 to 5.96%. Of the matrices spiked with biogenic amines, corn oil with tyramine and Juk with putrescine exhibited the least accuracy of 84.85% and recovery rate of 89.63%, respectively, at the lowest concentration (10 mg/kg). Therefore, the validation results fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations. Subsequently, the method was applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented agricultural products for a total dietary survey in Korea. Although the results revealed that Korean traditional soy sauce and Doenjang contained relatively high levels of histamine, the amounts are of no concern if these fermented agricultural products serve as condiments. PMID:26483889

  19. Use of microextraction by packed sorbents and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of polyamines and related compounds in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Ferreira, Ana María; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo; Crisolino Pozas, Ángel Pedro; Pérez Pavón, José Luis

    2016-04-29

    A novel methodology for the determination of ornithine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and gamma-amino butyric acid in urine samples has been developed. The method uses in situ aqueous derivatization followed by automated microextraction by packed sorbent coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer. This instrumental configuration minimizes sample manipulation due to from the mixing of the reagents, the process is completely automated. The analytes were derivatized using ethyl chloroformate as derivatization reagent. The reaction occurred in aqueous medium and was carried out in 1min in the vial of an autosampler used to perform microextraction by packed sorbent. The parameters affecting derivatization, extraction and separation were optimized in order to obtain maximum sensitivity. Calibration curves were obtained for five calibration levels in three different matrices. All the calibration models displayed good linearity, with R(2) values higher than 0.95. The validity of the models was checked using ANOVA, and it was observed that they did not exhibit any lack of fit. Repeatability and reproducibility was evaluated, with values below 15% in both cases. LOD and LOQ values were found to be in the low μg/L level. Influence of the matrix was confirmed, thus quantification was performed using the standard additions method and normalization to IS. The method developed was applied to the analysis of these compounds in urine samples from healthy individuals and cancer diagnosed patients (Internal Medicine Unit of the Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Salamanca, Spain). Significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test) were observed for putrescine and ornithine concentrations. PMID:27036212

  20. Characterisation and application of Halomonas shantousis SWA25, a halotolerant bacterium with multiple biogenic amine degradation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Yu; Xu, Binghong; Wang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are identified as toxicological substances in foods and may have detrimental effects on consumers’ health. In recent years, the application of microorganisms that can degrade biogenic amines has become an emerging method for their reduction. The degradation characteristics and application potential of a salt-tolerant bacterium Halomonas shantousis SWA25 were investigated in this study. H. shantousis SWA25 exhibited degradation activity against eight biogenic amines at 10–40°C (optimum, 30–40°C) and pH 3.0–9.0 (optimum, 6.0–7.0) in the presence of 0–20% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0%). Specifically, H. shantousis SWA25 degraded all tryptamine (TRY) and tyramine (TYR) in 6 h, all phenethylamine (PHE) in 9 h, 66.7% of histamine (HIM), 52.4% of cadaverine (CAD), 48.0% of spermidine (SPD), 42.9% of putrescine (PUT) and 42.0% of spermine (SPM) in 20 h at 30°C and pH 7.0 with shaking at 120 r min−1. The enzymes from H. shantousis SWA25 responsible for degradation of biogenic amines were mainly amine oxidases located on the cell membrane. Further studies showed that H. shantousis SWA25 effectively degraded TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, HIM and TYR in commercial fish sauce and soy sauce samples. Nevertheless, significant SPD and SPM degradation were not observed due to low initial concentrations. Therefore, H. shantousis SWA25 can be applied as a potential biogenic amines degradation bacterium in foods. PMID:26888715

  1. A1 adenosine receptor-induced phosphorylation and modulation of transglutaminase 2 activity in H9c2 cells: A role in cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Falguni S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Bonner, Philip L R; Boocock, David J; Coveney, Clare; Dickenson, John M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) activity by the GPCR family is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the modulation of TG2 activity by the A1 adenosine receptor in cardiomyocyte-like H9c2 cells. H9c2 cells were lysed following stimulation with the A1 adenosine receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Transglutaminase activity was determined using an amine incorporating and a protein cross linking assay. TG2 phosphorylation was assessed via immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. The role of TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death. CPA induced time and concentration-dependent increases in amine incorporating and protein crosslinking activity of TG2. CPA-induced increases in TG2 activity were attenuated by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON and R283. Responses to CPA were blocked by PKC (Ro 31-8220), MEK1/2 (PD 98059), p38 MAPK (SB 203580) and JNK1/2 (SP 600125) inhibitors and by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). CPA triggered robust increases in the levels of TG2-associated phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, which were attenuated by PKC, MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitors. Fluorescence microscopy revealed TG2-mediated biotin-X-cadaverine incorporation into proteins and proteomic analysis identified known (Histone H4) and novel (Hexokinase 1) protein substrates for TG2. CPA pre-treatment reversed hypoxia-induced LDH release and decreases in MTT reduction. TG2 inhibitors R283 and Z-DON attenuated A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. TG2 activity was stimulated by the A1 adenosine receptor in H9c2 cells via a multi protein kinase dependent pathway. These results suggest a role for TG2 in A1 adenosine receptor-induced cytoprotection. PMID:27005940

  2. De novo RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 reveal genes related to biosynthesis of huperzine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xia, Qianqian; Zhao, Xinmei; Ahn, Youngjoon; Ahmed, Nevin; Cosoveanu, Andreea; Wang, Mo; Wang, Jialu; Shu, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Huperzine A is important in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. There are major challenges for the mass production of huperzine A from plants due to the limited number of huperzine-A-producing plants, as well as the low content of huperzine A in these plants. Various endophytic fungi produce huperzine A. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a huperzine-A-producing plant Huperzia serrata, and this fungus also produces huperzine A. In this study, de novo RNA sequencing of C. gloeosporioides ES026 was carried out with an Illumina HiSeq2000. A total of 4,324,299,051 bp from 50,442,617 high-quality sequence reads of ES026 were obtained. These raw data were assembled into 24,998 unigenes, 40,536,684 residues and 19,790 genes. The majority of the unique sequences were assigned to corresponding putative functions based on BLAST searches of public databases. The molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways of these unique sequences were determined using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignments. A gene encoding copper amine oxidase (CAO) (unigene 9322) was annotated for the conversion of cadaverine to 5-aminopentanal in the biosynthesis of huperzine A. This gene was also detected in the root, stem and leaf of H. serrata. Furthermore, a close relationship was observed between expression of the CAO gene (unigene 9322) and quantity of crude huperzine A extracted from ES026. Therefore, CAO might be involved in the biosynthesis of huperzine A and it most likely plays a key role in regulating the content of huperzine A in ES026. PMID:25799531

  3. Systems-wide metabolic pathway engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum for bio-based production of diaminopentane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Jeong, Weol Kyu; Schröder, Hartwig; Wittmann, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    In the present work the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered into an efficient, tailor-made production strain for diaminopentane (cadaverine), a highly attractive building block for bio-based polyamides. The engineering comprised expression of lysine decarboxylase (ldcC) from Escherichia coli, catalyzing the conversion of lysine into diaminopentane, and systems-wide metabolic engineering of central supporting pathways. Substantially re-designing the metabolism yielded superior strains with desirable properties such as (i) the release from unwanted feedback regulation at the level of aspartokinase and pyruvate carboxylase by introducing the point mutations lysC311 and pycA458, (ii) an optimized supply of the key precursor oxaloacetate by amplifying the anaplerotic enzyme, pyruvate carboxylase, and deleting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which otherwise removes oxaloacetate, (iii) enhanced biosynthetic flux via combined amplification of aspartokinase, dihydrodipicolinate reductase, diaminopimelate dehydrogenase and diaminopimelate decarboxylase, and (iv) attenuated flux into the threonine pathway competing with production by the leaky mutation hom59 in the homoserine dehydrogenase gene. Lysine decarboxylase proved to be a bottleneck for efficient production, since its in vitro activity and in vivo flux were closely correlated. To achieve an optimal strain having only stable genomic modifications, the combination of the strong constitutive C. glutamicum tuf promoter and optimized codon usage allowed efficient genome-based ldcC expression and resulted in a high diaminopentane yield of 200 mmol mol(-1). By supplementing the medium with 1 mgL(-1) pyridoxal, the cofactor of lysine decarboxylase, the yield was increased to 300 mmol mol(-1). In the production strain obtained, lysine secretion was almost completely abolished. Metabolic analysis, however, revealed substantial formation of an as yet unknown by-product. It was identified as an

  4. Metabolic engineering of cellular transport for overproduction of the platform chemical 1,5-diaminopentane in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Stefanie; Kreye, Steffen; Wittmann, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The present work describes the development of a superior strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum for diaminopentane (cadaverine) production via metabolic engineering of cellular transport processes. In C. glutamicum DAP-3c, a tailor-made producer, the diaminopentane forming enzyme, lysine decarboxylase, was inhibited in vivo by its end-product, suggesting a potential bottleneck at the level of the export. The previously proposed lysine exporter lysE was shown not to be involved in diaminopentane export. Its deletion did not reduce diaminopentane secretion and could therefore be exploited to completely eliminate the export of lysine, an undesired by-product. Genome-wide transcription profiling revealed the up-regulation of 35 candidate genes as response to diaminopentane overproduction, including several transporters. The highest expression increase (2.6-fold) was observed for a permease, encoded by cg2893. Targeted gene deletion in the producer resulted in a 90% reduced diaminopentane secretion. Genome-based overexpression of the exporter, however, revealed a 20% increased yield, a 75% reduced formation of the undesired by-product N-acetyl-diaminopentane and a substantially higher viability, reflected by increased specific rates for growth, glucose uptake and product formation. Similarly, deletion of cg2894, TetR type repressor neighboring the permease gene, resulted in improved production properties. The discovery and amplification of the permease, as presented here, displays a key contribution towards superior C. glutamicum strains for production of the platform chemical diaminopentane. The exact function of the permease remained unclear. Its genetic modification had pronounced effects on various intracellular pools of the biosynthetic pathway, which did not allow a final conclusion on its physiological role, although a direct contribution to diaminopentane export appears possible. PMID:21821142

  5. Restoration of Polyamine Metabolic Patterns in In Vivo and In Vitro Model of Ischemic Stroke following Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae Hwan; Phukan, Geetika; Shim, Jeom Soon; Nguyen, Duc-Toan; Kim, Yongman; Oh-Lee, Justin D.; Lee, Hyeon-Seong; Paik, Man Jeong; Lee, Gwang

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in PA levels by the treatment of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) in ischemic stroke in rat brain model and in cultured neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In ischemic rat model, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was performed for 2 h, followed by intravenous transplantation of hBM-MSCs or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) the day following MCAo. Metabolic profiling analysis of PAs was examined in brains from three groups: control rats, PBS-treated MCAo rats (MCAo), and hBM-MSCs-treated MCAo rats (MCAo + hBM-MSCs). In ischemic cell model, SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to OGD for 24 h, treated with hBM-MSCs (OGD + hBM-MSCs) prior to continued aerobic incubation, and then samples were collected after coculture for 72 h. In the in vivo MCAo ischemic model, levels of some PAs in brain samples of the MCAo and MCAo + hBM-MSCs groups were significantly different from those of the control group. In particular, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine in brain tissues of the MCAo + hBM-MSCs group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the MCAo group. In the in vitro OGD system, N1-acetylspermidine, spermidine, N1-acetylspermine, and spermine in cells of the OGD + hBM-MSCs group were significantly reduced compared to those of OGD group. PMID:27413379

  6. 1,5-diamino-2-pentyne is both a substrate and inactivator of plant copper amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Zbynek; Sebela, Marek; Malon, Michal; Lenobel, René; Lemr, Karel; Havlis, Jan; Pec, Pavel; Qiao, Chunhua; Sayre, Lawrence M

    2004-12-01

    1,5-diamino-2-pentyne (DAPY) was found to be a weak substrate of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus, GPAO) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, OVAO) amine oxidases. Prolonged incubations, however, resulted in irreversible inhibition of both enzymes. For GPAO and OVAO, rates of inactivation of 0.1-0.3 min(-1) were determined, the apparent KI values (half-maximal inactivation) were of the order of 10(-5) m. DAPY was found to be a mechanism-based inhibitor of the enzymes because the substrate cadaverine significantly prevented irreversible inhibition. The N1-methyl and N5-methyl analogs of DAPY were tested with GPAO and were weaker inactivators (especially the N5-methyl) than DAPY. Prolonged incubations of GPAO or OVAO with DAPY resulted in the appearance of a yellow-brown chromophore (lambda(max) = 310-325 nm depending on the working buffer). Excitation at 310 nm was associated with emitted fluorescence with a maximum at 445 nm, suggestive of extended conjugation. After dialysis, the color intensity was substantially decreased, indicating the formation of a low molecular mass secondary product of turnover. The compound provided positive reactions with ninhydrin, 2-aminobenzaldehyde and Kovacs' reagents, suggesting the presence of an amino group and a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic structure. The secondary product was separated chromatographically and was found not to irreversibly inhibit GPAO. MS indicated an exact molecular mass (177.14 Da) and molecular formula (C10H15N3). Electrospray ionization- and MALDI-MS/MS analyses yielded fragment mass patterns consistent with the structure of a dihydropyridine derivative of DAPY. Finally, N-(2,3-dihydropyridinyl)-1,5-diamino-2-pentyne was identified by means of 1H- and 13C-NMR experiments. This structure suggests a lysine modification chemistry that could be responsible for the observed inactivation. PMID:15606757

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids mitigate blood-brain barrier disruption after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Mu, Hongfeng; Zhu, Wen; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoming; Shi, Yejie; Leak, Rehana K; Dong, Qiang; Chen, Jun; Gao, Yanqin

    2016-07-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to protect the neonatal brain against hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) injury. However, the mechanism of n-3 PUFA-afforded neuroprotection is not well understood. One major determinant of H/I vulnerability is the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, we examined the effects of n-3 PUFAs on BBB integrity after neonatal H/I. Female rats were fed a diet with or without n-3 PUFA enrichment from day 2 of pregnancy to 14days after parturition. H/I was introduced in 7day-old offspring. We observed relatively rapid BBB penetration of the small molecule cadaverine (640Da) at 4h post-H/I and a delayed penetration of larger dextrans (3kD-40kD) 24-48h after injury. Surprisingly, the neonatal BBB was impermeable to Evans Blue or 70kD dextran leakage for up to 48h post-H/I, despite evidence of IgG extravasation at this time. As expected, n-3 PUFAs ameliorated H/I-induced BBB damage, as shown by reductions in tracer efflux and IgG extravasation, preservation of BBB ultrastructure, and enhanced tight junction protein expression. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs prevented the elevation in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the brain and blood after H/I. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect neonates against BBB damage by blunting MMPs activation after H/I. PMID:26921472

  8. 柱前衍生HPLC同时测定鱼中多种生物胺及其变化规律%Biogenic Amines in Fish Determined by HPLC with Pre-column Dansylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月; 黄志勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱法同时测定鱼中7种生物胺(即色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺)的含量,研究在不同贮藏条件下鱼体生物胺的变化规律.方法:样品用5%三-氯乙酸溶液提取后,用丹磺酰氯进行柱前衍生,经C18色谱柱(4.6 mm I.D.×150 mm)分离,用水和乙腈进行梯度洗脱,于波长254 nm处检测.考察大黄鱼和黄鲷在-20、4和25℃贮藏不同时间时生物胺的变化情况.结果:20 min内7种生物胺得到良好的分离,在0.1~20.0 mg/kg范围具有良好的线性关系(r>0.999).生物胺的平均回收率73%~101%,RSD 5.9%~20.1%.所测的7种新鲜海鱼中,除金线鱼具有较高的生物胺含量(170.8 mg/kg)外,其它鱼的生物胺含量很低(3.95~23.63mg/kg).在-20℃条件下大黄鱼和黄鲷中生物胺的总量无显著变化(p<0.05),而在4℃和25℃时,鱼体中的生物胺总量随贮藏时间的延长而增加.其中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量变化敏锐,随着贮藏时间的延长和温度的上升,其含量显著增加(p<0.05).结论:低温贮藏可有效控制鱼体中生物胺的形成.腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺可作为判断鱼体新鲜度的质量指标.%Objective: Seven biogenic amines (including tryptaraine, putrescine, cadaverine, hisamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) in fish were simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and the changes of biogenic amines of fish stored at different conditions were investigated. Method: After being extracted with 5% TCA from the aquatic products, the biogenic amines were derived by dansyl chloride before the separation with a C18 column (4.6 mm I.D. xl50 mm). The biogenic amines were eluted using a mixture of water and acetonitrile at a gradient elution program, and were detected at 254 nm. The changes of biogenic amines in the two species of Pseudosci-aena crocea and Dentex tumifrons separately stored at -20 ℃, 4

  9. Production of amines in equine cecal contents in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S R; Rycroft, A; Elliott, J

    2002-10-01

    Acute laminitis can be induced experimentally in horses by the administration of carbohydrate, resulting in fermentation within the cecum and ischemia-reperfusion of the digits. The products of fermentation that trigger acute laminitis are as yet unknown; however, compounds such as amines might play a role due to their potential vasoactive properties. The objectives of this study were to quantify the amines present in equine cecal contents and to use a model of carbohydrate overload in vitro to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate fermentation is associated with increased amine production. Cecal contents from each horse were divided into aliquots and incubated anaerobically with either cornstarch or inulin (a form of fructan carbohydrate; both 1 g/100 mL). The pH was measured and samples were taken at the same time for amine measurement by HPLC at 2-h intervals over a 24-h period. In a second set of experiments, the effects of the antibiotic virginiamycin (1 mg/100 mL), calcium (CaPO4; 0.3 g/100 mL), and plant steroidal saponin (Yucca schidigera extract; 0.1 g/100 mL) were examined on pH and amine concentrations in cecal contents incubated with starch or inulin. Both starch and inulin caused significant time-dependent falls in pH, from 6.7 +/- 0.1 at 0 h to 5.2 +/- 0.1 (starch) and 5.0 +/- 0.1 (inulin) at 24 h. Fermentation of carbohydrate was also associated with increased production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine (two- to threefold increases) as well as putrescine and cadaverine (1.5- to twofold increases). Virginiamycin inhibited the fall in pH and increases in production of phenylethylamine and isoamylamine, while calcium phosphate moderated the changes in pH only. Yucca schidigera extract was without effect. These data show that fermentation of carbohydrate by equine cecal microbiota may lead to increased production of amines. PMID:12413088

  10. Classification of Pasteurella species B as Pasteurella oralis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Henrik; Bertelsen, Mads F; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-06-01

    strain were reported as diaminopropane, putrescine, cadaverine, sym-norspermidine, spermidine and spermine in a previous investigation, and the major fatty acids of the type strain were reported to be C(16:0), C(16:1)ω7c and C(14:0), with minor amounts of C(18:0) and C(18:1)ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the type strain has been reported to be 40.0 mol%. PMID:21841008

  11. 不同温度储藏条件下鲅鱼生物胺变化的研究%Changes of biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel under different temperatures during the storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    为研究鲭鱼中毒的组胺来源以及温度对鲅鱼生物胺的影响,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了鲅鱼体内7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)的含量以及在不同储藏温度的变化情况.结果表明,新鲜鲅鱼肌肉中没有检出组胺.鲅鱼体内生物胺的变化随温度的升高而加快,0℃(冰藏)、4℃、20℃储藏8d的生物胺总量变化范围分别为3.09~6.77、16.28~274.65、154.96~1846.29mg/kg.因此,细菌是引起组胺中毒的主要来源,低温储藏是控制鲅鱼产生生物胺的有效措施.%In order to research on the source of scombroid poisoning and changes of biogenic amines under different temperatures in Spanish mackerel, seven amines ( tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector ( FLD).Then, no histamine was detected in the fresh muscle,which means no histamine from the metabolism of fish become the source of scombroid poisoning.In addition,the higher the temperature was,the faster the formation of total amines was.And the concentrations of total amines during 8 days at 0℃( in ice) ,4℃ and 20℃ were 3.09~ 6.77, 16.28~ 274.65 and 154.96 ~ 1846.29mg/kg, respectively.In conclusion, bacteria were the main source of scombroid poisoning and low- temperature preservation was better to control biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel.

  12. Aminas bioativas e características físico-químicas de salames tipo italiano Bioactive amines and physico-chemical characteristics of Italian sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caccioppoli

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de seis lotes de sete marcas de salames tipo italiano foram analisadas quanto a aminas bioativas e características físico-químicas de qualidade. Oito das 10 aminas pesquisadas foram detectadas em todas as amostras com teores totais de 28,33 a 53,27mg/100g. A tiramina foi a amina predominante seguida da putrescina e da cadaverina. Todas as marcas apresentaram teores de tiramina capazes de causar efeito tóxico em indivíduos sensíveis dependendo da quantidade ingerida. Duas marcas apresentaram também teores potencialmente tóxicos de histamina e de feniletilamina. Nenhuma das marcas atendeu à legislação em pelo menos um parâmetro físico-químico. Os teores de umidade e de açucares totais foram as características com maior percentual de não-atendimento. Os teores de cinzas variaram de 5,54 a 7,12g/100g, sendo os cloretos 66 a 79% desses teores. As amostras apresentaram valores de pH de 4,86 a 5,78, acidez de 16,61 a 55,03ml NaOH N/100g e índice de peróxidos de não detectado a 334,82mEq/kg.Six batches of seven brands of Italian sausages purchased in Belo Horizonte, MG were analyzed for bioactive amines and physico-chemical characteristics. Eight out of 10 amines investigated were detected in every sample with total levels varying from 28.33 to 53.27mg/100g. Tyramine was the predominant amine followed by putrescine and cadaverine. Every brand contained toxic tyramine levels for sensitive individuals depending on the amount of sausage consumption. Two brands also contained toxic levels of histamine and phenylethylamine. No brand was in conformity to legislation levels for at least one physico-chemical parameter. The highest discrepancies to legislation levels were observed for moisture and total sugar contents. The levels of ash varied from 5.54 to 7.12g/100g, with chlorides representing 66 to 79% of the levels.The pH varied from 4.86 to 5.78, acidity from 16.61 to 55.03ml NaOH N/100g and peroxide values from 0.0 (no detected

  13. Simultaneous determination of biogenic amines in aquatic products by ion exchange chromatography coupled with IPAD%柱后加碱脉冲积分安培检测-离子色谱法测定水产品中十种生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜荷; 王红青; 范文佳; 唐敏; 肖海龙

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tyramine、serotonin hydrochloride、1,4-diaminobutane、 cadaverine dihydrochloride 、 histamine、 1, 7-diaminoheptane、 phenylethylamine 、 spermidine、 spermine and tryptamine in aquatic products by gradient elution/ion exchange chromatograph. 5. 0 - 55 mmol/L methylsulfonic acid ( MSA) was produced by an EG40 eluent autogenerator to be used as an eluent. The separation was performed on IonPac CS17 column and Ionpac CG17 column,and detected-ion was done by pulsed integrated amperometric electrochemical detection (IPAD). The gradient elution conditions were optimized. Ten kinds of biogenic amines could be separated and showed good linear relationship between the mass concentration and the peak area in the measurement ranges. The detection limits were below 0.04 mg/kg, the average recoveries were 91. 2 ~ 102. 5% and the relative standard deviations ( RSD,n =6) were below 5%. The method is simple and has been applied to the detection of ten kinds of biogenic amines in aquatic products samples with good precision and accuracy. The results are satisfactory, and this method can be used to evaluate if the aquatic products has been bad.%建立了利用淋洗液自动发生梯度淋洗的离子交换色谱法同时测定水产品中酪胺、5-羟色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、庚二胺、苯乙胺、亚精胺、精胺、色胺等10种生物胺的方法.样品经处理后用Ionpac CS17分离柱和Ionpac CG17型保护柱分离,以EG40自动淋洗液发生器生成的5.0~55 mmol/L的MSA为淋洗液梯度洗脱,脉冲积分安培检测器检测.对梯度进行优化,10种生物胺都能基线分离,并且浓度和峰面积在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系.检出限在0.04 mg/kg以下,回收率在91.2%~102.5%之间,样品的RSD(n =6)小于5%.方法可用于水产品的检测.

  14. Detection of Biogenic Amines in Xuanwei Ham by HPLC%宣威火腿中生物胺的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖国周; 王桂瑛; 曹锦轩; 程志斌

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines content was investigated in Xuanwei ham.Samples were extracted with 0.4 mol/L HClO4,and then derived with dansyl chloride.Separation was achieved using ZORBAX XDB-C18 column and identification,and a quantitative analysis of biogenic amines fraction was carried out using a HPLC system with DAD.Results showed that the linear ranges were 0.5~20 μg/mL,the limit of detection was 0.05~0.1 μg/mL,the recoveries were 81.58%~95.58% and the relative standard deviation were 2.48%~5.85% for eight biogenic amines.Six biogenic amines were detected in Xuanwei ham,the content of β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,tyramine,spermidine and spermine were 0.56 mg/100g,1.45 mg/100g,0.37 mg/100g,3.62 mg/100g,1.26 mg/100g and 4.28 mg/100g,respectively.%以宣威火腿为对象分析其中8种生物胺含量,样品通过0.4 mol/L高氯酸提取后以丹磺酰氯柱前衍生,经ZORBAX XDB-C18柱分离以配备二极管阵列检测器的HPLC对生物胺进行测定。结果表明,该方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为0.5~20μg/mL,检测限为0.05~0.1μg/mL,回收率为81.58%~95.58%,相对标准偏差为2.48%~5.85%,该方法线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高,可满足定量分析的要求。在宣威火腿中检测出6种生物胺,其中苯乙胺0.56 mg/100g,腐胺1.45 mg/100g,尸胺0.37 mg/100g,酪胺3.62 mg/100g,亚精胺1.26 mg/100g,精胺4.28 mg/100g。

  15. 腐乳前酵过程中生物胺含量变化%Content of Biogenic Amines in Sufu During Pre-fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 邱璠; 邢茜; 殷丽君

    2011-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯柱前衍生、HPLC检测腐乳前酵过程中生物胺含量变化;同时,检测多肽、氨基态氮含量的变化。结果表明:在前酵过程中,多肽和氨基态氮的含量均呈增长趋势,生物胺总量的上升趋势与氨基态氮一致,总胺含量分别达到971.1mg/kg和782.0 mg/kg,但两种菌种发酵产物中,各种生物胺含量的变化趋势不尽相同,雅致放射毛霉发酵产物中,尸胺和酪胺含量分别达到460.1 mg/kg、318.5 mg/kg,两者共占生物胺总量的80.2%,其余6种生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;少孢根霉发酵产物中,尸胺含量为668.0 mg/kg,占生物胺总量的85.4%,其余7种生物胺含量均低于50 mg/kg。%The aim of this work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines in sufu,fermented by Actinomucor elegans and Rhizopus oligosporus,respectively.Biogenic amines were determined by HPLC.Peptide and amino nitrogen were detected.The result indicated that the content of peptide and amino nitrogen increased in products fermented by Actinomucor elegans and Rhizopus oligosporus.The sum of eight biogenic amines corresponded with the content of amino nitrogen,and reached 971.1mg/kg and 782.0 mg/kg,respectively.But the dominant amines were different.Content of Cadaverine and Tyramine in product fermented by Actinomucor elegans reached 460.1 mg/kg and 318.5mg/kg,respectively,and the others were lower than 100 mg/kg.Content of Tyramine in product fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus reached 668.0 mg/kg,and the others were lower than 50 mg/kg.

  16. Handling time misalignment and rank deficiency in liquid chromatography by multivariate curve resolution: Quantitation of five biogenic amines in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Licarion; Díaz Nieto, César Horacio; Zón, María Alicia; Fernández, Héctor; de Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are used for identifying spoilage in food. The most common are tryptamine (TRY), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and histamine (HIS). Due to lack of chromophores, chemical derivatization with dansyl was employed to analyze these BAs using high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). However, the derivatization reaction occurs with any primary or secondary amine, leading to co-elution of analytes and interferents with identical spectral profiles, and thus causing rank deficiency. When the spectral profile is the same and peak misalignment is present on the chromatographic runs, it is not possible to handle the data only with Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternative Least Square (MCR-ALS), by augmenting the time, or the spectral mode. A way to circumvent this drawback is to receive information from another detector that leads to a selective profile for the analyte. To overcome both problems, (tri-linearity break in time, and spectral mode), this paper proposes a new analytical methodology for fast quantitation of these BAs in fish with HPLC-DAD by using the icoshift algorithm for temporal misalignment correction before MCR-ALS spectral mode augmented treatment. Limits of detection, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries, ranging from 0.14 to 0.50 µg mL(-1), 3.5-8.8% and 88.08%-99.68%, respectively. These are outstanding results obtained, reaching quantification limits for the five BAs much lower than those established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), all without any pre-concentration steps. The concentrations of BAs in fish samples ranged from 7.82 to 29.41 µg g(-1), 8.68-25.95 µg g(-1), 4.76-28.54 µg g(-1), 5.18-39.95 µg g(-1) and 1.45-52.62 µg g(-1) for TRY, PHE, PUT, CAD, and HIS, respectively. In addition, the proposed method spends

  17. Identification of Hafnia alvei and Its Ability to Produce Biogenic Amine%一株蜂房哈夫尼亚菌的鉴定和产胺能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 丁文; 汪先丁; 朱亮; 孙群

    2012-01-01

    A biogenic amine-producing strain named as C10 was isolated from chilled chicken in our laboratory. Its effect on the safety of chilled chicken was evaluated during storage. The strain was identified according to its physiological and biochemi- cal characteristics and 16 rDNA sequence. At the same time, its ability to produce biogenic amine during culture in decarboxylase medium at 4 ℃ for 3 days was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The strain C10 was identified as Hafnia alvei. Consistent results were obtained using TLC and HPLC, which showed that C 10 could produce cadaverine, putrescine and histamine at levels of 12.28, 5.23 mg/L and 8.35 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, Hafnia alvei is a potential hazard to the safety of chicken during refrigeration. In addition, TLC is proved to be a rapid, economical and reliable method for detecting BAs in meats.%考察本实验室从冷藏鸡肉中分离出的一株产生物胺细菌C10的产胺能力,评估其对冷藏鸡肉的食品安全的影响,根据生理生化特性及16S rRNA基因序列对其进行鉴定,并用薄层层析法(TLC)和高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定其在4℃脱羧酶液体培养基中产生物胺能力。结1果表明,菌株C10为蜂房哈夫尼亚菌(Hafnia alvei),TLC和HPLC检测结果一致,说明C10能产生尸胺(12.28mg/L)、腐胺(5.23mg/L)、组胺(8.35mg/L),因此其会对冷藏鸡肉的食品安全造成潜在风险。同时,TLC与HPLC检测法比较表明,TLC可作为一种经济、快捷、可靠的生物胺筛查方法。

  18. Effect of different processes on biogenic amines%不同加工对生物胺影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中辉; 林洪; 李振兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to destroy the structures, inhibit the formations and reduce the concentrations of biogenic amines, changes of seven amines (tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine)were analyzed after different processes by RP-HPLC and post-column derivatization with fluorescence detector( FLD). Results indicated that, none of biogenic amines was destroyed by ultrasonic, microwave and heating.The inhibition rates of ultrasound and potassium sorbate on biogenic amines in Spanish mackerel were 45.89% and 58.36% .respectively.And the removal rates of acetic acid and pickle juice were 17.59% and 27.76%, respectively.In conclusion,biogenic amines could be suppressed by controlling bacteria and be removed by acid extraction,instead of using the technology such as ultrasonic,microwave and heating.%为破坏生物胺结构、抑制生物胺产生、有效去除生物胺,通过HPLC-柱后衍生-FLD检测技术分析了7种生物胺(酪胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、胍丁胺、亚精胺、精胺)在不同加工处理后的变化情况.结果表明,超声、微波、加热对生物胺没有破坏作用,超声和山梨酸钾前处理对鲅鱼生物胺的抑制率分别为45.89%和58.36%.醋酸、泡菜汁对生物胺的去除率为17.59%和27.76%.因此,生物胺不能通过超声、微波、加热技术来消除,可以通过控制细菌生长和酸液浸提等方式来抑制和去除.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  20. CHANGES IN TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN TWO COMMON SPECIES OF MARINE FISH AT HIGH TEMPERATURE%两种常见海水鱼高温贮存过程中挥发性盐基氮和生物胺含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金彪; 杨筱珍; 范朋; 赵柳兰; 王春; 杨志刚; 洪宇航; 成永旭

    2012-01-01

    棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)和龙头鱼(Harpodon nehereus)是我国沿海常见的两种小型海水鱼,常被作为水产动物饵料,也可被人类食用.研究检测了这两种鱼在30℃下贮存48h每隔6h的挥发性盐基氮(T-VBN)和9种生物胺(尸胺、腐胺、组胺、酪胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺、多巴胺、章鱼胺)的含量变化,并对这两种鱼的T-VBN和生物胺含量与时间的相关性进行分析,为水产品类饵料安全投喂和人类食品安全提供基础资料.结果表明:两种鱼在相同贮存条件中T-VBN和生物胺含量均存在一定差异.T-VBN含量随着贮存时间的延长而逐渐增加,棘头梅童鱼T-VBN含量从0h的8.19 mg/100 g增加到48h的568.05 mg/100 g,龙头鱼从0h的13.16 mg/100 g增加到48h的361.34 mg/100 g,棘头梅童鱼增长值显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05).在30℃下,棘头梅童鱼和龙头鱼的T-VBN含量分别在10h和12h达到30 mg/100 g,因此,这两种鱼分别在l0h和12h后不推荐食用.在两种鱼的生物胺检测中,含量最高的4种依次是尸胺、腐胺、酪胺和组胺,且有随贮存时间延长含量显著增高的趋势(P<0.05),并在42h内趋于稳定;但是,棘头梅童鱼中尸胺的含量显著高于龙头鱼(P<0.05);章鱼胺、5-羟色胺、亚精胺、精胺含量在两种鱼体内含量较低且均无明显变化(P>0.05);多巴胺在两种鱼体内均未检测到.这两种鱼体内T-VBN、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺含量与时间的相关性均极其显著(P<0.01).%Collichthys lucidus and Harpodon nehereus are small fishes which are common in the coastal waters of China. They are often fed to aquatic animals, and are also food for human. In this study, total volatile basic nitro-gen(T-VBN)and nine biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonin, spermidine, spermine, dopamine and octopamine) of C. Lucidus and H. Nehereus storage at 30 ℃ were examined in every 6h for 48h. The correlation

  1. Nutrition changes associated with anchovy enzymolysis process%鳀鱼鱼浆的酶解过程与营养成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴代武; 税典章; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 叶元土; 彭侃; 罗其刚; 林秀秀

    2015-01-01

    Analyze the changes of nutrients during enzymolysis process and hydrolysis conditions for frozen anchovy used in feed, anchovy autolyzed (group C) at 55 ℃, adding the antibiotic (group A), ex?ogenous papain (group E), antibiotics and papain group (group E + A)was prepared, free amino acids, biogenic amines, volatile basic nitrogen, fatty acids, MDA, peroxide value and acid value as the evalua?tion indicators. The results suggested that 7~9 h was the optimum time of anchovy enzymolysis process at 55 ℃ with the level of free amino nitrogen and total bacterial count as the evaluation index; free amino acid, volatile basic nitrogen, cadaverine increased significantly and the free amino acid was 14.97 g/100 g(dry weight) after enzymolysis, histamine, putrescine, spermine, spermidine content de?creased; changes in fat content were unsaturated fatty acid moieties to saturated fatty acids, acid value, malonaldehyde, peroxide value were not very different from raw fish. Anchovy protein hydrolyzed quickly generating high free amino acids and low lipid oxidation at 55 ℃, and proteins corruption and fats oxidation mainly were mainly resulted from endogenous cathepsin, exogenous papain and bacteri?um less affected within 9 h.%为了分析以冰冻鳀鱼为原料制备鱼浆用于饲料中,在55℃下设置鱼浆自溶组(C组)、添加抗生素组(A组)、添加外源木瓜蛋白酶组(E组)、同时添加抗生素和木瓜蛋白酶组(E+A组)共4个试验组,以游离氨基酸、生物胺、挥发性盐基氮、脂肪酸、丙二醛、过氧化值和酸价为评价指标,探讨酶解过程中营养物质的变化规律和酶解条件.试验结果表明,在55℃条件下,以游离态氨基氮生成量、细菌总数作为判别指标,鳀鱼自溶酶解的最佳时间为7~9h;酶解完成后,蛋白质类生成物变化为:各组游离氨基酸、挥发性盐基氮、尸胺含量显著升高,游离氨基酸为14.97 g/100 g左右(干物质);组胺、腐胺、精胺、亚精

  2. Determination of eight biogenic amines in merchant pickles by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相法测定市售腌制蔬菜商品中8种生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢茜; 陈浩; 曲桂芹; 殷丽君

    2013-01-01

    采用丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,建立反相高效液相色谱法同时测定腌制蔬菜中色胺,β-苯乙胺,腐胺,尸胺,组胺,酪胺,亚精胺和精胺含量的方法.色谱条件:C18色谱柱分离,以水和乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,流速0.8 mL/min,紫外检测器,检测波长:254 nm.在设定的试验条件下,8种生物胺在30 min内实现了良好的分离,待测生物胺峰面积同其相应浓度呈良好的线性相关性(R2 >0.998).仪器重复性良好(RSD<0.63%),方法重复性在可接收范围内(RSD< 10%),8种生物胺的平均回收率在89.19%~103.02%之间.结果表明生物胺的HPLC检测方法,灵敏度高,精密度和重复性好,可快捷、准确地对腌制蔬菜中的生物胺进行检测.对市售腌制蔬菜样品中的生物胺含量进行了分析,检测出生物胺总量范围在39.38 ~ 628.82 mg/kg,属于目前我国安全标准范围之内.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tryptamine,β-phenylethylamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,spermidine,and spermine in pickles.The samples in experiment derivatized with dansyl chloride.The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column.The gradient elution program with a mixture of ultrapure water and acetonitrile at the flow rate 0.8 mL/min was used under UV detector with a wavelength of 254 nm.Under this experimental condition,8 amines had a good resolution in 30 min and well linearity(R2 > 0.998) in detection range.The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision and repeatability were lower than 0.63% and 10% respectively.The average recoveries ranged from 89.19% to 103.02% for all amines.The results showed that,with the merits of high sensitivity,precision and well repeatability,the HPLC method is convenient,rapid and reliable for biogenic amines detection.The contents of biogenic amines were ranging between 39.38 and 628.82 mg/kg in

  3. Determination of biogenic amines in fermented product from soya beans by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定大豆发酵制品中的生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王充; 易少凌

    2015-01-01

    目的:从生物胺角度初步探讨大豆发酵制品的食用安全性,为确定大豆发酵制品的推荐安全摄入水平提供初步参考。方法采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法检测大豆发酵制品中生物胺的含量,以0.4 mol/L高氯酸为提取液,以丹酰氯为衍生试剂,紫外检测波长254 nm。结果样品组分分离及测定结果重现性较好,豆豉、豆酱、酱油3种大豆发酵制品均有部分品牌组胺含量超过危害作用水平(即500 mg/kg),8个样品中有7种超过100 mg/kg,同类不同品牌大豆发酵制品间组胺含量没有明显差别;色胺均未检出;除组胺外,3种大豆发酵制品中尚可能存在2-苯乙胺、腐胺及尸胺。结论大豆发酵制品的色胺未检出,组胺含量较高,大量食用可能影响人体健康。%ABSTRACT:Objective To assess the security of fermented product from soya beans, and give a reference for their reference intakes. Methods To determine biogenic amines in lobster sauce, soy sauce and soybean paste by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the biogenic amines were extracted with 0.4 mol/L perchloric acid solution, the pre-column derivatising agent was dansyl chloride, the mobile phase was acetonitrile and water (V:V=60:40), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. UV detector was used to determine the biogenic amines, and the wavelength was 254 nm. Results Histamine was found in every kind of the fermented product with soya beans, and the concentration was higher than 500 mg/kg, which was the level in food that would cause harm to human body made by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in America. The average concentration of histamine in the fermented product with soya beans determined was 469.19 mg/kg, and different kinds of fermented products with soya beans had almost the same concentration of histamine. While no tryptamine was found in these samples, there were 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine and cadaverine in these fermented product from

  4. 壳聚糖纳米粒修饰的开管毛细管电色谱柱对生物胺的分析%AnaIysis of Amines by Open TubuIar CapiIIary EIectrochromatography CoIumn Modified with Nano-Chitosan ParticIes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周孙英; 张欢欢; 陈继涢; 简园园

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立应用壳聚糖纳米粒修饰的开管毛细管电色谱柱对生物胺的分析检测方法。方法通过静电作用将壳聚糖纳米粒修饰于毛细管内壁;优化应用该柱对8种生物胺包括组胺、色胺、酪胺、5-羟色胺、多巴胺、苯乙胺、腐胺和尸胺的分离条件,通过测定日内、日间和柱间的相对标准偏差(RSD )考察该方法的重现性;通过加标-计回收率的方法检测鱼露中生物胺的含量。结果在pH 6.7的50 mmol/L的磷酸盐缓冲液、10 kV电压的条件下,8种生物胺在15 min内得到完全分离,柱效范围为52397~95302 plates/m ,并且日内、日间和柱间的迁移时间的RSD分别小于1.8%,3.6%和8.0%,峰面积 RSD 分别小于4.0%,6.7%和13.0%;检测定量限为1.4~5.0 mg/L ;回收率为82%~112%。结论壳聚糖纳米粒子修饰的开管毛细管电色谱柱的应用提高了分析生物胺的效果,并可用于实际样品中生物胺的检测。%Objective To develop a capillary electrochromatography method with open tubular capillary column modified by nano-chitosan particles for determination of biogenic amines ,including hista-mine ,tryptamine ,tyramine ,5-hydroxytryptamine ,dopamine ,phenethyl-amine ,putrescine and cadaver-ine . Method The chitosan nano-particle were coated onto the inner wall of fused silica capillary via elec-trostatic adsorption ;optimal separation conditions of 8 amines were investigated ,and the reproducibility of the method was also assessed via RSD of intra-day ,inter-day and column to column ;recoveries of 8 amines were determined after standard substance addition . ResuIt Under the condition of 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer solution at pH 6 .7 with 10 kV voltage ,8 biogenic amines were separated completely within 15 min , and the column efficiency range was 52 397~95 302 plates/m . The RSD of retention times were lower than 1 .8% ,3 .6% and 8 .0% for intra

  5. Determination of biogenic amines in wine by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定葡萄酒中生物胺的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈念原; 王秀芹

    2011-01-01

    葡萄酒是经过发酵而制成的,很容易存在生物胺,对人体可能存在危害,因此本文检测了几种葡萄酒中甲胺、乙胺、色按、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量.实验选用高效液相色谱仪,紫外检测器,0.l mol/L盐酸溶液提取,丹磺酰氯衍生化的方法进行检测.实验结果表明,此法相关系数大于99.8%,最低检测限在0.55~1.03 μg/L,回收率大于95%,相对标准偏差在6.33%以下.实验结果检测出葡萄酒中甲胺含量为5.53±0.028~6.67±0.04mg/L,乙胺含量为5.41±0.07~6.99±0.19mg/L,色胺含量为10.35±0.068~14.18±0.42mg/L,腐胺含量为9.10±0.28~11.75±0.49mg/L,均在安全标准范围内,可安全食用.%Wine is easy to exist biogenic amines after fermentation and they may be harmful to humans. So this research studied methylamine,ethylamine,tryptamine,putrescine,cadaverine,histamine,tyramine,and spermidine in several kinds of wine. The method involved extraction with 0.1 mol/L HCI solution, pre-column derivatization of the amines with dansyl chloride and subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The results showed that the correlation coefficients were greater than 99.8%, the limit of detection was from 0.55μg/L to 1.03μg/L, recovery was more than 95%, relative standard deviations were below 6.33%.Levels of methylamine ethylamine tryptamine putrescine were 5.53 ± 0.028 ~ 6.67 ± 0.04mg/L,5.41 ± 0.07 ~6.99 ± 0.19mg/L,1 0.35 ± 0.068 ~ 14. 1 8 ± 0.42mg/L,9.10 ± 0.28 ~ 11.75 ± 0.49mg/L, respectively. The results were in the safety standards and the wine could be safe to consume.

  6. Changes of Biogenic Amines During Processing of Xuanwei Ham%宣威火腿加工过程中生物胺变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂瑛; 殷红; 曹锦轩; 施忠芬; 廖国周

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Xuanwei hams were processed according to traditional processing technology with 40 green hams weighted 9 ~ llkg. Approximately 100 g of muscle from the Biceps femoris and the around the muscles from 5 hams each time was obtained on 24 h, 18 d, 125 d, 250 d and 360 d and then minced. Then biogenic amines content were determined with HPLC. The results showed that tryptamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were detected in Xuanwei ham. The content of spermine was the highest, fol- lowed by that of tyramine and spermidine during the processing period. There were no significant difference in the content of tyramine, spermine and spermine among the various processing stages (P 〉 0.05). The content of phenyle- thylamine and putrescine were increasing during the processing (P 〈 0.05) , at the mid-ripening (250d) stage, the content of phenylethylamine and putrescine were up to the highest level, and then decreasing (P 〉 0.05). The total content of biogenic amines was increasing during the processing period. In the mid-ripening (250d) stage, the con- tent of biogenic amines was up to 1 i. 51 mg/100g. After the mid-ripening stage, the total content of biogenic amines started to decrease (P 〉 O. 05).%用40条重量在9~11 kg的原料腿按照传统工艺加工宣威火腿,分别在腌制前(24 h)、腌制结束(18d)、风干结束(125 d)、成熟中期(250 d)与成熟结束(360 d)这5个加工阶段随机取出5条火腿,以股二头肌为中心取约100 g样品,以HPLC方法测定生物胺含量。结果表明,宣威火腿样品中共检测出7种生物胺,分别是色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、酪胺、尸胺、亚精胺和精胺。在各个加工阶段,精胺的含量都是最高的,其次是酪胺与亚精胺。酪胺、亚精胺与精胺的含量在5个加工阶段都没有显著变化(P〉0.05)。苯乙胺与腐胺含量显著增加(P〈0.05

  7. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 μg/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  8. Simultaneous Determination of 8 kinds of Biogenic Amines in Soy Sauce by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定酱油中的8种生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了高效液相色谱法同时检测酱油中色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺的方法.采用5%三氯乙酸溶液为样品提取溶剂,提取液经丹璜酰氯柱前衍生30 min,最终HPLC进行定性和定量分析.本方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为1.0~50μg/mL,相关系数R2大于0.99,检出限(S/N=3)为0.075~0.3 μg/mL.在添加水平为1.00和5.00 μg/mL时,样品的平均回收率在83%-111%之间,相对标准偏差为0.43%~19.0%.本方法具有线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高等优点,适用于酱油中生物胺的检测.采用本方法对市售10种酱油进行检测,总生物胺含量的范围为50.82~1898.17 μg/mL,其中酪胺、腐胺和苯乙胺是酱油样品中含量最多的生物胺.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of trypatamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine in soy sauce by HPLC was developed Biogenic amines in soy sauce were extracted with a mixture of 5% TCA, and then derived with dansyl chloride for 30 min, HPLC was used to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was 1.0~50 μg/mL for biogenic amines and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.075-0.3 μg/mL. At the spiked levels of 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL, the average recoveries were 83%~111% with the relative standard deviations of 0.43 %~ 19%. The results showed that the proposed method has a good linearity and sensitivity which is suitable to detect biogenic amines in soy sauce. The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in 10 commercial soy sauce samples, and the values of total biogenic amines were in the range of 50.82~1898.17 μg/mL. Tyramine, putrescin and phenylethylamine were found to be predominant amines in soy sauce samples.

  9. Degradation of biogenetic amines by gamma radiation process and identification by GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Monique; Souza, Stefania P. de; Lima, Keila dos S.C.; Lima, Antonio L. dos S., E-mail: santoslima@ime.eb.br [Departamento de Quimica - IME, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic amines are low molecular weight organic bases with aliphatic (putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine), aromatic (tyramine, phenylethylamine) or heterocyclic (histamine, tryptamine) structures that can be found in several foods, in which they are mainly produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The reasons to control amines in food are their potential toxicity and their use like food quality markers. The consumption of food containing large amounts of biogenic amines can result in allergic reactions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, rash, vomiting, and hypertension. Biogenic amines are also known as possible precursors of carcinogens, such as N-nitrosamines. Traditionally, biogenic amine formation in food has been prevented, primarily by limiting microbial growth. However, control measures to reduce their levels once formed need to be also considered. The biogenic amines are frequently found in high concentrations and not reduced by high-temperature treatment, which makes difficult to use conventional methods of food preservation for this purpose. Food irradiation has been used in many countries for inhibition of sprouting, destruction of food borne insects, extension of shelf life or improvement of the technological of food. Irradiation is also known as a good method for inactivating pathogens and reducing microorganisms in food materials. Furthermore, besides the sanitary purpose, irradiation technology in new trials can be applied to induce radiolysis of toxic contaminants in food products reducing their content. This study has the objective to evaluate the effect of different gamma irradiation doses (1, 3 and 5kGy) in methanol solutions of three different biogenic amines: tryptamine, tyramine and b-phenylethylamine. The solutions were prepared using standard biogenic amines purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Brazil and methanol HPLC grade with a concentration of 100 {mu}g/mL. They were irradiated in Centro Tecnologico do Exercito

  10. Determinación y aplicación de Poliaminas en especies vegetales de interés agrícola y forestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero A. Hernán Mauricio

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Different experiments in order to determine the polyamines (PA putrescine (Put, spermidine, (Spd, spermine (Spm and cadaverine (Cad effect and concentration in corn (Zea maysJ cv. M8 510, c.v. M8 513 and a regional type; and in "Sietecueros" (Tibouchina lepidata seedlings were made.
    PA were determined during ear of corn formation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Put was the most abundant followed by Spd and Spm. Cad was detected but with unmeasurable values. Applied PA modified growth patterns of regional corn and so, ear of corns that normally don't fill out grain, was developed. Besides, there was size
    increase and the number of grains in each ear of corn was higher. In corn plants, affected by chilling (_30 C/6 Hr, height growth was suspended, leaves were burn out and the number and size of corn ears decreased. PA treatments reverted the negative effect caused by chilling, keeping plant growth normal; furthermore, normally inactive ear of corns
    were released, resulting in higher grain yield than in controls.
    In slow growing "Sietecueros" seedlings, PA applications released plant growth, reaching more than 100% of height increase in treated seedlings in relation to control.Se realizaron diferentes ensayos para determinar el contenido y el efecto de las poliaminas (PA, putrescina, espermidina, espermina y cadaverina en los maices colombianos (Zeamayz, MB 510y MB 513 yen plántulas dormantes de Sietecueros, (Tibouchina lepidota de varias edades. Se determinaron las PA en mazorcas de los dos maices mediante Cromatografía líquida de Alta Resolución (HPLC durante la formación del óvulo, y el cuajado del grano. La putrescina fue la PA más concentrada en las mazorcas de los dos tipos de maíz, seguida de la espermidina y la espermina. La cadaverina se detectó, pero con valores no medibles. Las PA aplicadas sobre cultivos de maíz modificaron los patrones de crecimiento en las dos variedades utilizadas logr

  11. Study on biogenic amines formation and influencing factors in Chinese rice wine%黄酒中生物胺的形成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤杰; 薛洁; 王异静; 王德良; 周建弟; 谢广发

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study the produce of biogenic amines during brewing process for Chinese rice wine, and the influencing factors including raw material, Wheat Qu, seed starter, amino acid, brewing technique and ageing.Biogenic amines were quantified by a pre-column derivatization by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC).Putrescine and tryamine were the most prevalent amine.None of amines were detected in water.The aliphatic amines ( putrescine, cadaverine, spermine) were present in glutinous rice and wheat Qu, but the content was not over 6.01 mg/kg.Significantly different contents depended on seed starters (P <0.01) ranging from 16.43 to 87.72mg/L.There was a positive correlation between the content of biogenic amines and total acid, but significant negative correlation between this content and alcohol and the sense organ taste.The total content of biogenic amines during traditional brewing process was higher than that during mechanized brewing process, but both had same change tendency, i.e., increasing in early fermentation period and followed with decreasing, which was the same to bacterial count.Statistically significant increase was found in analyzed amino acids, but there was no correlation between it and the content of biogenic amines.Slight decreases came about during ageing for traditional rice wine, but irregular changes for mechanized rice wine.Overall, total content of biogenic amines ranging from 0.14 to 175.15 mg/L were within the safe level for human health .%采用高效液相色谱技术,分析了黄酒酿造原料、发酵剂和不同年份酒中的生物胺含量,并对传统工艺和机械化生产过程中生物胺含量的变化进行了跟踪分析,剖析了影响生物胺含量的因素.结果表明,腐胺和酪胺是黄酒中的主要生物胺,糯米原料和曲中生物胺含量很低,检出的3种脂肪族生物胺(腐胺、尸胺和精胺)总量不超过6.0lmg/kg;7种酒母中生物胺总含量差异极显著(P<0