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Sample records for cadaveric anatomical study

  1. Important anatomical structures used in paravaginal defect repair: cadaveric study.

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    Ersoy, Mehmet; Sagsoz, Nevin; Bozkurt, M Cem; Apaydin, Nihal; Elhan, Alaittin; Tekdemir, Ibrahim

    2004-02-10

    To examine the variations and the anatomical characteristics of the tendinous arch of pelvic fascia (TAPF), the tendinous arch of levator ani (TALA) and the obturator fascia (Ofa) that are important structures in paravaginal defect repair and their relations with important neurovascular structures. We carried our study on 10 pelvic halves of five female cadavers fixed in 10% formaldehyde. TALA could show a very high location or a low location near to inferior edge of obturator internus. TAPF was not observed in four of the cases. It was examined as a quite weak structure in two of the cases. The location of obturator vessel-nerve bundle could show difference. Obturator artery (OA) and vein sometimes do not course parallel to obturator vein (OV) and make an inclination and extend to the obturator foramen (OF). The distance between TAPF and the pectineal ligament (PL) (Cooper ligament) was measured as 5 cm on average. The distance between TAPF and the entrance of obturator canal was measured as 3.2 cm on average. While the distance of pudendal vessel-nerve bundle from levator ani (LA) at the anterior border of the spine was 0 mm, 2 cm anteriorly it was measured as 4.4 mm on average. Since TAPF does not develop in every case, it is not a safe structure to be used in surgery. If TALA develop downward as a variation, it could be difficult to distinguish from TAPF. Since the obturator fascia is a thin membrane, it is not a strong structure for suture placement. The region that is 2 cm in front of the ischial spine (IS) is a dangerous zone for pudendal vessel-nerve bundle.

  2. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

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    Master, Daniel L; Toy, Jason O; Eubanks, Jason D; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2012-10-01

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis in cadaveric spines. To determine the prevalence of cervical endplate and facet arthrosis and the relationship between these 2 entities in a large population sample. Cervical endplate and facet arthrosis are common radiographic findings, which have both been linked to pain. However, the prevalence and relationship between cervical endplate and facet arthrosis has not been clearly defined. The cervical vertebrae from 234 cadaveric spines were examined by a single investigator for evidence of endplate and facet arthrosis. Arthrosis at each endplate and facet was graded on a continuum from 0 to IV. Race, age at death, and sex of each specimen were also recorded. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze any association between race, age, sex, endplate arthrosis, and facet arthrosis. Factors with P values arthrosis severity scores among patients within the same decades of life. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis was present in 77% of the study population. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed significant (Parthrosis and between age and facet arthrosis. Race and sex did not correlate with facet arthrosis. In addition, patients in age groups 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 89 demonstrated more severe (Parthrosis in comparison with facet arthrosis. Concurrent cervical endplate and facet arthrosis is a common condition. Cervical endplate arthrosis and advancing age are associated with cervical facet arthrosis independent of race and sex. Cervical endplate arthrosis precedes facet arthrosis.

  3. Prevalence of concurrent lumbar and cervical arthrosis: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

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    Master, Daniel L; Eubanks, Jason D; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2009-04-15

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of lumbar and cervical arthrosis in cadaveric spines. Determine the prevalence of combined lumbar and cervical arthrosis in a large population sample and examine its association with age, sex, and race. Lumbar and cervical arthrosis are common radiographic findings, which have both been linked to pain. However, the prevalence of and temporal relationship between combined lumbar and cervical arthrosis has not been defined. The lumbar and cervical segments from 234 cadaveric spines were examined by a single investigator for evidence of endplate and facet arthrosis. Arthrosis at each endplate and facet was graded on a continuum from 0 to IV. Race, age at death, and sex of each specimen was recorded.Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze any association between race, age, sex, lumbar arthrosis, and cervical arthrosis. Factors with P-values arthrosis severity among patients within the same decades of life. Concurrent lumbar and cervical arthrosis was present in 80% of the study population. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed significant (P arthrosis and cervical arthrosis and between age and cervical arthrosis. Race and sex did not correlate with lumbar or cervical arthrosis. In addition, patients in age groups 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 to 89 demonstrated more severe (P arthrosis in comparison to cervical arthrosis. Concurrent lumbar and cervical arthrosis is a common condition. Lumbar arthrosis and advancing age are associated with cervical arthrosis independent of race and sex. Lumbar arthrosis precedes cervical arthrosis. These findings suggest an underlying systemic component for spinal osteoarthritis.

  4. The Anatomic Basis for the Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure: A Cadaveric Study.

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    Hawi, Nael; Reinhold, Aja; Suero, Eduardo M; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Przyklenk, Sandra; Brandes, Julia; Schmiedl, Andreas; Krettek, Christian; Meller, Rupert

    2016-02-01

    The Latarjet technique is a reliable treatment option for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. However, the complication rate has been reported to be as high as 30%, with 1.6% of patients suffering a nerve injury. The all-arthroscopic Latarjet procedure has been gaining popularity, even as it has introduced its own challenges. Given that the surgeon is not able to palpate the nerves, their localization and protection can be difficult. Additionally, the use of different instruments can lead to distinct nerve injury mechanisms. To describe the anatomic trajectory of the musculocutaneous, axillary, and suprascapular nerves in relation to the arthroscopic Latarjet approach. Using this information, guidance is provided for reducing nerve injuries during instrumentation and screw insertion. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 50 cadaveric shoulders from 25 whole-body specimens were examined. The specimens were placed in the beach-chair position, and the deltopectoral and dorsal approaches were used to expose the relevant structures. A subscapularis muscle split was performed between the inferior and middle thirds of the tendon. Digital caliper measurements were taken between various points of the trajectories of the nerves and surrounding anatomic landmarks. The location of the nerves relative to the split was recorded. The musculocutaneous nerve lay within the split in 66% of the shoulders (n = 33); it was medial to the split in 28% (n = 14); it was found lateral to split in 2% (n = 1); and it was not identified in 4% of shoulders (n = 2). The mean length of the axillary nerve was 4.0 cm (95% CI, 3.7-4.2) from the exit of the plexus to the quadrangular space. The axillary nerve was found to be within the split in 50% of the shoulders (n = 25) and medial to the split in the remaining 50% (n = 25). The suprascapular nerve at the level of the supraspinatous fossa passed 3.3 cm (95% CI, 3.1-3.5) medial to the superior rim of the posterior glenoid. The nerve curves

  5. Bony landmarks available for minimally invasive lateral ankle stabilization surgery: a cadaveric anatomical study.

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    Matsui, Kentaro; Oliva, Xavier Martin; Takao, Masato; Pereira, Bruno S; Gomes, Tiago Mota; Lozano, Jan Martinez; Glazebrook, Mark

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical utility of three bony tubercles: fibular obscure tubercle, talar obscure tubercle and tuberculum ligamenti calcaneofibularis, to serve as anatomical landmarks for defining the precise location of the origins and insertions of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). Twelve lower extremity cadaveric specimens were procured. The detectability of the tubercles was tested using palpation and fluoroscopy with subsequent confirmation after dissection. If the tubercles were present, then distances from the identified tubercles to the footprint centres and the intersection of the ATFL and CFL were measured to allow precise localization of the ATFL and CFL origin and intersection sites. Further, if the tubercles were not detectable, then an attempt to provide an alternative means of localizing ATFL and CFL origin and insertion sites was made by measuring distances between alternative landmarks and other important structures. All the measurements were performed by two researchers, and the results were averaged. The fibular obscure tubercle existed and was detectable in all specimens. It was located 1.3 mm proximal to the articular tip of the fibula, 2.7 mm to the intersection of the ATFL and CFL, 3.7 mm distal to the ATFL and 4.9 mm proximal to the CFL origins. The talar obscure tubercle existed 58 % of specimens and was detectable in 57 %. The talar obscure tubercle was located 1.4 mm to the ATFL. The ATFL insertion point was located 60 % of the distance from the inferolateral corner to the anterolateral corner of the of talar body along the anterior border of the talar lateral articular facet. The tuberculum ligamenti calcaneofibularis existed in 33 % of specimens and was detectable in 8 %. The CFL inserted 17 mm on a perpendicular projected line distal from the subtalar joint. The fibular obscure tubercle was clinically relevant and reliable bony landmark of the ATFL and

  6. Investigation of topographical anatomy of Broca's area: an anatomic cadaveric study.

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    Eser Ocak, Pınar; Kocaelı, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    The sulci constituting the structure of the pars triangularis and opercularis, considered as 'Broca's area', present wide anatomical and morphological variations between different hemispheres. The boundaries are described differently from one another in various studies. The aim of this study was to explore the topographical anatomy, confirm the morphological asymmetry and highlight anatomical variations in Broca's area. This study was performed with 100 hemispheres to investigate the presence, continuity, patterns and connections of the sulcal structures that constitute the morphological asymmetry of Broca's area. Considerable individual anatomical and morphological variations between the inferior frontal gyrus and related sulcal structures were detected. Rare bilateralism findings supported the morphological asymmetry. The inferior frontal sulcus was identified as a single segment in 54 % of the right and two separate segments in 52 % of the left hemispheres, which was the most common pattern. The diagonal sulcus was present in 48 % of the right and 54 % of the left hemispheres. It was most frequently connected to the ascending ramus on both sides. A 'V' shape was observed in 42.5 % of the right hemispheres and a 'Y' shape in 38.3 % of the left hemispheres, which was the most common shape of the pars triangularis. Moreover, the full results are specified in detail. Knowledge of the anatomical variations in this region is indispensable for understanding the functional structure and performing safe surgery. However, most previously published studies have aimed to determine the anatomical asymmetry of the motor speech area without illuminating the topographical anatomy encountered during surgery.

  7. Prevalence of lumbar facet arthrosis and its relationship to age, sex, and race: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

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    Eubanks, Jason David; Lee, Michael J; Cassinelli, Ezequiel; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2007-09-01

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of facet arthrosis in cadaveric lumbar spines. To define the prevalence of lumbar facet arthrosis in a large population sample and to examine its association with age, sex, and race. Arthrosis of lumbar facet joints is a common radiographic finding and has been linked to low back pain. However, no population studies have specifically defined the prevalence of facet arthrosis in the lumbar spine in relation to age, sex, and race. A total of 647 cadaveric lumbar spines were examined by a single examiner for evidence of lumbar facet arthrosis. Information on race, age, and sex were collected. Arthrosis at each facet was graded from 0 to 4 on a continuum from no arthritis to complete ankylosis. Facet arthrosis was present in 53% (L1-L2), 66% (L2-L3), 72% (L3-L4), 79% (L4-L5), and 59% (L5-S1). By decade, facet arthrosis was present in 57% of 20- to 29-year-olds, 82% of 30- to 39-year-olds, 93% of 40- to 49-year-olds, 97% in 50- to 59-year-olds, and 100% in those >60 years old. Fisher exact test and t test demonstrated that men had a greater prevalence and degree of facet arthrosis than women at all lumbar levels (P prevalence and degree of arthrosis was the L4-L5 level, as compared with each of the other levels (P arthrosis between right versus left facet joints (P > 0.5). Facet arthrosis is a universal finding in the human lumbar spine. Evidence of arthrosis begins early, with more than one half of adults younger than 30 years demonstrating arthritic changes in the facets. The most common arthritic level appears to be L4-L5. Men have a higher prevalence and degree of facet arthrosis than women.

  8. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population A cadaveric study

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    Jerina Tewari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to thefirst metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason forfirst carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation.

  9. Vastus lateralis vascularized nerve graft in facial nerve reconstruction: an anatomical cadaveric study and clinical implications.

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    Agrogiannis, Nikolaos; Rozen, Shai; Reddy, Gangadasu; Audolfsson, Thorir; Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Andres

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigates the vascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis motor nerve (VLMN) to be used as a vascularized nerve graft in facial nerve reconstruction. We evaluated the maximum length of the nerve that can be included in the flap and its vascular pedicle. In addition, we discuss its adequacy for use in early reconstruction of the facial nerve both as ipsilateral facial nerve reconstruction and as cross-facial nerve graft. Five fresh cadavers were used in this study. In all specimens, the VLMN and its vascular pedicle were dissected, photodocumented and measured using calipers. In addition, two vascularized VLMN were injected with a radiopaque contrast and underwent CT angiography and three dimensional reconstructions were scanned to illustrate the vascular supply of the nerve using OsiriX Software. The VLMN was divided into two divisions, an oblique proximal and a descending distal, in 70% of the dissections with a mean maximal length of 8.4 ± 4.5 cm for the oblique division and 15.03 ± 3.87 cm for the descending division. The length of the oblique division, when present, was shorter than the length of the descending branch in all specimens. The mean length of the pedicle was 2.93 ± 1.69 cm, and 3.27 ± 1.49 cm until crossing the oblique and the descending division of the nerve respectively. The mean caliber of the nerve was 2.4 ± 0.62 mm. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography demonstrated perfusion throughout the entire VLMN by branches from the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery which ran parallel to the descending division of the VLMN. Additionally, we observed that technically it was possible to preserve the oblique branch of the VLMN. This study confirms that VLMN presents adequate anatomic features to be used as a vascularized nerve graft for facial nerve reconstruction in terms of length, pedicle, and caliber. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anatomical Landmarks for Safe Elevation of the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap: A Cadaveric Study

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    Chowdhry, Saeed; Hazani, Ron; Collis, Philip; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction techniques have focused increasingly on using autologous tissue, with emphasis being placed on employing muscle sparing adipocutaneous flaps to reduce abdominal wall complications such as hernias, bulges, weakness, and length of hospital stay. The result has been the emergence of the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for breast reconstruction. Isolating perforator vessels challenges most surgeons. We describe surface anatomical landmarks to pred...

  11. Anatomical landmarks for safe elevation of the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: a cadaveric study.

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    Chowdhry, Saeed; Hazani, Ron; Collis, Philip; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2010-05-28

    Breast reconstruction techniques have focused increasingly on using autologous tissue, with emphasis being placed on employing muscle sparing adipocutaneous flaps to reduce abdominal wall complications such as hernias, bulges, weakness, and length of hospital stay. The result has been the emergence of the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap for breast reconstruction. Isolating perforator vessels challenges most surgeons. We describe surface anatomical landmarks to predict the location of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and its perforators to aid in the efficient elevation of this flap. Ten fresh hemi-abdomens were dissected with loupe magnification. The DIEA and its perforators were identified, and measurements in relation to the rectus muscle, xiphoid, umbilicus, and pubis were taken. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine distance ratios to account for variance in patient size. Average distance from the xiphoid to umbilicus was 18.2 +/- 1.27 cm. The distance from the umbilicus to pubis was 14.9 +/- 2.3 cm. The vertical distance from the umbilicus to the DRJ (DIEA rtctus junction) was 10.45 +/- 1.58 cm, and the vertical distance from the level of the umbilicus to where the first DIEA perforator traverses the RAM was 7.4 +/- 1.64 cm. The distance between the umbilicus and the DRJ is approximately 0.7 times the distance between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. The distance between the umbilicus and the first perforator is approximately 0.5 times the distance between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Knowledge of anatomical landmarks can aid the surgeon in more efficiently harvesting the DIEP flap. Surface landmarks along the abdominal midline coupled with normalizing ratios can aid surgeons in predicting the location of the DIEA and its first perforator. The DIEA crosses the rectus at approximately two thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and pubis, and the first perforator can reliably be located at one half of

  12. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

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    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants.

  13. FEASIBILITY OF USING DISTAL MO T O R BRANCHES TO INNERVATE THE INTRINSIC MUSCLES OF THE HAND (A CADAVERIC ANATOMICAL STUDY

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    Baburao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of proximal nerve injuries with nerve gaps are less than perfect and provide only extrinsic muscle function with sensation at the best; intrinsic muscle function recovery is rarely seen. The imbalance in the hand resulting from denervation of the intrinsic muscles is usually treated by tendon transfers in a second sitting; since the results of tendon transfer depend on multiple factors, the final outcome may not be predictable for the individual patient the aims and objectives of this . S tudy to know the anatomical feasibility of the distal expendable motor branches of the median nerve to selectively reinnervate the intrinsic muscles of the hand. T he m e thod used are10 upper limbs from 5 cadavers were dissected in this study.4X loup e magnification was used for the dissection . Length and width of nerves were measured with measuring scale & calipers. THE RESULTS : The length of the thenar motor nerve is about 2 - 3cm , ( which reaches upto distal wrist crease and from there to distal end of the pronator quadratus nerve is 4.5 - 6.0cm.Pronator quadratus nerve can be lengthened by 1 - 1.2 cm by intramuscular dissection . The deep branch of ulnar nerve is 9.5 - 10.6cm length and can be easily brought to the distal end of pronator quadratus nerve The diameters of all three nerve matches in 90 - 95% of the cases . This study has determined the cadaveric findings for the three nerves The Pronator quadratus width the length can be increased by intramuscular dissection helps in decreasing the nerve gap betw een the donor nerve and motor end plate. This cadevaric study concludes that Pronator quadratus branch of Anterior interosseous nerve can be transferred directly to the deep motor branch of Ulnar nerve . Nerve transfers should be an option prior to thinking of tendon transfers in the clinical situation.

  14. Biomechanical and anatomical considerations in lumbar spinous process fixation--an in vitro human cadaveric model.

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    Sun, Xiaolei; Murgatroyd, Ashley A; Mullinix, Kenneth P; Cunningham, Bryan W; Ma, Xinlong; McAfee, Paul C

    2014-09-01

    Although multiple mechanisms of device attachment to the spinous processes exist, there is a paucity of data regarding lumbar spinous process morphology and peak failure loads. Using an in vitro human cadaveric spine model, the primary objective of the present study was to compare the peak load and mechanisms of lumbar spinous process failure with variation in spinous process hole location and pullout direction. A secondary objective was to provide an in-depth characterization of spinous process morphology. Biomechanical and anatomical considerations in lumbar spinous process fixation using an in vitro human cadaveric model. A total of 12 intact lumbar spines were used in the current investigation. The vertebral segments (L1-L5) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups with variation in spinous process hole placement and pullout direction: (1) central hole placement with superior pullout (n=10), (2) central hole placement with inferior pullout (n=10), (3) inferior hole placement with inferior pullout (n=10), (4) superior hole placement with superior pullout (n=10), and (5) intact spinous process with superior pullout (n=14). A 4-mm diameter pin was placed through the hole followed by pullout testing using a material testing system. As well, the bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm(3)) was measured for each segment. Data were quantified in terms of anatomical dimensions (mm), peak failure loads (newtons [N]), and fracture mechanisms, with linear regression analysis to identify relationships between anatomical and biomechanical data. Based on anatomical comparisons, there were significant differences between the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions of the L5 spinous process versus L1-L4 (p.05). However, a significant linear correlation was observed between peak failure load and anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions (pprocesses failure load was approaching statistical significance (p=.08). 30 of 54 specimens failed via direct pullout (plow

  15. Tibial Torsion Among Filipinos: A Cadaveric Study

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    Villamin CAC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tibial torsion, the twisting of the tibia about its long axis, can affect rotational positioning in total knee replacement. This angle varies depending on the ethnicity of the subject. There are no published studies to date to determine the tibial torsion among Filipinos. In this study, 28 cadaveric limbs were examined. Our results show that the average tibial torsion among adult Filipinos is 28.9°.

  16. Cadaveric study of fossa ovalis

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    Kanani SD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interatrial septum of heart presents the fossa ovale, an oval depression above and to the left of the orifice of the inferior vena cava. Atrial septal defect is one of the most common but least severe congenital heart diseases in adult. Patent foramen ovale is a hemodynamically insignificant interatrial communication present in >25% of the adult population. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 40 cadavers with age range of 60 to 80 years in the dissection laboratory of various medical colleges of ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Standard dissection method was used and foramen ovale was observed after opening up the right atrium and data about the situation, shape, floor and margin of foramen ovale was noted. Result and Observation: Commonest position of fossa ovalis was the middle of the interatrial wall followed by mouth of the inferior caval vein and mouth of the superior caval vein. In 33 hearts the fossa was oval and in 07 hearts it was round. The floor was very thick 19, moderately thick in 13 and thin in 08. Two hearts had fenestrated floor. Conclusion: Patients with isolated atrial septal defects (ASD have benefited from important recent advances in the diagnosis, evaluation, & management of their conditions. More studies are necessary to address several unresolved issues related to patent foramen ovale for benefit of patients.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

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    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  18. Distal biceps tendon repair: a cadaveric analysis of suture anchor and interference screw restoration of the anatomic footprint.

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    Jobin, Charles M; Kippe, Matthew A; Gardner, Thomas R; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2009-11-01

    Distal biceps tendon repair with interference screw or double suture-anchor fixation are 2 successful techniques performed with either 1- or 2-incision approaches. No study has examined the accuracy and quality of the repaired tendon footprint with these devices and approaches. A 2-incision approach will allow a more anatomic repair of the distal biceps footprint compared with a 1-incision anterior approach. Fixation technique will affect insertional footprint location and footprint contact area. Controlled laboratory study. After randomization, 36 distal biceps repairs were performed on human cadaveric upper extremity specimens, with 1- or 2-incision approaches and with fixation devices of either two 5.5-mm suture anchors or an 8-mm interference screw. Native and repaired footprint areas and centroid location were calculated with a 3-dimensional digitizer. Interference screw repair had the smallest footprint area (135 mm(2)) compared with suture anchor repair (197 mm(2)) and the native tendon (259 mm(2)) (P = .013). The 2-incision approach repaired the footprint to a more posterior and anatomic position (2.5 mm) than a 1-incision approach (P = .001). The fixation device did not affect footprint location significantly. Suture anchor repair more closely re-creates the footprint area on the radial tuberosity of the native distal biceps tendon compared with the interference screw repair. A 2-incision approach more closely re-creates footprint position compared with the 1-incision approach. A 2-incision approach with double suture-anchor fixation may yield a more anatomic distal biceps repair based on reproduction of the footprint compared with a 1-incision approach.

  19. Assessing stapes piston position using computed tomography: a cadaveric study.

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    Hahn, Yoav; Diaz, Rodney; Hartman, Jonathan; Bobinski, Matthew; Brodie, Hilary

    2009-02-01

    Temporal bone computed tomographic (CT) scanning in the postoperative stapedotomy patient is inaccurate in assessing stapes piston position within the vestibule. Poststapedotomy patients that have persistent vertigo may undergo CT scanning to assess the position of the stapes piston within the vestibule to rule out overly deep insertion. Vertigo is a recognized complication of the deep piston, and CT evaluation is often recommended. The accuracy of CT scan in this setting is unestablished. Stapedotomy was performed on 12 cadaver ears, and stainless steel McGee pistons were placed. The cadaver heads were then scanned using a fine-cut temporal bone protocol. Temporal bone dissection was performed with microscopic measurement of the piston depth in the vestibule. These values were compared with depth of intravestibular penetration measured on CT scan by 4 independent measurements. The intravestibular penetration as assessed by computed tomography was consistently greater than the value found on cadaveric anatomic dissection. The radiographic bias was greater when piston location within the vestibule was shallower. The axial CT scan measurement was 0.53 mm greater, on average, than the anatomic measurement. On average, the coronal CT measurement was 0.68 mm greater than the anatomic measurement. The degree of overestimation of penetration, however, was highly inconsistent. Standard temporal bone CT scan is neither an accurate nor precise examination of stapes piston depth within the vestibule. We found that CT measurement consistently overstated intravestibular piston depth. Computed tomography is not a useful study in the evaluation of piston depth for poststapedectomy vertigo and is of limited value in this setting.

  20. Right colic artery anatomy: a systematic review of cadaveric studies.

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    Haywood, M; Molyneux, C; Mahadevan, V; Srinivasaiah, N

    2017-12-01

    Complete mesocolic excision for right-sided colon cancer may offer an oncologically superior excision compared to traditional right hemicolectomy through high vascular tie and adherence to embryonic planes during dissection, supported by preoperative scanning to accurately define the tumour lymphovascular supply and drainage. The authors support and recommend precision oncosurgery based on these principles, with an emphasis on the importance of understanding the vascular anatomy. However, the anatomical variability of the right colic artery (RCA) has resulted in significant discord in the literature regarding its precise arrangement. We systematically reviewed the literature on the incidence of the different origins of the RCA in cadaveric studies. An electronic search was conducted as per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses recommendations up to October 2016 using the MESH terms 'right colic artery' and 'anatomy' (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016041578). Ten studies involving 1073 cadavers were identified as suitable for analysis from 211 articles retrieved. The weighted mean incidence with which the right colic artery arose from other parent vessels was calculated at 36.8% for the superior mesenteric artery, 31.9% for the ileocolic artery, 27.7% for the root of the middle colic artery and 2.5% for the right branch of the middle colic artery. In 1.1% of individuals the RCA shared a trunk with the middle colic and ileocolic arteries. The weighted mean incidence of 2 RCAs was 7.0%, and in 8.9% of cadavers the RCA was absent. This anatomical information will add to the technical nuances of precision oncosurgery in right-sided colon resections.

  1. Variations of Lung Fissures: A Cadaveric Study

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    Ambali Manoj P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of fissures in the normal lungs enhances uniform expansion and hence facilitates more air intake. Accessory and incomplete fissures of varying depth can be seen in unusual locations of the lung, delimiting abnormal lobes which correspond to the normal bronchopulmonary segments. The knowledge of anatomical variations of lung fissures is essential for clinicians, surgeons, and for radiologist for recognizing various images of related abnormalities because an accessory or anomalous fissure can be mistaken for a lung lesion or an atypical appearance of pleural effusion. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to observe the variations of lung fissures in Indian population. Fifty pairs (right- 50; left- 50 of lungs were used for this study. Each lung was studied carefully for number of fissures whether complete or incomplete or absent. Presences of accessory fissures were noted. Results: We observed complete absence of fissures in two right and left lungs. Accessory fissures were present in 38% right lungs and 32% in left lungs. Conclusion: Incidence of absence of oblique fissure and accessory fissure was greater in our present work when compared our results with other authors. Considering this we feel that more elaborative study should be done on this topic which will throw more light on this.

  2. Accessory Renal Arteries: A Cadaveric Study.

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    Bina.K.Katariya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Renal arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta at the level L1 vertebra. Accessory renal arteries were arising from abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. Understanding anatomy of the vascular variation of kidney is essential for the clinician to perform procedures such as renal transplantation, interventional radiological procedures and renal vascular operations more safely and efficiently. No medical history of the cadaver was available to corroborate the clinical findings. The aim of the study was to establish the incidence and characteristics of accessory arteries in human kidneys. Methods: The present study was conducted on formalin fixed thirty two cadavers (irrespective of sex during routine dissection of abdomen by the undergraduate medical students from the department of anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: In present study we found accessory arteries were seen in three kidneys .All were arising from the abdominal aorta below the normal renal artery. These were more common on the left side and at the lower pole. The artery cranial to the normal renal artery entered the anterior aspect of the kidney 4 cm below the upper pole. Two accessory arteries were seen in one kidney on right side which is cranial & caudal to normal renal artery at the distance of 1.6 cm &3.9 cm from lower part of hilum respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge of the variations in the renal arteries is important for urologists, radiologists and surgeons in general. It is of great importance in performing operations like segmental resections, partial nephrectomy, and renal transplantation

  3. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament: An Anatomic Study.

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    Shah, Kalpit N; DeFroda, Steven F; Ware, James Kristopher; Koruprolu, Sarath C; Owens, Brett D

    2017-12-01

    Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL. The dissection was carried out by elevating the iliotibial band to expose the deep capsular layer of the knee joint, followed by a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. Then the quadriceps and patellar tendons were sectioned, and the LPFL was isolated by visualization and palpation. The LPFL was dissected to reveal its origin and insertion; these were measured with respect to the lateral epicondyle and the superior-inferior axis of the lateral patella, respectively. On average, the LPFL had a variable point of origin in location as well as width about the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL originated, on average, 2.6 mm distal (range, 13.1 mm proximal to 11.4 mm distal) and 10.8 mm anterior (range, 7.3 mm posterior to 14.9 mm anterior) to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL insertion on the patella was more reliably found to be about 45% (range, 23.7%-58.4%) of its lateral articular surface. The insertion on the patella was found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. The LPFL has an origin that is variable but, on average, was found to be distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. The patella insertion was more reliably found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. These anatomic relationships can help the surgeon reconstruct the LPFL in a more anatomic fashion. Surgeons who are tasked with reconstruction of the LPFL of a patient with idiopathic medial instability or a previous aggressive lateral release of the knee may reference this article to perform an anatomic

  4. Biomechanical evaluation against calcaneofibular ligament repair in the Brostrom procedure: a cadaveric study.

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    Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Jung Il; Sung, Ki Sun; Kim, J-Young; Kim, Eung Soo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Wang, Joon Ho

    2008-08-01

    The modified Brostrom procedure is commonly recommended for reconstruction of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATF) and calcaneofibular ligament (CF) with an advancement of the inferior retinaculum. However, some surgeons perform the modified Bostrom procedure with an semi-single ATF ligament reconstruction and advancement of the inferior retinaculum for simplicity. This study evaluated the initial stability of the modified Brostrom procedure and compared a two ligaments (ATF + CF) reconstruction group with a semi-single ligament (ATF) reconstruction group. Sixteen paired fresh frozen cadaveric ankle joints were used in this study. The ankle joint laxity was measured on the plane radiographs with 150 N anterior drawer force and 150 N varus stress force. The anterior displacement distances and varus tilt angles were measured before and after cutting the ATF and CF ligaments. A two ligaments (ATF + CF) reconstruction with an advancement of the inferior retinaculum was performed on eight left cadaveric ankles, and an semi-single ligament (ATF) reconstruction with an advancement of the inferior retinaculum was performed on eight right cadaveric ankles. The ankle instability was rechecked after surgery. The decreases in instability of the ankle after surgery were measured and the difference in the decrease was compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. The mean decreases in anterior displacement were 3.4 and 4.0 mm in the two ligaments reconstruction and semi-single ligament reconstruction groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.489). The mean decreases in the varus tilt angle in the two ligaments reconstruction and semi-single ligament reconstruction groups were 12.6 degrees and 12.2 degrees , respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.399). In this cadaveric study, a substantial level of initial stability can be obtained using an anatomical reconstruction of the anterior talofibular

  5. Minimally invasive unilateral arytenoid lateralization in dogs: A cadaveric study.

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    Shipov, A; Israeli, I; Weiser, M; Kelmer, E; Klainbart, S; Milgram, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive thyroarytenoid lateralization technique (MITAL). Eleven unilateral MITAL procedures were performed on 11 canine cadavers. Two hypodermic needles were passed through the skin into the lumen of the larynx, penetrating the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages. Suture material was passed through the needles to lateralize the arytenoid cartilage. A rigid endoscope was used to visualize needle insertion and suture material placement. A key-hole approach to the larynx was performed and the suture material was knotted on the lateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage. The change in the rima glottidis area was recorded as were the duration of the procedure and complications encountered. The landmarks for needle insertion were easily palpated, and a significant increase in the area of the rima glottidis was documented after performing unilateral MITAL. In conclusion, unilateral MITAL is a quick, minimally invasive procedure which increases the area of the rima glottidis in cadaveric dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomic variability of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle: an anatomical study

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    Trung-Hau Le Thua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The anatomical study and clinical application for the vascularized corticoperiosteal flap from the medial femoral condyle have been performed and described previously. Although prior studies have described the composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, a detailed analysis of the vascularity of this region has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods: This anatomical study described the variability of the arteries from the medial femoral condyle in 40 cadaveric specimens. Results: The descending genicular artery (DGA was found in 33 of 40 cases (82.5%. The  superomedial genicular artery (SGA was present in 10 cases (25%. All 33 cases (100% of the DGA had articular branches to the periosteum of the medial femoral condyle. Muscular branches and saphenous branches of the DGA were present in 25 cases (62.5% and 26 cases (70.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that the size and length of the vessels to the medial femoral condyle are sufficient for a vascularized bone flap. A careful preoperative vascular assessment is essential prior to use of the vascularized composite osteomyocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle, because of the considerable anatomical variations in different branches of the DGA.

  7. Nasal osteotomies: a cadaveric study of fracture lines.

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    Gabra, Nathalie; Rahal, Akram; Ahmarani, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The different nasal osteotomy patterns used to perform rhinoplasty are poorly described in the literature, and there is a continuous debate between surgeons on the ideal sequence and technique to obtain desired results. (1) To evaluate the necessity of a paramedian osteotomy when performing a high-low-high (HLH) osteotomy, (2) to study the fracture pattern of a high-low-low (HLL) osteotomy when combined with a paramedian osteotomy in the presence and in the absence of a transverse osteotomy, and (3) to evaluate the mobility of the central segment (located between the paramedian osteotomies) after digital pressure and the ideal osteotomy to mobilize it if needed. This was a prospective cadaveric study performed in the dissection laboratory in our tertiary referral center. Twenty cadavers were divided in 2 groups of 10. Group A had a paramedian osteotomy combined with an HLH osteotomy on 1 side and an HLH osteotomy alone on the other side. Group B had a paramedian combined with a transverse osteotomy followed by HLL osteotomy on 1 side. On the other side, we performed a paramedian combined with an HLL osteotomy. Finally, we evaluated the mobility of the central segment in group B, first with digital manipulation and then with a transverse osteotomy. The 3 authors evaluated individually the different fracture patterns. A result was considered successful when (1) the fracture followed the desired pattern, (2) a continuous line was obtained, and (3) a complete mobilization of the nasal segment was visualized. In group A, the side without a paramedian osteotomy had more unstable and greenstick fractures than the other side (P Digital manipulation alone was not enough to mobilize the central segment in 8 of the 10 cadavers studied. Following this study we make the following suggestions: (1) to perform a paramedian osteotomy when an HLH osteotomy is needed, (2) to perform a transverse osteotomy before an HLL osteotomy when combined with paramedian osteotomy, and (3) to

  8. Comparison of Ankle Joint Visualization Between the 70° and 30° Arthroscopes: A Cadaveric Study.

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    Tonogai, Ichiro; Hayashi, Fumio; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2018-02-01

    Ankle arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Arthroscopic ankle surgery for anterior ankle impingement or osteochondral lesions (OCLs) is mostly performed with a 30° arthroscope; however, visualization of lesions is sometimes difficult. This study sought to compare ankle joint visualization between 70° and 30° arthroscopes and clarify the effectiveness of 70° arthroscopy. Standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals were placed with 4-mm 70° or 30° angled arthroscopes in a fresh 77-year-old male cadaveric ankle. The medial ligament and surrounding tissue were dissected via a medial malleolar skin incision. Kirschner wires were inserted into the distal tibia anterior edge; 5-mm diameter OCLs were created on the medial talar gutter anteriorly, midway, and posteriorly. The talar dome and distal tibia anterior edge were visualized using both arthroscopes. The 70° arthroscope displayed the anterior edge of the distal tibia immediately in front of the arthroscope, allowing full visualization of the posterior OCL of the medial talar gutter more clearly than the 30° arthroscope. This study revealed better ankle joint visualization with the 70° arthroscope, and may enable accurate, safe, and complete debridement, especially in treatment of medial talar gutter posterior OCLs and removal of anterior distal tibial edge bony impediments. Level IV, Anatomic study.

  9. Cadaveric feasibility study of da Vinci Si-assisted cochlear implant with augmented visual navigation for otologic surgery.

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    Liu, Wen P; Azizian, Mahdi; Sorger, Jonathan; Taylor, Russell H; Reilly, Brian K; Cleary, Kevin; Preciado, Diego

    2014-03-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported cadaveric feasibility study of a master-slave-assisted cochlear implant procedure in the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery field using the da Vinci Si system (da Vinci Surgical System; Intuitive Surgical, Inc). We describe the surgical workflow adaptations using a minimally invasive system and image guidance integrating intraoperative cone beam computed tomography through augmented reality. To test the feasibility of da Vinci Si-assisted cochlear implant surgery with augmented reality, with visualization of critical structures and facilitation with precise cochleostomy for electrode insertion. Cadaveric case study of bilateral cochlear implant approaches conducted at Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, California. Bilateral cadaveric mastoidectomies, posterior tympanostomies, and cochleostomies were performed using the da Vinci Si system on a single adult human donor cadaveric specimen. Radiographic confirmation of successful cochleostomies, placement of a phantom cochlear implant wire, and visual confirmation of critical anatomic structures (facial nerve, cochlea, and round window) in augmented stereoendoscopy. With a surgical mean time of 160 minutes per side, complete bilateral cochlear implant procedures were successfully performed with no violation of critical structures, notably the facial nerve, chorda tympani, sigmoid sinus, dura, or ossicles. Augmented reality image overlay of the facial nerve, round window position, and basal turn of the cochlea was precise. Postoperative cone beam computed tomography scans confirmed successful placement of the phantom implant electrode array into the basal turn of the cochlea. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery literature examining the use of master-slave-assisted cochleostomy with augmented reality for cochlear implants using the da Vinci Si system. The described system for cochleostomy has the potential to improve the

  10. Effect of Posterior Malleolus Fracture on Syndesmotic Reduction: A Cadaveric Study.

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    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Goetz, Jessica E; Sittapairoj, Tinnart; Hosuru Siddappa, Vinay; Femino, John E; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2018-02-07

    Syndesmotic malreduction and fractures of the posterior malleolus negatively influence outcomes of rotational ankle fractures. Recent data have shown that posterior malleolus fixation contributes to the stability of the syndesmosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze syndesmotic reduction within the context of different sizes of posterior malleolus fracture fragments and different qualities of reduction. A model of stage-IV supination-external rotation injury was created in 9 through-the-knee cadaveric specimens. The specimens were randomized to receive either a small (one-third of the incisura, n = 4) or a large (two-thirds of the incisura, n = 5) posterior malleolus fracture. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained of each intact specimen and then with clamp reduction of the syndesmosis along with a fracture fragment that was (1) unreduced, (2) anatomically reduced, or (3) fixed with a 4.8-mm-gap malreduction. Syndesmotic reduction in both the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral direction was assessed relative to the intact specimen. Clamp reduction of the syndesmosis increased medial translation of the distal part of the fibula in the specimens with an unfixed or an anatomically fixed posterior malleolus fracture fragment and caused lateral displacement of the distal part of the fibula in the specimens with gap malreduction of the posterior malleolus fracture. Clamp reduction of the syndesmosis caused a slight anterior shift of the fibula in the specimens with a small unfixed or anatomically fixed posterior malleolus fracture fragment and caused a posterior shift of the fibula in the specimens with gap malreduction of a large fragment. The overall anterior-posterior reduction of the syndesmosis was generally unaffected by a posterior malleolus fracture except when there was malreduction of a large fragment. Medial-lateral syndesmotic reduction was affected by the conditions of the posterior malleolus fixation, with malreduction

  11. [Anatomical study of pelvic colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Y E; Tchangai, B; Kassegne, I; Keke, K; James, K D

    2016-12-01

    Identifying the different kinds of anatomical sigmoid colon in our environment and determine what exposes the most to the occurrence of pelvic colon volvulus. This is a transverse prospective study from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012 on a series of 63 patients (33 men and 30 women) who underwent laparotomy for non-colonic pathologies. For all patients, the following parameters were recorded: C1: total length of the pelvic colon; C2: the length of the root of the meso-sigmoid; C3: the height of the meso-sigmoid; C4: maximum width of the meso-sigmoid. C1 through the entire series was 61,3cm. C2 average was 5.5cm. C3 height and maximum width C4 were on average 14,6cm and 7.6cm, respectively. Comparison of parameters in men and women showed no significant difference. This study allows us to know the different types of pelvic colons among the population of our operated patients. The measurements performed on the pelvic colon of patients presenting volvulus will help to attribute objectively the true authorship of this surgical emergency to an anatomical type of pelvic colon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griksaitis, Michael J.; Sawdon, Marina A.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that…

  13. Piriformis and obturator internus morphology: a cadaveric study.

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    Pine, James; Binns, Malcolm; Wright, Phil; Soames, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of piriformis during exposure of the hip joint via a posterior approach may result in a lower rate of dislocation following total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to identify anatomical variations in the tendons of piriformis and obturator internus which could inform piriformis sparing approaches to the hip. Twenty-nine proximal femora from 15 cadavers, 5 male and 10 female aged 65-79 years, were examined. Tendon crossing angles, location and mode of insertion to the greater trochanter and the extent of fusion between tendons prior to insertion were noted. The mean (and associated standard deviation) of the vertical and horizontal widths of the piriformis tendon were 4.78 ± 1.31 mm and 7.35 ± 1.74 mm, respectively. The mean (and associated standard deviation) of the vertical and horizontal widths of the obturator internus tendon were 6.87 ± 1.61 mm and 5.72 ± 1.38 mm, respectively. The mean distances of the anterior and posterior margins of the piriformis tendon insertion from the posterior limit of the greater trochanter, defined as a percentage of the anteroposterior length of the greater trochanter, were 63.3% ± 9.4% and 43.0% ± 9.4%, respectively. Equivalent mean distances for the obturator internus insertion were 73.0% ± 6.6% and 55.9% ± 7.0%, respectively. On the basis of the relationship between the piriformis and obturator internus tendons in terms of the angle and point at which they cross, in addition to any degree of tendon fusion, four classifications were identified. This study shows that the most posterior margins of the piriformis and obturator internus attachments are located more than one-third of the way along the greater trochanter, suggesting that current osteotomies would not include these external rotators in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Cadaveric study for ideal dorsal pedicle screw entry point

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    Sandeep Sonone

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the ideal pedicle entry point described here should be considered by surgeons during thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation. The notch at the base of the superior articular process will always remain constant and therefore an important anatomical landmark in guiding the screw toward the entry of the pedicle.

  15. The effect of dynamic femoroacetabular impingement on pubic symphysis motion: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Patrick M; Kelly, Bryan T; Jacobs, Robert; McGrady, Linda; Wang, Mei

    2012-05-01

    A link between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been reported clinically. One proposed origin of athletic pubalgia is secondary to repetitive loading of the pubic symphysis, leading to instability and parasymphyseal tendon and ligament injury. Hypothesis/ The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simulated femoral-based femoroacetabular impingement on rotational motion at the pubic symphysis. The authors hypothesize that the presence of a cam lesion leads to increased relative symphyseal motion. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve hips from 6 fresh-frozen human cadaveric pelvises were used to simulate cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. The hips were held in a custom jig and maximally internally rotated at 90° of flexion and neutral adduction. Three-dimensional motion of the pubic symphysis was measured by a motion-tracking system for 2 states: native and simulated cam. Load-displacement plots were generated between the internal rotational torque applied to the hip and the responding motion in 3 anatomic planes of the pubic symphysis. As the hip was internally rotated, the motion at the pubic symphysis increased proportionally with the degrees of the rotation as well as the applied torque measured at the distal femur for both states. The primary rotation of the symphysis was in the transverse plane and on average accounted for more than 60% of the total rotation. This primary motion caused the anterior aspect of the symphyseal joint to open or widen, whereas the posterior aspect narrowed. At the torque level of 18.0 N·m, the mean transverse rotation in degrees was 0.89° ± 0.35° for the native state and 1.20° ± 0.41° for cam state. The difference between cam and the native groups was statistically significant (P pubalgia.

  16. A novel method for cerebrospinal fluid diversion: a cadaveric and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Bauer, David; Chambers, M Renee; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-02-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversionary methods are fraught with complications (eg, infection, obstruction, and CSF malabsorption at the distal site). The authors investigated the sternum, specifically the manubrium, as a potential CSF receptacle for patients with hydrocephalus. Five fresh adult human cadavers had the manubrium cannulated in a suprasternal location. Tap water was infused via a metal trocar for approximately 60 minutes. Additionally, morphometric examination of the manubrium from 40 adult human skeletons was performed. Next, 4 anesthetized rhesus monkeys underwent cannulation of the manubrium: 2 were infused with 50 mL of saline over approximately 1 hour, and 2 were infused by gravity drip of saline over 24 hours. Finally, 2 adult pigs underwent long-term ventriculosternal tube placement with analysis for function and potential development of osteomyelitis. Thirty liters of water were injected into all cadaveric specimens without overflow or noticeable edema. No fluid accumulation was identified. The manubrium had a mean length, width, and thickness of 5.1 cm, 5.0 cm, and 1 cm, respectively. The animals that underwent infusion of 50 mL of saline and the animals that underwent gravity drip tolerated the procedure without vital sign changes or evidence of saline leakage into the pleural cavity. The 2 pigs did not show any vital sign changes, and, 2 weeks post procedure, they had no findings of osteomyelitis. Based on our studies, the manubrium of the sternum appears to be an ideal location for the placement of the distal end of a CSF diversionary shunt when other anatomic receptacles are not an option. In vivo human studies are now required to verify our findings.

  17. The accuracy of computed tomographic angiography for mapping the perforators of the DIEA: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Ashton, Mark W; Stella, Damien L; Phillips, Timothy J; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-08-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) perforator flap is increasingly used for breast reconstruction, with preoperative imaging sought as a means of improving operative outcome. Computed tomographic angiography has been recently described as the preferred imaging modality; however, formal evaluation of computed tomographic angiography has not been described. A cadaveric study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomographic angiography for perforator mapping. Ten cadaveric hemiabdominal walls from five fresh cadavers underwent contrast injection of each DIEA and subsequent computed tomographic scanning, with each DIEA and all perforating branches documented. Dissection was then performed, with the recording of the course of the DIEA and the course of all perforators in each specimen. The concordance of computed tomographic angiography with dissection findings was evaluated. Cadaveric computed tomographic angiography identified 154 perforators in 10 hemiabdominal walls. Computed tomographic angiography was highly accurate, with eight false-positives and six false-negatives on cadaveric computed tomographic angiography, establishing an overall sensitivity of 96 percent and a positive predictive value of 95 percent for mapping perforators. For perforators greater than 1 mm in diameter, the sensitivity was 100 percent and the positive predictive value was 100 percent. Computed tomographic angiography is a highly accurate tool for identifying the perforators of the DIEA before DIEA perforator flaps for breast reconstruction. Preoperative identification of these vessels can aid planning for the preferred hemiabdomen for dissection, and may save operative time, angst, and potentially complications.

  18. Accuracy of measurement of hand compartment pressures: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Justin C; Vosbikian, Michael M; Dwyer, Joseph M; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of digital palpation for clinical assessment of elevated intracompartmental pressure compared with needle manometry in a simulated compartment syndrome of the hand. Three cadaveric hands were configured with interstitial fluid infusion and an arterial line pressure monitor to create and continuously measure intracompartmental pressure in the thenar and hypothenar compartments. Seventeen assessors clinically judged the presence or absence of compartment syndrome based on digital palpation for firmness and then measured pressures with a handheld manometer. An intracompartmental pressure threshold of 30 mm Hg or greater was used to diagnose compartment syndrome. The sensitivity and specificity of digital palpation of the thenar eminence were 49% and 79%, respectively, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 37%. Using the handheld manometer, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 97% and 86% with a PPV of 95% and NPV of 92%. The sensitivity and specificity of digital palpation of the hypothenar eminence were 62% and 83%, respectively, with improvement of 100% and 100%, respectively, with a handheld manometer. For the hypothenar compartment, use of a handheld manometer improved the PPV from 92% to 100% and the NPV from 40% to 100% compared with digital palpation. Digital palpation alone was insufficient to detect elevated compartment pressures in hands at risk for compartment syndrome. Handheld invasive pressure measurement was a useful adjunct for detecting elevated interstitial tissue pressures and may aid in diagnosing compartment syndrome. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphometric and Histological Study of Osteophytes in Human Cadaveric Lumbar Vertebrae

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    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteophytes are bony outgrowth on the vertebral column. Its prevalence in the lumbar region and clinical importance mandates to conduct a detailed study of lumbar osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column. Aim: The present study was conducted to study the detailed features of lumbar osteophytes and document its prevalence, morphometric and histological structure. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which frequency of occurrence of lumbar osteophytes was studied in 40 cadaveric vertebral columns over a period of four years. The lumbar part of the vertebral columns was dissected and examined meticulously. The occurrence of lumbar osteophytes with their vertebral levels and morphometric measurements were recorded. A small excision of the osteophyte was processed histologically to study its microscopic details using routine Haematoxylin & Eosin stain. Results: Lumbar osteophytes were present in 4 specimens (10%. They were mostly found on the right side of the vertebral bodies. Histopathological examination of the osteophytes revealed degenerative osteophytic cartilage and fibrillation overlying the trabecular bone enclosing fatty marrow spaces containing haematopoietic elements. Conclusion: Lumbar osteophytes were found in 10% of the specimens studied and it is assumed that these cadaveric reports deserve further attention given their potential clinical implications. Knowledge regarding occurrence and incidence of osteophytes is essential for management of common degenerative changes of the vertebral column.

  20. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study

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    M. R. Gudavalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction.

  1. VARIATIONS IN DIVISION OF SCIATIC NERVE: A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Vino Victor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sciatic nerve is the largest and thickest nerve in the body. It arises from the lumbar plexus within the pelvis. The nerve emerges from the pelvis to enter into its component nerves –tibial and common peroneal nerve. The division normally occurs at the lower apex of the superior angle of popliteal fossa of the thigh. However the division shows variations which may be inside the pelvis or outside the pelvis When outside, the division may occur anywhere from exit to apex of the popliteal fossa where nerve normally divides. These abnormal divisions of the may be aetiological factors for the pathologies related to the nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was done on twenty cadavers used in routine dissection for the under graduate students from Kanyakumari Government Medical College, Asaripalam, Nagarcoil, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu. The cadavers were fixed in 10% in formalin, glycerine, isopropylol, and sodium chloride solution. Of these, two cadavers showed higher division of sciatic nerve. The division has occurred at the lower border of piriform is and divided nerve has emerged from the lower border of the pyriformis. Variations were seen on both the sides in these two bodies. CONCLUSION A thorough knowledge of division sciatic nerve helps in differential diagnosis of sciatica of various origins & its management by the different treatment methods.

  2. Intraoperative skeletal traction in the dog: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, G L; Margini, A; Cappellari, F; Peirone, B

    2006-01-01

    A standard skeletal traction technique was applied to each major segment of the appendicular skeleton of ten fresh dog cadavers. Opposition points and anchorage points for the application of traction were determined for each skeletal segment. Traction was exerted by means of a micrometric traction stand, connected to the limb by bands or a stirrup. Traction was applied to the antebrachium and the tibia through nylon traction bands anchored to the metacarpus and metatarsus, respectively. A traction stirrup applied to the condylar region was used as the anchorage point to load the humerus and femur. Once a peak force of 25 kg weight was achieved, the load was monitored for half an hour to check for any variation. After that, each skeletal segment was osteotomized in the mid-diaphyseal region, and evaluated for any angular malalignment due to a mismatch between the axis of the bone and the applied loading. Any ensuing angular malalignment was successfully corrected by manoeuvres using the traction stand. The technique used in this study to perform intraoperative skeletal traction proved to be reliable and consistent for each segment of the appendicular skeleton.

  3. Descrição anatômica do terço proximal da artéria circunflexa femoral medial: estudo em cadáver Anatomical description of the proximal third of the medial femoral circumflex artery: a cadaveric study

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    Anderson Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever através de estudo em cadáver a disposição anatômica do terço proximal da artéria cincunflexa femoral medial (ACFM. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a disposição anatômica do terço proximal da ACFM, através de dissecção em 12 quadris de cadáver, que após terem sua altura aferida em metros (M, foram determinados alguns parâmetros: Ângulo de lateralização da ACFM (Â, Profundidade da ACFM em relação a origem superomedial do músculo quadrado femoral (P, distância da ACFM em relação a inserção superolateral do músculo quadrado femoral (D. RESULTADOS: Quando comparamos a média dos parâmetros entre os sexos notamos: Masculino Â= 43.6 graus, feminino Â= 38.3 graus. Masculino D= 6mm, feminino D= 9.5mm. Masculino P= 20.8 mm, feminino P= 18.3mm. A média dos parametros  e P são menores no sexo feminino porém o parâmetro D no sexo feminino é maior. CONCLUSÃO: Devemos ter como parâmetro superficial de segurança para o terço proximal da ACFM o ponto de inserção superolateral do músculo quadrado femoral. Que o parâmetro D da ACFM no sexo feminino é maior do que no sexo masculino. Que desinserir o músculo quadrado femoral em sua origem no ísquio pode oferecer maior segurança a ACFM do que faze-lo em sua inserção femural. Nível de evidência IV, série de casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe, in a cadaver study, the anatomical arrangement of the proximal third medial femoral circumflex artery (ACFM. METHODS: We evaluated the anatomic arrangement of the proximal third of the ACFM through dissection in 12 cadaver hips. After measuring their height in meters (M, several parameters were determined: angle of lateralization of ACFM (Â, Depth ACFM in relation to the superomedial origin of the quadratus femoris muscle (P, and distance of ACFM from the superolateral insertion of the muscle quadratus femoris (D. RESULTS: In the comparison of mean parameters between the sexes, it was noted that: Male  = 43

  4. The stabilizing mechanism of the Latarjet procedure: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Muraki, Takayuki; An, Kai-Nan; Sperling, John W; Cofield, Robert H; Itoi, Eiji; Walch, Gilles; Steinmann, Scott P

    2013-08-07

    The Latarjet procedure has been used commonly for extra-articular treatment of anterior glenohumeral joint instability. Recently, the technique also has been used as a bone-grafting procedure to repair large glenoid defects. The "sling effect" and the "bone-block effect" have been proposed as the stabilizing mechanisms of this procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the stabilizing mechanisms of this procedure. Eight fresh-frozen shoulders were prepared and tested with use of a custom testing machine instrumented with a load cell. With a 50-N axial force applied to the humerus, the humeral head was translated anteriorly. Translational force was measured at both the end-range and the mid-range arm positions, with the capsule intact, after creation of a Bankart lesion, after creation of a large glenoid defect, and after the Latarjet procedure with no load and then three different sets of loads applied to the subscapularis and conjoint tendons. Then, these two tendons were removed to observe the contribution of the sling effect to the stability. Finally, the sutures attaching the coracoacromial ligament to the capsular flap were removed in order to observe the effect of that attachment. The translational force, which decreased significantly after creation of a Bankart lesion or a large glenoid defect, returned to the intact-condition level after the Latarjet procedure was performed. At the end-range arm position, the contribution of the sling effect by the subscapularis and conjoint tendons was 76% to 77% as the load changed, and the remaining 23% to 24% was contributed by the suturing of the capsular flap. At the mid-range position, the contribution of the sling effect was 51% to 62%, and the remaining 38% to 49% was contributed by the reconstruction of the glenoid. The main stabilizing mechanism of the Latarjet procedure was the sling effect at both the end-range and the mid-range arm positions. The Latarjet procedure remains an effective procedure for

  5. Registration accuracy enhancement of a surgical navigation system for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A phantom and cadaveric study.

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    Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Byung Hoon; Mekuria, Kinde; Cho, Hyunchul; Park, Sehyung; Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-03-01

    Recently, surgical navigation systems have been widely used to improve the results of various orthopaedic surgeries. However, surgical navigation has not been successful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, owing to its inaccuracy and inconvenience. This study investigated the registration of preoperative and intraoperative data, which are the key components in improving accuracy of the navigation system. An accurate registration method was proposed using new optical tracking markers and landmark retake. A surgical planning and navigation system for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was developed and implemented. The accuracy of the proposed system has been evaluated using phantoms and eight cadaveric knees. The present study investigated only the registration accuracy excluding the errors of optical tracking hardware and surgeon. The target registration errors of femoral tunnelling for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in phantoms were found to be 0.24±0.03mm and 0.19±0.10° for the tunnel entry position and tunnel direction, respectively. The target registration errors measured using cadavers were 0.9mm and 1.94°, respectively. The preclinical experimental results showed that the proposed methods enhanced the registration accuracy of the developed system. As the system becomes more accurate, surgeons could more precisely position and orient the femoral and tibial tunnels to their original anatomical locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Undetected iatrogenic lesions of the anterior femoral shaft during intramedullary nailing: a cadaveric study

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    Shepherd Lane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of undetected radiographically iatrogenic longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex during intramedullary nailing of the femur has not been well documented. Methods Cadaveric study using nine pairs of fresh-frozen femora from adult cadavers. The nine pairs of femora underwent a standardized antegrade intramedullary nailing and the detection of iatrogenic lesions, if any, was performed macroscopically and by radiographic control. Results Longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex was revealed in 5 of 18 cadaver femora macroscopically. Anterior splitting was not detectable in radiographic control. Conclusion Longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex during intramedullary nailing of the femur cannot be detected radiographically.

  7. Rare courses of the mandibular canal in the molar regions of the human mandible: a cadaveric study.

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    Sato, Iwao; Ueno, Ryuji; Kawai, Taisuke; Yosue, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    The inferior alveolar artery, vein and nerve send some branches to the molar teeth via the mandibular canal to the mental foramen. The present study attempted to define the presence and course of the mandibular canal in the mandible with the alveolar process by macroscopic cadaveric dissection and computerized tomography (CT) in order to provide information that might prevent injuries to vessels and nerves at risk during root canal treatment. We identified the position of the mandibular canal within a 30% ratio of the distance from inferior border of mandible to the apices of the root for 39 out of 131 sides (mesial root of first molar, 20%; distal root of first molar, 22.6%; mesial root of second molar, 27.8% and distal root of second molar, 47%) on panoramic X-ray observation. In one cadaver (male, 64 years old), the root apex of the second molar was in close proximity to the upper bony mandibular canal. Macroscopic dissection and computerized tomography showed that the main trunks of the inferior alveolar artery, vein, and nerve were in tight contact with the apex of the second molar. These observations of the anatomic course of the mandibular canal will be important to consider during root canal treatment of mandibular teeth.

  8. Potential axillary nerve stretching during RSA implantation: an anatomical study.

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    Marion, Blandine; Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent; Paganini, Federico; Unglaub, Frank; Spies, Christian; Valenti, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical neurological injury after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may jeopardize functional outcomes due to the risk of irreversible damage to the axillary nerve. We proposed a simple anatomical study in order to assess the macroscopic effects on the axillary nerve when lowering the humerus as performed during RSA implantation. We also measured the effect on the axillary nerve of a lateralization of the humerus. Between 2011 and 2012, cadaveric dissections of 16 shoulder specimens from nine fresh human cadavers were performed in order to assess the effects on the axillary nerve after the lowering and lateralization of the humerus. We assessed the extent of stretching of the axillary nerve in four positions in the sagittal plane [lowering of the humerus: great tuberosity in contact with the acromion (position 1), in contact with the upper (position 2), middle (position 3) and lower rim of the glenoid (position 4)] and three positions in the frontal plane [lateralization of the humerus: humerus in contact with the glenoid (position 1), humerus lateralized 1 cm (position 2) and 2 cm (position 3)]. When the humerus was lowered, clear macroscopical changes appeared below the middle of the glenoid (the highest level of tension). As regards the lateralization of the humerus, macroscopic study and measurements confirm the absence of stretching of the nerve in those positions. Lowering of the humerus below the equator of the glenoid changes the course and tension of the axillary nerve and may lead to stretching and irreversible damage, compromising the function of the deltoid. Improvements in the design of the implants and modification of the positioning of the glenosphere to avoid notching and to increase mobility must take into account the anatomical changes induced by the prosthesis and its impact on the brachial plexus. Level of Evidence and study type Level IV.

  9. Calculating nasoseptal flap dimensions : a cadaveric study using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Dam, Ellen; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Schepers, Rutger H.; van der Meer, Wicher J.; Gerrits, Peter O.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Feijen, Robert A.

    We hypothesize that three-dimensional imaging using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is suitable for calculating nasoseptal flap (NSF) dimensions. To evaluate our hypothesis, we compared CBCT NSF dimensions with anatomical dissections. The NSF reach and vascularity were studied. In an anatomical

  10. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty.

  11. Spondylolysis and End Plate Arthrosis at L5-S1: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunniff, Peter T; Yoo, Hojun; Yu, Charles; Bajwa, Navkirat S; Toy, Jason O; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of bilateral and unilateral L5 pars defects on the degree of disk degeneration at the L5-S1 level in cadaveric specimens. An observational study was performed of 690 cadaveric specimens selected at random. These specimens represent individuals who died between 1893 and 1938. The study included 558 male and 132 female cadavers. Of the 120 specimens with L5 spondylolysis, 95 cases were bilateral and 25 were unilateral. The remaining 544 specimens were used as the control cohort. Degenerative disk disease was measured by the classification of Eubanks et al. According to this classification, degenerative disk disease was graded from no arthrosis (grade 0) to complete ankylosis (grade IV). Linear regression analysis corrected for age, sex, and race showed that subjects with bilateral spondylolysis at L5 had a statistically significant increase in the amount of disk degeneration (P=.02) compared with those with unilateral lesions. Student's t tests showed significant differences (P<.001 and P=.002, respectively) in the amount of degeneration seen with both bilateral and unilateral spondylolysis above what would be predicted in the normal control population. A positive correlation was found between the number of pars defects at L5 and the degree of disk degeneration at L5-S1. These results support the idea that individuals with spondylolysis at these levels may be at increased risk for development of low back pain and reduced quality of life. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e59-e64.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Landmark-Guided and Ultrasound-Guided Approaches for Trochanteric Bursa Injection: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Alex; Peng, Philip; Agur, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Trochanteric bursa (TB) injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid is a treatment for patients suffering from greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Both landmark (LM)-guided and ultrasound (US)-guided methods have been used, but their accuracies have not been determined. This study examined the accuracy of these injections with cadaveric dissection. Twenty-four hip specimens were randomized to receive TB injections with methylene blue under either LM-guided or US-guided approach. After dissection, the locations of the dye were classified into 3 categories: intrabursal, extrabursal, or combined intrabursal and extrabursal. The presence of dye in the intrabursal space with or without extrabursal leak was considered a successful injection. Accuracy was defined as the percentage of successful injection. The accuracies of the LM-guided and US-guided injection were 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.35-0.90) and 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), respectively, with no significant difference. This is the first cadaveric study examining the accuracy of both the US-guided and LM-guided techniques for TB injection. Future clinical studies are required to compare the outcomes of LM-guided and US-guided greater trochanteric pain syndrome injection.

  13. Outcomes and satisfaction of two optional cadaveric dissection courses: A 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-03-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum. These courses were named Regional Anatomy I (RAI) and Regional Anatomy II (RAII). In RAI, students focus on dissecting the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and perineum. In RAII, the focus shifts to the head, neck, back, and upper and lower limbs. This study prospectively analyzes students' academic achievement and perceptions within the context of these two, newly-introduced, cadaveric dissection courses. Students' satisfaction was assessed anonymously through a questionnaire that included items regarding students' perception of the usefulness of the courses for undergraduate teaching, as well as with regards to future professional activity. For each of the three academic years studied, the final score (1 to 20) in General Anatomy (GA), RAI, and RAII was on average 14.26 ± 1.89; 16.94 ± 1.02; 17.49 ± 1.01, respectively. The mean results were lower in GA than RAI or RAII (P Educ 10: 127-136. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Anatomy and biomechanical properties of the plantar aponeurosis: a cadaveric study.

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    Da-wei Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore the anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis (PA and its biomechanical effects on the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP joint and foot arch. METHODS: Anatomic parameters (length, width and thickness of each central PA bundle and the main body of the central part were measured in 8 cadaveric specimens. The ratios of the length and width of each bundle to the length and width of the central part were used to describe these bundles. Six cadaveric specimens were used to measure the range of motion of the first MTP joint before and after releasing the first bundle of the PA. Another 6 specimens were used to evaluate simulated static weight-bearing. Changes in foot arch height and plantar pressure were measured before and after dividing the first bundle. RESULTS: The average width and thickness of the origin of the central part at the calcaneal tubercle were 15.45 mm and 2.79 mm respectively. The ratio of the length of each bundle to the length of the central part was (from medial to lateral 0.29, 0.30, 0.28, 0.25, and 0.27, respectively. Similarly, the ratio of the widths was 0.26, 0.25, 0.23, 0.19 and 0.17. The thickness of each bundle at the bifurcation of the PA into bundles was (from medial to lateral 1.26 mm, 1.04 mm, 0.91 mm, 0.84 mm and 0.72 mm. The average dorsiflexion of the first MTP joint increased 10.16° after the first bundle was divided. Marked acute changes in the foot arch height and the plantar pressure were not observed after division. CONCLUSIONS: The first PA bundle was not the longest, widest, or the thickest bundle. Releasing the first bundle increased the range of motion of the first MTP joint, but did not acutely change foot arch height or plantar pressure during static load testing.

  15. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

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    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  16. Spinal cord intramedullary pressure in thoracic scoliotic deformity: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, David B; Fessler, R David; Farley, Chad W; Al-Nafi, Sami; Holtz, Jeffrey R; Wiebracht, Nathan D; Look, Andrew C; Kuntz, Charles

    2015-02-15

    In vitro cadaveric study of thoracic spinal cord intramedullary pressure (IMP) in scoliotic deformity. To define the relationship between thoracic scoliotic deformity and spinal cord IMP. Clinical studies of patients with thoracic scoliosis without other spinal pathology (spinal stenosis, etc.) have rarely reported an associated thoracic myelopathy. Previous clinical and cadaveric studies of kyphosis have reported associated myelopathy and increased spinal cord IMP. We sought to determine if IMP changes in response to main thoracic scoliotic deformity. In 6 fresh-frozen cadavers, a progressive main thoracic scoliotic deformity was created. Cadavers were positioned sitting with physiological spinal alignment, head stabilized using a skull clamp and spine segmentally instrumented from occiput to L3. The T3-T4 ligamentum flavum was removed, dura opened, and 3 pressure sensors were advanced caudally to T4-T5, T7-T8, and T10-T11 within the cord parenchyma. A step-wise main thoracic scoliotic deformity was then induced by sequentially releasing and retightening the skull clamp while coronally bending, concavity compressing, and convexity distracting posterior segmental instrumentation, allowing closure of lateral segmental osteotomies. After each step, fluoroscopic images and pressure measurements were obtained; the T4-T11 coronal Cobb angle was measured. Induction of main thoracic scoliosis did not significantly increase IMP. The mean main thoracic maximal scoliotic deformity created was 77° ± 2° (range: 71°-84°). At maximal deformity, the mean ΔIMP at T4-T5, T7-T8, T10-T11 was 2.2 ± 1.9 mm Hg, 1.0 ± 0.7 mm Hg, and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm Hg, respectively. In this cadaveric study, main thoracic scoliotic deformity did not significantly increase thoracic IMP. This correlates with clinical presentation such that clinical studies of patients with thoracic scoliosis without other spinal pathology have rarely reported an associated thoracic myelopathy with the thoracic

  17. An Unembalmed Cadaveric Preparation for Simulating Pleural Effusion: A Pilot Study of Chest Percussion Involving Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mark S.; Kernahan, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Cadaveric simulations are an effective way to add clinical context to an anatomy course. In this study, unembalmed (fresh) cadavers were uniquely prepared to simulate pleural effusion to teach chest percussion and review thoracic anatomy. Thirty first-year medical students were assigned to either an intervention (Group A) or control group (Group…

  18. Surgical anatomy imaging associated with cervical cancer treatment: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaru; Fujii, Takuma; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Minoru; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to visualize the surgical anatomical structures in the female pelvis by computed tomography and to investigate the components of the parametrium for anatomical education, radiological diagnosis, and surgical simulation. We surgically dissected fresh female cadavers maintained in precise surgical anatomic positions and examined the anatomical structures using experimental fine cell detector multislice computed tomography (FDCT) with a slice thickness of 0.3125 mm. In addition, we established a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction model for precise observation of the surgical anatomy using Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System (Mimics). We evaluated two-dimensional (2D) images of the surgical anatomical structures in combination with the 3D reconstruction model. The 3D model was reconstructed from 430 serial axial pelvic CT images of a cadaver. The cardinal ligament, uterosacral ligament, paravesical space, and pararectal space were visualized on the CT images obtained from the surgically dissected part. The parametrium components were clearly distinguished on the surgically dissected side. Based on the information from the dissected side, these components on the undissected side could be distinguished as well. We recognized the parametrium components in the area extirpated during radical hysterectomy. The approach using cadavers, experimental FDCT, and 3D software provided excellent visualization of pelvic structures. High-quality images of surgical anatomical structures provide new insight regarding precise surgical anatomy in the female pelvis. The radiological information has practical usefulness for radiotherapeutic planning and surgical simulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of acetabulum anteversion aligned with the transverse acetabulum ligament: cadaveric study using image-free navigation system

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    Tomokazu Fukui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The transverse acetabulum ligament (TAL has been used as an intraoperative anatomical landmark to position the acetabulum cup in total hip arthroplasty (THA. However, the validity of the use of TAL has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the orientation of the cup component aligned with the TAL in cadaveric study. The 31 hips in 25 whole-body embalmed cadavers were examined. The donors were 12 men and 13 women. Simulated THA procedure using image-free navigation system was performed and a trial cup with a diameter of approximately 2 mm less than the size of the acetabulum were inserted and snugly fitted on the TAL through the posterior wall of acetabulum. The orientation of the cup component was measured using an image-free THA navigation system. The measured radiographic anteversion and inclination angles averaged 18.2±7.2° (range: 2.0-33.2° and 43.5±4.2° (range: 33.1-51.0° respectively. Based on the Lewinnek’s safe zone criteria, 26 hips (80.6% were judged to be within the. Moreover, in the analysis of the gender difference of TAL angles, the average anteversion angle was shown to be significant larger in female than male population. The TAL can be effectively used an intraoperative landmark to align the acetabulum component helping reduce the risk of dislocation after surgery. In the intraoperative judgment, a gender difference in the alignment of the TAL should be taken into consideration.

  20. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD, diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10-L2 were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation; b screw with medial cortical perforation; and c screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra ( P = 0.105, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD ( P = 0.901. Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

  1. The effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics: a cadaveric study with simulated trochlear deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haver, Annemieke; De Roo, Karel; De Beule, Matthieu; Labey, Luc; De Baets, Patrick; Dejour, David; Claessens, Tom; Verdonk, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Trochlear dysplasia appears in different geometrical variations. The Dejour classification is widely used to grade the severity of trochlear dysplasia and to decide on treatment. To investigate the effect of trochlear dysplasia on patellofemoral biomechanics and to determine if different types of trochlear dysplasia have different effects on patellofemoral biomechanics. Controlled laboratory study. Trochlear dysplasia was simulated in 4 cadaveric knees by replacing the native cadaveric trochlea with different types of custom-made trochlear implants, manufactured with 3-dimensional printing. For each knee, 5 trochlear implants were designed: 1 implant simulated the native trochlea (control condition), and 4 implants simulated 4 types of trochlear dysplasia. The knees were subjected to 3 biomechanical tests: a squat simulation, an open chain extension simulation, and a patellar stability test. The patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability were compared between the control condition (replica implants) and the trochlear dysplastic condition and among the subgroups of trochlear dysplasia. The patellofemoral joint in the trochlear dysplastic group showed increased internal rotation, lateral tilt, and lateral translation; increased contact pressures; decreased contact areas; and decreased stability when compared with the control group. Within the trochlear dysplastic group, the implants graded as Dejour type D showed the largest deviations for the kinematical parameters, and the implants graded as Dejour types B and D showed the largest deviations for the patellofemoral contact areas and pressures. Patellofemoral kinematics, contact area, contact pressure, and stability are significantly affected by trochlear dysplasia. Of all types of trochlear dysplasia, the models characterized with a pronounced trochlear bump showed the largest deviations in patellofemoral biomechanics. Investigating the relationship between the shape of the trochlea and

  2. Accuracy and reliability of three different techniques for manual goniometry for wrist motion: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy I; Pansy, Brian; Wolff, Aviva L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Backus, Sherry I; Lenhoff, Mark; Wolfe, Scott W

    2009-10-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of manual goniometry in measuring objective outcomes of hand surgery and therapy, there are limited data concerning its accuracy or repeatability for wrist motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability (both inter- and intra-rater) in measuring wrist flexion and extension using 3 manual goniometric alignment techniques (ulnar, radial, and dorsal-volar) in cadaveric upper extremities, using fluoroscopic verification of posture as a gold standard. In addition, we sought to assess the accuracy and reliability of the dorsal-volar technique for measurement of radioulnar deviation. External fixators were applied to 10 cadaveric wrists with intramedullary cannulated rods in the radius and third metacarpal for gold-standard fluoroscopic verification of posture. Manual goniometric measurements with each technique were captured by 2 raters (a hand surgeon and a hand therapist) for reliability measurements and by a single rater for accuracy. Wrists were positioned at angles of maximum flexion, extension, and radial and ulnar deviation for reliability testing and at preselected angles across the range of motion for accuracy testing. At each position, wrist angle was measured with a 1 degrees increment goniometer, and fluoroscopic angles were measured digitally. Intraclass correlation coefficients and root mean square values were calculated for all combinations, and analysis of variance was used to test differences between techniques. No technique was statistically less accurate than any other (6 degrees to 7 degrees ). Each method was found to have high intra-rater reliability. For measurement of wrist flexion and extension, the dorsal-volar technique demonstrated the greatest inter-rater reliability, as compared to ulnar and radial, respectively. Although each measurement technique demonstrated a similar degree of accuracy and intra-rater reliability, the dorsal-volar technique demonstrates the greatest level of

  3. Endoscopic transorbital superior eyelid approach: anatomical study from a neurosurgical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Alberto; Andaluz, Norberto; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Notaris, Matteo; Dallan, Iacopo; Solari, Domenico; Zimmer, Lee A; Keller, Jeffrey T; Zuccarello, Mario; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes. A step-by-step description of the superior eyelid transorbital endoscopic route and surgically oriented classification are provided. RESULTS The authors' cadaveric prosection of this approach defined 3 modular routes that could be combined. Two corridors using bone removal lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures exposed the middle and anterior cranial fossa (lateral orbital corridors to the anterior and middle cranial base) to unveil the temporal pole region, lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, middle cranial fossa floor, and frontobasal area (i.e., orbital and recti gyri of the frontal lobe). Combined, these 2 corridors exposed the lateral aspect of the lesser sphenoid wing with the Sylvian region (combined lateral orbital corridor to the anterior and middle cranial fossa, with lesser sphenoid wing removal). The medial corridor, with extension of bone removal medially to the superior and inferior orbital fissure, afforded exposure of the opticocarotid area (medial orbital corridor to the opticocarotid area). CONCLUSIONS Along with its minimally invasive nature, the superior eyelid transorbital approach allows good visualization and manipulation of anatomical structures mainly located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae (i.e., lateral to the superior and inferior orbital fissures). The visualization and management of the opticocarotid region medial to the superior orbital fissure are more complex. Further studies are needed

  4. A cadaveric study involving variations in external morphology of gall bladder

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    Anjankar Vaibhav Prakash, Panshewdikar Pradnyesh N, Joshi DS, Anjankar Ashish Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the pattern of the extra hepatic biliary tract are usual and are commonly encountered during some radiological investigations or in operation theaters. Such Variations of the morphology of Gall bladder have been well documented in the literature for many years but a detail morphological study of variations of the gall bladder and its incidence is very rare. In this era of quick results, increasing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures makes it important to study variations of gall bladder morphology. Most of the interventional procedures in this modern era are done laparoscopically and there is tremendous increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. So, sound knowledge of possible variations in morphology of gall bladder is important. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken on 90 cadaveric liver and gall bladder specimens in terms of length, maximum transverse diameter, shape, external variations of gall bladder, Interior and length of gall bladder below the inferior border of the liver. Results: GB had length ranging between 7 and 10 cm, transverse diameter between 2 and 5 cm. The commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 82.22% of cases. The length of gall bladder below the inferior border of liver varied between 0.4 and 2.5 cm. Conclusion: The growing importance of such variations, lie not only from the point of biliary disease but also with respect to the various invasive techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct disease.

  5. [Anatomical study of men's nipple areola complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, R; Dast, S; Assaf, N; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    The surgical approach of gynecomastia, sexual reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and the increase of number of obese wishing to turn to plastic surgery led us to deepen the anatomical knowledge of the nipple areola complex (NAC) in men, poorly retailed in the literature. By inspiring us of the methodology of a Japanese study, we studied 50 healthy volunteers male, from 18 to 55 years old, from July till August 2015. We measured various distances relative to the NAC to define its vertical and horizontal position, as well as the internipple distance according to the size, to the weight and to the body mass index (BMI). At the end of the analysis, we were able to underline a lower vertical thoracic position of the NAC in the tall category of person, a more side horizontal position to the subject presenting a high BMI and a linear relation between the BMI and the internipple (Em) defined by (Em)=8.96×BMI. The surgeon's judgment and the desires of the patient are essentials basis of therapeutics decisions that could be lean on this anatomical study, which allowed to establish an idea of the cartography of the NAC in man. It will be interesting and necessary to confront it with other studies with larger scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathology-Dependent Histological Changes of the Left Stellate Ganglia: A Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, Salvatore; Piccolo, Carmen; Van Arsdale, Daniel; Elkowitz, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Sympathetic hyperinnervation due to nerve sprouting generated by the left stellate ganglion has been noted following cardiopulmonary disease processes. Sympathetic hyperinnervation seems to be limited to cardiopulmonary diseases in the experimental and clinical settings. However, histological changes of the left stellate ganglion following cardiopulmonary diseases in humans have vet to be observed. This study intends to investigate the histological changes of cadaveric sympathetic nervous tissue of left stellate ganglia (n = 32) and their relationship to noted pathology. Our study found fibrotic changes of the left stellate ganglion are not significantly dependent upon pathological processes, however, changes in the number of nerve cell bodies seems to be pathology dependent. A relationship between respiratory (mean = 33.3; P = 0.023) and cardiovascular pathologies (mean = 29.6; P = 0.199) and an increase in nerve cell bodies of the left stellate ganglion was noted when compared to other pathologies (mean = 25.7). The link between cardiopulmonary disease and sympathetic hyperinnervation may be the increase in the number of nerve cell bodies of the left stellate ganglion. Our results are clinically significant considering sympathetic hyperinnervation is associated with arrythmogenesis and an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary disease. Such findings may warrant investigation into the use of ganglion blockade in cardiopulmonary diseases. PMID:21876659

  7. An anatomical study of the lumbar external foraminal ligaments: appearance at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Dušica L; Krstonošić, Bojana; Erić, Mirela; Marić, Dušan M; Stanković, Milan; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the MRI appearance of the ligaments within the external space of the lumbar intervertebral foramen by correlating MR images with the corresponding anatomic dissection of the cadaver lumbar spine. This was a two part study. Part I of the anatomic study consisted of the dissection of lumbar specimens from one embalmed adult male cadaver. At each lumbar level the external ligamentous structures were identified and their origin, insertion and position were determined. Part II of the study consisted of the anatomical analysis of the external transforaminal ligaments in the 180 lumbar intervertebral foramina on the MR images (1.5 T) in the sagittal plane. The diagnostic procedure was performed on 18 individuals from 18 to 25 years of age. The external transforaminal ligaments were observed at all levels and from both sides in the lumbar intervertebral foramen. The presence of the superior corporotransverse ligament was found in 45.56% intervertebral foramina, while the inferior corporotransverse ligament was found in 61.67% intervertebral foramina in the MRI. Our results confirm that external transforaminal ligaments are common structures in the intervertebral foramen. The results of this study show that the external transforaminal ligaments can be clearly visualized in MR images. It is crucial to have previous knowledge of the cadaveric specimens to recognize the transforaminal ligaments in MR images. The presence of these ligaments is clinically important because the ligaments could be the cause of nerve root compression or the low back pain syndrome.

  8. Oblique popliteal ligament - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pinto D'Amico Fam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the oblique popliteal ligament, as regards its dimensions, expansion and anatomical relationships. METHODS: Eleven cadaver knees were dissected in order to study the anatomy and take mea-surements of anatomical structures and relationships of the oblique popliteal ligament. The dissection was for posterior access to the proper exposure of the oblique popliteal ligament, the semimembranosus muscle and its expansions. For measurement of dimensions, 40 × 12 needles were used for marking the specific points and a caliper. The angles were calculated using the software ImagePro Plus(r . RESULTS: The distance from the origin of the oblique popliteal ligament to the tibial plateau was 7.4 mm, the thickness at its origin was 7.3 mm, length was 33.6 mm and the tibial plateau angle 34.8°. The length of the expansion of the proximal oblique popliteal ligament was 39.2 mm, thickness 7.8 mm and angle of the oblique popliteal ligament with its expansion 32.2°. CONCLUSION: The oblique popliteal ligament is thick, rises in the semimembranosus and protrudes proximally forming an acute angle with the joint interline, crossing the popliteal fossa. In some cases it has a proximal expansion.

  9. Beaming in Charcot Arthropathy-Intramedullary Fixation for Complicated Reconstructions: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Corey M; Watson, Benjamin C; Reb, Christopher W; Hyer, Christopher F

    In the modern treatment of Charcot neuroarthropathy, beam screw fixation is an alternative to plate and screw fixation. Exposure is minimized for implantation, and this technique supports the longitudinal columns of the foot as a rigid load-sharing construct. A published data review identified a paucity of data regarding metatarsal intramedullary canal morphology relevant to beam screw fixation. The purpose of the present study was to describe metatarsal diaphyseal morphology qualitatively and quantitatively in an effort to provide data that can be used by surgeons when selecting axially based intramedullary fixation. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaveric below-the-knee specimens were obtained. The metatarsals were exposed, cleaned of soft tissue, and axially transected at the point of the narrowest external diameter. Next, a digital caliper was used to measure the size and shape of the diaphysis of the first through fourth metatarsals. The diaphyseal canal shape was categorized as round, oval, triangular, or pear. The widest distance between the endosteal cortical surfaces was measured. Triangular endosteal canals were only found in the first metatarsal, and the remainder of the metatarsal canals were largely round or oval. These data help to approximate the size of fixation needed to achieve maximal screw-endosteal purchase. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robot-Assisted Transoral Odontoidectomy : Experiment in New Minimally Invasive Technology, a Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Moon Sul; Yoon, Tae Ho; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun; Pennant, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective In the field of spinal surgery, a few laboratory results or clinical cases about robotic spinal surgery have been reported. In vivo trials and development of related surgical instruments for spinal surgery are required before its clinical application. We investigated the use of the da Vinci® Surgical System in spinal surgery at the craniovertebral junction in a human cadaver to demonstrate the efficacy and pitfalls of robotic surgery. Methods Dissection of pharyngeal wall to the exposure of C1 and odontoid process was performed with full robotic procedure. Although assistance of another surgeon was necessary for drilling and removal of odontoid process due to the lack of appropriate end-effectors, successful robotic procedures for dural sutures and exposing spinal cord proved its safety and dexterity. Results Robot-assisted odontoidectomy was successfully performed in a human cadaver using the da Vinci® Surgical System with few robotic arm collisions and minimal soft tissue damages. Da Vinci® Surgical System manifested more dexterous movement than human hands in the deep and narrow oral cavity. Furthermore, sutures with robotic procedure in the oral cavity demonstrated the advantage over conventional procedure. Conclusion Presenting cadaveric study proved the probability of robot-assisted transoral approach. However, the development of robotic instruments specific to spinal surgery must first precede its clinical application. PMID:21607188

  11. Biomechanical comparison of different stabilization constructs for unstable posterior wall fractures of acetabulum. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Tang, Yang; Wang, Panfeng; Zhao, Xue; Xu, Shuogui; Zhang, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Operative treatment of unstable posterior wall fractures of acetabulum has been widely recommended. This laboratory study was undertaken to evaluate static fixation strength of three common fixation constructs: interfragmentary screws alone, in combination with conventional reconstruction plate, or locking reconstruction plate. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were used for this investigation. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degree about the acetabular rim. Three groups of different fixation constructs (two interfragmentary screws alone; two interfragmentary screws and a conventional reconstruction plate; two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction) were compared. Pelvises were axial loaded with six cycles of 1500 N. Dislocation of superior and inferior fracture site was analysed with a multidirectional ultrasonic measuring system. No statistically significant difference was found at each of the superior and inferior fracture sites between the three types of fixation. In each group, the vector dislocation at superior fracture site was significantly larger than inferior one. All those three described fixation constructs can provide sufficient stability for posterior acetabular fractures and allow early mobilization under experimental conditions. Higher posterior acetabular fracture line, transecting the weight-bearing surface, may indicate a substantial increase in instability, and need more stable pattern of fixation.

  12. Biomechanical comparison of different stabilization constructs for unstable posterior wall fractures of acetabulum. A cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntong Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Operative treatment of unstable posterior wall fractures of acetabulum has been widely recommended. This laboratory study was undertaken to evaluate static fixation strength of three common fixation constructs: interfragmentary screws alone, in combination with conventional reconstruction plate, or locking reconstruction plate. METHODS: Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvises were used for this investigation. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degree about the acetabular rim. Three groups of different fixation constructs (two interfragmentary screws alone; two interfragmentary screws and a conventional reconstruction plate; two interfragmentary screws and a locking reconstruction were compared. Pelvises were axial loaded with six cycles of 1500 N. Dislocation of superior and inferior fracture site was analysed with a multidirectional ultrasonic measuring system. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found at each of the superior and inferior fracture sites between the three types of fixation. In each group, the vector dislocation at superior fracture site was significantly larger than inferior one. CONCLUSIONS: All those three described fixation constructs can provide sufficient stability for posterior acetabular fractures and allow early mobilization under experimental conditions. Higher posterior acetabular fracture line, transecting the weight-bearing surface, may indicate a substantial increase in instability, and need more stable pattern of fixation.

  13. The study of anterior cruciate ligament footprint in Thai population: a human cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkamthom, Nattha; Arkasihayuth, Auttaphon; Charakorn, Korakot; Chaimut, Manop; Reeboonlap, Nitis

    2012-10-01

    Identification of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) footprint is critical for an anatomical ACL reconstruction. The osseous landmarks of the ACL footprint is one of the methods that can be used to determine the ACL insertion site. The size of ACL footprint on femur and tibia are also important for surgical decision. The purposes of the present study represent the existing of osseous landmarks and size of ACL footprint in Thai population. Study the presence of the osseous landmarks and the size of ACL footprint both at femur and Tibia in Thai population. 77 knees from 39 cadavers (38 paired and 1 unpaired) from Department of Anatomy, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine were dissected to identify bony landmarks of ACL at both tibia and femoral attachment. The resident's ridge and lateral bifurcate ridge were identified. The metallic markers were then inserted into the defined anatomic footprint points and size of ACL footprint on tibia and femur were measured and recorded in length and width. The present study found resident's ridge in 75/77 knees (97.40%) and lateral bifurcate ridge (bony landmark between anteromedial and posterolateral bundle), 50/77 knees (64.94%). The average ACL length and width at the femoral attachment were 12.01 +/- 1.66 mm and 9.52 +/- 1.37 mm respectively. At the tibial attachment, the average length was 15.36 +/- 2.33 mm and the width was 11.03 +/- 1.77 mm. However, when performed an analysis between male and female footprint, there were significant difference in length and width of both Femoral and tibial attachment. In male, the size of ACL at femoral attachment, average length was 12.68 +/- 1.48 mm and average width was 9.99 +/- 1.38 mm. At tibial attachment, average length was 16.84 +/- 1.07 mm and width was 11.32 +/- 1.43 mm. In female, the size of ACL at right femur attachment, average length and width were 10.68 +/- 1.1 mm, 8.64 +/- 0.79 mm respectively. At tibial attachment, average length and width were 12.48 +/- 1.08 mm and 10

  14. LENGTH CHANGE OF THE SHORT EXTERNAL ROTATORS OF THE HIP IN COMMON STRETCH POSITIONS: A CADAVERIC STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Ryan P; Kivlan, Benjamin R; Martin, RobRoy L

    2017-12-01

    Stretching of the deep rotators of the hip is commonly employed in patients with lumbosacral, sacroiliac, posterior hip, and buttock pain. There is limited research demonstrating the effectiveness of common stretching techniques on the short external rotators of the hip. The objective of this study was to evaluate length change during stretching of the superior and inferior fibers of the piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus. Repeated-measures laboratory controlled cadaveric study. Seventeen hip joints from nine embalmed cadavers (5 male; 4 female) with an age between 49-96 years were skeletonized. Polypropylene strings were attached from the origin to insertion sites of the short external rotators. The change of length (mm) noted by excursion of the strings was used as a proxy for change in muscle length, when the hip was moved from the anatomical position to four specific stretch positions: 1) 45 ° internal rotation from hip neutral flexion/extension, 2) 45 ° external rotation from 90 ° hip and knee flexion, 3) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, and 4) 30 ° of adduction with the hip and knee flexed so the lateral malleolus contacted the lateral femoral epicondyle of the contralateral limb , were recorded. There was a significant effect on string displacement by stretch position, F (15,166) = 14.67, p obturator internus and inferior gemellus had the largest string displacement with 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension. While all stretch positions caused a significant string displacement indicating length changes of the deep rotators of the hip, the three stretch positions that caused the greatest change were: 1) 30 ° adduction from 90 ° of hip and knee flexion, 2) 45 ° internal rotation from neutral flexion/extension, and 3) 45 ° external rotation with 90 ° hip and knee flexion. This study has clinical implications for the effectiveness of specific stretching

  15. Pericruciate fat pad of the knee: anatomy and pericruciate fat pad inflammation: cadaveric and clinical study emphasizing MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaf, Abdalla Youssef [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hernandez Filho, Guinel [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dirim, Berna [Izmir Atatuerk Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karsiyaka, izmir (Turkey); Wangwinyuvirat, Mani [Rajavithi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Haghigi, Parvitz [University of California, San Diego, Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The pericruciate fat pad is located in the intercondylar fossa, intimate with the cruciate ligaments. With MR imaging, signal abnormality of the pericruciate fat pad has been observed in patients with posterior knee pain. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomy of the pericruciate fat pad in cadaveric specimens and to document the clinical spectrum of pericruciate fat pad inflammation. Twelve cadaveric knees underwent MR imaging with T1 and T2 multiplanar images. Cadaveric sections were then prepared for macroscopic evaluation, with additional histologic analysis performed in four cases. MR images in seventeen patients (ten males, seven females; average age, 31.5 years; age range, 19-57 years) involved in intensive sporting activity and with posterior knee pain were reviewed. MR images in cadaveric specimens showed a fat pad that was located above and between the cruciate ligaments, near their attachment sites in the inner portion of the femoral condyles, within the intercondylar fossa. Fatty tissue covered by a thin layer of synovial membrane was confirmed at histology. Seventeen patients with posterior knee pain and without gross cartilage, meniscal, or ligamentous abnormalities all revealed an increased signal in this fat pad in fluid-sensitive fat-suppressed images, mainly in the sagittal and axial planes. In eight cases, enhancement of this fat pad was demonstrated following intravenous gadolinium administration. The pericruciate fat pad is a structure located in the intercondylar fossa, intimate with both the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Inflammatory changes in this fat pad may be found in patients, especially athletes with posterior knee pain. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of postinjection protocols after intratendinous Achilles platelet-rich plasma injections: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; de Jonge, Suzan; de Jonge, Milko C.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Verhaar, Jan; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the distribution of intratendinous injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after 15 minutes of prone resting versus immediate manipulation simulating weightbearing. Ten cadaveric lower limbs were injected under ultrasound guidance with PRP dyed

  17. Outcomes and Satisfaction of Two Optional Cadaveric Dissection Courses: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J.; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum.…

  18. Fully endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach to the anterior cranial base: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Osman Akçakaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The supraorbital keyhole approach for anterior cranial base lesions has been increasingly used in clinical practice. Anatomical studies focusing on the endoscopic anatomy via this approach are few, although the microscopic anatomy has been well studied. The aim of this study is to describe the anatomical features and surgical exposure provided by the endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach using quantitative measurements. Materials and Methods: Nine formalin-fixed human cadavers from the inventory of the Anatomy department were used. A total of 18 supraorbital keyhole cranitomies were conducted. The distances between the target anatomical structures and the dura mater at the craniotomy site, and the distances between deep anatomical structures were measured with purpose-designed hooks. Results: The distance between the dura mater and optic canal was measured as 69.5 ± 6.7 mm (62-83 mm; optic chiasm as 76.2 ± 5.4 mm (67-86 mm; anterior communicating artery as 82.6 ± 6.1 mm (71-93 mm; internal carotid artery (ICA bifurcation as 74.7 ± 6.0 mm (66-84 mm and the basilar tip as 94.9 ± 7.0 mm (87-111 mm. The mean diameter of the optic canal was 7.4 ± 1.3 mm (6-11 mm, whereas the mean diameter of diaphragma sellae was measured as 8.4 ± 1.1 mm (7-10 mm. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the anterior anda medial aspects of the anterior cranial fossa can be visualized properly. Dissection of the ipsilateral arteries of Circle of Willis can be performed easily using an endoscopic supraorbital keyhole approach.

  19. [The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A cadaveric study of aortic arch variation in an Irish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Aisling M; El Kininy, Walid H; Debebe, Helina; Burukan, Azreena B; Davy, Shane W

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of variation in the branching pattern of aortic arch (AA) vessels in an Irish population. A cadaveric study of 24 subjects was conducted. The vessels of the AA were identified, their branching patterns were noted and photographed and the following measurements were recorded: the angle of the AA to the coronal plane, the distance from the midline to the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT); the left common carotid artery (LCC) ; the left subclavian artery (LSC), the distance between the BCT and the right subclavian artery (RSC); the RSC and the right vertebral artery (RVA), and between the LSC and left vertebral artery (LVA). The 'normal' branching pattern (BCT, LCC, LSC) was observed in 79%. Thirteen percent had a two-branched AA (bovine variant), while the remainder had an aberrant left vertebral artery (LVA) originating from the AA. The mean distances from the midline to the BCT, LCC and LSC were 9.1, 10.8 and 21.4 mm, respectively. Mean distance from BCT to RSC was 34.09 mm. The mean distance from LSC to LVA was 39.79 mm, and the mean distance from RSC to RVA was 23.38 mm. The mean angle of the AA to the coronal plane was 59.02°. This is the first study documenting the rates of variation of the AA in Ireland. Variation of AA branching is of radiological and surgical significance, particularly in the diagnosis and treatment of thoracic and head and neck diseases. Awareness of these variations is particularly relevant for interventionalists who access these vessels during endovascular surgery.

  1. Cadaveric study of the secondary medial patellar restraints: patellotibial and patellomeniscal ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Aihara, Leandro Jun; Rodrigues, Anderson; de Medeiros, Sebastião Ferreira; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; de Paula Leite Cury, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    To detail the anatomy of the medial patella stabilizers, medial patellotibial (MPTL), and medial patellomeniscal ligaments (MPML), focusing on the points of origin and insertion, length, thickness, width, and fibres orientation to study the frequency of anatomical variations and the anatomy of these ligaments, thereby improving surgical techniques. Thirty dissected knees were analysed. A digital caliper was used to measure the length, thickness, and width, as well as the mid-point of the ligaments insertion and the distance from the MPTL insertion to the articular surface of the tibia. The angle of inclination of the ligaments was calculated in the coronal plane. The collected data were tabulated and statistically analysed. MPTL was present in 90 % as a visible thickening of the deep medial retinaculum and exhibiting only one anatomical variation. The MPML was absent in one of the dissected knees, and one anatomical variation was found. The tilt angle of the ligaments was very similar, with an average of 22.2° ± 7.6° for the MPTL and 24.2° ± 6.6° for the MPML. The MPTL is a long visible structure of the deep layer of the medial retinaculum, but with a distinct origin and insertion. The MPML is thicker with an angular direction similar to MPTL. The presence of these ligaments in most of the specimens studied suggests that the real anatomical and biomechanical importance of these ligaments should be further investigated because they play a role in the patellar stability.

  2. The retropatellar portal as an alternative site for tibial nail insertion: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jonathan G; Tseng, Susan S; Lee, Mark A; Yoo, Brad J

    2010-11-01

    To define spatial relationships between major intra-articular structures of the knee and the entry site of a tibial nail inserted using a retropatellar portal. Cadaveric study using 16 fresh-frozen limbs. University-affiliated cadaver and anatomy laboratory. The mean distance of the nail entry site and the medial and lateral menisci were 6.6 ± 3.2 mm and 6.4 ± 4.4 mm, respectively. The distance to the medial and lateral articular surfaces were 5.6 ± 3.6 mm and 7.4 ± 4.2 mm, respectively. The mean distance to the anterior cruciate ligament footprint was 7.5 ± 3.5 mm. The lateral meniscus was never injured during the procedure. The anterior cruciate ligament was undisturbed in all specimens. The medial meniscus was injured 1 to 2 mm in 12.5% of specimens. The intermeniscal ligament was injured 1 to 2 mm in 81.2% of the specimens. The intermeniscal ligament and medial meniscus are at the most risk during intramedullary nailing of the tibia using the retropatellar technique. This may be corrected by avoiding an excessively medial start point. Damage to the intermeniscal ligament and medial meniscus occurs more commonly with the retropatellar portal, but this damage was never more than 1 to 2 mm. This risk, however, appears similar to the pattern and incidence of injury that occurred in prior studies investigating tibial nail insertion through a standard patellar tendon approach. The retropatellar technique demands clinical investigation to further define both its safety and its use.

  3. The rate of sural nerve violation using the Achillon device: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibinder, William R; Patel, Ashish; Arnouk, Johnny; El-Gendi, Hebah; Korshunov, Yevgeniy; Mitgang, Joshua; Uribe, Jaime

    2013-06-01

    Management of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains controversial. Open repair results in lower rerupture rates but is associated with complications from wound healing. Percutaneous and limited open repairs minimize soft tissue complications; however, there is a theoretical increased risk of sural nerve injury. We evaluated the risk of sural nerve violation with the Achillon limited open repair device in cadavers. This cadaveric study consisted of 2 parts. The first part evaluated the frequency and location of sural nerve violation using the standard Achillon protocol in 18 intact embalmed left lower limbs. The second part involved device manipulation with 30 degrees of either internal or external rotation in 13 paired, intact embalmed lower limbs. In the first part, 5 of 18 specimens had at least 1 suture passing through the sural nerve. Eight of the 54 needle passes (14.8%) directly pierced the substance of the sural nerve. With internal rotation, 8 of 13 specimens had at least 1 violation of the nerve. Ten of the 39 needle passes (25.6%) directly pierced the substance of the sural nerve. With external rotation, no nerves were violated, significantly decreasing the risk of sural nerve violation versus neutral (P = .038) and internal rotation (P = .001). When sural nerve violation was evaluated in regard to instrument outlet, there was a higher risk in the proximal needle passer (outlet no. 3) compared with the distal needle passer (outlet no. 1) with both neutral testing and internal rotation (P = .027). This study demonstrated the potential risk for sural nerve injury using the Achillon device. External rotation of the Achillon decreased the rate of sural nerve violation. This may optimize its use in Achilles tendon repairs.

  4. Percutaneous cerclage wiring, does it disrupt femoral blood supply? A cadaveric injection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, T; Phaliphot, J; Leuvitoonvechkit, S

    2013-02-01

    A percutaneous cerclage wiring technique has been developed to reduce iatrogenic soft tissue and vascular disruption associated with classic cerclage fixation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of femoral vascular disruption resulting iatrogenically from the application of two percutaneous cerclage wire loops. Pairs of cerlage wire loops were percutaneously inserted on 18 fresh cadaveric femurs. The position of the wire loops varied. The wire loops were either inserted 10 and 15cm, 10 and 20cm, or 15 and 20cm distal to the tip of the greater trochanter. Each study group had 6 cadavers. Contralateral femurs without cerclage wiring were used as controls. Liquid contrast-gelatin was injected into the common femoral artery. Using axial and 3D CT scan images the superficial femoral artery (SFA), deep femoral artery (DFA), perforating arteries and their anastomotic patterns as well as endosteal perfusion were identified and their patency was graded. Percutaneous cerclage wiring did not disrupt femoral endosteal blood supply and maintained the integrity of all of the superficial femoral arteries. Four specimens demonstrated maintenance of all 4 perforators, 11 showed disruption of 1 perforator, and 3 showed disruption of 2 perforators. One deep femoral artery was disrupted after its first perforator branched off; however, perfusion was maintained by fill from an alternative anastamosis. There was no significant difference between disruption of deep femoral arteries and perforating arteries (P=1.000), location of wiring (P=0.905) or spacing between wire loops (P=1.000). Percutaneous cerclage wiring resulted in minimal disruption of the femoral blood supply. When partial disruption occurred the SFA, DFA, and their associated perforators compensated to maintain femoral perfusion through their anastomoses. The location of the cerclage wire and the distance between the wire loops in the proximal femur showed no significant difference in the rate of

  5. A new distraction arthroplasty device using magnetic force; a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Goki; Ochi, Mitsuo; Okuhara, Atsushi; Fujimiya, Mineko; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakamae, Atsuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ohkawa, Shingo; Takazawa, Kobun; Eguchi, Akio; Katou, Tomohiro; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Usman, Muhammad Andry

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult for an articular cartilage injury to repair spontaneously. There are many procedures for treating cartilage injury, however there is no standard procedure for middle-aged patients who have diffuse knee osteoarthritis, especially of the lateral compartment. Therefore, Ochi developed a new distraction device that uses magnetic power to enlarge a joint space and promote cartilage regeneration with microfracture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this new distraction arthroplasty system by using the cadaveric knee. This study used ten knees from six cadavers that were embalmed by Thiel's methods. The medial and lateral joint space was measured by AP radiographic view before and after distraction, and after weight-bearing to evaluate the joint distraction. The contact pressure of the medial and lateral compartments at the knee extension position by using a prescale film system was measured before and after weight-bearing with a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load to evaluate the effectiveness of this device. The lateral joint space significantly increased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction; however, it did not change significantly between post-distraction and post-weight-bearing. With a 15 or 30-kg weight-bearing load, the contact pressure of the lateral compartment significantly decreased from the pre-distraction to the post-distraction. The most important advantage of this device is that it maintains a continuous distraction tension and enables almost the full range of motion of the knee. We believe that joint distraction by using magnetic force can be a promising option for cartilage injury in middle-aged patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle approach for decompression of superior orbital fissure: a cadaveric study with illustrative case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Yi-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Guang; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Qing-Chu; Yu, Ming-Kun; Hou, Li-Jun

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to avoid the damage and inconvenience associated with transcranial approaches, we developed an endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle approach for decompression of the superior orbital fissure (SOF). The endoscopic transmaxillary transMüller's muscle route was performed in ten cadaveric heads. We measured important anatomic landmarks, and angles radiographically. This approach was initially attempted in one patient with traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome (tSOFS). A maxillary antrostomy was carried out with a buccal sulcus incision. The sinus ostium and the course of infraorbital nerve were used as endoscopic anatomic landmarks. Then the inferior orbital fissure was drilled out, followed by separating the Müller's muscle. The periorbita were peeled off from the lateral wall, followed by the endoscope going along the periorbital space, until the lateral aspect of the SOF could be visualized. Decompression was successfully performed in all specimens. The initial clinical application justified this approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and satisfactory recovery. This approach offers sufficient endoscopic visualization and reliable decompression of SOF. It avoids the need for brain retraction, temporalis muscle manipulation, or any external incision, and appears to be able to deliver satisfying aesthetic results as well as favourable functional recovery. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patellar Tendon Repair Augmentation With a Knotless Suture Anchor Internal Brace: A Biomechanical Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfeld, Alex; Pawlak, Amanda; Liebler, Stephenie A H; Morris, Michael; Paci, James M

    2018-02-01

    Patellar tendon repair with braided polyethylene suture alone is subject to knot slippage and failure. Several techniques to augment the primary repair have been described. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate a novel patellar tendon repair technique augmented with a knotless suture anchor internal brace with suture tape (SAIB). The hypothesis was that this technique would be biomechanically superior to a nonaugmented repair and equivalent to a standard augmentation with an 18-gauge steel wire. Controlled laboratory study. Midsubstance patellar tendon tears were created in 32 human cadaveric knees. Two comparison groups were created. Group 1 compared #2 supersuture repair without augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. Group 2 compared #2 supersuture repair with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire augmentation to #2 supersuture repair with SAIB augmentation. The specimens were potted and biomechanically loaded on a materials testing machine. Yield load, maximum load, mode of failure, plastic displacement, elastic displacement, and total displacement were calculated for each sample. Standard statistical analysis was performed. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean ± SD yield load and maximum load in the SAIB augmentation group compared with supersuture alone (mean yield load: 646 ± 202 N vs 229 ± 60 N; mean maximum load: 868 ± 162 N vs 365 ± 54 N; P load: 495 ± 213 N vs 566 ± 172 N; P = .476; mean maximum load: 737 ± 210 N vs 697 ± 130 N; P = .721). Patellar tendon repair augmented with SAIB is biomechanically superior to repair without augmentation and is equivalent to repair with augmentation with an 18-gauge stainless steel cerclage wire. This novel patellar tendon repair augmentation is equivalent to standard 18-gauge wire augmentation at time zero. It does not require a second surgery for removal, and it is biomechanically superior to primary repair alone.

  8. Minimally invasive technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using transarticular toggle system: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, U; Shani, J; Joseph, R

    2017-11-03

    To present a novel, semi-closed, surgical technique for coxofemoral luxation stabilisation using a transarticular toggle rod. Cadaveric study. Craniodorsal luxation was generated by transecting the ligamentum teres in 12 coxofemoral joints and was then reduced using a closed technique. Anteversion and inclination angles were measured using fluoroscopic projections. An arthroscope was inserted through a bone tunnel drilled from the third trochanter through the femoral neck. Following retraction of the arthroscope, a hole was drilled through the acetabular fossa via the femoral bone tunnel. A standard Arthrex® TightRope toggle button was pushed through the femoral bone tunnel into the acetabular fossa hole and tied over the oval metallic button above the third trochanter site. The exit point of the drill hole over the femoral head and that in the acetabular fossa were evaluated by surgical exposure of the coxofemoral articular surfaces. The TightRope entrance point into the acetabular fossa was accurate in all joints, with a mean distance from the acetabular fossa centre of 0·06 ±0·1 mm. The measured distance of the TightRope exit point from the femoral head to the fovea capitis was 2·04 ±1·7 mm. Femoral head cartilage damage was detected in nine of 12 joints. Closed reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral luxations can be achieved using this minimally invasive technique. Refinements to the technique may be needed for its application in clinical cases due to relative high incidence of femoral head cartilage damage. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Influence of a secondary downsizing of the femoral component on the extension gap: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphirom, Pornpavit; Raungthong, Nathee; Chutchawan, Pirapon; Thiranon, Chaiyot; Sukandhavesa, Nantawit

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a secondary reduction of the femoral component size on flexion and extension gaps intraoperatively in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty (PS-TKA) monitored by computer-assisted surgery. The authors hypothesized that cutting additional bone on the posterior femoral condyle may increase the extension gap due to the posterior capsule and soft tissue loosening. Reduction of the femoral component size was performed by additional 4-in-1 cuts after the PS-TKA on 15 cadaveric knees using a ligamentous tension device with the aid of computer-assisted surgery. Measurements of the medial and lateral flexion gaps, as well as the medial and lateral extension gaps, were recorded before and after reducing the femoral component size. Trial components were used from a mobile-bearing total knee system.After reducing the femoral component size, the medial and lateral flexion and extension gaps measured larger than their initial size. The mean increases of the medial extension and flexion gaps and the lateral extension and flexion gaps were 1.3 ± 0.9, 1.0 ± 1.2, 1.1 ± 1.2, and 1.3 ± 1.3 mm, respectively; all 4 differences were significant (P ≤ .05). Surgeons should be aware of the effect of downsizing components intraoperatively because it might lead to an extension laxity. Thus, a downsizing of the femoral component may compromise the postoperative stability of TKA. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Combat Trousers as Effective Improvised Pelvic Binders A Comparative Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Andrew; Morris, Rhys; Friedmann, Yasmin; Pallister, Ian; Parker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices and landmines can cause pelvic fractures, which, in turn, can produce catastrophic hemorrhage. This cadaveric study compared the intrapelvic pressure changes that occurred with the application of an improvised pelvic binder adapted from the combat trousers worn by British military personnel with the commercially available trauma pelvic orthotic device (TPOD). Six unembalmed cadavers (three male, three female) were used to simulate an unstable pelvic fracture with complete disruption of the posterior arch (AO/OTA 61-C1) by dividing the pelvic ring anteriorly and posteriorly. A 3-4cm manometric balloon filled with water was placed in the retropubic space and connected to a 50mL syringe and water manometer via a three-way tap. A baseline pressure of 8cm H2O (average central venous pressure) was set. The combat trouser binder (CTB) and TPOD were applied to each cadaver in a random sequence and the steady intrapelvic pressure changes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a paired t test depending on the normality of the data to determine impact on the intrapelvic pressure of each intervention compared with baseline. The median steady intrapelvic pressure achieved after application of the CTB was 16cm H2O and after application of the TPOD binder was 18cm H2O, both of which were significantly greater than the baseline pressure (ρ .05). Pelvic injuries are increasingly common in modern theaters of war. The CTB is a novel, rapidly deployable, yet effective, method of pelvic binding adapted from the clothes the casualty is already wearing. This technique may be used in austere environments to tamponade and control intrapelvic hemorrhage. 2017.

  11. Mapping of contributions from collateral ligaments to overall knee joint constraint: an experimental cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Adam J; Shalhoub, Sami S; Fitzwater, Fallon G; Ferris, Lauren A; Maletsky, Lorin P

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the contribution of the soft-tissues to total joint constraint (TJC) is important for predicting joint kinematics, developing surgical procedures, and increasing accuracy of computational models. Previous studies on the collateral ligaments have focused on quantifying strain and tension properties under discrete loads or kinematic paths; however, there has been little work to quantify collateral ligament contribution over a broad range of applied loads and range of motion (ROM) in passive constraint. To accomplish this, passive envelopes were collected from nine cadaveric knees instrumented with implantable pressure transducers (IPT) in the collateral ligaments. The contributions from medial and lateral collateral ligaments (LCL) were quantified by the relative contribution of each structure at various flexion angles (0-120 deg) and compound external loads (±10 N m valgus, ±8 N m external, and ±40 N anterior). Average medial collateral ligament (MCL) contributions were highest under external and valgus torques from 60 deg to 120 deg flexion. The MCL showed significant contributions to TJC under external torques throughout the flexion range. Average LCL contributions were highest from 0 deg to 60 deg flexion under external and varus torques, as well as internal torques from 60 deg to 110 deg flexion. Similarly, these regions were found to have statistically significant LCL contributions. Anterior and posterior loads generally reduced collateral contribution to TJC; however, posterior loads further reduced MCL contribution, while anterior loads further reduced LCL contribution. These results provide insight to the functional role of the collaterals over a broad range of passive constraint. Developing a map of collateral ligament contribution to TJC may be used to identify the effects of injury or surgical intervention on soft-tissue, and how collateral ligament contributions to constraint correlate with activities of daily living.

  12. Morphological and anatomical studies of Cyani herba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chiru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical investigation were carried out on stem, leaves, flowers and bracts of the species Centaurea cyanusL. The diagnostic parameters of vegetal product Cyani herbawere defined.

  13. Cadaveric study of superficial palmar arch variations in northern Thai population by using epoxy resin injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasom, Atittaya; Sinthubua, Apichat; Sananpanich, Kanit; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2014-12-01

    Superficial palmer arch (SPA) is the main source of arterial supply to the palm whileprincepspollicis artery is the main source of arterial supply to the thumb. The details about their possible variations are important for the reconstructive hand surgeons. To find out the SPA patterns and arterial supply of thumb variations in Thai population by using epoxy resin injection technique. The methods used were vascular injection by epoxy resin with blue resin color to brachial artery before dissection of 100 fresh cadaveric hands to find out the SPA pattern and the anatomical variation of the princeps pollicis artery. It was found that the SPA patterns of 100 cadaveric hands were composed of 13 patterns, which could be classified into two main types: arch type and non-arch type. Arch type was found in 67 hands (67%) and non-arch type 33 hands (33%). From 13 patterns, the most common was the ulnar + 1st dorsal interosseous pattern, which found in 27 hands (27%) and the less common, in 15 hands was ulnar pattern in both arch type and non-arch type. The princeps pollicis artery was present in all of the arch-type hands (67 hands) with its origin from the radial artery. It emerged deep in the 1st dorsal interosseous muscle in 66 hands (98.5%) and dorsally to this muscle in 1 hand (1.5%). Using epoxy resin injection before dissection was a good technique with less confusion for arteries and other tissues. The authors found 13 superficial palmar arch patterns, 67 percent is arch type. The princeps pollicis artery always lies deep in the first dorsal interosseous muscle. This is essential knowledge for the hand surgeon to repair or reconstruct the injured limb.

  14. Validity of synthetic bone as a substitute for osteoporotic cadaveric femoral heads in mechanical testing: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F; Condon, F; McGloughlin, T; Lenehan, B; Coffey, C; Walsh, M

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a synthetic bone substitute would provide results similar to bone from osteoporotic femoral heads during in vitro testing with orthopaedic implants. If the synthetic material could produce results similar to those of the osteoporotic bone, it could reduce or eliminate the need for testing of implants on bone. Pushout studies were performed with the dynamic hip screw (DHS) and the DHS Blade in both cadaveric femoral heads and artificial bone substitutes in the form of polyurethane foam blocks of different density. The pushout studies were performed as a means of comparing the force displacement curves produced by each implant within each material. The results demonstrated that test material with a density of 0.16 g/cm(3) (block A) produced qualitatively similar force displacement curves for the DHS and qualitatively and quantitatively similar force displacement curves for the DHS Blade, whereas the test material with a density of 0.08 g/cm(3) (block B) did not produce results that were predictive of those recorded within the osteoporotic cadaveric femoral heads. This study demonstrates that synthetic material with a density of 0.16 g/cm(3) can provide a good substitute for cadaveric osteoporotic femoral heads in the testing of implants. However we do recognise that no synthetic material can be considered as a definitive substitute for bone, therefore studies performed with artificial bone substrates may need to be validated by further testing with a small bone sample in order to produce conclusive results.

  15. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  16. Metacarpophalangeal portal safety. An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, B; Corella, F; Del Campo, B; Fernández, E; Corella, M Á; Ocampos, M; Vázquez, T; Larrainzar-Garijo, R

    2017-12-02

    To quantify the risk of dorsal innervation injury when performing direct metacarpophalangeal joint portals of the second to fifth fingers. An anatomical study of 11 upper limbs of fresh corpses was carried out. After placing them in a traction tower, the metacarpophalangeal portals were developed on both sides of the extensor tendon. The dorsal sensory branches were dissected and the distances between the portal and the nearest nerve were measured by a digital caliper. The portals of all the fingers were compared globally to assess the safest finger and two to two radial and ulnar portals were compared in each of the fingers to assess the safest portal within each finger. The overall comparison of all portals and fingers showed that the third finger is the safest in any of its portals, while the ulnar side of the second and radial of the fourth are the portals with the highest risk of nerve injury (P=8.96·10-5). Comparing two to two of the radial and ulnar portals in each of the fingers showed that the ulnar portal is safer than the radial on the fourth finger (P=.042), while the radial is safer than the ulnar on the fifth finger (P=.003). The third finger was the safest to perform metacarpophalangeal portals, while the ulnar side of the second finger and radial side of the fourth had the highest risk of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Inferior anchor cortical perforation with arthroscopic Bankart repair: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Kang; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Sang Hak; Shon, Min Soo; Bae, Tae Soo; Park, Won Hah; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of anchor penetration of the far cortex of the glenoid neck after arthroscopic Bankart repair and to compare the biomechanical properties of anchors in the 4- and 5:30- to 6-o'clock positions on the glenoid. Twelve (6 matched pairs) fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were used to simulate arthroscopic Bankart repair in the lateral decubitus position. The most inferior anchor (5:30 to 6 o'clock) and that above it (4 o'clock) were inserted via the anteroinferior portal on the glenoid using the standard technique. After both anchor insertions, anchor perforation of the glenoid far cortex was identified. Biomechanical properties were measured to determine cyclic displacement of anchors at 100 and 500 cycles, stiffness, yield load, and ultimate failure strength. All 12 suture anchors (100%) at 5:30 to 6 o'clock penetrated throughout the far cortex, whereas only 4 anchors (33%) at 4 o'clock did so (P = .005). The mean distance the anchor tip traveled into far cortex was significantly longer at 5:30 to 6 o'clock than at 4 o'clock (6.8 ± 1.6 mm v 2.0 ± 1.6 mm, P = .001). In terms of mechanical strength, anchors at 5:30 to 6 o'clock had greater 100- and 500-cycle mean displacements than those at 4 o'clock (3.0 ± 0.5 mm v 2.5 ± 0.3 mm, P = .018 for 100 cycles; 3.5 ± 0.7 mm v 2.8 ± 0.3 mm, P = .018 for 500 cycles), although no differences in ultimate failure strength after cyclic loading were found between 2 positions (133.4 ± 40.3 and 133.7 ± 29.2 N, respectively; P = .985). For arthroscopic Bankart repair, insertion of the most inferior anchor via the anteroinferior portal with standard technique, in the lateral decubitus position, carries a high risk of perforating the inferior far cortex of the glenoid (100% in our study). This may result in mechanical weakness of the most inferior repair specifically in the early postoperative period. Perforation of the glenoid far cortex by the most inferior anchor and

  18. Height restoration of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using different intravertebral reduction devices: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Figiel, Jens; Floßdorf, Felix; Bolzinger, Florent; Noriega, David C; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly during the past two decades. Balloon kyphoplasty was developed to restore vertebral height and improve sagittal alignment. Several studies have shown these theoretical improvements cannot be transferred universally to the clinical setting. The aim of the current study is to evaluate two different procedures used for percutaneous augmentation of vertebral compression fractures with respect to height restoration: balloon kyphoplasty and SpineJack. Twenty-four vertebral bodies of two intact, fresh human cadaveric spines (T6-L5; donor age, 70 years and 60 years; T-score -6.8 points and -6.3 points) were scanned using computed tomography (CT) and dissected into single vertebral bodies. Vertebral wedge compression fractures were created by a material testing machine (Universal testing machine, Instron 5566, Darmstadt, Germany). The axial load was increased continuously until the height of the anterior edge of the vertebral body was reduced by 40% of the initial measured values. After 15 minutes, the load was decreased manually to 100 N. After postfracture CT, the clamped vertebral bodies were placed in a custom-made loading frame with a preload of 100 N. Twelve vertebral bodies were treated using SpineJack (SJ; Vexim, Balma, France), the 12 remaining vertebral bodies were treated with balloon kyphoplasty (BKP; Kyphon, Medtronic, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The load was maintained during the procedure until the cement set completely. Posttreatment CT was performed. Anterior, central, and posterior height as well as the Beck index were measured prefracture and postfracture as well as after treatment. For anterior height restoration (BKP, 0.14±1.48 mm; SJ, 3.34±1.19 mm), central height restoration (BKP, 0.91±1.04 mm; SJ, 3.24±1.22 mm), and posterior restoration (BKP, 0.37±0.57 mm; SJ, 1.26±1.05), as well as the Beck index (BKP, 0.00±0.06 mm; SJ, 0

  19. Effect of Transosseous Tunnels on Patella Fracture Risk After Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Nicholas A; Lewis, Gregory S; Lukosius, Eric Z; Roush, Evan P; Black, Kevin P; Dhawan, Aman

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether (1) tunnels that breach the anterior cortex of the patella result in increased fracture risk and (2) transosseous tunnels drilled across the patella significantly reduce the tensile force needed to fracture the patella. Twenty-six fresh-frozen cadaveric human patellas were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: a control group with unmodified patellas, a group with 2 transverse tunnels (TT) that did not breach the anterior cortex, and a group with 2 TT that breached the anterior cortex of the patella (PA). Patellas were connected in series to a load cell via freeze clamp attachments to the quadriceps and patellar tendons. Pull was fixed at 45° with the patella set in the trochlear groove of a synthetic femur. Patellas were loaded cyclically, then to failure. Twenty-six patellas were tested (mean age = 71.4 years; range = 37-95, standard deviation [STD] = 11.5 years). PA patellas were more likely to fracture through the tunnel than TT patellas (100% vs 25%, P = .033). Control, TT, and PA groups failed at 1,915 N (STD = 508 N), 1,901 N (STD = 884 N), and 1,640 N (STD = 625 N), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in overall load to failure between control and TT (P = .969), control and PA (P = .321), and TT and PA (P = .488) groups. Transosseous patellar tunnels for medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction that breached the anterior cortex were more likely to fracture during longitudinal load than those that did not breach the anterior cortex. However, we found no statistically significant difference in the tensile load to failure between native patellas and patellas with either type of transosseous tunnel. The results of this study show that breaching the anterior cortex during transosseous drilling increases the risk of a patellar fracture occurring through the transosseous tunnel. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative foliar anatomical and morphological studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of anatomical similarities in the adaxial surfaces of their leaflets were sinuous, anticlinal walls, absence of stomata and trichome, epidermal cells are irregular in shape and variable in sizes. On their abaxial surfaces, epidermal cells are irregular in shapes and variable in sizes, stomata present, predominantly ...

  1. Communication between spaces formed by fasciae of male external genitalia and perineum: computed tomographic cadaveric study and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Yeom, Suk Keu; Sohn, Yu Mee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Je Jong; Park, Sun Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The purposes were to evaluate the communication and the extent of the spaces formed by fasciae of the male external genitalia and the perineum and to correlate the spaces with clinical observations regarding anatomic progression of diseases. Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) was performed through the perineum and the pelvis of 5 fresh cadavers injected with contrast material in the space between dartos and Buck fasciae of the penis. Two of the 5 cadavers, injected with the contrast material mixed with blue ink, were dissected to confirm the observations made on multi-detector row computed tomography. Computed tomographic images of 11 patients with diseases involving the potential spaces formed by the fasciae of the male genitalia and the perineum were correlated with observations made on CT of the cadavers. The contrast material filling the scrotal cavity extended posteriorly in the perineum, remained far below the urogenital diaphragm, and reached superiorly to the potential space along Scarpa fascia in all cadavers. At cadaveric dissection, the ink-stained spaces were confined by the fascial planes involving Colles, Buck, dartos, and Scarpa fasciae. Spread of disease in the 11 patients (6 patients with localized genital edema, 4 with Fournier gangrene, and 1 with bulbous urethral rupture) was confined in the spaces demonstrated on CT images of the cadavers. Free communication and disease spread occur within the confines of the superficial perineal, scrotal, penile, and abdominal wall spaces formed by Colles, Buck, dartos, and Scarpa fasciae.

  2. Radiographic diagnosis of sagittal plane rotational displacement in pelvic fractures: a cadaveric model and clinical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Xiaolong; Ying, Xiaozhou; Kong, Jianzhong; Feng, Yongzeng; Hu, Wei; Guo, Xiaoshan; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to measure the sagittal plane rotational (flexion and extension) displacement of hemipelvis radiologically and analyze the ratio of flexion and extension displacement of unstable pelvic fractures. We used 8 cadaveric models to study the radiographic evidence of pelvic fractures in the sagittal plane. We performed pelvic osteotomy on 8 cadavers to simulate anterior and posterior pelvic ring injury. Radiological data were measured in the flexion and extension group under different angles (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients who were diagnosed with a unilateral fracture of the pelvis. Pelvic ring displacement was identified and recorded radiographically in cadaveric models. The flexion and extension displacement of pelvic fractures was measured in terms of the vertical distance of fracture from the top of iliac crest to the pubic tubercle (CD) or from the top of iliac crest to the lowest point of ischial tuberosity (AB). Fifty-seven pelves showed flexion displacement and 15 showed extension displacement. Closed reduction including internal fixation and external fixation was successfully used in 141 cases (86.0 %). The success rates of closed reduction in flexion and extension displacement groups were 77 and 73 %, respectively, which were lower than in unstable pelvic ring fractures. The sagittal plane rotation (flexion and extension) displacement of pelvic fractures could be measured by special points and lines on the radiographs. Minimally invasive reduction should be based on clearly identified differences between the sagittal plane rotation and the vertical displacement of pelvic fractures.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution via a perfusion-based cadaveric model: feasibility study demonstrating surgical simulation of neuroendoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Jesse L; Kramer, Daniel R; Robison, Richard A; Ohiorhenuan, Ifije; Minneti, Michael; Giannotta, Steven; Zada, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Cadaveric surgical simulation carries the advantage of realistic anatomy and haptic feedback but has been historically difficult to model for intraventricular approaches given the need for active flow of CSF. This feasibility study was designed to simulate intraventricular neuroendoscopic approaches and techniques by reconstituting natural CSF flow in a cadaveric model. In 10 fresh human cadavers, a simple cervical laminectomy and dural opening were made, and a 12-gauge arterial catheter was introduced. Saline was continuously perfused at physiological CSF pressures to reconstitute the subarachnoid space and ventricles. A neuroendoscope was subsequently inserted via a standard right frontal bur hole. In 8 of the 10 cadavers, adequate reconstitution and endoscopic access of the lateral and third ventricles were achieved. In 2 cadavers, ventricular access was not feasible, perhaps because of a small ventricle size and/or deteriorated tissue quality. In all 8 cadavers with successful CSF flow reconstitution and endoscopic access, identifying the foramen of Monro was possible, as was performing septum pellucidotomy and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Furthermore, navigation of the cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, prepontine cistern, and suprasellar cistern via the lamina terminalis was possible, providing a complementary educational paradigm for resident education that cannot typically be performed in live surgery. Surgical simulation plays a critical and increasingly prominent role in surgical education, particularly for techniques with steep learning curves including intraventricular neuroendoscopic procedures. This novel model provides feasible and realistic surgical simulation of neuroendoscopic intraventricular procedures and approaches.

  4. A guide for effective anatomical vascularization studies: useful ex vivo methods for both CT and MRI imaging before dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Yohann; Hossu, Gabriela; Chen, Bailiang; Krebs, Marine; Labrousse, Marc; Perez, Manuela

    2017-10-11

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and useful injection protocol for imaging cadaveric vascularization and dissection. Mixtures of contrast agent and cast product should provide adequate contrast for two types of ex vivo imaging (MRI and CT) and should harden to allow gross dissection of the injected structures. We tested the most popular contrast agents and cast products, and selected the optimal mixture composition based on their availability and ease of use. All mixtures were first tested in vitro to adjust dilution parameters of each contrast agent and to fine-tune MR imaging acquisition sequences. Mixtures were then injected in 24 pig livers and one human pancreas for MR and computed tomography (CT) imaging before anatomical dissection. Colorized latex, gadobutrol and barite mixture met the above objective. Mixtures composed of copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) gadoxetic acid (for MRI) and iodine (for CT) gave an inhomogeneous signal or extravasation of the contrast agent. Agar did not harden sufficiently for gross dissection but appears useful for CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies without dissection. Silicone was very hard to inject but achieved the goals of the study. Resin is particularly difficult to use but could replace latex as an alternative for corrosion instead of dissection. This injection protocol allows CT and MRI images to be obtained of cadaveric vascularization and anatomical casts in the same anatomic specimen. Post-imaging processing software allow easy 3D reconstruction of complex anatomical structures using this technique. Applications are numerous, e.g. surgical training, teaching methods, postmortem anatomic studies, pathologic studies, and forensic diagnoses. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  5. Fourth cranial nerve: surgical anatomy in the subtemporal transtentorial approach and in the pretemporal combined inter-intradural approach through the fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatori, L; Niutta, M; Tropeano, M P; Santoro, G; Santoro, A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in surgical technology in the last decades, the surgical treatment of skull base lesions still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomy of the tentorial and cavernous segment of the fourth cranial nerve as it appears in two different surgical approaches to the skull base: subtemporal transtentorial approach and pretemporal fronto-orbito-zygomatic approach. Four human cadaveric fixed heads were used for the dissection. Using both sides of each cadaveric head, we made 16 dissections: 8 with subtemporal transtentorial technique and 8 with pretemporal fronto-orbito-zygomatic approach. The first segment that extends from the initial point of contact of the fourth cranial nerve with the tentorium (point Q) to its point of entry into its dural channel (point D) presents an average length of 13.5 mm with an extremely wide range and varying between 3.20 and 9.3 mm. The segment 2, which extends from point D to the point of entry into the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, presents a lesser interindividual variability (mean 10.4 mm, range 15.1-5.9 mm). A precise knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the fourth cranial nerve and its neurovascular relationships is essential to safely approach. The recognition of some anatomical landmarks allows to treat pathologies located in regions of difficult surgical access even when there is an important subversion of the anatomy.

  6. Isometric behavior of the reconstructed medial patellofemoral ligament using two different femoral pulleys: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillopoulos, Ioannis K; Panagopoulos, Andreas; van Niekerk, Louw

    2007-09-01

    Several techniques have been described for reconstructing the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). However, the anatomy of the medial patellar retinaculum and the isometry of both intact and reconstructed MPFL remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isometric behavior of the reconstructed MPFL when two different pulleys are used for the reconstruction. Eight anatomical knees were dissected and the medial patellar retinaculum and MPFL were studied. A pilot technique for the reconstruction of the MPFL using a semitendinosus autograft was developed. A "dynamic" femoral fixation was chosen which utilized two different pulleys: the medial intermuscular septum (MIS) at the adductor's tendon insertion and the posterior third of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). The isometric behavior of the reconstructed MPFL and the stability of both pulleys were investigated. The MPFL was a thickened, band-like condensation of the superficial MPR layer extending from the MFE to the medial border of the patella. The reconstructed MPFL demonstrated the most isometric behavior when the MCL was used as a pulley. The average difference in graft length during knee flexion from 0 degrees to 90 degrees when the MCL or MIS were used as a pulley was 1 mm and 4 mm, respectively. The MIS pulley was more stable but less isometric than the MCL pulley. "Dynamic" MPFL reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon autograft can restore patellofemoral stability without excessive soft-tissue dissection or implantation of hardware at the medial epicondyle, which can lead to symptoms of its own.

  7. Endoscopic extradural subtemporal approach to lateral and central skull base: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Komatsu, Mika; Di Ieva, Antonio; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Endoscopy has provided a less invasive approach to skull base surgery, mainly through endonasal routes, but has been limited in its applications due to potential complications. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of the purely endoscopic extradural transcranial approach to lateral and central skull base through a subtemporal keyhole and to better understand potential distortions of the related anatomy via endoscopy. Ten fresh cadaver heads were studied with 4-mm 0° and 30° endoscopes to develop the surgical approach and to identify surgical landmarks. The endoscopic extradural subtemporal approach was divided into 3 sections after exposure of the extradural space in the middle cranial fossa: 1) exposure of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and the preauricular infratemporal fossa; 2) anterior petrosectomy and posterior cranial fossa exploration; and 3) unroofing of the tympanic cavity and exposure of the facial nerve. This keyhole endoscopic technique clearly visualized anatomical landmarks of the lateral and central skull base via an extradural subtemporal route. The endoscopic extradural subtemporal approach was feasible. This approach could display a wide range of lateral and central skull base structures with minimal invasiveness. The use of extradural space would be key to performing safe and effective endoscopic skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is the Lingual Fracture Line Influenced by the Mandibular Canal or the Mylohyoid Groove During a Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy? A Human Cadaveric Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Gooris, Peter J. J.; Bergsma, Eelco J.; Frank, Michael H.; van Gemert, Jan T. M.; van Merkesteyn, J. P. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is a routinely performed procedure, exact control of the lingual fracture line remains problematic. The purpose of this study was to determine the various lingual splitting patterns in cadaveric human mandibles after a BSSO and the

  9. Comparison of quantitative evaluation between cutaneous and transosseous inertial sensors in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Atsunori; Nozaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Goto, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Masahito; Yasuma, Sanshiro; Takenaga, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Yuko; Mizutani, Jun; Okamoto, Hideki; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-09-01

    Recently several authors have reported on the quantitative evaluation of the pivot-shift test using cutaneous fixation of inertial sensors. Before utilizing this sensor for clinical studies, it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of cutaneous sensor in assessing rotational knee instability. To evaluate the accuracy of inertial sensors, we compared cutaneous and transosseous sensors in the quantitative assessment of rotational knee instability in a cadaveric setting, in order to demonstrate their clinical applicability. Eight freshly frozen human cadaveric knees were used in this study. Inertial sensors were fixed on the tibial tuberosity and directly fixed to the distal tibia bone. A single examiner performed the pivot shift test from flexion to extension on the intact knees and ACL deficient knees. The peak overall magnitude of acceleration and the maximum rotational angular velocity in the tibial superoinferior axis was repeatedly measured with the inertial sensor during the pivot shift test. Correlations between cutaneous and transosseous inertial sensors were evaluated, as well as statistical analysis for differences between ACL intact and ACL deficient knees. Acceleration and angular velocity measured with the cutaneous sensor demonstrated a strong positive correlation with the transosseous sensor (r = 0.86 and r = 0.83). Comparison between cutaneous and transosseous sensor indicated significant difference for the peak overall magnitude of acceleration (cutaneous: 10.3 ± 5.2 m/s2, transosseous: 14.3 ± 7.6 m/s2, P sensors. Therefore, this study indicated that the cutaneous inertial sensors could be used clinically for quantifying rotational knee instability, irrespective of the location of utilization. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Looped versus single-stranded flexor tendon repairs: a cadaveric mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Ryan P; Boone, Sean; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Osei, Daniel A; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Boyer, Martin I

    2015-05-01

    To compare the tensile properties of 4-strand modified Kessler flexor tendon repairs using a looped or single-stranded suture. We evaluated the mechanical properties of 4-strand Kessler zone II core suture repairs using either looped or single-stranded suture in human flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus tendons. Forty repairs were performed on tendons from bilateral cadaveric hands: 20 matched tendons were divided into equal groups of 3-0 looped and 3-0 single-strand repairs and 20 additional matched tendons were divided into equal groups of 4-0 looped and 4-0 single-strand repairs. Repaired tendons were tested in uniaxial tension to failure to determine mechanical properties and failure modes. Data were analyzed to determine the effect of repair type (ie, looped vs single-stranded) for each suture caliber (ie, 3-0 and 4-0). Single-strand repairs with 3-0 suture demonstrated a significantly greater maximum load to failure and a significantly higher force at 2-mm gap compared with repairs with looped 3-0 suture. All 8 looped repairs with 3-0 suture failed by suture pullout whereas 7 of 8 repairs with 3-0 single-stranded suture failed by suture breakage. The mechanical properties of looped versus single-stranded repairs with 4-0 caliber suture were not statistically different. Repairs with 4-0 caliber suture failed by suture breakage in 8 of 10 single-strand repairs and failed by suture pullout in 6 of 10 repairs with looped suture. In a time-0 ex vivo human cadaveric core suture model, the mechanical properties of a 4-strand repair using 3-0 single-stranded suture were significantly better than the same 4-strand repair performed with looped suture. Four-strand flexor tendon repairs with 3-0 suture are mechanically superior when performed with single-strand suture versus looped suture. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An unembalmed cadaveric preparation for simulating pleural effusion: A pilot study of chest percussion involving medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mark S; Kernahan, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Cadaveric simulations are an effective way to add clinical context to an anatomy course. In this study, unembalmed (fresh) cadavers were uniquely prepared to simulate pleural effusion to teach chest percussion and review thoracic anatomy. Thirty first-year medical students were assigned to either an intervention (Group A) or control group (Group B). Group A received hands-on training with the cadaveric simulations. They were instructed on how to palpate bony landmarks for identifying the diaphragm and lobes of the lungs, as well as on how to properly perform chest percussion to detect abnormal fluid in the pleural space. Students in Group B practiced on each other. Students in Group A benefited from the training in several ways. They had more confidence in their percussive technique (A = mean 4.3/5.0, B = 2.9/5.0), ability to count the ribs on an intact body (A = mean 4.0/5.0, B = 3.0/5.0), and ability to identify the lobes of the lungs on an intact body (A = mean 3.8/5.0, B = 2.3/5.0). They also demonstrated a greater ability to locate the diaphragm on an intact body (A = 100%, B = 60%) and detect abnormal pleural fluid (A = 93%, B = 53%) with greater confidence (A = mean 3.7/5.0, B = 2.5/5.0). Finally, the hands-on training with the unembalmed cadavers created more excitement around learning in Group A compared with Group B. This study shows that simulating pleural effusion in an unembalmed cadaver is a useful way to enhance anatomy education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 160-169. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion: cadaveric study and report of 5 clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Umesh; Khanapure, Kiran S; Jagannatha, Aniruddha T; Joshi, Krishna C; Varma, Ravi G; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Minimally invasive techniques are being increasingly used to treat disorders of the cervical spine. They have a potential to reduce the postoperative neck discomfort subsequent to extensive muscle dissection associated with conventional atlantoaxial fusion procedures. The aim of this paper was to elaborate on the technique and results of minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion. MATERIALS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion was done initially in 4 fresh-frozen cadavers and subsequently in 5 clinical cases. Clinical cases included patients with reducible atlantoaxial instability and undisplaced or minimally displaced odontoid fractures. The surgical technique is illustrated in detail. RESULTS Among the cadaveric specimens, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position and 2 of the 8 C-2 screws had a vertebral canal breach. Among clinical cases, all C-1 lateral mass screws were in the correct position. Only one C-2 screw had a Grade 2 vertebral canal breach, which was clinically insignificant. None of the patients experienced neurological worsening or implant-related complications at follow-up. Evidence of rib graft fusion or C1-2 joint fusion was successfully demonstrated in 4 cases, and flexion-extension radiographs done at follow-up did not show mobility in any case. CONCLUSIONS Minimally invasive atlantoaxial fusion is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional approach in selected cases. Larger series with direct comparison to the conventional approach will be required to demonstrate clinical benefit presumed to be associated with a minimally invasive approach.

  13. Anatomic Basis for Brachial Plexus Block at the Costoclavicular Space: A Cadaver Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Reina, Miguel Angel; Pangthipampai, Pawinee; Karmakar, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The costoclavicular space (CCS), which is located deep and posterior to the midpoint of the clavicle, may be a better site for infraclavicular brachial plexus block than the traditional lateral paracoracoid site. However, currently, there is paucity of data on the anatomy of the brachial plexus at the CCS. We undertook this cadaver anatomic study to define the anatomy of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS and thereby establish the anatomic basis for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block at this proximal site. The anatomy and topography of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS was evaluated in 8 unembalmed (cryopreserved), thawed, fresh adult human cadavers using anatomic dissection, and transverse anatomic and histological sections, of the CCS. The cords of the brachial plexus were located lateral and parallel to the axillary artery at the CCS. The topography of the cords, relative to the axillary artery and to one another, in the transverse (axial) plane was also consistent at the CCS. The lateral cord was the most superficial of the 3 cords and it was always anterior to both the medial and posterior cords. The medial cord was directly posterior to the lateral cord but medial to the posterior cord. The posterior cord was the lateral most of the 3 cords at the CCS and it was immediately lateral to the medial cord but posterolateral to the lateral cord. The cords of the brachial plexus are clustered together lateral to the axillary artery, and share a consistent relation relative to one another and to the axillary artery, at the CCS.

  14. A cadaveric microanatomical study of the fascicular topography of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sumit; Prasad, G Lakshmi; Lalwani, Sanjeev

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Mapping of the fascicular anatomy of the brachial plexus could provide the nerve surgeon with knowledge of fascicular orientation in spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. This knowledge might improve the surgical outcome of nerve grafting in brachial plexus injuries by anastomosing related fascicles and avoiding possible axonal misrouting. The objective of this study was to map the fascicular topography in the spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. METHODS The entire right-sided brachial plexus of 25 adult male cadavers was dissected, including all 5 spinal nerves (C5-T1), from approximately 5 mm distal to their exit from the intervertebral foramina, to proximal 1 cm of distal branches. All spinal nerves were tagged on the cranial aspect of their circumference using 10-0 nylon suture for orientation. The fascicular dissection of the C5-T1 spinal nerves was performed under microscopic magnification. The area occupied by different nerve fascicles was then expressed as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a spinal nerve. RESULTS The localization of fascicular groups was fairly consistent in all spinal nerves. Overall, 4% of the plexus supplies the suprascapular nerve, 31% supplies the medial cord (comprising the ulnar nerve and medial root of the median nerve [MN]), 27.2% supplies the lateral cord (comprising the musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the MN), and 37.8% supplies the posterior cord (comprising the axillary and radial nerves). CONCLUSIONS The fascicular dissection and definitive anatomical localization of fascicular groups is feasible in plexal spinal nerves. The knowledge of exact fascicular location might be translatable to the operating room and can be used to anastomose related fascicles in brachial plexus surgery, thereby avoiding the possibility of axonal misrouting and improving the results of plexal reconstruction.

  15. Arthroscopic anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Devgan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction has been the current standard of treatment for ACL deficiency. However, a significant subset of patients continue to report residual symptoms of instability with a poor pivot control. Cadaveric biomechanical studies have shown double bundle (DB ACL reconstructions to restore the knee kinematics better. This study evaluates the outcome of DB ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic DB ACL reconstruction were included in this prospective longitudinal study. There were all males with a mean age of 25 ± 7.45 years. All patients were prospectively evaluated using GeNouRoB (GNRB arthrometer, functional knee scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] and Lysholm and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for comparing the graft orientation and footprint of the reconstructed ACL with that of the normal knee. Results: The average followup was 36.2 months. At the time of final followup the mean Lysholm score was 93.13 ± 3.31. As per the objective IKDC score, 26 patients (86.6% were in Group A while 4 patients (13.3% were in Group B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation by GNRB, arthrometer was 1.07 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm. All cases had a negative pivot shift test. MRI scans of operated and the contralateral normal knee showed the mean sagittal ACL tibial angle coronal ACL tibial angle and tibial ACL footprint to be in accordance with the values of the contralateral, normal knee. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DB ACL reconstruction restores the ACL anatomically in terms of size and angle of orientation. However, long term studies are needed to further substantiate its role in decreasing the incidence of early osteoarthritic changes compared to the conventional single bundle reconstructions.

  16. Clavicular caution: an anatomic study of neurovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke; Persico, Federico; Lorenz, Eric; Seligson, David

    2014-12-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation of the clavicle is used to treat displaced fractures of the midshaft of the clavicle. Complications of operative intervention include injuries to major neurovascular structures including the subclavian artery and vein. Unlike other surgical approaches, palpation or visualization of the deep neurovascular structures at risk is rarely performed and is not part of the routine approach. This study aims to further elucidate the relationship of major neurovascular structures in the shoulder to the clavicle using sectioned fresh frozen cadaveric specimens. Using five cadaveric specimens, sagittal sections were performed using a band saw. Sections were taken every 15mm. Using these sections, structures were identified and photos were taken using a standardized approach to allow for precise and accurate measurements. Measurements taken included the distance from the nearest clavicular cortex to the centre of the subclavian artery, vein, and brachial plexus. These measurements were taken from five limbs on five different cadavers. Our results were consistent with previous studies. Medially, the subclavian vein was intimately related medially (4.8mm) to the clavicle, whereas the artery and brachial plexus were both >2cm from the clavicle. At about the junction of the middle and second-thirds of the clavicle, all three structures were within 2cm of the clavicle. Moving laterally, these structures moved further away and at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint were at least 4.5cm away from the clavicle on average. This study reiterates that the medial third of the clavicle is closely associated with neurovascular structures and that care should be taken here when using drills, depth gauges, and clamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomic study of gastric vascularization and its relationship to cervical gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Flavio Roberto; Cecconello, Ivan; Szachnowicz, Sergio; Tacconi, Marcos Roberto; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an anatomic study of the stomach and its vascularization, evaluating the frequency of communication between the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) and the left gastroepiploic artery (LGEA), as well as their relationship to the length of the stomach without extramural (direct) vascularization in cervical gastroplasty. Forty-two fresh human cadaveric specimens were studied, and the presence of communication between the RGEA and the LGEA was observed in 26 of the dissected stomachs (61.9%). When communication was present (group 1), to a total length of 49.60 cm of greater curvature length, it was verified that approximately 16.48 cm of this curvature lacked direct extramural vascularization (33.20%). When there was non-communication (group 2), to a greater curvature length of approximately 45.41 cm, it was found that 18.96 cm of this curvature (gastric fundus) lacked direct extramural vascular perfusion (41.76%). Results obtained in both groups were tested for statistically significant differences by the Pearson correlation test (Pgastric curvature.

  18. Quantitative analysis of midface fat compartments mass with ageing and body mass index, anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Foyatier, J L; Mojallal, A

    2016-12-01

    Volume restoration is not a new concept in facial rejuvenation. The deep fat compartments would appear to be more greatly subjected to age-related volumetric deflation. However, this view lacks scientific evidence. The purpose of the present study is to quantify fat mass variability in the superficial and deep compartments of the midface as a function of age and BMI. A cadaveric anatomical study was performed by dissection of superficial and deep facial fat compartment of 40 body. The studied compartments were identified by methylene blue injection and were weighed. The data obtained were analyzed as a function of subject age (two groups: ≤75 or >75), sex, and BMI (three groups: 25). The mean weight of the deep compartments was significantly lower in the group with subjects aged >75 years (1.48g vs 3.41g, P<0.001) and the deep-to-superficial fat ratio decreased significantly by more than 50% (0.2 vs 0.44, P<0.001). No statistically significant difference as concerns the mean weight of the superficial compartments (7.93g vs 6.73g). The deep-to-superficial fat ratio as a function of BMI was largely significantly lower in subjects with BMIs<20 (0.15, vs 0.31 and 0.34, P<0.001). The present anatomical study confirmed that fat atrophy affects in priority the deep midface compartments with ageing and in subjects with a BMI less than 20. Thus to obtain natural-looking results in facial rejuvenation, the volumetric restoration of these deep compartments should be considered a priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of 3D Printed Models in Medical Education: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing 3D Prints versus Cadaveric Materials for Learning External Cardiac Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J.; Adams, Justin W.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized…

  20. Comparison of postinjection protocols after intratendinous Achilles platelet-rich plasma injections: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I; de Jonge, Suzan; de Jonge, Milko C; Kerkhoffs, Gino M; Verhaar, Jan; van Dijk, C Niek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the distribution of intratendinous injected platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after 15 minutes of prone resting versus immediate manipulation simulating weightbearing. Ten cadaveric lower limbs were injected under ultrasound guidance with PRP dyed with India blue ink. The dyed PRP was injected into the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon, after which 5 specimens were placed in the prone position for 15 minutes (simulating rest) and the remaining 5 specimens were manipulated through 100 cycles of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion (simulating walking). Thereafter, the specimens were dissected, and the distribution of the India blue dye was ascertained. In the simulated rest group, every specimen showed dyed PRP in the Achilles tendon and in the space between the paratenon and tendon. The median craniocaudal spread of the PRP was 140 (range 125 to 190) mm. In 4 of the simulated rest tendons (80%), the distribution of PRP extended across the entire transverse plane width of the tendon. In the simulated motion group, every specimen showed dyed PRP extending across the entire transverse plane width of the tendon and in the space between the paratenon and tendon. The median craniocaudal spread was 135 (range 115 to 117) mm. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of craniocaudal spread between the simulated motion and rest groups. In conclusion, it does not appear to matter whether the ankle has been moved through its range of motion or maintained stationary during the first 15 minutes after PRP injection into the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon. The precise meaning of this information in the clinical realm remains to be discerned. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy of axillary nerve and its clinical importance: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurushantappa, Prakash Kuppasad; Kuppasad, Saniya

    2015-03-01

    Axillary nerve is one of the terminal branches of posterior cord of brachial plexus, which is most commonly injured during numerous orthopaedic surgeries, during shoulder dislocation & rotator cuff tear. All these possible iatrogenic injuries are because of lack of awareness of anatomical variations of the nerve. Therefore, it is very much necessary to explore its possible variations and guide the surgeons to enhance the better clinical outcome by reducing the risk and complications. Twenty five cadavers (20 Males & 05 Females) making 50 specimens including both right and left sides were dissected as per standard dissection methods to find the origin, course, branches, distribution & exact location of the nerve beneath the deltoid muscle from important landmarks like: posterolateral aspect of acromion process, anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, midpoint of deltoid muscle insertion (deltoid tuberosity of humerus) and from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle. The measurements were recorded and tabulated. The measurements were entered in Microsoft excel and mean, proportion, standard deviation were calculated by using SPSS 16th version. The axillary nerve was found to take origin from the posterior cord of brachial plexus (100%) dividing into anterior & posterior branches in Quadrangular space (88%) and supply deltoid muscle mainly. It also gave branches to teres minor muscle, shoulder joint capsule & superolateral brachial cutaneous nerve (100%). This study concluded that the mean distance of axillary nerve from the - anteromedial aspect of tip of coracoid process, posterolateral aspect of acromion process, midpoint of deltoid insertion & from the midpoint of vertical length of deltoid muscle measured to be (in cm) as 3.56±0.51, 7.4±0.99, 6.7±0.47 & 2.45±0.48 respectively. The mean vertical distance of entering point of axillary nerve from the anterior upper, mid middle upper & posterior upper deltoid border found to be (in cm): 4.94±0

  2. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  3. Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family grown in Nigeria. CEC Ugwoke, GC Uju. Abstract. The internode, bark and wood anatomy of seven tree species of the Family Moraceae, grown in Nigeria were studied to determine their characteristic tissue distribution and unique ergastic substances which ...

  4. Anatomical studies of the gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the gross anatomical, morphometric features and histology of the gastrointestinal tract of the Striped Sand Snake (Psammophis sibilans). Ten snakes (five males and five females) were euthanized and dissected for the study. The gastrointestinal tract appeared as a straight tubular organ from oral ...

  5. Facial pillars in dogs: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllar, Michal; Paral, Vaclav; Pyszko, Martin; Doskarova, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    This study describes the facial pillar system in dolichocephalic and brachycephalic breeds of dogs, and highlights its differences. Knowledge of facial pillar system anatomy is imperative to carry out successful fracture repair. The aim of our study was to describe the pillar system of the facial skeleton in dogs, and compare different shapes of dog skulls using native skulls, radiographs and computed tomography (CT). The heads of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic dogs were investigated following a maceration process using trans-illumination, radiography and CT. Ground sections were created from bones of the facial skeleton for investigation of osteon directions. This study has revealed that the facial skeleton of the dog has numerous sinuses supported by vertically and horizontally oriented bone pillars. These pillars can be divided into five principal regions in dolichocephalic skulls and six principal regions in brachycephalic skulls. Radiographic imaging of both the brachiocephalic and dolichocephalic skulls was not capable of discerning bone pillars. Computed tomography transverse and horizontal section images discerned all pillars observed in the illuminated skulls.

  6. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar a. , Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa a. ,. El Sebai Farag Ali b. , Ali Ali Abd El-Karim c. , Nancy Mohamed El Sekily d,. * a Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of ...

  7. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint. Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar, Fardos Ahmed El-Kalaa, El Sebai Farag Ali, Ali Ali Abd El-Karim, Nancy Mohamed El Sekily ...

  8. Anatomic study of the pterion in Nigerian dry human skulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-14

    Apr 14, 2012 ... The sphenoparietal type is where the greater wing of the sphenoid articulates with parietal bone to form letter. H,[5] the frontotemporal is the type where the squamous part of the temporal bone articulates with the frontal, the. Anatomic study of the pterion in Nigerian dry human skulls. U Ukoha, CK Oranusi, ...

  9. Morphological Variations of the Thyroid Gland among the People of Upper Assam Region of Northeast India: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkonwar, Anjan Jyoti; Kusre, Giriraj

    2016-12-01

    The morphological variations of the thyroid gland have been reported from different parts of the world. The variations are due to remnant or non-specific development of the parts of the thyroid gland. Surgical operation of the thyroid gland has been the treatment of choice in various thyroid pathologies. Prior knowledge of the morphological variation is important to ensure better results from these surgical operations. To study the prevalence of morphological variations seen in the thyroid glands in the upper Assam region of Northeast India. This was a hospital based cadaveric study. Total number of Thyroid glands dissected were 80. The thyroid gland was examined properly for the presence of pyramidal lobe, levator glandulae thyroideae and complete absence of isthmus. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 21.0. It was found that 17 (21.25%) cadavers did not show an isthmus. The pyramidal lobe was present in 31(38.75%) cases and frequently arising from the left side (74.2%) of the isthmus. Levator glandulae thyroideae was found in 15 (18.75%) of the thyroid specimens. In all cases, it was extended from the apex of the pyramidal lobe to the hyoid bone. Morphological variation of the thyroid gland is very common hence requires detection prior to any surgery on the thyroid gland.

  10. Internal femoral component rotation adversely influences load transfer in total knee arthroplasty: a cadaveric navigated study using the Verasense device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, William A; Ghosh, Kanishka M; Blain, Alasdair; Longstaff, Lee; Rushton, Steven P; Deehan, David J

    2017-07-15

    Correct femoral component rotation at knee arthroplasty influences patellar tracking and may determine function at extremes of movement. Additionally, such malrotation may deleteriously influence flexion/extension gap geometry and soft tissue balancing kinematics. Little is known about the effect of subtle rotational change upon load transfer across the tibiofemoral articulation. Our null hypothesis was that femoral component rotation would not influence load across this joint in predictable manner. A cadaveric study was performed to examine load transfer using the orthosensor device, respecting laxity patterns in 6° of motion, to examine load across the medial and lateral compartments across a full arc of motion. Mixed-effect modelling allowed for quantification of the effect upon load with internal and external femoral component rotation in relation to a datum in a modern single-radius cruciate-retaining primary knee design. No significant change in maximal laxity was found between different femoral rotational states. Internal rotation of the femoral component resulted in significant increase in medial compartment load transfer for knee flexion including and beyond 60°. External rotation of the femoral component within the limits studied did not influence tibiofemoral load transfer. Internal rotation of the femoral component will adversely influence medial compartment load transfer and could lead to premature polyethylene wear on the medial side.

  11. The variations of peroneus digiti quinti muscle and its contribution to the extension of the fifth toe. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Berin T; Gümüşalan, Yakup; Üzel, Murat; Çevik, Hüseyin B

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the origin, prevalence, and possible effects of peroneus digiti quinti muscle (PDQ) on the fifth toe, to find out the variations of PDQ by determining the relationship between peroneus brevis muscle (PB) and PDQ, and to reveal its importance for the applications in foot and ankle surgery.  This study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey between September 2013 and June 2014. The study was a prospective dissection of cadaveric lower limbs. Twenty-five amputated lower limbs were stored in the freezer at -15°C. The legs were dissected; prevalence and variations of peroneus digiti quinti were investigated.  Peroneus digiti quinti muscle was found in 8 (32%) of 25 dissected lower limbs. However, 2 different tendon extensions were found at 3 (37.5%) of 8, and 5 (62.5%) of them were determined to have a single tendon.  The incidence, dimensions, length, and insertions of peroneus digiti quinti are important in the evaluation and treatment of functional loss of the fifth toe, lateral foot deformities, and tendon problems behind the lateral malleolus of the ankle.

  12. ANATOMIC STUDIES ABOUT RABBIT SPERMATICS WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to bring some completions of male genital anatomy in rabbits, in particular related to vascularisatia it. Data from literature are brief and last time the species is used as a laboratory experimental model with application in human surgery. To study were used 10 animals that were purchased from the private sector. Prior to making dissection vascular formations were injected with a contrast material prepared in the laboratory of anatomy of the faculty. Dissection was performed using the magnifying glass stereomicroscopica and appropriate instrumentation surgery high fineness. Were achieved after pictures and pieces of dissection were performed schemes. Formation to describe the terminology used in NAV ed. 2002 After dissection found that epididyme is intimately attached to the edge epididymis testicularis, channel epididymis presents a many flecsuosis branch of different sizes, thickness of the channel increases from epididimar cones related to deferential channel, number eferente cones is variable (between 6 and 8 cones, and tail origin epidydimis and deferential channel is dressed in adipose tissue forming the body fat of testicularis. Testicular arteries originate from the abdominal aorta, right testicular artery, the right of the fifth lumbar vertebrae left testicular artery and the right of the sixth lumbar vertebra: epididimara artery skull emerges from the testicular artery and the caudal artery of the internal iliac .

  13. Biomechanical properties of suture anchor repair compared with transosseous sutures in patellar tendon ruptures: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Max; Dratzidis, Antonios; Hurschler, Christof; Brand, Stephan; Calliess, Tilman; Krettek, Christian; Jagodzinski, Michael; Petri, Maximilian

    2013-11-01

    Ruptures of the patellar tendon are debilitating injuries requiring surgical repair. Reliable data about the most appropriate suture technique and suture material are missing. The standard procedure consists of refixing the tendon with sutures in transpatellar tunnels, sometimes combined with augmentation. Suture anchors provide at least equal results concerning gap formation during cyclic loading and ultimate failure load compared with transosseous suture repair. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 30 human cadaveric patellar tendons underwent tenotomy followed by repair with 5.5-mm titanium suture anchors, 5.5-mm resorbable hydroxyapatite suture anchors, or transpatellar suture tunnels with No. 2 Ultrabraid and the Krackow whipstitch technique. Biomechanical analysis included pretensioning the constructs at 20 N for 30 seconds and then cyclic loading of 250 cycles between 20 and 100 N at 1 Hz in a servohydraulic testing machine with measurement of elongation. After this, ultimate failure load and failure mode analysis was performed. Compared with transosseous sutures, tendon repairs with suture anchors yielded significantly less gap formation during cyclic loading (P suture anchor in the hydroxyapatite anchor group and rupture of the suture in the titanium anchor group and-at lower load to failure-in the transosseous group. Patellar tendon repair with suture anchors yields significantly better biomechanical results than repair with the commonly applied transosseous sutures. These findings may be of relevance for future clinical treatment of patellar tendon ruptures. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing suture anchors to transosseous suture repair are desirable.

  14. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  15. Anterior shoulder dislocation increases the propensity for recurrence: a cadaveric study of the number of dislocations and type of capsulolabral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Patrick J; Yang, Bruce Y; Chow, Stephen; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-08-01

    The number of anterior shoulder dislocations that predispose to recurrence is unknown; some clinicians recommend surgical repair after the initial episode and others after multiple recurrences. The purpose of this study was to quantify the forces during successive anterior dislocations of cadaveric shoulders and to inspect the capsule and labrum afterwards, in order to assess the propensity for recurrence. Twenty-two human cadaveric shoulders were tested using a custom cadaveric shoulder dislocation device with simulated muscle loading. Each was positioned in the apprehension position and the humerus was moved in horizontal abduction until the shoulder dislocated. The joint reaction force was measured, as was the force that developed passively in the pectoralis major muscle. Following 3 successive dislocations, each was inspected for anterior capsulolabral lesions. There was a significant decrease in force after the second dislocation. In 11, there was no labral avulsion and a significant decrease in force after the first dislocation. In the other 11, there was a labral avulsion and a significant decrease in force after the second dislocation. Two successive anterior shoulder dislocations may increase propensity for recurrence; but this is influenced by the type of capsulolabral lesion that occurs. No labral avulsion, likely a result of capsular stretching, may be a worse prognostic finding than labral avulsion after the initial episode. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging study of the medial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally Mahmood Mohamed Hussin Omar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Materials and methods: Twenty preserved cadaveric adult ankle specimens were collected from the dissecting room, Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. MR imaging of ten ankles was performed before and after disruption of every band of the ligament of medial side.

  17. Evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT studies using wide area-detector scanners: a phantom study with cadaveric correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Formery, Anne-Sophie; Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Winninger, Daniel [IDCmem, Nancy (France); Batch, Toufik [Hopital de Mercy, Service de Radiologie, Metz (France); Gervaise, Alban [Legouest Military Instruction Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Metz (France)

    2017-02-15

    To establish evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT on wide area-detector CT. In order to assess factors influencing image quality in kinematic CT studies, a phantom consisting of a polymethylmethacrylate rotating disk with round wells of different sizes was imaged with various acquisition protocols. Cadaveric acquisitions were performed on the ankle joint during motion in two different axes and at different speeds to allow validation of phantom data. Images were acquired with a 320 detector-row CT scanner and were evaluated by two readers. Motion artefacts were significantly correlated with various parameters (movement axis, distance to centre, rotation speed and volume acquisition speed) (p < 0.0001). The relation between motion artefacts and distance to motion fulcrum was exponential (R{sup 2} 0.99). Half reconstruction led to a 23 % increase in image noise and a 40 % decrease in motion artefacts. Cadaveric acquisitions confirmed phantom data. Based on these findings, high tube rotation speed and half reconstruction are recommended for kinematic CT. The axis of motion significantly influences image artefacts and should be considered in patient training and evaluation of acquisition protocol suitability. This study provides evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT. (orig.)

  18. Surgical Navigation Technology Based on Augmented Reality and Integrated 3D Intraoperative Imaging: A Spine Cadaveric Feasibility and Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Skulason, Halldor; Söderman, Michael; Racadio, John; Homan, Robert; Babic, Drazenko; van der Vaart, Nijs; Nachabe, Rami

    2016-11-01

    A cadaveric laboratory study. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of thoracic pedicle screw placement using augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN). Recent advances in spinal navigation have shown improved accuracy in lumbosacral pedicle screw placement but limited benefits in the thoracic spine. 3D intraoperative imaging and instrument navigation may allow improved accuracy in pedicle screw placement, without the use of x-ray fluoroscopy, and thus opens the route to image-guided minimally invasive therapy in the thoracic spine. ARSN encompasses a surgical table, a motorized flat detector C-arm with intraoperative 2D/3D capabilities, integrated optical cameras for augmented reality navigation, and noninvasive patient motion tracking. Two neurosurgeons placed 94 pedicle screws in the thoracic spine of four cadavers using ARSN on one side of the spine (47 screws) and free-hand technique on the contralateral side. X-ray fluoroscopy was not used for either technique. Four independent reviewers assessed the postoperative scans, using the Gertzbein grading. Morphometric measurements of the pedicles axial and sagittal widths and angles, as well as the vertebrae axial and sagittal rotations were performed to identify risk factors for breaches. ARSN was feasible and superior to free-hand technique with respect to overall accuracy (85% vs. 64%, P < 0.05), specifically significant increases of perfectly placed screws (51% vs. 30%, P < 0.05) and reductions in breaches beyond 4 mm (2% vs. 25%, P < 0.05). All morphometric dimensions, except for vertebral body axial rotation, were risk factors for larger breaches when performed with the free-hand method. ARSN without fluoroscopy was feasible and demonstrated higher accuracy than free-hand technique for thoracic pedicle screw placement. N/A.

  19. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  20. Knee joint kinematics after dynamic intraligamentary stabilization: cadaveric study on a novel anterior cruciate ligament repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Lenschow, Simon; Domnick, Christoph; Herbort, Mirco; Häberli, Janosch; Schulze, Martin; Wähnert, Dirk; Raschke, Michael J; Kösters, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic intraligamentary stabilization (DIS) has been introduced for the repair of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears as an alternative to delayed reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to compare knee joint kinematics after DIS to those of the ACL-intact and ACL-deficient knee under simulated Lachman/KT-1000 and pivot-shift tests. We hypothesized that DIS provides knee joint kinematics equivalent to an intact ACL. With the use of a robotic knee simulator, knee kinematics were determined in simulated Lachman/KT-1000 and pivot-shift tests at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion in eight cadaveric knees under the following conditions: (1) intact ACL, (2) ACL deficiency, (3) DIS with a preload of 60 N, and (4) DIS with a preload of 80 N. Statistical analyses were performed using two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. The significance level was set at a p value of knee (p knee joint kinematics to that of an intact knee in all degrees of flexion. DIS with a preload of 80 N restores knee joint kinematics comparable to that of an ACL-intact knee and is therefore capable of providing knee joint stability during ACL healing. DIS therefore provides a new technique for primary ACL repair with superior biomechanical properties in comparison with other techniques that have been described previously, although further clinical studies are required to determine its usefulness in clinical settings.

  1. The optimum tension for bridging sutures in transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair: a cadaveric biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Soon; McGarry, Michelle H; Campbell, Sean T; Seo, Hyuk Jun; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Sae Hoon; Lee, Thay Q; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-09-01

    Transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair can increase contact area and contact pressure between the repaired cuff tendon and bony footprint and can show higher ultimate loads to failure and smaller gap formation compared with other repair techniques. However, it has been suggested that medial rotator cuff failure after TOE repair may result from increased bridging suture tension. To determine optimum bridging suture tension in TOE repair by evaluating footprint contact and construct failure characteristics at different tensions. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 18 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders, randomly divided into 3 groups, were constructed with a TOE configuration using the same medial suture anchor and placing a Tekscan sensing pad between the repaired rotator cuff tendon and footprint. Nine of the 18 shoulders were used to measure footprint contact characteristics. With use of the Tekscan measurement system, the contact pressure and area between the rotator cuff tendon and greater tuberosity were quantified for bridging suture tensions of 60, 90, and 120 N with glenohumeral abduction angles of 0° and 30° and humeral rotation angles of 30° (internal), 0°, and 30° (external). TOE constructs of all 18 shoulders then underwent construct failure testing (cyclic loading and load to failure) to determine the yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, hysteresis, strain, and failure mode at 60 and 120 N of tension. As bridging suture tension increased, contact force, contact pressure, and peak pressure increased significantly at all positions (P .05 for all). Increasing bridging suture tension to over 90 N did not improve contact area but did increase contact force and pressure. Bridging suture tension did not significantly affect ultimate failure loads. Considering the risks of overtensioning bridging sutures, it may be clinically more beneficial to keep bridging suture tension below 90 N. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through a Minimal Incision on the Distal Wrist Crease: An Anatomical and Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Yoo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn anatomical analysis of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL and the surrounding structures might help in identifying effective measures to minimize complications. Here, we present a surgical technique based on an anatomical study that was successfully applied in clinical settings.MethodsUsing 13 hands from 8 formalin-fixed cadavers, we measured the TCL length and thickness, correlation between the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL, and distance between the distal end of the TCL and the palmar arch; the TCL cross sections and the thickest parts were also examined. Clinically, fasciotomy was performed on the relevant parts of 15 hands from 13 patients by making a minimally invasive incision on the distal wrist crease. Postoperatively, a two-point discrimination check was conducted in which the sensations of the first, second, and third fingertips and the palmar cutaneous branch injuries were monitored (average duration, 7 months.ResultsIn the 13 cadaveric hands, the distal wrist crease and the proximal end of the TCL were placed in the same location. The average length of the TCL and the distance from the distal TCL to the superficial palmar arch were 35.30±2.59 mm and 9.50±2.13 mm, respectively. The thickest part of the TCL was a region 25 mm distal to the distal wrist crease (average thickness, 4.00±0.57 mm. The 13 surgeries performed in the clinical settings yielded satisfactory results.ConclusionsThis peri-TCL anatomical study confirmed the safety of fasciotomy with a minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease. The clinical application of the technique indicated that the minimally invasive incision of the distal wrist crease was efficacious in the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. The prepatellar bursa: cadaveric investigation of regional anatomy with MRI after sonographically guided bursography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O; Viegas, Flavio C; Fernandez, Rodrigo Y; Trudell, Debra; Haghighi, Parviz; Resnick, Donald

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use MRI and anatomic correlation in cadavers to show the macroscopic anatomic configuration of the prepatellar bursa. MRI of the prepatellar bursa of nine cadaveric knees was performed after sonographically guided bursography. The images were compared with those seen on anatomic sectioning. Histologic analysis was obtained in two specimens. Mean dimensions of the prepatellar bursa in the craniocaudal, lateromedial, and anteroposterior planes were 39.7, 40.5, and 3.2 mm, respectively. A trilaminar aspect of the bursa was shown in seven of the nine knees (78%) and a bilaminar appearance in two of the nine knees (22%). Lateral extension of the bursa over the patella was observed in three knees (33%) and medial extension in one knee (11%). On histopathologic analysis, three potential bursal spaces were found. The prepatellar bursa is most commonly a trilaminar structure, and variation in its relation to the patella can occur.

  4. Trans-iliosacral plating for vertically unstable fractures of sacral spine associated with spinopelvic dissociation: A cadaveric study

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    Pravin Padalkar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Trans-iliosacral plating is feasible anatomically, biomechanically and radiologically for sacral fractures associated with vertical shear pelvic fractures. Low profile of plate reduces the risk of hardware prominence and decreases the need for implant removal. Also, the fixation pattern of plate allows to spare mobile lumbosacral junction which is an important segment for spinal mobility. Biomechanical studies revealed that rigidity offered by plate for cross headed displacement across fracture site is equal to sacroiliac screws and further rigidity of construct can be increased with addition of one more screw. There is need for precountered thicker plate in future.

  5. Periosteal vascularization of the distal femur in relation to distal femoral osteotomies : a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, J A D; van Heerwaarden, R J; Bleys, R L A W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate periosteal vessels location as intra-operative landmarks in distal femoral osteotomies and focused on the branching pattern of the vascular supply of the medial and lateral femoral condyle, its constancy, and the relationship to the height of

  6. The inferior medial genicular artery and its vascularization of the pes anserinus superficialis: A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hirtler

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although intratendinous vascularization of the tendons of the PAS via the IMGA was not proven, this study indicates a new possibility of ACL reconstruction. The described operation technique can be conducive to shorten the vulnerable phase of the graft-ligamentization after ACL reconstruction.

  7. Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane injection with computed tomography correlation: a cadaveric study

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    Moeschler SM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Moeschler,1 Naveen S Murthy,2 Bryan C Hoelzer,1 Halena M Gazelka,1 Richard H Rho,1 Matthew J Pingree1,31Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USABackground: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP injections are increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional perioperative analgesia in the abdominal region. With the use of a "blind" TAP block technique, these procedures have had variable success in cadaver and in vivo studies. For more accurate injection with the intended medication, ultrasound guidance allows visualization of the correct layer of the abdominal wall planes in which the thoracolumbar nerves reside.Objective: To assess the spread of various volumes of contrast placed under live ultrasound guidance into the TAP using computed tomography (CT.Methods: Four TAP blocks were performed on 2 fresh frozen cadaver torsos with predetermined contrast volumes of 5, 10, 15, or 20 mL. A CT scan of the cadaver was then performed and interpreted by a musculoskeletal radiologist. This cadaver study was carried out at a tertiary care academic medical center.Results: Cranial–caudal spread of injected contrast correlated with increasing injectate volume and was roughly 1 vertebral level (end plate to end plate for the 5 mL injection and 2 vertebral levels for the 10, 15, and 20 mL injections. However, the degree of injectate spread may be different for live patients than for cadavers.Conclusion: This study helps further the understanding of injectate spread following ultrasound-guided TAP injections. Specifically, it suggests that 15 mL provides additional cranial–caudal spread and may be an optimal volume of anesthesia.Keywords: abdominal cadaver study, abdominal computed tomography scan, abdominal wall pain, TAP block, ultrasound-guided injection

  8. THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE IN MALES AND FEMALES OF KERALA- A CADAVERIC STUDY

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    Vijayamma Kunnath Narayanan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rectus abdominis is a long, flat strap muscle which extends vertically upward along the linea alba from the pubic symphysis below to the costal margin above. It is a flexor of the vertebral column and thereby plays an important role in maintaining the normal body posture. As it is a part of the anterior abdominal wall, the strength of the muscle plays a very important role in maintaining the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall. Weakness of the rectus abdominis is seen mainly in multiparous women resulting in the divarication of the recti. The lateral border of the rectus abdominis forms the medial boundary of the Hesselbach’s triangle, which is the commonest site of direct inguinal hernia. It arises by two tendinous heads: Medial head arises from the anterior surface of the pubic symphysis and the lateral head arises from the lateral part of the pubic crest and the pubic tubercle. The muscle is inserted on the anterior thoracic wall by four fleshy slips along a horizontal line passing laterally from the xiphoid process and cutting in that order, the 7 th , 6 th and 5 th costal cartilages. The paired recti muscles are separated in the median plane by the linea alba. The muscle is three times as wide superiorly as inferiorly. It is broad and thin superiorly and narrow and thick inferiorly. It has a tendinous origin and a muscular insertion that is in the form of four fleshy slips that are attached in a horizontal manner to the lower part of the anterior thoracic wall. The rectus abdominis is enclosed in the rectus sheath, which is formed by the aponeuroses of the anterolateral muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. The muscle usually presents tendinous intersections along its length. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Kottayam by the dissection of 20 adult cadavers and 5 foetal cadavers during the routine dissection time of the undergraduates and

  9. Three dimensional, radiosteriometric analysis (RSA) of equine stifle kinematics and articular surface contact: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, S E; Bey, M J; Haladik, J A; Lavagnino, M; Arnoczky, S P

    2014-05-01

    Studies examining the effect of stifle joint angle on tibial rotation, adduction-abduction angle and articular contact area are lacking. To test the hypothesis that tibial rotation, adduction-abduction angle and articular contact area change with stifle joint angle. Descriptive study of normal kinematics and articular contact patterns of the equine stifle through the functional range of motion using 3 dimensional (3D) radiosteriometric analysis (RSA) and equine cadaver stifles. Multiple, radiopaque markers were embedded in the distal femur and proximal tibia and sequential, biplanar x-rays captured as the stifle was passively extended from 110° to full extension. Computer-programmed RSA was used to determine changes in abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation angles of the tibia during stifle extension as well as articular contact patterns (total area and areas of high contact) through the range of motion. The tibia rotated externally (P < 0.001) as the stifle was extended. Tibial abduction occurred from 110-135° of extension (P < 0.001) and tibial adduction occurred from 135° through full extension (P = 0.009). The centre of joint contact moved cranially on both tibial condyles during extension with the lateral moving a greater distance than the medial (P = 0.003). Articular contact area decreased (P = 0.001) in the medial compartment but not in the lateral compartment (P = 0.285) as the stifle was extended. The area of highest joint contact increased on the lateral tibial condyle (P < 0.001) with extension but decreased (P = 0.001) on the medial tibial condyle. Significant changes occur in tibial rotation, adduction-abduction angle and articular contact area of the equine stifle through the functional range of motion. Understanding the normal kinematics of the equine stifle and the relationship between joint positions and articular contact areas may provide important insight into the aetiology and location of common stifle joint pathologies

  10. Ultrasound-guided epidural catheter placement with a new technique: preliminary cadaveric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Silvia D'Urso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several methods are described in veterinary medicine to perform and assess correct epidural needle placement to provide effective epidural analgesia (Adami et al 2017. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of an ultrasound longitudinal sagittal approach to epidural catheter placement using a biopsy needle guide. Seven dog cadavers were used in the study. With the cadaver in sternal recumbence, a 5-8 MHz microconvex transducer provided with a 16-gauge biopsy guide was positioned to obtain a longitudinal sagittal scan of the spinal process of L7 and the sacral crest; the epidural space was identified between two parallel hyperechoic lines and, as the trajectory of the biopsy guide crossed them, a 17G Tuohy needle was used to insert a 19G epidural catheter. Correct catheter placement was visualised through a resection of the column between L2 and L3. Firstly, an expert echographist (operator C1 visualised the ultrasonographic landmarks, while catheter placement was performed by an expert anaesthetist (operator A, a student (operator B and another expert echographist (operator C2 (double-operator technique; secondly, operator A and C2 performed alone the whole procedure (single-operator technique; lastly all operators performed a blind procedure (Jones 2001. Operator A failed 2/7 single-operator procedures; time to perform the blind technique was statistically lower than the double-operator technique (75 ± 132.4 vs 91.6 ± 79.3 seconds. Operator C2 failed 3/7 blind procedures, scoring the higher total time of performance (329.3 ± 271.2 seconds, but was able to perform both the double- and single-operator technique without significant difference with operator A, despite a faster time in positioning the probe. Operator B showed a higher repositioning attempts of the needle with the double-operator procedure compared to the blind one. Ultrasound guidance appears to be a promising technique to ease catheter placement also by operators

  11. TVT ABBREVO: cadaveric study of tape position in foramen obturatum and adductor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Masata, Jaromir; Martan, Alois; Svabik, Kamil

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe fixation of the TVT ABBREVO and establish whether the tape penetrates through obturator muscles and membrane (obturator complex) into the adductor region and, if so, how far it penetrates. Eight formalin-embalmed female cadavers were used to simulate TVT ABBREVO surgery (totalling 16 insertions). Following tape insertion, dissection was performed and ends of the tape were identified. In cases of penetration, the length of tape penetrating into the adductor region was measured. Of the 16 cases, the tape ended in the obturator membrane in eight, in the internal obturator muscle in one, and penetrated through the obturator membrane into the external obturator muscle in five, where it remained. In two cases, it penetrated through the obturator internus muscle, obturator membrane and obturator externus muscle into the group of thigh adductors; one penetration was by 3 mm and the second by 10 mm. No contact with the obturator nerve or its branches was noted in any case. No TVT contact with the obturator nerve was noted; tape penetrated into the adductor region in two of the 16 cases.

  12. Navigation-assisted fluoroscopy in minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion: a cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jonathan E.; Regev, Gilad J.; Garfin, Steven R.; Kim, Choll W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is dependent on intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging for visualization, which significantly increases exposure to radiation. Navigation-assisted fluoroscopy (NAV) can potentially decrease radiation exposure and improve the operating room environment by reducing the need for real-time fluoroscopy. The direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) procedure is a technique for MIS intervertebral lumbar and thoracic interbody fusions. This study assesses the use of navigation for the DLIF procedure in comparison to standard fluoroscopy (FLUORO), as well as the accuracy of the NAV MIS DLIF procedure. Methods Three fresh whole-body cadavers underwent multiple DLIF procedures at the T10-L5 levels via either NAV or FLUORO. Radiation exposure and surgical times were recorded and compared between groups. An additional cadaver was used to evaluate the accuracy of the NAV system for the DLIF procedure by measuring the deviation error as the surgeon worked further from the anterior superior iliac spine tracker. Results Approach, discectomy, and total fluoroscopy times for FLUORO were longer than NAV (P minimizes fluoroscopic radiation exposure. Clinical significance Navigation for the DLIF procedure is accurate and decreases radiation exposure without increasing the overall surgical time. PMID:25802659

  13. Ultrasound-Guided Superior Hypogastric Plexus Block: A Cadaveric Feasibility Study with Fluoroscopic Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofeld, Michael; Lee, Chuan-Whei

    2017-02-01

    Plancarte first described a fluoroscopy-guided superior hypogastric plexus block to manage pelvic pain in 1990. Modifications have since been described using different imaging modalities. Ultrasound-guided approach has been described in a clinical outcome study. However, the accuracy of an ultrasound-guided method has never been validated by alternative imaging. We conducted an experiment aiming to develop ultrasound-guided superior hypogastric plexus block using human cadavers in the supine position. Final needle position and spread of a radiopaque contrast was verified by fluoroscopy, a standard imaging tool. The needle approach to the L5 vertebral body was performed in the short axis as has been recommended. Injection of radiopaque contrast revealed unilateral and cephalad spread to the L5/S1 disk. Additional transabdominal long-axis scanning of the lumbosacral segment was and the needle trajectory was modified to aim for the apex of the L5/S1 disk. Bilateral spread was achieved by strict midline placement of the needle tip and real-time observation of injection. The modified ultrasound-guided technique resulted in a similar spread of injectate as the traditional fluoroscopy-guided technique that in a clinical scenario would offer complete block of the superior hypogastric plexus. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  14. Cement interdigitation and bone-cement interface after augmenting fractured vertebrae: A cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Kratz, Marita; Baroud, Gamal; Becker, Stephan; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Background The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last 20 years. There is still uncertainty about long-term and midterm effects of polymethyl methacrylate in trabecular bone. Preservation of the trabecular structures, as well as interdigitation of the cement with the surrounding bone, therefore has been gaining increasing attention. Interdigitation of cement is likely relevant for biological healing and the biomechanical augmentation process. In this study a cutting and grinding technique was used to evaluate the interdigitation for 4 augmentation techniques. Methods By use of a standardized protocol, wedge fractures were created in vertebrae taken from a fresh-frozen spine. Thereafter the vertebrae were assigned to 1 of 4 similar groups with regard to the vertebral size and force required to produce the fracture. The 4 groups were randomized to the following augmentation techniques: balloon kyphoplasty, radiofrequency (RF) kyphoplasty, shield kyphoplasty, and vertebral stenting. Histologic analysis was designed to examine the bone structure and interdigitation after the augmentation. Results For the void-creating procedures, the distance between bone and cement was 341.4 ± 173.7 µm and 413.6 ± 167.6 µm for vertebral stenting and balloon kyphoplasty, respectively. Specifically, the trabecular bone was condensed around the cement, forming a shield of condensed bone. The procedures without a balloon resulted in shorter distances of 151.2 ± 111.4 µm and 228.1 ± 183.6 µm for RF and shield kyphoplasty, respectively. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P kyphoplasty, 20.5% ± 12.9% for vertebral stenting, 66.45% ± 12.35% for RF kyphoplasty, and 48.61% ± 20.56% for shield kyphoplasty. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .00001). Conclusions Cavity-creating procedures reduce the cement interdigitation significantly

  15. Aberrant distribution of the trochlear nerve: A cadaveric study supported by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Kojiro; Townsend, Grant; Manavis, Jim; Ghabriel, Mounir

    2017-09-01

    The trochlear nerve is generally considered to be a purely motor nerve supplying one extraocular muscle, the superior oblique. In the current study, 28 orbits were dissected and in one orbit (3.6%), the trochlear nerve divided into two main branches. The medial branch followed the classical course, entered the superior oblique muscle and was presumed to be motor in function. However, before entering the muscle, it partially fused with the frontal nerve, and gave a bundle of nerve fibres to the frontal nerve. The lateral branch gave a communication to the frontal nerve, travelled along the lacrimal nerve, received a branch from the lacrimal nerve then penetrated the lacrimal gland. The lateral branch was presumed to be sensory. Paraffin sections from the two branches were stained using immunohistochemistry. The two branches had different nerve fibre populations and showed distinct differences in neurofilament proteins (NFP) immuno-labelling. While both branches showed intense labelling for NFP-H, the lateral branch showed no staining or faint staining for NFP-M and NFP-L respectively, but the medial branch showed moderate labelling for both the NFP-M and NFP-L. Staining for substance P, a marker for nociceptive fibres, showed intense staining in a subset of fibres in the lateral branch, but no staining in the medial branch. Calcitonin gene-related peptide labelling was evident in some axons and some Schwann cells in the medial branch but widespread, weak and fine granular in the lateral branch. These findings indicate that, in some individuals (3.6%), the trochlear nerve may contain motor and sensory fibres, suggesting inter-nuclear communication within the brainstem during embryogenesis or mixing of nerve fibres in their extra-axial pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourdrain, Alex; Lafitte, Sophie; Iquille, Jules; De Dominicis, Florence; Havet, Eric; Peltier, Johann; Bagan, Patrick; Berna, Pascal

    2017-08-19

    Although peribronchial lymphatic drainage of the lung has been well characterized, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura is less well understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lymphatic drainage of lung segments in the visceral pleura. Adult, European cadavers were examined. Cadavers with a history of pleural or pulmonary disease were excluded. The cadavers had been refrigerated but not embalmed. The lungs were surgically removed and re-warmed. Blue dye was injected into the subpleural area and into the first draining visceral pleural lymphatic vessel of each lung segment. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males and 14 females; mean age 80.9 years) were dissected an average of 9.8 day postmortem. A total of 380 dye injections (in 95 lobes) were performed. Lymphatic drainage of the visceral pleura followed a segmental pathway in 44.2% of the injections (n = 168) and an intersegmental pathway in 55.8% (n = 212). Drainage was found to be both intersegmental and interlobar in 2.6% of the injections (n = 10). Lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura followed an intersegmental pathway in 22.8% (n = 13) of right upper lobe injections, 57.9% (n = 22) of right middle lobe injections, 83.3% (n = 75) of right lower lobe injections, 21% (n = 21) of left upper lobe injections, and 85.3% (n = 81) of left lower lobe injections. In the lung, lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura appears to be more intersegmental than the peribronchial pathway is-especially in the lower lobes. The involvement of intersegmental lymphatic drainage in the visceral pleura should now be evaluated during pulmonary resections (and especially sub-lobar resections) for lung cancer.

  17. A minimally invasive technique using a modified stoppa approach for periacetabular osteotomy: A preliminary cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Akgul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developmental hip dysplasia is diagnosed when the femoral head is not sufficiently covered by the acetabulum. Anterior and lateral cover deficiency is seen, as a result a dysplastic hip joint. Various incision modifications have been developed because of the muscle dissection and wide wound scar in Smith-Peterson incision, which was originally used in Bernese osteotomy. This study evaluates applicability of the modified Stoppa approach in the performance of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO. Materials and Methods: Ten hemipelvises of five donor cadavers were used. The transverse Stoppa incision was made 2 cm over the symphysis pubis for quadrilateral surface exposure and pubic and ischial bone osteotomies. The second skin incision, a few centimeters lateral to the original incision, was made along the tensor fascia lata. Iliac bone osteotomy was performed starting just above the rectus femoris insertion. The displacement of the osteotomy was measured clinically and radiographically. Results: The mean anterior coverage calculated with center-edge angle was improved from 22.8° ±2.8 (range 20° min–28° max preoperatively to 44.1° ± 3.7 (range 36° min–48° max. The displacement of the osteotomy at the iliopectineal line calculated on the iliac inlet view radiographs was 22.1 ± 3.4 mm (range 15 mm min–26 mm max. The clinical amount of the anterior displacement on the cadavers was 17.8 ± 3.35 mm (range 11 mm–21 mm and lateral displacement was 20.3 ± 3.23 mm (range 15 mm–24 mm. The amount of the posterior intact bone enlargement at the quadrilateral surface was 5.3 ± 0.48 mm. Conclusion: This less traumatic two-incision exposure is an adequate technique for Bernese PAO, allowing the bone to be cut under direct visual observation and reducing the need to use fluoroscopy.

  18. Spread of dye after single thoracolumbar paravertebral injection in infants. A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albokrinov, Andrew A; Fesenko, Ulbolgan A

    2014-06-01

    Thoracolumbar paravertebral block (PVB) is one method of providing regional anaesthesia for abdominal wall surgery in children. It is common practice when performing a PVB for abdominal wall anaesthesia to inject a certain volume of local anaesthetic solution in the paravertebral space at several levels. This increases the duration of the procedure and makes it more invasive. To determine the character of dye spread in infants' paravertebral space, to check the feasibility of single injection PVB and to determine the optimal volume of injectate necessary to cover the paravertebral segments responsible for sensation of the lower abdomen. Experimental study. Single centre, University Hospital, April 2013 to August 2013. Twenty infant cadavers. Ultrasound-guided, single thoracolumbar paravertebral injections were performed on infant cadavers. The total number of paravertebral segments stained after dye injection and specific vertebral levels of cephalad and caudad spread of dye in the paravertebral space. Dye was present in the paravertebral spaces of all cadavers. Spread of dye within the paravertebral space was different depending on dye volume. Strong correlation was found between the volume of injectate and the number of paravertebral segments involved. The number of spinal nerve roots surrounded with dye corresponded with the number of paravertebral segments involved. T11, T12 and L1 nerve roots were stained in all cadavers. The optimal injectate volume to involve T10-L1 segments was defined as 0.2 to 0.3  ml  kg(-1). Single thoracolumbar paravertebral injection at T12-L1 level leads to caudad and cephalad spread of injectate in a dose-dependent manner. Single injection thoracolumbar paravertebral injections could be performed for lower abdomen anaesthesia in infants. We suggest that a single injection of 0.2 to 0.3  ml  kg(-1) of local anaesthetic in the thoracolumbar paravertebral space could provide adequate coverage of the dermatomes of the lower

  19. Latarjet Fixation: A Cadaveric Biomechanical Study Evaluating Cortical and Cannulated Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M; Monroe, Emily J; Muriuki, Muturi; Verma, Rajat N; Marra, Guido; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    Attritional bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior instability has successfully been treated with a bone block procedure such as the Latarjet. It has not been previously demonstrated whether cortical or cancellous screws are superior when used for this procedure. To assess the strength of stainless steel cortical screws versus stainless steel cannulated cancellous screws in the Latarjet procedure. Controlled laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen matched-pair shoulder specimens were randomized into 2 separate fixation groups: (1) 3.5-mm stainless steel cortical screws and (2) 4.0-mm stainless steel partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissue and a 25% glenoid defect was created. The coracoid process was osteomized, placed at the site of the glenoid defect, and fixed in place with 2 parallel screws. All 10 specimens failed by screw cutout. Nine of 10 specimens failed by progressive displacement with an increased number of cycles. One specimen in the 4.0-mm screw group failed by catastrophic failure on initiation of the testing protocol. The 3.5-mm screws had a mean of 274 cycles (SD, ±171 cycles; range, 10-443 cycles) to failure. The 4.0-mm screws had a mean of 135 cycles (SD, ±141 cycles; range, 0-284 cycles) to failure. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 types of screws for cycles required to cause failure (P = .144). There was no statistically significant difference in energy or cycles to failure when comparing the stainless steel cortical screws versus partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Latarjet may be performed using cortical or cancellous screws without a clear advantage of either option.

  20. Robotic nasopharyngectomy via combined endonasal and transantral port: a preliminary cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Ju; Kang, Ju Wan; Min, Hyun Jin; Chung, Hyo Jin; Park, Do Yang; Ha, Jong Gyun; Baek, Seung Hak; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Kim, Chang-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential role of a surgical robotic system in nasopharyngeal surgery using bilateral transantral or combined endonasal/transantral port. The da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) was used to perform dissection of the skull base on a whole fresh-frozen cadaver. Bilateral mega-antrostomy was done with the usual endoscopic sinus surgery equipment. To obtain an accessible bilateral working space, posterior septectomy was performed. Next, bilateral anterior maxillary windows were created through a gingivobuccal incision. The 8.5-mm-diameter 0° or 30° three-dimensional camera arm was introduced into a nostril. The two 5-mm-diameter articulating EndoWrist arms entered through the transantral or endonasal port. For the dissection, Maryland articulated forceps, needle driver, and monopolar spatula- or hook-type electrocauterizer were used. The 8.5-mm diameter of the camera arm was easily inserted into the nostril. Excellent access to the nasopharyngeal area from the level of the palate up to the skull base crossing the sphenoid prow was possible. Bilateral robotic arms were able to move inside the nasopharyngeal space, and the target dissection area could be accessed fully via the transantral or endonasal port. This is the first report about the feasibility of bilateral transantral or combined transantral/endonasal port for robotic nasopharyngectomy. Robotic removal of the entire nasopharyngeal area was successfully achieved without transpalatal or facial skin incision. These new approaches may be applied to selected patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma or other pathologic tumors involving the nasopharynx. NA © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Accurate application of a precontoured-locking plate for proximal humeral fractures in Asians: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ji-Yong; Park, Hyung-Bin; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal position for a precontoured-locking plating (PHILOS(®)) of the proximal humerus in Asians in terms of conformity and to determine the prevalence of screw exits in the position of the highest conformity. Twenty adult humeri and 14 cadaveric shoulders were included in this study. After placing the precontoured plate in the well-fitted position on the humerus, we measured the distance between the upper margin of the plate and the tip of greater tuberosity (GT) (distance A) and the distance between the anterior margin of the plate and lateral border of the bicipital groove (BG) (distance B). The prevalence of K-wire exits was assessed. In the 14 cadaver shoulders, the mutual relation between the most inferior locking sleeve of the optimally positioned plate and the axillary nerve was evaluated to assess the potential for axillary nerve injury. The precontoured plate was well-fitted and remained in a relatively constant position in all specimens. Distance A was an average of 3.6 mm (range 1.4-5.5 mm), and distance B was an average of 2.5 mm (range 0-4.6 mm). The K wire closest to the BG pierced it in four cases (20 %), and most inferior K wires exited at an average distance of 3.8 mm (range 1.6-9.0 mm) from the inferior articular margin of the humeral head. Regarding involvement of the BG, articular width was the only significant variable in the logistic regression model, with an odds' ratio of 0.610. The axillary nerve was located at an average vertical distance of 59.7 mm (range 51.8-66.9 mm) from the tip of the GT in a vertically neutral position. The results did not differ between the left and right sides (t = 0.326, p = 0.755). Although the axillary nerve was slightly inferior to the most inferior locking holes of the proximal humerus, it was located in the path of their locking sleeves on the deltoid muscle. The optimal position for the highest conformity led to ideal fixation of the proximal

  2. Correlative CT and anatomic study of the sciatic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, P.; Haughton, V.

    1985-05-01

    Sciatica can be caused by numerous processes affecting the sciatic nerve or its components within the pelvis including tumors, infectious diseases, aneurysms, fractures, and endometriosis. The CT diagnosis of these causes of sciatica has not been emphasized. This study identified the course and appearance of the normal sciatic nerve in the pelvis by correlating CT and anatomic slices in cadavers. For purposes of discussion, the sciatic nerve complex is conveniently divided into three parts: presacral, muscular, and ischial. Each part is illustrated here by two cryosections with corresponding CT images.

  3. Position of the mental foramen: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kqiku, Lumnije; Sivic, Ensad; Weiglein, Andreas; Städtler, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the position of the mental foramen is very important during all surgical procedures and it needs to be considered before all surgical procedures in the mandible region. The aim of this study was to determine the position of the mental foramen in the dissected human cadaver specimens. Four hundred hemimandible specimens from human cadavers were dissected and analyzed for the position of the mental foramen. The most common position of the mental foramen investigated - using anatomical dissection - was between the first and second mandibular premolars. These investigations provide relevant data for clinical anatomy, especially when planning oral operative treatment in the premolar area.

  4. Direct correlation of radiologic and cadaveric structures in a gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Smith, Sandy G; Ross, Callum F; Straus, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Radiologic imaging is increasingly utilized as supplemental material in preclinical gross anatomy courses, but few studies have investigated its utility as a fully integrated instructional tool. Establish the benefit of a teaching method that simultaneously correlates cadaveric and radiologic structures for learning human anatomy. We performed a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial and one-way cross-over study comparing exam grades and subjective student perception in a gross anatomy course. The intervention consisted of daily direct correlation small group sessions in which students simultaneously identified and correlated radiologic and cadaveric structures. The control method utilized identical laboratory and teaching conditions but students did not simultaneously correlate structures. Spatial relationships of structures within each respective media (gross or radiologic) were emphasized in both groups. No significant differences in radiology, gross, or written exam scores were observed between the intervention and control groups. The cross-over group preferred the intervention and control methods equally. The correlation teaching sessions ranked equally with active dissection as the most important instructional components of the course. Direct, simultaneous correlation of radiologic and cadaveric structures did not affect exam scores or student preference but helped students understand anatomical concepts in comparison with other course components.

  5. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Demondion, Xavier [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 59037, Lille (France); Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Marchiori, Edson [Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Cotten, Hervé [Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Bd de la Liberté, 59000, Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications.

  6. Minimally invasive medial supraorbital, combined subfrontal-interhemispheric approach to the anterior communicating artery complex-a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessberger, Alexander; Baumann, F; Nevzati, E; Kothbauer, K F; Fandino, J; Muroi, C

    2017-06-01

    In selected cases, microsurgical clipping remains a valuable treatment alternative to endovascular occlusion of anterior communicating artery (AComA) aneurysms. Their clipping is challenging and carries a risk of postsurgical cognitive impairment. We evaluate the microsurgical anatomy of a new, minimally invasive combined interhemispheric-subfrontal approach to the AComA complex via a medial supraorbital craniotomy. In this descriptive anatomic study, four alcohol-embedded, silicon-injected human cadaver heads were used. In each of the two cadavers, the AComA complex was approached from either the right or left side. An operating microscope and standard microsurgical instruments were used. After a medial eyebrow incision, a medial supraorbital minicraniotomy was performed. The frontal sinus was opened and cranialized. Following the dural opening, a subfrontal arachnoid dissection was performed to identify the optico-carotid complex. By following the A1 segment, a low-lying AComA complex could be visualized. Shifting the corridor towards the midline enabled an interhemispheric dissection. This dissection resulted in a wide superior-inferior corridor. Higher-lying AComA complexes could also be visualized. The achieved exposure of the AComA complex would allow safe dissection and clipping of low- and high-lying AComA aneurysms, with minimal retraction and preservation of the surrounding anatomical structures, in particular the perforators. We demonstrate the anatomy of a novel approach for surgical clipping of AComA aneurysms. Our study suggests that this approach provides good exposure without concomitant structural and vascular injury and thus might reduce the risk of procedure-related morbidity.

  7. The Fibularis (Peroneus Tertius Muscle in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of Anatomical Studies with Clinical and Evolutionary Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaissar Yammine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being considered an exclusive human structure for a long time, fibularis tertius (FT is believed to have a secondary function of foot dorsiflexion and eversion. This study is an attempt to approach the issue from an anatomical perspective. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies (7601 legs which met the inclusion criteria. The weighted results of FT presence were as follows: an “adult cadaveric” frequency of 93.2% and a clinical frequency of 80%. The most common FT origin and insertion sites were the distal half of fibula and the base of the 5th metatarsal, respectively. In 95% of cases, an accessory fibular muscle was detected when FT was lacking. We demonstrated that the discrepancy found between the adult cadaveric and clinical frequency values would point out a probable bias in interpreting previous kinesiological results. On an evolutionary level, comparative anatomy demonstrated a very low FT prevalence among monkeys while reaching a frequency of 30% in gorillas, the only non-human apes having an almost exclusive terrestrial locomotion. The consistent prevalence among humans and the presence of similar functional muscles when it is missing would support an essential role of FT during the phylogenetic development of the erect bipedal posture and probably during gait.

  8. Safety of Hip Anchor Insertion From the Midanterior and Distal Anterolateral Portals With a Straight Drill Guide: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Ryan M; Poultsides, Lazaros; Mayer, Stephanie W; Li, Angela E; Coleman, Struan H; Ranawat, Anil S; Nawabi, Danyal H; Kelly, Bryan T

    2017-03-01

    During arthroscopic labral refixation, suture anchors are typically inserted from either the midanterior (MA) portal or the distal anterolateral (DALA) portal; however, no studies have previously compared these techniques. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare acetabular rim accessibility and associated complication rates of anchor insertion from these portals. We hypothesized that rim access would be better from the DALA portal. Additionally, we hypothesized that articular surface perforation would occur more commonly from the MA portal while psoas tunnel perforation would occur more commonly from the DALA portal. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen pelvic cadaveric specimens (32 hips) were obtained and arthroscopic surgery performed in the supine position. Suture anchors were placed at 7 predetermined locations (9-, 11-, 12-, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-o'clock positions). Hips were treated as matched pairs, such that one hip from each specimen had all anchors placed from the MA portal and the other from the DALA portal. Allocation ensured an equal distribution of laterality between groups. After anchor insertion, specimens underwent computed tomography and dissection for further evaluation. Rim accessibility was similar between the groups; anchor insertion was most difficult at the 9-o'clock position, particularly with the MA portal technique, where only 50% (8/16) of attempts were successful, in comparison to the DALA portal technique, where 75% (12/16) of attempts were successful. Additionally, the 4-o'clock position proved challenging to access with the DALA portal technique, where only 75% (12/16) of attempts were successful, compared with 100% with the MA portal technique. The difference in accessibility of these techniques, however, did not reach statistical significance at the 9-o'clock position ( P = .2734) or 4-o'clock position ( P = .1012). Articular surface perforation occurred in 4.48% of all anchor insertion attempts, most commonly at

  9. Cadaveric Temporal Bone Dissection: Is It Obsolete Today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik, Sulabha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Traditionally, surgical training in otology, is imparted by dissecting harvested human cadaveric temporal bones. However, maintenance of a cadaveric temporal bone laboratory is expensive and carries risk of exposure to infection. In recent times, other modalities of training are gaining ground and are likely to eventually replace cadaveric temporal bone dissection altogether. Objectives Other alternative methods of training are emerging. New technology like simulation and virtual reality as high-fidelity, safer alternatives, are making rapid strides as teaching tools. Other options are the use of animal temporal bones as teaching tools. The advantages of these are compared. Data Synthesis None of these modalities can replicate the innumerable anatomical variations which are a characteristic feature of the human temporal bone. A novice surgeon not only needs exposure to surgical anatomy and it's variations but also needs to develop hand-eye coordination skills to gain expertise. Conclusion Deliberate practice on human cadaveric temporal bones only, will confer both mastery in anatomy and surgical technique. The human cadaveric temporal bone is ideal simulator for training in otology.

  10. Strength of suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yun; Hua, Ying-Hui; Wu, Zi-Ying; Chen, Bo; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of fixation with 2-suture anchors versus transosseous tunnel fixation in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments. Six matched pairs of human cadaveric ankles underwent anatomic lateral ankle reconstruction, and fixation of the graft on the talus was achieved with 2 suture anchors or a transosseous tunnel. Ankles for the transosseous tunnel group were chosen at random, with the paired contralateral ankles used for the 2-suture anchor group. Half of the peroneus brevis tendon was harvested as a graft. For each technique, one end of the tendon was secured to the original insertion point of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) at the talus, whereas the other end was armed with 2 No. 5 nonabsorbable sutures (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) and passed through the bone tunnel in the fibula. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying the force in line with the graft. Load to failure was determined at a displacement rate of 50 mm/min. The load-displacement curve, maximum load at failure (N), and stiffness (N/mm) were recorded and compared between the 2 techniques. There was no difference between constructs in the 2-suture anchor group and the transosseous tunnel group in terms of the ultimate load and stiffness (161.8 ± 47.6 N v 171.9 ± 76.0 N; P = .92; 4.59 ± 1.85 N/mm v 5.77 ± 1.98 N/mm; P = .35). Most constructs failed because of anchor pullout in the 2-suture anchor group (5 of 6) and fracture of the bony bridge in the transosseous tunnel group (6 of 6). The strength of fixation with suture anchors in anatomic reconstruction of the ankle lateral ligaments was equivalent to transosseous tunnel fixation as determined with biomechanical testing. However, this study did not prove that one is advantageous over the other. Both techniques showed excellent biomechanical results. Therefore, the 2-suture anchor fixation approach can be safely used in anatomic reconstruction of the

  11. An Anatomic Study on Whether the Immature Patella is Centered on an Anteroposterior Radiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakedes, James C; Liu, Raymond W

    2017-03-01

    In the operating room, after first obtaining a proper lateral radiograph with the condyles superimposed, a 90-degree rotation of the intraoperative fluoroscopy unit does not always produce an anteroposterior (AP) image with the patella centered. The orthogonality of these 2 views has not been well determined in children. This study was comprised of a radiographic group (35 knees) and a cadaveric group (59 knees). Both cadaveric and clinical images were obtained by resting or positioning the femur with the posterior condyles overlapped, and then taking an orthogonal AP image. Centering of the patella was calculated and multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between patellar centering and age, sex, ethnicity, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), and contralateral centering. Mean patellar centering, expressed as the lateral position of the patella with respect to the total condylar width, was 0.08±0.10 in the radiographic group and 0.06±0.03 in the cadaveric group. Positive (lateral) patellar centering in 1 knee had a statistically significant correlation with positive patellar centering in the contralateral knee in both the radiographs and the cadavers. In the radiographic group, there was a statistically significant correlation between femoral varus and valgus deformities and positive patellar centering. In the cadaveric group, there was a statistically significant correlation between tibial valgus and negative (medial) patellar centering. The patella in an immature knee is rarely perfectly centered on a true AP image, and is usually seated slightly laterally within the femoral condyles. Obtaining a true AP intraoperative radiograph is critical to analyzing and correcting valgus and varus deformities, and in the proper placement of implants. When addressing knee deformity one should consider obtaining an AP view orthogonal either to a perfect lateral of the knee or orthogonal to the

  12. Anatomical study of the radius and center of curvature of the distal femoral condyle

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs - including their cartilage tissue - as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion

  13. Deviation analysis of C1-C2 transarticular screw placement assisted by a novel rapid prototyping drill template: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yuan, Zhen-Shan; Kepler, Christopher K; Albert, Todd J; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Dong, Wei-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Cheng-Tao

    2014-07-01

    Cadaveric study. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the accuracy of a novel navigational template for C1-C2 transarticular screw (C1C2TAS) placement in cadaveric specimens. Currently, C1C2TASs are primarily positioned using a free-hand technique or under fluoroscopic guidance. Screw placement is challenging owing to the small size of the C2 isthmus, which places technical demands on the surgeon. Screw insertion carries a potential risk of neurovascular injury, magnifying the importance of using a precise technique for screw insertion. Computed tomography (CT) scans with 0.625-mm wide cuts were obtained from the 32 cadaveric cervical specimens. The CT data were imported into a computer navigation system. We developed 32 three-dimensional drill templates, which were created by computer modeling using a rapid prototyping technique based on the CT data. We constructed drill templates using a custom trajectory for each level and side based on specimen anatomy. The drill templates were used to guide establishment of a pilot hole for screw placement. The entry point and angular direction of the intended screw positions and inserted screw positions were measured by comparing postoperative and preoperative images after the coordinate axes were synchronized. The average displacement of the entry point of the left and right C1C2TAS in the x-, y-, and z-axis was 0.13±0.90 mm, 0.50±1.50 mm, and -0.22±0.71 mm on the left, and 0.21±1.03 mm, 0.46±1.55 mm, and -0.29±0.58 mm on the right. There was no statistically significant difference in entry point and direction between the intended and actual screw trajectory. The small deviations seen are likely due to human error in the form of small variations in the surgical technique and use of software to design the prototype. This technology improves the safety profile of this fixation technique and should be further studied in clinical applications.

  14. Low contrast detectability and spatial resolution with model-based iterative reconstructions of MDCT images: a phantom and cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millon, Domitille; Coche, Emmanuel E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [Philips Healthcare, Brussels (Belgium); Maanen, Aline G. van; Cambier, Samantha E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Statistics Unit, King Albert II Cancer Institute, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-03-15

    To compare image quality [low contrast (LC) detectability, noise, contrast-to-noise (CNR) and spatial resolution (SR)] of MDCT images reconstructed with an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm and a filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The experimental study was performed on a 256-slice MDCT. LC detectability, noise, CNR and SR were measured on a Catphan phantom scanned with decreasing doses (48.8 down to 0.7 mGy) and parameters typical of a chest CT examination. Images were reconstructed with FBP and a model-based IR algorithm. Additionally, human chest cadavers were scanned and reconstructed using the same technical parameters. Images were analyzed to illustrate the phantom results. LC detectability and noise were statistically significantly different between the techniques, supporting model-based IR algorithm (p < 0.0001). At low doses, the noise in FBP images only enabled SR measurements of high contrast objects. The superior CNR of model-based IR algorithm enabled lower dose measurements, which showed that SR was dose and contrast dependent. Cadaver images reconstructed with model-based IR illustrated that visibility and delineation of anatomical structure edges could be deteriorated at low doses. Model-based IR improved LC detectability and enabled dose reduction. At low dose, SR became dose and contrast dependent. (orig.)

  15. Use of 3D printed models in medical education: A randomized control trial comparing 3D prints versus cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Heng Alexander; Loo, Zhou Yaw; Goldie, Stephen J; Adams, Justin W; McMenamin, Paul G

    2016-05-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology capable of readily producing accurate anatomical models, however, evidence for the use of 3D prints in medical education remains limited. A study was performed to assess their effectiveness against cadaveric materials for learning external cardiac anatomy. A double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on undergraduate medical students without prior formal cardiac anatomy teaching. Following a pre-test examining baseline external cardiac anatomy knowledge, participants were randomly assigned to three groups who underwent self-directed learning sessions using either cadaveric materials, 3D prints, or a combination of cadaveric materials/3D prints (combined materials). Participants were then subjected to a post-test written by a third party. Fifty-two participants completed the trial; 18 using cadaveric materials, 16 using 3D models, and 18 using combined materials. Age and time since completion of high school were equally distributed between groups. Pre-test scores were not significantly different (P = 0.231), however, post-test scores were significantly higher for 3D prints group compared to the cadaveric materials or combined materials groups (mean of 60.83% vs. 44.81% and 44.62%, P = 0.010, adjusted P = 0.012). A significant improvement in test scores was detected for the 3D prints group (P = 0.003) but not for the other two groups. The finding of this pilot study suggests that use of 3D prints do not disadvantage students relative to cadaveric materials; maximally, results suggest that 3D may confer certain benefits to anatomy learning and supports their use and ongoing evaluation as supplements to cadaver-based curriculums. Anat Sci Educ 9: 213-221. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. The great auricular nerve: an anatomic and surgical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Russell; Dziegielewski, Peter; O'Connell, Dan; Seikaly, Hadi; Ansari, Kal

    2012-04-01

    The great auricular nerve (GAN) originates from the cervical plexus at the levels of C2 and C3, supplying sensation to the skin overlying the lower aspect of the pinna and angle of the mandible. The GAN can be injured during many procedures in the head and neck, resulting in a significant negative impact on the patient's quality of life. There are no reliable anatomic studies of GAN in the area where it is most likely to get injured. To determine the GAN relationship to the posterior border of the platysma and the external jugular vein (EJV). Patients undergoing neck dissections were included in the study. Measurements were taken between the posterior border of the platysma relative to the nearest edge of the EJV and the GAN. The distance between the GAN and the EJV was also noted. The posterior borders of the platysma and EJV are found, on average, 0.08 cm away from each other, and the free edge of the platysma was most often posterior to the EJV. The distance from the platysma to the GAN was, on average, 0.60 cm. The distance between the EJV and the GAN was 1.17 cm. We have added a safe, reliable, and surgically relevant technique to the head and neck surgeon's armamentarium for identifying the GAN and avoiding attendant injury with long-term debilitating neurologic sequelae.

  18. An assistive image-guided surgical robot system using O-arm fluoroscopy for pedicle screw insertion: preliminary and cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Chung, Jaeheon; Yi, Byung-Ju; Kim, Young Soo

    2010-12-01

    The biplane fluoroscopy guided robot system (BFRS) was developed for surgical robotic systems, minimally invasive surgeries, and cooperative robotic systems, as well as enhanced surgical planning and navigation with preoperative and intraoperative image data. To propose a novel surgical robot system for percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. The BFRS consists of an O-shaped biplane fluoroscope (O-arm), a surgical planning and operating system, and an assistive robot. Each part of the BFRS has a role in conducting percutaneous pedicle screw placements. To evaluate BFRS accuracy, each part was analyzed, and to assess the safety and feasibility of percutaneous pedicle screw insertions with the BFRS, cadaveric studies involving 14 levels in the thoracic and lumbar spine regions were conducted on 2 cadavers. Errors in each part of the system and within the entire system were evaluated. The accuracy of generating coordinates using O-arm images was 0.30±0.15 mm. The robot demonstrated a duplication value of 4.97 μm RMS and an accuracy of 0.358 mm RMS. Total system error was 1.38±0.21 mm. The results of the cadaveric studies show that inserted pedicular screws were adequately located within the spine with no unexpected malpositioning of the screws. The axial angle difference between planned and postoperative data was 2.45±2.56°, and the sagittal angle difference was 0.71±1.21°. The BFRS might be helpful in improving the accuracy of percutaneous pedicular screw insertion procedures. In the future, we will attempt to improve the accuracy and reliability of the BFRS and to determine new clinical applications for the BFRS.

  19. Transobturator vaginal tape inside out for treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in female dogs: cadaveric study and preliminary study in continent female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Stéphanie; Ruel, Hélène; de Leval, Jean; Heimann, Marianne; Hamaide, Annick

    2010-12-01

    (1) To describe a surgical technique adapted from the "transobturator vaginal tape inside-out" (TVT-O) used in women and to define the trajectory of the tape on canine cadavers, and (2) to determine the urodynamic and morphological effects of the TVT-O in continent bitches. Cadaveric and experimental in vivo study. Fresh female canine cadavers (n=12) and spayed female Beagle dogs (2). (1) TVT-O was inserted in 12 cadavers. Dissection was performed and distances between the tape and neighboring structures were recorded. (2) TVT-O was inserted in 2 continent female Beagle dogs. Urethral pressure profilometry and vaginourethrograms were performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and 2, 4, and 6 months postoperatively. Histopathology was performed 6 months after surgery. (1) TVT-O tape was consistently located in a perineal space before entering the obturator foramina and was located at a safe distance from major neurovascular structures including the femoral vessels and obturator nerve. (2) TVT-O was performed without any surgical or postoperative complications in 2 continent bitches. Histopathologic examination of the tissues surrounding the tape revealed a mild fibroblastic proliferation with a mild to minimal lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltration. TVT-O is a feasible and accurate procedure that can be performed in continent bitches with a low risk of complications. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Application of a novel 3D drill template for cervical pedicle screw tunnel design: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengxi; Zhang, Guodong; Chen, Xuanhuang; Chen, Xu; Wu, Changfu; Lin, Yijun; Huang, Wenhua; Lin, Haibin

    2017-06-10

    To develop and validate the efficacy and accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstructive rapid prototyping drill template for cervical pedicle screw placement. CT thin-layer scans were obtained from 12 adult cadaveric cervical specimens and reconstructed. The ideal screw channels were chosen by analyzing the cross sections of the reconstructed 3D images. The navigation templates were designed and printed based on the optimal screw channels. The pedicle screws were placed on the cadaver specimens under template guidance, and the cadaver specimens were scanned and reconstructed. The pre- and post-operative models were compared. Entry point and exit point data of these two models were collected and compared using the Chi-square test. A total of 164 cervical pedicle screws were placed; among them, six punctured the cortical bone of the vertebral pedicle reaching an accuracy of 96.3%. Among the outside screws, all of the deviation distances were 3D CT reconstructive rapid prototyping drill template combined with the screw tunnel design based on 3D cutting technique can help facilitate accurate cervical pedicle screw insertion.

  1. Attachment sites of the coracoclavicular ligaments are characterized by fibrocartilage differentiation: a study on human cadaveric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert, B; Braunstein, V; Sprecher, C; Shinohara, Y; Kirchhoff, C; Milz, S

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the immunohistochemical labeling patterns of the extracellular matrix of the coracoclavicular ligaments (CCL) in order to relate the molecular composition of the attachment sites to their mechanical environment. Ligaments were exposed from 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric samples (four males, mean age: 48.6 ± 12.1 years). Cryosection of methanol-fixed and decalcified tissue was cut and sections were labeled with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, proteoglycans and proteins of vascular components. Attachment sites of both ligaments showed characteristic fibrocartilaginous labeling of collagen type II, aggrecan and link protein in all samples. Labeling for type II collagen was most conspicuous at the insertion of the coracoid process. Morphometry of adjacent samples revealed a fibrocartilage zone of 10-15% in relationship with the ligament proper, where labeling for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein was negative. The presence of fibrocartilage at both entheses of the trapezoid and conoid ligament suggests that the CCL complex is subject to shear/compression forces. A variable fibrocartilage differentiation at the entheses of both ligaments may be related to the marked change in loading and insertion angle that the ligaments undergo during shoulder movement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Matthias; Magnussen, Robert A; Villa, Vincent; Demey, Guillaume; Neyret, Philippe

    2012-06-07

    There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints - one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  3. The concept of double bundle ACL simulation with a single bundle patellar tendon graft. A cadaveric feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobi Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. Methods We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints – one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. Results The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. Conclusions ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.

  4. Posterior hyaloid detachment and internal limiting membrane peeling assisted by anthocyanins from acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) and 10 other natural vital dyes: experimental study in cadaveric eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jane; Ferreira, Magno Antonio; Farah, Michel Eid; de Carvalho, André Maia; Alves Ferreira, Raquel Eustaquio; de Moraes Filho, Milton Nunes; Souza Lima-Filho, Acácio Alves; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Ferreira, Eber; Peris, Cristiane; Maia, Maurício

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether natural dyes facilitate posterior hyaloid detachment (posterior vitreous detachment [PVD]) and retinal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in human eyes. Open-sky vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid and ILM removal was performed in 86 human cadaveric eyes. After core vitrectomy, 11 different dyes were injected into the vitreous cavity to aid hyaloid detachment and ILM removal. The dyes were allowed to settle on the macula for 5 minutes after PVD and were removed by mechanical aspiration. Intraocular forceps were used for ILM peeling, which was confirmed by light microscopy of the peeled tissue. Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea) extract and 10 additional dyes from plants or animal sources were tested: pomegranate (Punica granatum), logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), indigo (Indigofera tinctoria), paprika (Capiscum annuum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), old fustic (Maclura tinctoria), and grape (Vitis vinifera). The dyes facilitated PVD and ILM peeling. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, logwood (H. campechianum), cochineal (D. coccus), and old fustic (M. tinctoria) facilitated PVD in all cases; dye-assisted PVD was compared with triamcinolone-assisted PVD performed previously in a comparative model. Acai fruit (E. oleracea) extract, cochineal (D. coccus), and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) showed the best capability for ILM staining; dye-assisted ILM removal was compared with the ILM peeling guided by indocyanine green staining performed previously in a comparative model. Light microscopy confirmed the ILM removal in all cases. Anthocyanin dye of the acai fruit (E. oleracea) and the dyes from cochineal (D. coccus) and chlorophyll extract from alfalfa (M. sativa) resulted in the best capability for posterior hyaloid and ILM staining in human cadaveric eyes and may be a useful tool for

  5. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar, petiole and stem anatomical characters of Thaumatococcus daniellii and Megaphrynium macrostachyum in Ile-Ife and Osogbo, environs, Osun State in Nigeria are reported. The aim is to determine the macro and micro-characters that could facilitate their identification and classification. It is envisaged that this will ...

  6. Relapse and stability of surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion, an anatomical biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Schulten, A.J.M.; van der Wal, K.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This anatomic biomechanical study was undertaken to gain insight into the underlining mechanism of tipping of the maxillary segments during transverse expansion using tooth-borne and bone-borne distraction devices. Materials and Methods: An anatomic biomechanical study was performed on 10

  7. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the thumb carpometacarpal ligaments: a cadaveric study of ligament anatomy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Amy L; Lee, Julia; Hagert, Elisabet

    2012-08-15

    Stability and mobility represent the paradoxical demands of the human thumb carpometacarpal joint, yet the structural origin of each functional demand is poorly defined. As many as sixteen and as few as four ligaments have been described as primary stabilizers, but controversy exists as to which ligaments are most important. We hypothesized that a comparative macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint would further define their role in joint stability. Thirty cadaveric hands (ten fresh-frozen and twenty embalmed) from nineteen cadavers (eight female and eleven male; average age at the time of death, seventy-six years) were dissected, and the supporting ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified. Ligament width, length, and thickness were recorded for morphometric analysis and were compared with use of the Student t test. The dorsal and volar ligaments were excised from the fresh-frozen specimens and were stained with use of a triple-staining immunofluorescent technique and underwent semiquantitative analysis of sensory innervation; half of these specimens were additionally analyzed for histomorphometric data. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate differences between ligaments. Seven principal ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified: three dorsal deltoid-shaped ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique), two volar ligaments (anterior oblique and ulnar collateral), and two ulnar ligaments (dorsal trapeziometacarpal and intermetacarpal). The dorsal ligaments were significantly thicker (p histologic appearance of capsular tissue with low cellularity. The dorsal deltoid ligament complex is uniformly stout and robust; this ligament complex is the thickest morphometrically, has the highest cellularity histologically, and shows the greatest degree of sensory nerve endings. The hypocellular anterior oblique ligament is thin, is variable in its location, and

  8. Different effect of percutaneous plate insertion via anteromedial vs anterolateral approach on intracompartmental pressure of the leg: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarase, Chavarin; Thimasarn, Wanchat; Tantavisut, Saran; Huanmanop, Thanasil; Wangroongsub, Yongsak; Limthongkul, Worawat

    2017-11-01

    Currently Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique for tibial shaft fracture management has gained wide attention. However, an increased intracompartmental pressure after the plate insertion may result in postoperative acute compartment syndrome. We reported the difference of immediate effect of percutaneous plate insertion using 2 approaches of MIPO technique on anterior compartment pressure of the legs. Eight soft cadaveric legs (one female and three males) without previous history of skeletal trauma or surgery were infused with normal saline to create the sustained intracompartmental pressure of 20mm Hg in all four compartments. The Synthes(®) 4.5mm 11-hole Narrow Locking Compression Plate was inserted via anteromedial and anterolateral approach. Anterior compartment pressure was measured by portable digital monitoring device through side-port needle (Stryker(®) Intracompartmental Monitoring Device) before and after plate insertion for each approach. By using anteromedial approach, a mean of anterior compartment pressure was increased by 0.375mm Hg after plate insertion (5 of 8 legs had no change in pressure and the remaining 3 resulted in 1mm Hg pressure elevation). For anterolateral plate insertion, all of the 8 legs had an elevation of anterior compartment pressure with a mean of 3.5mmHg (ranged from 2 to 6mm Hg). When both approaches were compared to each other, the anterolateral plate insertion resulted in higher intracompartmental pressure elevation of the anterior compartment than the anteromedial approach. Surgeon should be more aware of acute compartment syndrome when considering the anterolateral approach in treating close tibial fracture. However, in patients with suspected acute compartment syndrome, close observation and continuous monitoring of the intracompartmental pressure is still imperative for all healthcare provider. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomical, pathological and clinical study of donkey teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Eighty normal cheek teeth and 26 normal incisors extracted from 14 donkeys (median age 19 years) at post mortem were anatomically examined including grossly and by computerised axial tomography (CAT) imaging. Decalcified histology was performed on 54 sections from 18 teeth (8 donkeys), undeclacified histology on 16 sections from 7 donkeys and scanning electron microscopy on 10 sections from 10 teeth (3 donkeys). The dental formulae and tooth number was found to be the same as i...

  10. A study on the anatomical morphology of the minor fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Hyung Jin; You, Jin Jong; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon [Gyeongsang University College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The minor fissure is an important anatomical landmark in the localization of the pulmonary disease. For the evaluation of the normal feature of the minor fissure, we analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans in 51 normal patients. The purpose of this study are to evaluate the normal appearance of the minor fissure on high-resolution CT scans and to compare it with that on the conventional CT and radiographys. We analyzed the morphologic feature of the minor fissure on the high-resolution CT scans in 51 normal patients, and compared it with that on the conventional CT scans. On the high-resolution CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the completeness and types according to Berkmen classification. And finally, we compared the types determined by the high-resolution CT scans with those by the plain radiographys. In most patients (n=47), the minor fissure was seen as a hyperattenuating line or band on the high resolution CT scans. In contrast, it was mostly seen as a lucent zone on the conventional CT scans (n=44). Of 47 patient having a hyperattenuating line or band on the high-resolution CT scans, the minor fissure was considered to be complete in 17 patients (36%), and incomplete in 30 patients (64%), who had a defeat at medial portion of the minor fissure. The most common type of the minor fissure seen on the high-resolution CT scans was type I variety (n=23), followed by tape IIa (n=8). We could not determined the type in six patients. The type determined by the high-resolution CT scans was highly well correlated with that determined by the plain radiographys (p<0.05). In conclusion, the minor fissure was seen CT studies as variable appearances and high-resolution CT scans were superior to the conventional CT scans in the evaluation of the minor fissure. The types of the minor fissure determined by the high-resolution CT scans were well correlated with those seen on the radiographys.

  11. Trans-iliosacral plating for vertically unstable fractures of sacral spine associated with spinopelvic dissociation: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, Pravin; Pereira, Barry P; Kathare, Ambadas; Sun, Khong Kok; Kagda, Fareed; Joseph, Thambiah

    2012-05-01

    desired angulation for inserting screws and percentage of displacement on biomechanical testing was evaluated. Mean angulations for inserting sacral pedicel were 12.3° (SD 2.7°) convergent to midline and divergent of 14° (SD 2.3°) for sacral ala screw and 23° (SD 4.9°) for iliac wing screw. All screws needed to be inserted at an angle of 90° to sacral dorsum to avoid violation of root canals. Cross headed displacement across fracture site was measured and plotted against the applied vertical shear load of 300 N in five cycles each for all the four configurations. Also, the force required for cross headed displacement of 2.5 mm and 5 mm was recorded for all configurations. Transmitted load across both ischial tuberosities was measured to resolve unequal distribution of forces. Taking one screw construct (configuration 1) as standard base reference, trans-iliosacral plate construct (configuration 3) showed equal rigidity to standard reference. Two screw construct (configuration 2) was 12% stronger and trans-iliosacral plate (configuration 4) with screw was 9% stronger at 2.5 mm displacing on 300 N force, while it showed 30% and 6%, respectively, at 5 mm cross-headed displacement. Trans-iliosacral plating is feasible anatomically, biomechanically and radiologically for sacral fractures associated with vertical shear pelvic fractures. Low profile of plate reduces the risk of hardware prominence and decreases the need for implant removal. Also, the fixation pattern of plate allows to spare mobile lumbosacral junction which is an important segment for spinal mobility. Biomechanical studies revealed that rigidity offered by plate for cross headed displacement across fracture site is equal to sacroiliac screws and further rigidity of construct can be increased with addition of one more screw. There is need for precountered thicker plate in future.

  12. Impact of Arthroscopic Lateral Acromioplasty on the Mechanical and Structural Integrity of the Lateral Deltoid Origin: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Katthagen, J Christoph; Mikula, Jacob D; Montgomery, Scott R; Tahal, Dimitri S; Dahl, Kimi D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Millett, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether a 5-mm and/or 10-mm arthroscopic lateral acromioplasty (ALA) would weaken the structural and mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid. The acromion and lateral deltoid origin were harvested from 15 pairs (n = 30) of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulder specimens. One side of each specimen pair (left or right) was randomly assigned to either a 5-mm (n = 7) or 10-mm (n = 8) ALA group, and the contralateral sides (n = 15) were used as matched controls. Acromion thickness and width were measured pre- and postoperatively. After ALA, specimens were inspected for damage to the lateral deltoid origin. Each specimen was secured within a dynamic testing machine, and the deltoid muscle was pulled to failure. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether ALA reduced the lateral deltoid's failure load. There was no significant difference in failure load between the 5-mm ALA group (661 ± 207 N) and its matched control group (744 ± 212 N; mean difference = 83 N; 95% confidence interval [CI], -91 to 258; P = .285) nor between the 10-mm ALA group (544 ± 210 N) and its matched control group (598 ± 157 N; mean difference = 54 N; 95% CI, -141 to 250; P = .532). There was no correlation found between the amount of bone resected (measured by percent thickness and width of the acromion after ALA) and the failure load of the deltoid. Visual evaluation of the acromion after ALA revealed the lateral deltoid origin had no damage in any case. ALA did not weaken the structural or mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid origin. Neither a 5-mm nor a 10-mm ALA significantly reduced the deltoid's failure load. The lateral deltoid origin was not macroscopically damaged in any case. ALA can be performed without the potential risk of macroscopically damaging the lateral deltoid origin or reducing its failure load. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distal extension of the direct anterior approach to the hip poses risk to neurovascular structures: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Monahan, Rebecca; Gilbey, Helen; Yap, Francis; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus

    2015-01-21

    The anterior approach to the hip gained popularity for total hip arthroplasty in recent years. Distal extension of the anterior approach, sometimes needed intraoperatively, potentially endangers neurovascular structures to the quadriceps. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomical structures placed at risk by distal extension of the anterior approach to the hip. Seventeen cadaveric hemipelves from twelve human specimens were dissected. The femoral nerve and its branches and the vessels arising from the lateral femoral circumflex artery were assessed in relation to the distal extension of the anterior approach. The damage caused by the introduction of a cerclage cable passer was also investigated. The area immediately distal to the intertrochanteric line is a common entry point for several nerve branches and is a useful distal landmark for surgeons to use to protect important neurovascular structures. The distal extension of the anterior approach compromises the nerve supply to the anterolateral portions of the quadriceps. Introduction of a cerclage cable passer through the anterior access also jeopardizes nerve branches to the vastus lateralis, lateral parts of the vastus intermedius, and branches of the lateral femoral circumflex artery. Distal extension of the direct anterior approach to the hip is challenging to accomplish without neurovascular injury to anterolateral parts of the quadriceps muscle group. In addition, important neurovascular structures are endangered with the introduction of a cable passer through the anterior approach. Distal extension of the direct anterior approach to the hip beyond the intertrochanteric line may compromise neurovascular structures supplying the quadriceps muscle. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  14. A novel cadaveric simulation program in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamran; Aydin, Abdullatif; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; McCabe, John E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the urology human cadaver training program developed by the British Association of Urological Surgeons. This prospective, observational comparative study recruited urology residents, with different levels of experience, in 2 sessions of a 3-day modular cadaveric operative urology training. Participants performed various procedures on fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens, as per module, supervised by certified urological surgeons. At the conclusion of each module, all residents and faculty were invited to complete an evaluation survey. The training days were hosted by the British Association of Urological Surgeons at the University of Manchester Surgical Skills and Simulation Centre. A total of 81 urology residents were recruited, with a maximum of 14 participants attending each module, over 2 sessions. We allocated 2 participants to each cadaver with access to all necessary equipment and guidance. A total of 102 evaluation surveys were received from the trainees and faculty; a response rate of 94%. All procedures scored a mean of 3 on 5 for face validity, which is higher than the acceptability range. Regarding content validity, participants and faculty rated all aspects ≥3 on 5. Respondents held a positive view of the cadaver sessions and believed them to be useful for learning anatomy and steps of an operation (mean = 4.54) and as a confidence booster for performing a procedure (mean = 4.33). Furthermore, it was thought that the training program significantly improved skills (mean = 4.11), gave transferrable skills for the operating room (mean = 4.21), and was feasible to be incorporated into training programs (mean = 4.29). Human cadaveric simulation was rated as the best mode of simulation-based training for all the procedures in the curriculum. This study on cadaveric simulation training demonstrated face and content validities. It also showed feasibility, acceptability, a high value for educational influence and cost-effectiveness for cadaveric

  15. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a comparative biomechanical study of the palmaris-longus tendon graft reconstruction with other augmentative methods in cadaveric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acromioclavicular injuries are common in sports medicine. Surgical intervention is generally advocated for chronic instability of Rockwood grade III and more severe injuries. Various methods of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction and augmentation have been described. The objective of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel palmaris-longus tendon reconstruction with those of the native AC+CC ligaments, the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction, the ACJ capsuloligamentous complex repair, screw and clavicle hook plate augmentation. Hypothesis There is no difference, biomechanically, amongst the various reconstruction and augmentative methods. Study Design Controlled laboratory cadaveric study. Methods 54 cadaveric native (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were tested using the Instron machine. Superior loading was performed in the 6 groups: 1 in the intact states, 2 after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction (WD, 3 after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with acromioclavicular joint capsuloligamentous repair (WD.ACJ, 4 after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with clavicular hook plate augmentation (WD.CP or 5 after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with coracoclavicular screw augmentation (WD.BS and 6 after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with mersilene tape-palmaris-longus tendon graft reconstruction (WD. PLmt. Posterior-anterior (horizontal loading was similarly performed in all groups, except groups 4 and 5. The respective failure loads, stiffnesses, displacements at failure and modes of failure were recorded. Data analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA, with Student's unpaired t-test for unpaired data (S-PLUS statistical package 2005. Results Native ligaments were the strongest and stiffest when compared to other modes of reconstruction and augmentation except coracoclavicular screw, in both posterior-anterior and superior directions (p WD.ACJ provided additional

  16. Staying Out of Double-Bubble and Bottoming-Out Deformities in Dual-Plane Breast Augmentation: Anatomical and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgarello, Marzia; Visconti, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Double-bubble and bottoming-out deformities represent the second most common reason for revision surgery in breast augmentation. Etiopathogenesis of these complications is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to report our findings in breast cadaver dissections focusing on the inframammary fold (IMF) applied anatomy and to critically review our ten-year experience in breast augmentation. A cadaveric study has been performed on four consecutive embalmed cadavers. A retrospective review of 207 consecutive women who underwent breast augmentation, using the submuscular dual-plane technique with a periareolar approach, between January 2003 and January 2013, was performed. According to our dissections, the IMF is a complex osseo-fascio-cutaneous structure in which the superficial pectoralis fascia represents a key structure in breast augmentation surgery. Hence, a critical analysis of the IMF relationship with surrounding breast structures helps to understand the etiology of double-bubble and bottoming-out deformities and gives the anatomical basis to prevent them. In our early clinical experience, we experienced 3% of double-bubble and 6% of bottoming-out deformities. Those complications were avoided later by dissection in the inferior pole according to the anatomical findings. Bottoming-out and double-bubble deformities can be avoided if an anatomical approach is used during pocket dissection at the level of the IMF, paying attention to avoid disrupting the superficial and deep attachments of the superficial pectoralis fascia at the IMF. A comprehensive understanding of IMF anatomy and the key surgical maneuvers to avoid these complications must be taken into account for each route of dissection. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. [Demonstration of a new safe incision for acetabular fractures on cadaveric samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Maza, Edgardo; García-Estrada, Fernando; Chávez-Covarrubias, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    acetabular fractures are very complex due to their fracture pattern, localization and surrounding anatomical structures. The aim was to demonstrate a safe anatomical corridor that allows a safe osteosynthesis in cadaveric specimens. adult cadaveric specimens of any sex were used. A vertical 7 cm incision was made in the union of the second and medial third of a traced line from anterior-upper iliac spine to pubis tubercle. Dissection is done to reach the peritoneum and identification of iliopectineal line and all structures for development an acetabular osteosynthesis were evaluated. in 7 cadavers, 6 were male, the incision was performed bilaterally identifying all necessary structures to make acetabular osteosynthesis. In any case an important anatomical structure were founded thorough the incision. Suprapectineal and infrapectineal plates could be placed without structural damage. it is possible to perform acetabular osteosynthesis using this incision representing a safe anatomical corridor with lower iatrogenic damage.

  18. Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Daniel; Claret, Guillem; López, Ana Maria; Medrano, Cristina; Tornero, Eduard; Asunción, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of the superficial peroneal nerve (SPN) and, more precisely, of the distal branches of the SPN at the ankle has attracted interest owing to the possibility of injury when performing ankle arthroscopy. The anterolateral portal is one of the most commonly used portals in ankle arthroscopy, and the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve can easily be injured during portal placement. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether visual inspection and palpation of the cutaneous nerves at the ankle differed from examination with ultrasonography and whether the 2 examination techniques correlated with the anatomic location of the SPN, which was verified by cadaver dissection. First, visual examination and palpation was performed to identify the SPN, after which 12 cadaver legs from separate specimens were examined with ultrasonography to mark the course of the SPN. We then measured the distance between the nerve as identified with gross visualization/palpation and ultrasound examination, and compared these with the precise location determined by anatomic dissection. The use of ultrasonography to determine the course of the SPN was good or excellent in 11 of the 12 legs (91.7%) studied. In contrast, gross visualization/palpation was good or excellent in 4 legs (33.3%). Excellent agreement was observed between the ultrasound markings and the anatomic dissection results. However, the visual examination poorly identified the course and the anatomic variations of the nerve branches evidenced in the anatomic dissection. From these findings in cadaver specimens, ultrasound identification of the SPN and its branches is likely preferable to gross visualization/palpation before placement of the anterolateral arthroscopic portal to the ankle. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal exposure of circle of Willis (CW); can it be applied in vascular neurosurgery in the near future? A cadaveric study of 26 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod R; Kawsar, Khandkar A; Ara, Shamim; Mohammod, Quazi Deen; Sarker, Mainul H; Goel, Atul H

    2012-01-01

    Endonasal transsphenoidal approaches are getting rapidly popular in removing many midline skullbase lesions from crista galli to foramen magnum. For safe removal of these lesions, familiarity with endoscopic endonasal anatomy of circle of Willis is very important. Furthermore, for safe development of this approach in vascular neurosurgery in the near future, endoscopic endonasal exposure of circle of Willis is a fundamental step. The goals in this study were to dissect the circle of Willis completely through the endoscopic endonasal approach and to become more familiar with the views and skills associated with the technique by using fresh cadaveric specimens. After obtaining ethical clearance, 26 fresh cadaver heads were used without any preparation. Using a neuroendoscope, complete exposure of the circle of Willis was done endonasaly, and various observations including relation of circle of Willis was recorded. Complete exposure of the circle of Willis was made through an endonasal approach in all cases without injuring surrounding structures. Endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal exposure of CW can make the surgeon more efficient in removing midline skullbase lesions with safe handling of different parts of circle of Willis and it may help in development of endonasal endoscopic vascular neurosurgery in the near future.

  20. Cadaveric Anatomy in the Future of Medical Education: What Is the Surgeon's View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ahmad Hassan; Barry, Denis S.; Gutierrez, Humberto; Cryan, John F.; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced contact hours and access to cadaveric/prosection-based teaching in medical education has led to many doctors reporting inadequate anatomical knowledge of junior doctors. This trend poses significant risk, but perhaps most of all in surgery. Here the opinions of surgeons regarding current and future teaching practices in anatomy were…

  1. [A novel computer-assisted drill template for atlantoaxial pedicle screw placement:a cadaveric experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Yuan, Zhen-shan; Xie, Hui; Yuan, Jian-bing; Dong, Wei-xin; Wang, Cheng-tao

    2013-09-03

    To validate the accuracy of atlanto-axial pedicle screw placement with a rapid prototyping drill guide template and analyze the factors of screw deviations. Computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 16 cervical specimens. And three-dimension cervical vertebrae was reconstructed by Mimics software. The ideal trajectory for atlanto-axial pedicle screws was designed with a complementary basal template for posterior surface of atlanto-axial corresponding anatomical structure. Then drill guide template was materialized in a rapid prototyping machine. These templates were used during operation. The entry point and ideal and actual trajectories were measured after matching the positions of preoperative and postoperative specimens at designated coordinate axis. The average displacement of entry point of left and right C1 pedicle screw in x, y, z axis was (0.14 ± 0.59),(0.31 ± 1.32), (0.27 ± 0.68), (0.23 ± 0.55), (0.43 ± 1.21) and (0.30 ± 0.72) mm. And the average displacement of entry point of left and right C2 pedicle screw in m, n, p axis was (0.25 ± 0.85), (0.52 ± 1.52), (-0.27 ± 0.67), (0.44 ± 0.87), (0.38 ± 1.48), (-0.14 ± 0.62) mm.No statistically significant difference existed (P > 0.05) in deviation of entry point and between ideal and actual trajectories. Both human handling and inherent hardware and software factors are main reasons for a deviation of C1-C2 pedicle screw placement assisted by a rapid prototyping drill guide template.Ease of operation and individualized design are the advantages of drill guide template so as to greatly improve the precision of screw placement and reduce screw deviation.

  2. Morphological and Histo-Anatomical Study of Bryonia alba L. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Lavinia; Ielciu, Irina-Ioana; Păltinean, Ramona; Vlase, Laurian; Ştefănescu, Cristina; Crişan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study consisted in the identification of the macroscopic and microscopic characters of the vegetative and reproductive organs of Bryonia alba L., by the analysis of vegetal material, both integral and as powder. Optical microscopy was used to reveal the anatomical structure of the vegetative (root, stem, tendrils, leaves) and reproductive (ovary, male flower petals) organs. Histo-anatomical details were highlighted by coloration with an original combination of rea...

  3. TVT-S in the U position--anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Petr; Nanka, Ondrej; Martan, Alois; Grim, Milos; Zvarova, Jana; Masata, Jaromir

    2011-02-01

    The objective is to describe the anatomical position of tension-free vaginal tape Secur (TVT-S) in the U position regarding possible injury and fixation site. We placed TVT-S inserters bilaterally in 13 embalmed and five fresh frozen female bodies. After dissection, we measured distances from the obturator bundle. In embalmed bodies, the mean distance of TVT-S from the obturator bundle was 2.83 cm (standard deviation (SD) 0.87 cm) on the left, 2.92 cm (SD 1.24 cm) on the right. Perforation of the fascia of obturator internus muscle occurred in 38.5%. In fresh frozen bodies, results were fundamentally similar (p > 0.05). There is a risk of injury to the obturator bundle and urinary bladder during TVT-S; however, there is a significant risk of inserting the TVT-S inserter outside the obturator internus muscle (into the lesser pelvis). The position of TVT-S does not change significantly after legs mal-positioning.

  4. Segmented images and 3D images for studying the anatomical structures in MRIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sook; Chung, Min Suk; Cho, Jae Hyun

    2004-05-01

    For identifying the pathological findings in MRIs, the anatomical structures in MRIs should be identified in advance. For studying the anatomical structures in MRIs, an education al tool that includes the horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is necessary. Such an educational tool, however, is hard to obtain. Therefore, in this research, such an educational tool which helps medical students and doctors study the anatomical structures in MRIs was made as follows. A healthy, young Korean male adult with standard body shape was selected. Six hundred thirteen horizontal MRIs of the entire body were scanned and inputted to the personal computer. Sixty anatomical structures in the horizontal MRIs were segmented to make horizontal segmented images. Coronal, sagittal MRIs and coronal, sagittal segmented images were made. 3D images of anatomical structures in the segmented images were reconstructed by surface rendering method. Browsing software of the MRIs, segmented images, and 3D images was composed. This educational tool that includes horizontal, coronal, sagittal MRIs of entire body, corresponding segmented images, 3D images, and browsing software is expected to help medical students and doctors study anatomical structures in MRIs.

  5. Craniovertebral junction 360°: A combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhawar, Sukhdeep Singh; Nunez, Maximiliano; Pacca, Paolo; Voscoboinik, Daniel Seclen; Truong, Huy

    2016-01-01

    Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) can be approached from various corridors depending on the location and extent of disease. A three-dimensional understanding of anatomy of CVJ is paramount for safe surgery in this region. Aim of this cadaveric study is to elucidate combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomy of critical neurovascular structures in this area in relation to bony and muscular landmarks. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric heads injected with color silicon were used for this study. A stepwise dissection was done from anterior, posterior, and lateral sides with reference to bony and muscular landmarks. Anterior approach was done endonasal endoscopically. Posterior and lateral approaches were done with a microscope. In two specimens, both anterior and posterior approaches were done to delineate the course of vertebral artery and lower cranial nerves from ventral and dorsal aspects. CVJ can be accessed through three corridors, namely, anterior, posterior, and lateral. Access to clivus, foreman magnum, occipital cervical joint, odontoid, and atlantoaxial joint was studied anteriorly with an endoscope. Superior and inferior clival lines, supracondylar groove, hypoglossal canal, arch of atlas and body of axis, and occipitocervical joint act as useful bony landmarks whereas longus capitis and rectus capitis anterior are related muscles to this approach. In posterior approach, spinous process of axis, arch of atlas, C2 ganglion, and transverse process of atlas and axis are bony landmarks. Rectus capitis posterior major, superior oblique, inferior oblique, and rectus capitis lateralis (RCLa) are muscles related to this approach. Occipital condyles, transverse process of atlas, and jugular tubercle are main bony landmarks in lateral corridor whereas RCLa and posterior belly of digastric muscle are the main muscular landmarks. With advances in endoscopic and microscopic techniques, access to lesions and bony anomalies around CVJ is becoming easier and straightforward. A

  6. Can markers injected into a single-loop anterior cruciate ligament graft define the axes of the tibial and femoral tunnels? A cadaveric study using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Conrad; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2008-08-01

    Lengthening of a soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft construct over time, which leads to an increase in anterior laxity following ACL reconstruction, can result from relative motions between the graft and fixation devices and between the fixation devices and bone. To determine these relative motions using Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA), it is first necessary to identify the axes of the tibial and femoral tunnels. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the error in using markers injected into the portions of a soft-tissue tendon graft enclosed within the tibial and femoral tunnels to define the axes of these tunnels. Markers were injected into the tibia, femur, and graft in six cadaveric legs the knees of which were reconstructed with single-loop tibialis grafts. The axes of the tunnels were defined by marker pairs that were injected into the bones on lines parallel to the walls of the tibial and femoral tunnels (i.e., standard). By using marker pairs injected into the portions of the graft enclosed within the tibial and femoral tunnels and the marker pairs aligned with the tunnel axes, the directions of vectors were determined by using RSA, while a 150 N anterior force was transmitted at the knee. The average and standard deviations of the angle between the two vectors were 5.5+/-3.3 deg. This angle translates into an average error and standard deviation of the error in lengthening quantities (i.e., relative motions along the tunnel axes) at the sites of fixation of (0.6+/-0.8)%. Identifying the axes of the tunnels by using marker pairs in the graft rather than marker pairs in the walls of the tunnels will shorten the surgical procedure by eliminating the specialized tools and time required to insert marker pairs in the tunnel walls and will simplify the data analysis in in vivo studies.

  7. Anatomical features of skull base and oral cavity: a pilot study to determine the accessibility of the sella by transoral robotic-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelot, Aymeric; Trunet, Stephanie; Degos, Vincent; André, Olivier; Dionnet, Aurore; Cornu, Philippe; Hans, Stéphane; Chauvet, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    The role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in the skull base emerges and represents the natural progression toward miniinvasive resections in confined spaces. The accessibility of the sella via TORS has been recently described on fresh human cadavers. An anatomic study is mandatory to know if this approach would be feasible in the majority of patients regardless of their oral morphological features. From 30 skull base CT scans from patients who were asked to open their mouth as wide as they can, we measured specific dimensions of the oral cavity and the skull base, such as length of the palate, mouth opening and distance from the sella to the palate. All data were acquired on a sagittal midline plane and on a 25° rotation plane, which simulated the axis of the robotic instruments. Looking at the projection of the dental palatine line on the sella, we studied possible predictive factors of sellar accessibility and tried to bring objective data for surgical feasibility. We also proposed an angle α to study the working angle at the skull base. We observed that the maximal mouth opening was a good predictive factor of sellar accessibility by TORS (p < 0.05). The mouth aperture threshold value for a good sensitivity, over 80 %, was comparable to the mean value of mouth opening in our series, 38.9 and 39.4 mm respectively. Moreover, we showed a statistically significant increase of the working angle α at the skull base comparing the lateral access to the midline one (p < 0.05). This seemed to quantitatively demonstrate that the robotic arms placed at the labial commissure of the mouth can reach the sella. From these anatomical features and previous cadaveric dissections, we assume that TORS may be feasible on a majority of patients to remove pituitary adenomas.

  8. Rare Cadaveric Finding of a Grossly Enlarged Mucocele Appendix

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    Anna Farias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Appendicular mucoceles are rare clinical findings characterized by dilation and distention of the appendicular lumen by the accumulation of mucus. Their discovery is often incidental from abdominal imaging or more commonly as a secondary surgical finding. In this case study we report the first known recorded case of a cadaveric mucocele appendix discovered during routine dissection of the gastrointestinal system. The recorded cause of death for the 86-year-old female patient was congestive heart failure. We compared the gross anatomy and histology of this enormous appendix with another cadaveric appendix. A pathology report identified the appendicular mucocele as a mucinous cystadenoma.

  9. Plating of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular shaft component: A biomechanical study evaluating plate stiffness in a cadaveric fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate mechanically superior method of pilon fracture fixation by comparing axial stiffness between anterolateral and medial tibial locking plates in a cadaveric fracture model. Eight matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaver specimens (lower limb after through-knee disarticulation) were used to eliminate confounder of bone quality. Simulated pilon fractures were created so that each pair represented either varus or valgus fracture pattern (AO 43-A2) with associated fibular fractures (transverse or comminuted). Specimens were plated with DePuy anterolateral or medial locking plate and axial load applied, measuring displacement at the fracture site. Each lower extremity was tested with a fracture wedge in place and removed to mimic comminution. Average force at which failure occurred was compared between the two fixation methods, for varus and valgus fracture pattern respectively, with the use of a Mann-Whitney U test. On average, medial plate fixation of varus fractures resulted in 2.27 times (range of 1.6-3.9) greater load prior to failure as compared to anterolateral plate. Similarly, valgus simulated fractures tolerated 1.6 times (range 1.12-2.34) higher force prior to failure if anterolateral plate was applied versus medial plate. Analysis utilizing the Mann-Whitney U test for fracture patterns vs plate configuration approached statistical significance (p = 0.081 varus failure and p = 0.386 valgus failure). Lateral plate fixation is biomechanically superior for pilon fractures resulting from valgus force as evident by comminuted fibular fracture. Similarly, medial plate location resulted in improved stiffness in compression for varus type fractures, evident by transverse fibular fracture. We approached statistical significance, however our lack of power regarding adequate sample size is an issue that is consistent with other biomechanical studies in this area.

  10. Comparison of cannulated screw with tension band wiring versus compressive cannulated locking bolt and nut device (CompresSURE) in patella fractures-a cadaveric biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domby, Brian; Henderson, Eric; Nayak, Aniruddh; Erdoğan, Murat; Gutierrez, Sergio; Santoni, Brandon G; Sagi, H Claude

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if proximity of cannulated lag screws to the articular surface of the patella combined with the tension band technique affects resistance to fracture gap opening, and if an alternative locking nut and bolt device without a tension band behaves in a biomechanically similar fashion. Thirty-three cadaveric knees were allocated to 3 transverse patella fracture fixation groups: cannulated lag screw placement close to the articular (TBA) or non-articular (TBNA) surface with tension, and placement of a compressive locking nut and bolt device without tension band (CompresSURE) close to the articular surface. Knees were cycled through flexion-extension motion for 1000 cycles during which the fracture gap opening was quantified after the first flexion-extension cycle and after the 1,000 th cycle using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. After the first range of motion cycle, there was no significant difference in fracture gap opening between the 3 groups on the articular surface (P > 0.600). Total fracture gap displacement after the 1,000 th cycle was not significantly different between groups (P > 0.408). In general and irrespective of fixation technique, fractures opened in a wedge-like fashion with larger measured gap on the ventral surface relative to the articulating surface. When combined with the tension band, the proximity of cannulated lag screws to the articular surface did not affect resistance to fracture gap opening. Additionally, the stand-alone CompreSURE cannulated locking nut and bolt device without tension band was able to resist fracture gap opening in transverse fractures as effectively as the cannulated screw with tension band technique.

  11. A novel radiographic targeting guide for percutaneous placement of transfacet screws in the cervical spine with limited fluoroscopy: A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David M; Karp, Jacqueline E; O'Brien, Joseph R; Anderson, D Greg; Gelb, Daniel E; Ludwig, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    We describe a technique for percutaneous transfacet screw placement in the cervical spine without the need for lateral-view fluoroscopy. Previously established articular pillar morphometry was used to define the ideal trajectory for transfacet screw placement in the subaxial cervical spine. A unique targeting guide was developed to allow placement of Kirschner wires across the facet joint at 90° without the guidance of lateral-view fluoroscopy. Kirschner wires and cannulated screws were placed percutaneously in 7 cadaveric specimens. Placement of instrumentation was performed entirely under modified anteroposterior-view fluoroscopy. All specimens were assessed for acceptable screw placement by 2 fellowship-trained orthopaedic spine surgeons using computed tomography. Open dissection was used to confirm radiographic interpretation. Acceptable placement was defined as a screw crossing the facet joint, achieving purchase in the inferior and superior articular processes, and not violating critical structures. Malposition was defined as a violation of the transverse foramen, spinal canal, or nerve root or inadequate fixation. A total of 48 screws were placed. Placement of 45 screws was acceptable. The 3 instances of screw malposition included a facet fracture, a facet distraction, and a C6-7 screw contacting the C7 nerve root in a specimen with a small C7 superior articular process. Our data show that with the appropriate radiographic technique and a targeting guide, percutaneous transfacet screws can be safely placed at C3-7 without the need for lateral-view fluoroscopy during the targeting phase. Because of the variable morphometry of the C7 lateral mass, however, care must be taken when placing a transfacet screw at C6-7. This study describes a technique that has the potential to provide a less invasive strategy for posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine. Further investigation is needed before this technique can be applied clinically.

  12. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

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    Sébastien Touraine

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA. METHODS: 68 (34 pairs cadaveric knees (mean age of 84 were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. RESULTS: In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC were detected in 23(34% and 14(21% knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28% knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001. Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34% and 19(28% knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04 while MC were not (p = 0.34. OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55. No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  13. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Hang Korng; Bousson, Valérie; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Laouisset, Liess; Chappard, Christine; Lioté, Frédéric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT) in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA). 68 (34 pairs) cadaveric knees (mean age of 84) were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC) and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC) were detected in 23(34%) and 14(21%) knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28%) knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001). Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34%) and 19(28%) knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04) while MC were not (p = 0.34). OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55). No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  14. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

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    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  15. Cadaveric simulation: a review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiasemidou, M; Gkaragkani, E; Glassman, D; Biyani, C S

    2017-11-14

    Traditional surgical training, largely based on the Halstedian model "see one, do one, teach one" is not as effective in the era of working time restrictions and elaborate shift-patterns. As a result, contemporary surgeons turned to educational methods outside the operating theatre such as simulation. Cadavers are high fidelity models but their use has ethical and cost implications and their availability may be limited. In this review, we explore the role of cadaveric simulation in modern surgical education. All the Evidence-Based Medicine databases were searched for relevant reviews. The resulting studies were assessed for inclusion to this review, according to pre-determined criteria. Data extraction was performed using a custom-made spreadsheet, and the quality of included reviews was assessed using a validated scoring system (AMSTAR). The literature review yielded 33 systematic reviews; five of which matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this review of reviews. Cadaveric simulation was found to have good face (subjective assessment of usefulness) and content validity (whether a specific element adds or retracts to the educational value) while trainees improved their surgical skills after practicing on cadavers. However, concerns have been raised about ethical issues, high cost and availability. Cadavers are an effective medium for surgical teaching, and it may be appropriate for them to be used whenever surrounding conditions such cost and availability allow. Further research is required to provide evidence on whether there is equivalence between cadavers and other educational media which may not bear the same shortcomings.

  16. Functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped polycarbonate urethane total meniscus replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Eggermont, F.E.; Tienen, T.G. van; Hannink, G.J.; Buma, P.; Janssen, D.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane total meniscus implant. METHODS: Five human cadaveric knees were flexed between 0 degrees and 90 degrees under compressive loads mimicking a squat movement. Anteroposterior (AP)

  17. Ultrasound-guided approach to nerves (direct vs. tangential) and the incidence of intraneural injection: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermeus, L.A.; Sala-Blanch, X.; McDonnell, J.G.; Lobo, C.A.; Nicholls, B.J.; Geffen, G.J. van; Choquet, O.; Iohom, G.; Galve, B. de Jose Maria; Hermans, C.; Lammens, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of nerve puncture and intraneural injection based on the needle approach to the nerve (direct vs. tangential). Two expert operators in regional anaesthesia performed in-plane ultrasound-guided nerve blocks (n = 158) at different levels of the brachial plexus in

  18. A cadaveric study of the anatomical variation of the origins of the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery: a role in median arcuate ligament syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Summercorn, Annalise; Bridger, John

    2013-11-01

    Gray's Anatomy states, "the celiac trunk is the first anterior branch of the abdominal aorta and arises just below the aortic hiatus. The superior mesenteric artery originates from the aorta c1.0 cm below the celiac trunk." (Standring, 2008a, Gray's Anatomy. 40th Ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, p. 1073-1074). During dissection classes with medical students we found this not to be the case. We have re-evaluated the anatomy of the origins of the celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the relationship of the CT to the median arcuate ligament (MAL) in 99 cadavers. We have found the external distance between the CT and SMA to range from 0 to 20 mm (mean 3.4 mm, SD 5.17 mm), with the two in direct apposition in 57.6% (n = 99) of cases: a higher figure than previously documented. However, the internal distance between the CT and SMA ranged from 10 to 30 mm (mean 18.9 mm, SD 4.09 mm). There was no distance measurable between the MAL and the CT in 88 cadavers (92.6%, n = 95) and, of these, 32 (33.7%) showed evidence of compression or kinking of the CT. We suspect that the MAL is responsible for the approximation of the CT to the SMA in these cadavers, and that the high incidence of kinking of the CT (33.7% of cases) may have implications with regard to its role in MAL syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A comparative study of anatomic structures on the panoramic radiograph and some extraoral radiographs

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    Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Han Pyoung [Department of dental science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-11-15

    The author has studied each landmark for successful interpretation in the radiograph of the head that have the complex anatomic structures, using panoramic radiograph, postero-anterior cephalometric radiograph, lateral cephalometric radiograph, Waters' radiograph of the skull. The anatomic structures of the human dry skull attached by radiopaque materials were taken radiographs and analysed comparatively. The results were as follows: 1. The overall anatomic structures of the mandible showed sharp images in the panoramic radiograph than other radiographs with relatively less distortion, superimposition, blurring of the image. 2. The anatomic structures were situated on sagittal plane of the skull showed blurred images in panoramic radiograph than other radiographs. 3. The anatomic structures which were situated on the basal portion of the skull showed blurred and secondary images in the panoramic radiograph than other radiographs. 4. In the panoramic radiograph, the lower 3rd portion of the orbit appeared to be superimposed with the superior portion of the maxillary sinus and the medial and lateral surface of the nasal cavity showed extensively superimposition of the orbit and the maxillary sinus, which images showed blurring. 5. The inferior surface and posterior surface of maxillary sinus showed to be good image in the panoramic radiograph than other radiographs. 6. In the panoramic radiograph, line of maxillary bone between lateral pterygoid plate, line of maxillary bone between zygomatic bone showed distinct image with another structures.

  20. Topographic anatomical study of the sciatic nerve relationship to the posterior portal in hip arthroscopy

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    Berliet Assad Gomes

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anatomic topographic relation between the sciatic nerve in relation to the piriform muscle and the posterior portal for the establishment of hip arthroscopy.Methods: We dissected 40 hips of 20 corpses of adult Brazilians, 17 male and three female, six black, six brown and eight white. We studied the anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle with their variations and the distance between the lateral edge of the sciatic nerve and the posterior portal used in hip arthroscopy. We then classified the anatomical alterations found in the path of the sciatic nerve on the piriform muscle.Results: Seventeen corpses had bilateral relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriform muscle, i.e., type A. We found the following anatomical variations: 12.5% of variant type B; and an average distance between the sciatic nerve and the portal for arthroscopy of 2.98cm. One body had type B anatomical variation on the left hip and type A on the right.Conclusion: the making of the posterior arthroscopic portal to the hip joint must be done with careful marking of the trochanter massive; should there be difficult to find it, a small surgical access is recommended. The access point to the portal should not exceed two centimeters towards the posterior superior aspect of the greater trochanter, and must be made with the limb in internal rotation of 15 degrees.

  1. A novel cadaveric study of the morphometry of the serratus anterior muscle: one part, two parts, three parts, four?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alexandra Louise; O'Sullivan, Elizabeth; Stokes, Maria; Mottram, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The serratus anterior is portrayed as a homogeneous muscle in textbooks and during functional activities and rehabilitation exercises. It is unclear whether the serratus anterior is composed of subdivisions with distinctive morphology and functions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the serratus anterior could be subdivided into different structural parts on the basis of its segmental architectural parameters. Eight formalin-embalmed serratus anterior muscles were dissected and the attachments of each fascicle documented. Orientation and size of each fascicle were measured and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) calculated. Three subdivisions of the serratus anterior were identified. A new finding was the discovery of two distinctive fascicles attached to the superior and inferior aspects of rib 2. The rib 2 inferior fascicle had the largest PCSA (mean 1.6 cm 2 ) and attached, with the rib 3 fascicle, along the medial border of the scapula to form the middle division. The rib 2 superior and rib 1 fascicles attached to the superior angle of the scapula (upper division). Fascicles from ribs 4-8/9 attached to the inferior angle of the scapula (lower division). Mean fascicle angle relative to a vertical midline reference and PCSA for each division were 29° and 1.3 cm 2 (upper), 90° and 2.2 cm 2 (middle) and 59° and 3.0 cm 2 (lower). This novel study demonstrated the presence of morphologically distinct serratus anterior subdivisions. The results of this study will inform the development of optimal techniques for the assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of this architecturally complex muscle in shoulder and neck pain.

  2. Deformation of the Durom acetabular component and its impact on tribology in a cadaveric model--a simulator study.

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    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the acetabular component frequently becomes deformed during press-fit insertion. The aim of this study was to explore the deformation of the Durom cup after implantation and to clarify the impact of deformation on wear and ion release of the Durom large head metal-on-metal (MOM total hips in simulators. METHODS: Six Durom cups impacted into reamed acetabula of fresh cadavers were used as the experimental group and another 6 size-paired intact Durom cups constituted the control group. All 12 Durom MOM total hips were put through a 3 million cycle (MC wear test in simulators. RESULTS: The 6 cups in the experimental group were all deformed, with a mean deformation of 41.78 ± 8.86 µm. The average volumetric wear rate in the experimental group and in the control group in the first million cycle was 6.65 ± 0.29 mm(3/MC and 0.89 ± 0.04 mm(3/MC (t = 48.43, p = 0.000. The ion levels of Cr and Co in the experimental group were also higher than those in the control group before 2.0 MC. However there was no difference in the ion levels between 2.0 and 3.0 MC. CONCLUSIONS: This finding implies that the non-modular acetabular component of Durom total hip prosthesis is likely to become deformed during press-fit insertion, and that the deformation will result in increased volumetric wear and increased ion release. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study was determined to explore the deformation of the Durom cup after implantation and to clarify the impact of deformation on wear and ion release of the prosthesis. Deformation of the cup after implantation increases the wear of MOM bearings and the resulting ion levels. The clinical use of the Durom large head prosthesis should be with great care.

  3. Deformation of the Durom acetabular component and its impact on tribology in a cadaveric model--a simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhefeng; Gu, Yanqing; Wang, Qing; Cui, Weiding; Fan, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the acetabular component frequently becomes deformed during press-fit insertion. The aim of this study was to explore the deformation of the Durom cup after implantation and to clarify the impact of deformation on wear and ion release of the Durom large head metal-on-metal (MOM) total hips in simulators. Six Durom cups impacted into reamed acetabula of fresh cadavers were used as the experimental group and another 6 size-paired intact Durom cups constituted the control group. All 12 Durom MOM total hips were put through a 3 million cycle (MC) wear test in simulators. The 6 cups in the experimental group were all deformed, with a mean deformation of 41.78 ± 8.86 µm. The average volumetric wear rate in the experimental group and in the control group in the first million cycle was 6.65 ± 0.29 mm(3)/MC and 0.89 ± 0.04 mm(3)/MC (t = 48.43, p = 0.000). The ion levels of Cr and Co in the experimental group were also higher than those in the control group before 2.0 MC. However there was no difference in the ion levels between 2.0 and 3.0 MC. This finding implies that the non-modular acetabular component of Durom total hip prosthesis is likely to become deformed during press-fit insertion, and that the deformation will result in increased volumetric wear and increased ion release. This study was determined to explore the deformation of the Durom cup after implantation and to clarify the impact of deformation on wear and ion release of the prosthesis. Deformation of the cup after implantation increases the wear of MOM bearings and the resulting ion levels. The clinical use of the Durom large head prosthesis should be with great care.

  4. To study the anatomy of tympanomastoid segment of facial nerve and its variations in human cadaveric temporal bone

    OpenAIRE

    Nitika Gupta; Rohan Gupta; I P Singh; Sunil Kotwal; Anil Suri; Sunanda Raina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The facial nerve is one of the most significant and vulnerable structures in the temporal bone. Its dysfunction affects both voluntary and voluntary motion leading to noticeable disfigurement and emotional distress to those suffering from it. Iatrogenic facial paralysis is known to be a feared complication of ear surgery, and its incidence is reported to be 0.6–3.6% in all otologic surgical procedures, which increases to 4–10% in revision cases. Objective: The aim of this study ...

  5. A cadaveric study of posterior dislocation after total hip replacement-effects of head diameter and acetabular anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fu Yuen; Zhang, Jiang Tao; Chiu, Kwong Yuen; Yan, Chun Hoi

    2011-03-01

    The size of the femoral head and acetabular anteversion are crucial for stability in total hip replacements. This study examined the effects of head diameter and acetabular anteversion on the posterior instability after total hip replacement in an in vivo setting. The acetabular shell was inserted at 0-20° of anteversion at five degree intervals. By using different head sizes (28 mm, 32 mm, 36 mm), the degrees of dislocation were recorded by computer navigation. The 36-mm group consistently showed better stability compared with the 32- and 28-mm groups, regardless of the degree of cup anteversion. Within each group of head size, the hip was significantly more stable when the cup anteversion increased from 0° to 10°. The difference became insignificant when it increased from 15° to 20°.

  6. Effect of neurodynamic mobilization on fluid dispersion in median nerve at the level of the carpal tunnel: A cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudier-Revéret, M; Gilbert, K K; Allégue, D R; Moussadyk, M; Brismée, J M; Sizer, P S; Feipel, V; Dugailly, P M; Sobczak, S

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of neurodynamics mobilization (NDM) on an artificially induced edema in the median nerve at the level of the carpal tunnel in unembalmed cadavers and to assess whether NDM tensioning techniques (TT) and NDM sliding techniques (SLT) induce similar effects on intraneural fluid dispersion. Fourteen upper extremities of seven unembalmed cadavers were used in this study. A biomimetic solution was injected directly under the epineurium of the median nerve at the level of the proximal transverse carpal ligament. The initial dye spread was allowed to stabilize and measured with a digital caliper. Tensioning and sliding techniques were applied following a randomized crossover design to each upper extremity and were performed for a total of 5 min each. Post-intervention dye spread measurements were taken after each technique. After the first mobilization, the mean longitudinal dye spread (7.5 ± 6.6 mm) was significantly greater (p = 0.024) compared to the stabilized dye spread. There was a significant longitudinal diffusion effect with both, TT (p = 0.018) and SLT (p = 0.016), with no statistically significant difference between techniques (p = 0.976). The order in which techniques were administered did not influence the diffusion. Five minute of passive NDM in the form of tensioning or sliding technique induced significant fluid dispersion in the median nerve at the carpal tunnel of unembalmed human cadavers. This study provides support for clinical mechanism of NDM in reducing intraneural edema. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GC × GC-TOFMS and supervised multivariate approaches to study human cadaveric decomposition olfactive signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Perrault, Katelynn A; Stadler, Sonja; Pesesse, Romain; LeBlanc, Helene N; Forbes, Shari L; Focant, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the associated volatile organic compounds (VOC) can help to improve the training of victim recovery (VR) canines, which are used to search for trapped victims in natural disasters or to locate corpses during criminal investigations. The complexity of matrices and the dynamic nature of this process require the use of comprehensive analytical methods for investigation. Moreover, the variability of the environment and between individuals creates additional difficulties in terms of normalization. The resolution of the complex mixture of VOCs emitted by a decaying corpse can be improved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), compared to classical single-dimensional gas chromatography (1DGC). This study combines the analytical advantages of GC × GC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with the data handling robustness of supervised multivariate statistics to investigate the VOC profile of human remains during early stages of decomposition. Various supervised multivariate approaches are compared to interpret the large data set. Moreover, early decomposition stages of pig carcasses (typically used as human surrogates in field studies) are also monitored to obtain a direct comparison of the two VOC profiles and estimate the robustness of this human decomposition analog model. In this research, we demonstrate that pig and human decomposition processes can be described by the same trends for the major compounds produced during the early stages of soft tissue decomposition.

  8. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Alberto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Methods Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. Results The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50°–52° and type II (mean 62,50°–64°, with significant differences between them (p Conclusion Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  9. Cadaveric and three-dimensional computed tomography study of the morphology of the scapula with reference to reversed shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Carlos; Corrales, Monica; Gonzalez, Gemma; Solano, Alberto; Cáceres, Enrique

    2008-10-10

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the morphology of the scapula with reference to the glenoid component implantation in reversed shoulder prosthesis, in order to improve primary fixation of the component. Seventy-three 3-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula and 108 scapular dry specimens were analyzed to determine the anterior and posterior length of the glenoid neck, the angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula and the angle between the major craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process and the upper posterior column. The anterior and posterior length of glenoid neck was classified into two groups named "short-neck" and "long-neck" with significant differences between them. The angle between the glenoid surface and the upper posterior column of the scapula was also classified into two different types: type I (mean 50 degrees-52 degrees ) and type II (mean 62.50 degrees-64 degrees ), with significant differences between them (p craneo-caudal glenoid axis and the base of the coracoid process averaged 18,25 degrees while the angle with the upper posterior column of the scapula averaged 8 degrees . Scapular morphological variability advices for individual adjustments of glenoid component implantation in reversed total shoulder prosthesis. Three-dimensional computed tomography of the scapula constitutes an important tool when planning reversed prostheses implantation.

  10. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger): a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Daniel W; Khan, Ashfaq; Hammer, Steven; Scanlan, Paul; Shu, Wenmiao; Phipps, Simon; Parson, Simon H; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert; McNeill, S Alan

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP) (robotic and laparoscopic), have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc). We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized) [E-finger]) capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection. Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point. Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to examine the use of elasticity assessment devices for tissue quality assessment with the aim of giving haptic feedback to surgeons performing complex surgery.

  11. Deformation and stress distribution of the human foot after plantar ligaments release: a cadaveric study and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Yubin

    2011-03-01

    The majority of foot deformities are related to arch collapse or instability, especially the longitudinal arch. Although the relationship between the plantar fascia and arch height has been previously investigated, the stress distribution remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the plantar ligaments in foot arch biomechanics. We constructed a geometrical detailed three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model of the human foot and ankle from computer tomography images. The model comprised the majority of joints in the foot as well as bone segments, major ligaments, and plantar soft tissue. Release of the plantar fascia and other ligaments was simulated to evaluate the corresponding biomechanical effects on load distribution of the bony and ligamentous structures. These intrinsic ligaments of the foot arch were sectioned to simulate different pathologic situations of injury to the plantar ligaments, and to explore bone segment displacement and stress distribution. The validity of the 3-D FE model was verified by comparing results with experimentally measured data via the displacement and von Mise stress of each bone segment. Plantar fascia release decreased arch height, but did not cause total collapse of the foot arch. The longitudinal foot arch was lost when all the four major plantar ligaments were sectioned simultaneously. Plantar fascia release was compromised by increased strain applied to the plantar ligaments and intensified stress in the midfoot and metatarsal bones. Load redistribution among the centralized metatarsal bones and focal stress relief at the calcaneal insertion were predicted. The 3-D FE model indicated that plantar fascia release may provide relief of focal stress and associated heel pain. However, these operative procedures may pose a risk to arch stability and clinically may produce dorsolateral midfoot pain. The initial strategy for treating plantar fasciitis should be non-operative.

  12. Spinal nerve root compositions of musculocutaneous nerve: an anatomical study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demircay, Emre; Musluman, Ahmet Murat; Cansever, Tufan; Yuce, Ismail; Civelek, Erdinc; Yilmaz, Adem; Kabatas, Serdar; Ozdes, Taskin; Sam, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the variations in the spinal nerve root compositions of musculocutaneous nerve and to confirm which spinal nerve root is the main ingredient in participating amount...

  13. Anatomical Study on Commelina diffusa Burn f. and Commelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Commelinaceae) are known from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the present work, the leaf epidermal characters, midrib and stem anatomy were studied in relation to their taxonomic values. Voucher specimens collected from different parts of ...

  14. A comparison of retraction pressure during anterior cervical plate surgery and cervical disc replacement: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortolani, P Justin; Cunningham, Bryan W; Vigna, Franco; Hu, Nianbin; Zorn, Candace M; McAfee, Paul C

    2006-07-01

    Dysphagia is a well-recognized complication after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, observed in as high as 50% of cases by videofluoroscopic evaluation postoperatively. Esophageal injury due to surgical retraction is a complication due to which swallowing difficulties may ensue. There are limited published data evaluating the effect of soft tissue retraction on intraesophageal pressures during anterior cervical instrumentation procedures. The purpose of this study was to (a) measure the intraesophageal pressure secondary to retraction during anterior instrumentation, (b) determine whether any pressure differences exist between plating and cervical disc replacement, and (c) determine whether the surgical level or length of the plate influences the magnitude of intraesophageal pressure during retraction. An analysis of soft tissue retraction pressure was performed for anterior single-level and 3-level cervical plating and cervical disc replacement procedures. Using a 4-cm transverse incision, a Smith-Robinson anterior approach to the cervical spine was performed on 7 fresh, frozen cadavers. The correct placement of an esophageal pressure-transducing catheter was confirmed by laryngoscopy, manual palpation of the esophagus, and fluoroscopic imaging. Three surgical instrumentation groups were used for comparisons: (a) single-level plate (b) single-level Porous Coated Motion cervical disc replacement, and (c) 3-level plate. Hand-held appendiceal retractors were used to retract the soft tissues during screw insertion into the plate and during application of the disc prosthesis into the interspace. Care was taken to exert just enough force on the retractors to allow the surgeon to move the desired implant into the correct position. In addition the individual performing the retraction was blinded to the procedure being performed-1-level plating, 3-level plating, or disk replacement. Fluoroscopy confirmed that the pressure sensors were directly behind the retractors

  15. Anatomical study of Rubus subgenus Rubus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Kasalkheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubus L. genus from Rosaceae has about 750 species, from which 8 species and 5 hybrids from Iran. In this study stem, leaflet, petiole, stipule and pedicle anatomy of 7 species of the genus Rubus subgenus. Rubus is invesgitated. These species include R. sanctus, R. persicus, R. hyrcanus, R. hirtus, R. dilichocarpus, R. discolor and R. caesius. Plant samples were collected and then fixed and handmade cross-section of leave were prepared and stained with methyl green and carmine. Several slides were studies and photographed with light microscope (LM. Among studied character, five quantitative features such as shape of transvers cross section, type of glandular and non-glandular trichome, presence or absence of stalk glandular trichome, distribution of calcium oxalate crystal and thickness of cuticle were studied in separation of species. Also, five quantitative features such as number of vascular bundles, number of collenchyma layer (in stem and petiole, number of palisade and spongy paranchymatous layer (in leaflet and presence or absence palisade paranchymatous in stipule are valuable and can be used in distinguishing species.

  16. Foliar anatomical study of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    useful in roof thatching as well as making cushion for sleeping mats (Terashima and. Ichikawa, 2003). There are other numerous examples of disposable utensils made of ... There is a dark green region along the mid-rib of all M. macrostachyum studied and again they have big and robust size when compared with T.

  17. Plastination technology for anatomical studies in Nigeria: Opinion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... methods that began in the time of the Egyptian pharaohs where desiccation was the primary means of mummification in ... Less than 8.0% utilised plastination as a tool for teaching as against 40% (plastic models), 36.25% (cadavers) .... as well as structures studied with the aid of a microscope. (Gray 1918).

  18. Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internode, bark and wood anatomy of seven tree species of the Family Moraceae, grown in Nigeria were studied to determine their characteristic tissue distribution and unique ergastic substances which could be of immense value in taxonomic work as well as of great economic and medicinal values. Direct microscopic ...

  19. Anatomical study on Commelina diffusa burn F. and Commelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commelina diffusa Burn. f. and Commelina erecta L. (Commelinaceae) are known from tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the present work, the leaf epidermal characters, midrib and stem anatomy were studied in relation to their taxonomic values. Voucher specimens collected from different parts of Abia, Rivers ...

  20. Trans-subscapularis portal versus low-anterior portal for low anchor placement on the inferior glenoid fossa: a cadaveric shoulder study with computed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Petrera, Massimo; White, Lawrence M; Chechik, Ofir; Wasserstein, David; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Veillette, Christian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell J; Theodoropoulos, John S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of inserting a glenoid anchor at the 5:30 clockface position using a trans-subscapularis (TSS) portal versus a low anterior (LA) portal. Five surgeons (T.D., J.C., C.V., D.J.O-H., J.S.T.) placed a single anchor in 20 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. In each of 2 shoulders, surgeons used an LA portal to insert the anchor, whereas in 2 shoulders a TSS portal was used. Surgeons were directed to place the anchor at the 5:30 position at an angle 45° to the glenoid surface (axial plane) and passing perpendicular to the glenoid rim in the coronal plane. Shoulders were then dissected and computed tomographic (CT) scans obtained. Anchor position relative to the clockface was documented by 2 blinded assessors, as was the angle of insertion in the axial and coronal planes. Statistical significance was calculated with a Student t test for paired samples (confidence interval [CI], 95%; significance, P anchor insertion in the axial plane was 67.2° (SD, 19°) for the LA portal versus 62.8° (SD, 14°) for the TSS portal (P = .49), whereas the average angle of insertion in the coronal plane was 31.3° (SD, 14°) of inferior angulation in the LA group and 14.3° (SD, 8°) of inferior angulation in the TSS group (P = .009). Of the anchors inserted, 9 of 20 (45%) showed evidence of far-cortical perforation. No difference in cortical perforation was seen between the 2 portals, with perforation more likely with anchors inserted greater than 45° in the axial plane (8 of 20) than with those inserted less than 45° (1 of 20) (P = .02). The use of a TSS portal improves the angle of approach to the inferior glenoid rim in comparison with an LA portal, reducing the acuity of the angle of insertion in the coronal plane. The TSS portal is an option for surgeons performing arthroscopic Bankart repair using anchors low on the glenoid rim. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  2. [Several diagnostic errors in cerebral atherosclerosis (clinico-anatomic study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotskov, G V

    1979-01-01

    A clinicoanatomical study was conducted in 218 cases of atherosclerotic dementia. 12 cases (5,5% of the total amount) showed diagnostic errors. Atherosclerotic dementia with Alzhemier-like symptomatology during life was considered to be Alzheimers disease, while Alzheimers disease, complicated by cerebral atherosclerosis as atherosclerotic dementia. Some objective and subjective factors of diagnostic errors were established. Late detection of such patients is considered as one of the risk factors of diagnostic errors during life.

  3. Anatomical Variation of Equine Internal Maxillary Artery: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Andrés Dalmau Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic block is taught in the Veterinary Medicine Program at La Salle University’s Faculty of Agricultural Sciences that is relevant to the basic disciplinary training of future veterinarians. It is the theoretical and practical subject of the anatomy of the head of domestic species, which includes the head of horses. The study is addressed by testing the theory in the exercise of a dissection, and the exploration of the different structures that make up the head. This regional and systematic study includes angiology of the head, where emphasis is made on the branches of the common carotid artery as main vessel that irrigates the head. The common carotid artery ends in the occipital, internal carotid and external carotid arteries; the last one splits into two main terminal branches, namely: the internal maxillary artery and the superficial temporal. Generally, the internal maxillary artery follows a path that is repeated in almost all specimens that are dissected as described by different authors; however, in some cases there may variations in the path of the artery, such as in its branches. The purpose of this work is to inform about a case that arose in a regular class in the anatomy lab during dissection of a horse head where arteries were being studied macroscopically. Dissection showed a variation in the normal path of the internal maxillary artery at the level of lateral pterygoid muscle. The case involves an 11-year old mare that was put down by unqualified personnel outside the campus, and whose head was later severed and sent to the gross anatomy labs of the Veterinary Medicine program at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Given its provenance, it was not possible to know the anamnesis, nor the history of the animal.

  4. Ulnar-sided perilunate instability: an anatomic and biomechanic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, S F; Patterson, R M; Peterson, P D; Pogue, D J; Jenkins, D K; Sweo, T D; Hokanson, J A

    1990-03-01

    A staging system for ulnar-sided perilunate instability is presented based on a series of cadaver dissections and load studies. Stage I: partial or complete disruption of the lunotriquetral interosseous ligament, without clinical and/or radiographic evidence of dynamic or static volar intercalated segment instability deformity; stage II: complete disruption of the lunotriquetral interosseous ligament and disruption of the palmar lunotriquetral ligament, with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of dynamic volar intercalated segment instability deformity; and stage III: complete disruption of the lunotriquetral interosseous and the palmar lunotriquetral ligaments, attenuation or disruption of the dorsal radiocarpal ligament, with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of static volar intercalated segment instability deformity.

  5. The sphenopalatine foramen in man: anatomical, radiological and endoscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shaarawy, Ehab Abdel Aziz; Hassan, Sherif S

    2017-11-13

    Epistaxis is a frequent problem otorhinolaryngologists faces of in their practice. The variations of the sphenopalatine foramen and consequently the artery may be one of the major sources of such bleeding. The present work aimed at to localize the site of sphenopalatine foramen and also to illustrate its different shapes, number and any other variation. In the current study, twenty adult skulls of both sexes with total 40 half skulls were used in addition to 20 heads of adult living subjects of both sexes aged between 30-60 years examined with multislice helical CT with 3-D reconstruction of SPF. Then, examination of another ten dried skulls with endoscope. The number of the sphenopalatine foramina (SPF) is varied being single in nearly 80 % and multiple in 20 % of examined cases. The shape of the foramen also is varied; regular in 67.5 % and irregular in 32.5 % of all cases. The site of the foramen on the lateral nasal wall is placed in the superior meatus in most of examined skulls (62.5 %) while in the rest (37.5 %) they are found in the superior meatus and extending to the middle one. There are variation of the number, shape and site of the SPF, and consequently of the branches of the sphenopalatine artery, and this may explain the surgical failure in management of severe epistaxis. The data obtained from the current work support the predication of more than one sphenopalatine arteries and gives ample knowledge on the endoscopic study of the lateral nasal wall and consequently the surgical treatment of severe epistaxis.

  6. [Axillary local anesthetic spread after the thoracic interfacial ultrasound block - a cadaveric and radiological evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Patricia Alfaro de la; Jones, Jerry Wayne; Álvarez, Servando López; Garcia, Paula Diéguez; Miguel, Francisco Javier Garcia de; Rubio, Eva Maria Monzon; Boeris, Federico Carol; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Duany, Osmany; Pérez, Mario Fajardo; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana

    Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. The innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle: an anatomical study for selective neurotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria, Nazzi; Giuseppe, Messina; Ivano, Dones; Giovanni, Broggi

    2009-10-01

    This study is aimed to describe the observable anatomical variants of the innervation of extensor hallucis longus muscle (EHLM) in order to have the surgical coordinates to perform neurotomy on the targeted branches of its innervation and to give a valuable alternative to the commonly used technique of fascicular subepineurial neurotomy in patients affected by toe hyperextension dystonia. In 15 fresh cadavers of adults, 29 lower limbs (14 right and 15 left) were studied. Anatomical dissections to isolate the innervating branches of EHLM were performed. Each branch from EHLM was analyzed by microscopical opening of the epineurium to observe the number of nerve fascicles. Various measurements were made to obtain anatomical coordinates for surgery. The distance between the most prominent point of the head of the fibula and the origin of the nervous branches innervating the EHLM is not proportional to the length of the leg. In 72.4% of the studied legs, the distance between the origin of the first branch innervating the EHLM and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 7 +/- 2 cm. In 80% of legs, the distance between the origin of the second branch and the origin of the deep peroneal nerve is 10 +/- 1.1 cm. In only one limb with double innervation, two fascicles were found, while in six limbs (25%) only one fascicle was found. This anatomical study traced some valuable surgical coordinates useful for the execution of a selective peripheral neurotomy on the nerve branch innervating the EHLM.

  8. Level of arterial ligation in total mesorectal excision (TME): An anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Buunen (Mark); M.M. Lange (Marilyne); M. Ditzel (Max); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: High-tie ligation is a common practice in rectal cancer surgery. However, it compromises perfusion of the proximal limb of the anastomosis. This anatomical study was designed to assess the value of low-tie ligation in order to obtain a tension-free anastomosis. Materials

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  10. Assessment of vinyl polysiloxane as an innovative injection material for the anatomical study of vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaud, Jacques; Chalvet, Laurane; Del Corso, Marco; Cerboni, Elsa; Feugier, Patrick; Mertens, Patrick; Simon, Emile

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous injection materials for the study of vasculature in anatomical specimens, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Latex and resins are the most widely used injection materials but need several days to set. The development of new materials taking shorter time to polymerize might be very useful to improve anatomic specimen study conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), a silicon material widely used for dental impressions with the advantage to set very rapidly, as an injection material. We assessed the preparation, use, diffusion and setting time of the product in different anatomical regions (central nervous system, external carotid/jugular, lower limb) to observe its behavior in variably sized vessels. Our results suggest that VPS might be of interest for the study of vessels in anatomical specimens. The main strengths of the product are represented by (1) simplicity of use, as it is a ready-to-use material, (2) very rapid polymerization, (3) availability in a range of viscosities making easier the exploration of small vessels, (4) its better elasticity compared to resins, (5) and finally its availability in a range of colors making it a material of choice for vascular system dissections including those with very small caliber vessels.

  11. The sacro-iliac joint : a clinical-anatomical, biomechanical and radiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vleeming (Andry)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis study is concerned with clinical-anatomical, biomechanical, and radiological properties of the sacro-iliac joints. It was initiated in order to acquire a better understanding of these 'enigmatic' joints. We started with researching the macroscopic anatomy of the

  12. Transtibial ACL reconstruction technique fails to position drill tunnels anatomically in vivo 3D CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Sebastian; Forsythe, Brian; Wong, Andrew K; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the positions of femoral and tibial tunnels in patients who underwent traditional transtibial single-bundle ACL reconstruction, as performed by multiple surgeons, utilizing 3D CT models, and to compare these positions to our previously reported anatomical tunnel positions. Fifty-eight knee computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on patients who underwent primary or revision transtibial single-bundle ACL reconstruction, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the CT scans were aligned within an anatomical coordinate system. The position of femoral tunnel aperture centers was measured with (1) the quadrant method and (2) in the anatomic posterior-to-anterior and proximal-to-distal directions. The position of tibia tunnel aperture centers were measured similarly, in the anterior-to-posterior and medial-to-lateral dimensions on the tibial plateau. Comparisons were made to previously established anatomical tunnel positions, and data were presented as "mean value ± standard deviation (range)." The location of tibial tunnels was at 48.0 ± 5.4% (35.6-59.5%) of the anterior-to-posterior plateau depth and at 47.9 ± 2.9% (42.2-57.4%) of the medial-to-lateral plateau width. The location of femoral tunnels was at 55.8 ± 8.0% (41.5-79.5%) in the anatomic posterior-to-anterior direction and at 41.2 ± 10.4% (15.1-67.4%) in the proximal-to-distal directions. Utilizing a quadrant method, femoral tunnels were positioned at 37.4 ± 5.1% (24.9-50.6%) from the proximal condylar surface, parallel to Blumensaat line, and at 11.0 ± 7.3% (-6.0-28.7%) from the notch roof, perpendicular to Blumensaat line. In summary, tibial tunnels were positioned medial to the anatomic PL position (p tunnels were positioned anterior to both AM and PL anatomic tunnel locations (p tunnels within the native ACL insertion site. To achieve anatomical graft placement, other surgical techniques should be considered. IV.

  13. Anatomical study of the maxillary tuberosity in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, T; Abe, S; Tamatsu, Y; Rhee, S; Hashimoto, M; Ide, Y

    1998-11-01

    The placement of dental implants in the molar region of the maxilla is often difficult because of the presence of the maxillary sinus. It has recently been postulated that the pillar of bone consisting of the maxillary tuberosity, the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, and the pyramidal process of the palatine bone, which is located at the posterior part of the maxilla, is suitable for fixing implants in the maxilla. In this study, we morphometrically examined the figure of the pillar of bone in dentate and edentulous maxillary bone specimens. The posterior part of the maxilla, including the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone and pyramidal process of the palatine bone was embedded in polyester resin. Serial transverse sections 500 microns thick were prepared, and soft X-ray photographs were taken. Three-dimensional images of the pillar of bone were reconstructed from the contour in the soft X-ray images, and the height inclination angles, and volume of the pillar were measured. In dentulous specimens, the imaginary approximation line of the center of the gravity of the pillar of bone in the posterior part of the maxilla was inclined antero-posteriorly at an angle of 76.5 +/- 3.0 degrees from the anterior to posterior direction against the Frankfurt horizontal plane and bucco-palatally at 17.2 +/- 2.7 degrees to the medial direction against the sagittal plane. In edentulous specimens, the pillar of bone was inclined antero-posteriorly at 67.3 +/- 5.0 degrees against the Frankfurt horizontal plane and bucco-palatally at 14.1 +/- 2.1 degrees against the sagittal plane. The volume of the pillar of bone was greater in edentulous specimens than those in the dentulous specimens. The present results will enable setting up a standard for implant surgery dentulous specimens.

  14. Attitude of health professionals toward cadaveric tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villar, C; Paredes, D; Ruiz, A; Alberola, M; Montilla, C; Vilardell, J; Manyalich, M; Miranda, B

    2009-01-01

    A positive attitude toward organ donation would be expected among health professionals from transplant centers with active donor activities. However, acceptance and knowledge about cadaveric tissue donation has been insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge and attitude of health professionals toward cadaveric tissue donation. An anonymous survey composed of 23 questions was given to health professionals from 2 university hospitals with donation experience. Sociodemographic and professional characteristics were described to analyze knowledge and acceptance of cadaveric tissue donation. Among 600 distributed questionnaires we collected 514 completely answered surveys. Gender distribution was 399 females/115 males of ages ranging from 18-65 years, namely 18-28 years, 27%; 29-39 years, 31%; 40-50 years, 32%; and 51-65 years, 10%. Among the sample, 31% of health professionals had never been in contact with a transplant recipient. In this study 99.4% had knowledge about cadaveric organ donation compare with 89.7% about tissue donation. The knowledge about various types of tissue donation was as follows: eye, 96%; musculoskeletal, 87%; skin, 72%, and cardiovascular, 67%. In the sample, 93% and 92% accepted the opportunity to receive an organ or tissue transplantation, respectively. The acceptance of a tissue varied according to the type: cardiovascular, 93%; ocular, 94%; skin, 89%; and musculoskeletal, 87%. Participant acceptance of a relative's tissue donation was 74%, refusal was 22%, and with doubts was 4%. Insufficient knowledge about cadaveric tissue was demonstrated among health professionals more exposed to the donation process. These results highlighted the importance of health professional's education to facilitate public information about organ and tissue donation.

  15. Computerized Tomographic Study on the Anatomic Variation of the Paranasal Sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Kyung; Lim, Sug Young; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Institute of Oral Bio Science, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Ju [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Denstistry, Chonbuk National Universty, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    To evaluate the anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses on computed tomographs. The author examined the CT images of the paranasal sinuses retrospectively in 500 patients who visited Chonbuk National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 1997. The highest incidence of anatomic variation of the paranasal sinuses in bilateral structures was agger nasi cell (73.2%), followed by concha bullosa (31.1%), Onodi cell (24.0%), Haller cell (19.8%), maxillary sinus septum (13.0%), paradoxical middle turbinate (2.5%), pneumatized uncinate process (2.0%), and bent uncinate process. The highest incidence of anatomic variation in midline structures was nasal septum deviation(53.2%), followed by nasal septumaerated (29.4%), bulla galli (24.7%) asymmetric intersphenoid septum (22.3%), and nasal septum spur (13.8%). The correlation between anatomic variation and paranasal sinusitis was not found. The results of this study will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of paranasal sinus diseases, especially in the treatment planning before functional endoscopic surgery.

  16. A MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY OF BRANCHING PATTERN AND ANATOMICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE FACIAL NERVE ON THE FACE

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Manjunath; Antony Sylvian D’

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM OF THE STUDY: The facial nerve gives off five main terminal branches within the substance of parotid gland. They diverge within the gland and supply the muscles of facial expression. Distinctive anastomotic patterns has been previously studied and reported. These anastomos es have pragmatic significance in surgical terms. The purpose of our study is to review the branching pattern of the facial nerve on the face and evaluate the variant anatomical r...

  17. Lesões abdominais por uso do fio guia em ensaios cirúrgicos do quadril: estudo em cadáver Abdominal injuries due to the use of guide wire in hip surgery experiments: cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre lesões abdominais e a introdução de fios guia em ensaios cirúrgicos do quadril, propor um sistema de escorização e conduta médica em função da distância percorrida pelo fio guia a partir da placa quadrilátera e a estrutura anatômica lesionada. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 18 quadris de cadáveres, um fio de Steimann de 3.2 x 300 mm, um perfurador elétrico e um paquímetro. Introduziu-se o fio no centro do colo femoral por via de acesso lateral no quadril sob visualização direta. Por via de acesso abdominal mediana longitudinal estendida à região pélvica, observou-se a placa quadrilátera até o fio a transfixar. A partir deste ponto, prolongou-se a inserção por mais 140 mm, a fim de observar seu trajeto abdominal e descrever as lesões apresentadas em função da distância percorrida. RESULTADOS: Houve cinco (27% lesões de cólon sigmóide e uma (5% lesão transfixante do nervo obturador. Artérias e veias ilíacas comuns contra laterais ao quadril fixado não foram lesionadas. CONCLUSÃO: O fio guia não deve ultrapassar a placa quadrilátera. Medidas de prevenção são importantes no pré e intra-operatório e o escore e a conduta médica propostos neste estudo devem ser criteriosamente observados nos casos de lesão comprovada.OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relationship between abdominal injuries and the introduction of guide wire in experimental hip surgery, to propose a scoring system and a medical management based on the distance traveled by the guide wire from the quadrilateral plate until the damaged anatomical structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 cadaveric hips, a Steimann pin of 3.2 x 300mm, an electric drill and a caliper were used. The wire was inserted in the center of the femoral neck through a lateral approach in the hip under direct visualization. Via median abdominal extended approach to the pelvic region, the quadrilateral plate was observed until the wire crossed it. From

  18. Metabolomics study of cereal grains reveals the discriminative metabolic markers associated with anatomical compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Moazzami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profile of different anatomical compartments of cereal grains i.e. bran and endosperm in order to gain further insightsinto their possible role in the beneficial health effects of whole grain products (WG. Polar watersoluble metabolites in 64 bran and endosperm, samples from rye and wheat were observed using600 MHz NMR. Bran samples had higher contents of 12 metabolites than endosperm samples. A comparative approach revealed higher contents of azelaic acid and sebacic acid in bran than in endosperm. In a pilot study, the consumption of WG rye bread (485 g caused NMR signals in 24h urine corresponding to azelaic acid. The relatively high abundance, anatomical specificity, patternof metabolism, urinary excretion in human, antibacterial, and anticancer activities suggest further studying of azelaic acid when exposure to WG or beneficial effects of WG are investigated.

  19. Origin, Reality, and Clinical Importance of the Arcade of Struthers: An Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Ugur Anil; Cinar, Can; Arslan, Hakan; Oksuz, Sinan; Cetinkale, Oguz

    2015-10-01

    The literature contains confusing and opposing views about the naming, prevalence, anatomic structure, and clinical significance of the arcade of Struthers. The conflicting rates of arcade (between 0% and 100%) prevalence found in the literature may be due to the varying definition of the arcade among the authors, as well as the dissection method. The present study aims to examine the structure to determine whether or not the arcade of Struthers exists through an anatomic dissection study of a fresh human cadaver and seeks to compare its findings with those in the literature. Twenty arms from fresh frozen cadavers were dissected. An arcade of Struthers was not found in any specimen. Study concluded that its existence is unproven, and the arcade of Struthers does not exist.

  20. Attachment area of fibres from the horns of lateral meniscus: anatomic study with special reference to the positional relationship of anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Hitomi; Tsukada, Sachiyuki; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Nimura, Akimoto; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2017-02-01

    Although studies support the clinical importance of the fibres from the horns of lateral meniscus (LM), few studies have investigated the detailed anatomy. This anatomic study was conducted to analyse the structural details of LM with special reference to (1) the attachment area of the fibres from the anterior and posterior horns and (2) the positional relationship between these fibres and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). A total of 24 cadaveric knees were used in the macroscopic investigation, and six knees were used in the histological investigation. Micro-computed tomography analysis was also performed to assess the anatomy of the posteriormost fibre from the posterior horn of LM. Based on the macroscopic investigations, the outer fibres from the anterior horn of LM extended to ACL and seemed to intermingle with ACL fibres. However, the histological investigations showed a distinct border between the fibres and ACL. The inner fibres from the anterior horn of LM attached to the lateral intercondylar tubercle serving as a lateral margin of ACL attachment. Fibres from the posterior horn of LM were separated into anterolateral and posteromedial crura which attached to the posterior aspect of the lateral and medial intercondylar tubercles, respectively. These two crura formed the posterior margin of the ACL attachment, except for the central part of ACL. The outer fibres from the anterior horn of LM adjoined ACL. The inner fibres from the anterior horn of LM and two crura from the posterior horn of LM formed the border of the attachment area of ACL. The distinctive fibre anatomy from LM could provide a surgical landmark during arthroscopic surgery.

  1. Cadaverous Particles and Infection in Injured Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A D-A 277 941 E J Surg 159: 515-520, 1993 CADAVEROUS PARTICLES AND INFECTION IN INJURED MAN*D T IC Clinical Review based on the Semmelweis Lecture WM...systemic hematogencus dissemination of bacteria versary year of the publication of his findings in Die which had invaded tissue from an infected wound...surgical infections to evaluate therapeutic interventions (35). The effec- and the importance of " cadaverous particles" in the tiveness of topical

  2. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Glenoid Bone Loss Is Equivalent to 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Quantification: Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Adam B; Shin, Jason J; Pearson, Ian; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-04-01

    To assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 and 3 tesla [T]) to quantify glenoid bone loss in a cadaveric model compared with the current gold standard, 3D computed tomography (CT). Six cadaveric shoulders were used to create a bone loss model, leaving the surrounding soft tissues intact. The anteroposterior (AP) dimension of the glenoid was measured at the glenoid equator and after soft tissue layer closure the specimen underwent scanning (CT, 1.5-T MRI, and 3-T MRI) with the following methods (0%, 10%, and 25% defect by area). Raw axial data from the scans were segmented using manual mask manipulation for bone and reconstructed using Mimics software to obtain a 3D en face glenoid view. Using calibrated Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images, the diameter of the glenoid at the equator and the area of the glenoid defect was measured on all imaging modalities. In specimens with 10% or 25% defects, no difference was detected between imaging modalities when comparing the measured defect size (10% defect P = .27, 25% defect P = .73). All 3 modalities demonstrated a strong correlation with the actual defect size (CT, ρ = .97; 1.5-T MRI, ρ = .93; 3-T MRI, ρ = .92, P MRI increased with increasing defect size (P = .02). Both 1.5- and 3-T-based 3D MRI reconstructions of glenoid bone loss correlate with measurements from 3D CT scan data and actual defect size in a cadaveric model. Regardless of imaging modality, the error in bone loss measurement tends to increase with increased defect size. Use of 3D MRI in the setting of shoulder instability could obviate the need for CT scans. The goal of our work was to develop a reproducible method of determining glenoid bone loss from 3D MRI data and hence eliminate the need for CT scans in this setting. This will lead to decreased cost of care as well as decreased radiation exposure to patients. The long-term goal is a fully automated system that is as approachable for

  3. Neural plasticity in functional and anatomical MRI studies of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests...... that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms. Methods: We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS. Results: The final search...... resulted in 13 original studies, which were reviewed with a focus on findings suggesting adaptive processes (using fMRI) and plasticity (using anatomical MRI). Differences in brain activation compared to healthy controls during tasks that require overriding of prepotent responses help to understand...

  4. Double acetabular wall--a misleading point for hip arthroplasty: an anatomical, radiological, clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Madadi, Firoozeh; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2013-06-01

    Despite the great attention focused on cup positioning in primary total hip arthroplasty (PTHA), it is surprising to find so few studies that have dealt with cup placement. A common thwarting problem for correct cup placement during PTHA is the existence of osteophytes, which obscure the anatomical landmarks. In this study we aimed to evaluate the morphology of acetabular osteophyte formation in patients with osteoarthritis. We evaluated 276 patients with hip complaints, using plain X-rays and CT scans. Of these patients, 57 underwent surgery. We developed a staging system for central osteophytes in hip osteoarthritis based on the radiographic and anatomical findings of our patients. We recommend routine use of CT scans for patients scheduled for PTHA in order to assess the stage of osteophyte before surgery and, thus, reduce the risk of failure resulting from the interrupted acetabular landmarks.

  5. Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance in anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Williams, Shanna E; Gregory Hawkins, H

    2017-09-22

    Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE® ) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination® (COMPLEX-USA® ) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self-regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self-testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product-Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Anatomical studies of Baccharis grisebachii Hieron. (Asteraceae). Used in folk medicine of San Juan province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad, Martín Ariel; Gattuso, Susana Julia; Gattuso, Martha Ana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Aníbal Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Baccharis grisebachii Hieron., commonly known as “quilchamali”, is a bushy plant that lives in the high mountains of Argentina and southern Bolivia. The infusion or decoction of aerial parts is used in the traditional medicine of San Juan province, Argentina, to treat gastric ulcers, digestive problems, and as antiseptic and wound healing in humans and horses. The aim of this study is to analyze the anatomical characters of B. grisebachii for specific identification and quality control. The r...

  7. Anatomic study and clinical significance of the dorsal meningovertebral ligaments of the thoracic dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongzi; Shi, Benchao; Zheng, Xuefeng; Zhou, Zhilai; Jin, Anmin; Ding, Zihai; Lv, Hai; Zhang, Hui

    2015-05-15

    A dissection-based study of 18 embalmed thoracic specimens. To investigate the properties and clinical significance of the dorsal meningovertebral ligaments of the thoracic dura mater. Previously, we performed a comprehensive anatomic study on the dorsal meningovertebral ligaments in the lumbosacral and cervical regions, whereby we concluded that the ligaments were an anatomic factor leading to dural laceration and hemorrhage during flavectomy and laminectomy. Unfortunately, thus far, no systematic anatomic study has been undertaken to examine the dorsal meningovertebral ligaments of the thoracic dura mater. Eighteen adult embalmed cadavers were studied, and the morphology, orientation, attachment site, and distribution traits of the dorsal meningovertebal ligaments were observed. In addition, the length, width, or diameter and thickness of the ligaments were measured using a Vernier caliper. Two meningovertebal ligaments were removed for histological examination. In the thoracic region, the dorsal meningovertebral ligaments anchored the dura mater to the lamina or ligamentum flavum. The meningovertebral ligaments displayed a relatively even distribution along the upper thoracic region (T1-T7) and a gradual increase in frequency in the lower thoracic region from T7 to T12. The meningovertebral ligaments protrude into the dura and correspondingly become an integral part of the dura. Some ligaments are accompanied by or are attached to blood vessels. Histological examination of the meningovertebral ligaments revealed fibrous connective tissue. The dorsal meningovertebral ligaments exist between the dural sac and ligamentum flavum or lamina in the thoracic spine. Based on their anatomic features, meningovertebral ligaments may be one potential cause for dural laceration and epidural hemorrhage. We propose that, during thoracic flavectomy and laminectomy, the meningovertebral ligaments should first be identified and properly handled, thereby minimizing the occurrence

  8. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology (114), Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.) With 11 figs., 20 refs.

  9. Technical note: Improvement of cadaveric skin samples (with severe morphological alteration connected to putrefaction or injury) by an extended histological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boracchi, M; Andreola, S; Gentile, G; Maghin, F; Marchesi, M; Muccino, M; Zoja, R

    2016-04-01

    The microscopic study and the interpretation of skin samples with advanced post-mortal phenomena or with particular destructive injuries is problematic for the forensic pathologist. In an attempt of restoring the histological architecture of cadaveric skin and overcoming these types of problem, the Authors performed a histological processing that was longer than the standard: it was extended until 62 days to evaluate the improvement of the microscopic morphological aspect. Cutaneous samples were taken from 25 cadavers (5 typologies of skin: charred, putrified, corifed, mummified and partially skeletonized), fixed with a 10%-buffered formalin and then processed in two different ways: one half of the samples was routinely addressed to the standard-time automatic technique, while the other half was manually processed with prolonged times. All the slides were then stained in Hematoxylin-Eosin. The standard-processed slides demonstrated marked morphological alterations and artefacts at the microscopic observation; conversely, those processed with the prolonged manual technique showed an improvement in the morphological structure, sometimes permitting the identification of the anatomical components. Though it is characterized by the inconvenience of protracted times, the application of a long-term manual histological processing to cadaveric skin samples with advanced post-mortal alteration permits to better observe the anatomical architecture of skin and it could be useful and helpful in the evaluation of such cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  11. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Notaris, Matteo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; San Molina, Joan; Berenguer, Joan; Cappabianca, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries). Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered. PMID:24575410

  12. Comparison Of Percutaneous Laser Discectomy With Other Modalities For The Treatment Of Herniated Lumbar Discs And Cadaveric Studies Of Percutaneous Laser Discectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, W. E.; Smith, Chadwick F.; Vangsness, Thomas; McEleney, Emmett T.; Yamaguchi, Ken; Bales, Peter

    1987-03-01

    Current modalities for treating a herniated lumbar disc include standard open discectomy, microsurgical discectomy, chemonucleoysis and percutaneous discectomy. The Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved percutaneous laser discectomy for clinical investigation. The investigators believe that percutaneous laser discectomy combines the efficacy of both chemonucleoysis and percutaneous discectomy with the safety of both open standard discectomy and microsurgical discectomy. The investigators removed two lumbar discs from a cadaveric spine and weighed each of them. The two lumbar discs weighed in the range of 13.654 grams and 15.713 grams, respectively. The investigators initiated several series of 10 firing cycles from a surgical carbon dioxide laser system. In each firing cycle the surgical carbon dioxide laser system delivered a beam of light energy having an output power of 18.0 watts at pulse duration of 0.045 second at the rate of 15 pulses per second for a period of 6 seconds and vaporized approximately 325 milligrams of disc material. Based on the findings of other investigators reported in the literature relating to percutaneous discectomy the investigators postulated that 10 to 20 firing cycles are required to vaporize 30 to 40% (2.4 to 6.4 grams) of the disc material. The investigators initiated two series of 10 firing cycles in order to perform laser discectomy in a third lumbar disc of the cadaveric spine in situ. The investigators harvested and then bisected the laser-treated third lumbar disc for gross review. Their gross findings indicated a high probability of success For percutaneous laser discectomy.

  13. Radiofrequency identification specimen tracking in anatomical pathology: pilot study of 1067 consecutive prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G

    2013-10-01

    Improved methods such as radiofrequency identification (RFID) are needed to optimize specimen tracking in anatomical pathology. We undertook a study of RFID in an effort to optimize specimen tracking and patient identification, including the following: (1) creation of workflow process maps, (2) evaluation of existing RFID hardware technologies, (3) creation of Web-based software to support the RFID-enabled workflow, and (4) assessment of the impact with a series of prostate biopsies. We identified multiple steps in the workflow process in which RFID enhanced specimen tracking. Multiple product choices were found that could withstand the harsh heat and chemical environments encountered in pathology processing, and software that was compatible with our laboratory information system was designed in-house. A total of 1067 prostate biopsies were received, and 78.3% were successfully processed with the RFID system. Radiofrequency identification allowed dynamic specimen tracking throughout the workflow process in anatomical pathology. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A multivariate pattern analysis study of the HIV-related white matter anatomical structural connections alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Ruili; Cui, Xinwei; Li, Hongjun; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    It's widely known that HIV infection would cause white matter integrity impairments. Nevertheless, it is still unclear that how the white matter anatomical structural connections are affected by HIV infection. In the current study, we employed a multivariate pattern analysis to explore the HIV-related white matter connections alterations. Forty antiretroviraltherapy- naïve HIV patients and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. Firstly, an Automatic Anatomical Label (AAL) atlas based white matter structural network, a 90 × 90 FA-weighted matrix, was constructed for each subject. Then, the white matter connections deprived from the structural network were entered into a lasso-logistic regression model to perform HIV-control group classification. Using leave one out cross validation, a classification accuracy (ACC) of 90% (P=0.002) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 was obtained by the classification model. This result indicated that the white matter anatomical structural connections contributed greatly to HIV-control group classification, providing solid evidence that the white matter connections were affected by HIV infection. Specially, 11 white matter connections were selected in the classification model, mainly crossing the regions of frontal lobe, Cingulum, Hippocampus, and Thalamus, which were reported to be damaged in previous HIV studies. This might suggest that the white matter connections adjacent to the HIV-related impaired regions were prone to be damaged.

  15. Anatomical study of the human anterior cruciate ligament stump's tibial insertion footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tállay, András; Lim, Mui-Hong; Bartlett, John

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to define the topographical relationship of the anatomical bundles of the human anterior cruciate ligament's (ACL) stump over the tibial insertion site. Between January and April 2007, a total of 36 resected tibial plateaus were retrieved from patients who underwent total knee replacements. These samples had intact cruciate ligaments with no major osteophyte around the ACL tibial insertion footprint. The anatomical bundles of the ACL were identified and mapped, based on the topographical relationship over the tibial insertion footprint. Measurements of the dimensions of the ACL tibial footprint and tibial plateau were performed. The mean width and midsagittal depth of the tibia plateau was 78.7 +/- 6.5 and 46.4 +/- 5.0 mm, respectively. The mean width and midsagittal depth of the ACL tibial footprint was 10.3 +/- 1.9 and 19.5 +/- 2.6 mm, respectively. Out of the 36 freshly dissected ACL stumps, it was not possible to distinguish separate bundles in 14 (38.9%) cases. The average distance between the centers of the two bundles was 9.3 +/- 1.8 mm. The mean AP alignment of the tibial footprint was 89.6 degrees +/- 26.4 degrees , with a very wide range of 23 degrees -158 degrees . Of the 22 specimens with separate anatomical bundles, the alignment of the tibial footprint was AM-PL in six (27.3%), sagittal (85 degrees -95 degrees ) in five (22.7), AL-PM in nine (40.9%), and lateral-medial (L-M) in two (9.1%) cases. This study provides new information about the topographical anatomy of the ACL tibial insertion footprint. Based on gross anatomy, separate anatomical bundles of the ACL can be distinguished in 61.1% [22] of the specimens. The topographical alignment of the separate bundles is varied on a very wide range.

  16. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  17. Evaluation by medical students of the educational value of multi-material and multi-colored three-dimensional printed models of the upper limb for anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogali, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Yeong, Wai Yee; Tan, Heang Kuan Joel; Tan, Gerald Jit Shen; Abrahams, Peter H; Zary, Nabil; Low-Beer, Naomi; Ferenczi, Michael Alan

    2018-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric material has been the cornerstone of anatomical education. For reasons of changes in curriculum emphasis, cost, availability, expertise, and ethical concerns, several medical schools have replaced wet cadaveric specimens with plastinated prosections, plastic models, imaging, and digital models. Discussions about the qualities and limitations of these alternative teaching resources are on-going. We hypothesize that three-dimensional printed (3DP) models can replace or indeed enhance existing resources for anatomical education. A novel multi-colored and multi-material 3DP model of the upper limb was developed based on a plastinated upper limb prosection, capturing muscles, nerves, arteries and bones with a spatial resolution of ∼1 mm. This study aims to examine the educational value of the 3DP model from the learner's point of view. Students (n = 15) compared the developed 3DP models with the plastinated prosections, and provided their views on their learning experience using 3DP models using a survey and focus group discussion. Anatomical features in 3DP models were rated as accurate by all students. Several positive aspects of 3DP models were highlighted, such as the color coding by tissue type, flexibility and that less care was needed in the handling and examination of the specimen than plastinated specimens which facilitated the appreciation of relations between the anatomical structures. However, students reported that anatomical features in 3DP models are less realistic compared to the plastinated specimens. Multi-colored, multi-material 3DP models are a valuable resource for anatomical education and an excellent adjunct to wet cadaveric or plastinated prosections. Anat Sci Educ 11: 54-64. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Arterial supply of the soleus muscle: anatomical study of fifty lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, S S; Kumaragama, K G J L

    2003-05-01

    Soft tissue defects of the lower limb are a formidable challenge to the plastic surgeon but a soleus muscle flap often provides the solution. Various types of soleus muscle flap have been described, based mainly on the vascular supply. The arterial blood supply of the soleus muscle was studied in 50 cadaveric lower limbs. The blood vessels and their branches to the muscle were dissected. The distance of the origin of the perforators was measured from fixed bony landmarks. Branches of the popliteal artery trunk, the posterior tibial artery, and the peroneal artery supplied the soleus muscle. The number of branches to the soleus muscle from these main arteries were analyzed. The medial part of the muscle was supplied throughout its length by perforators arising from the posterior tibial artery. This constant feature makes the medial part of the muscle reliable as a proximally or distally based flap. The average distances of the lower perforators arising from the posterior tibial artery were 6.5 cm, 11.6 cm, and 16.8 cm from the medial malleolus. The branches of the peroneal artery were mostly distributed in the upper half of the muscle. These large pedicles allow a composite transfer of the soleus muscle with the fibula. Lower perforators were demonstrated to arise from the peroneal artery in 60% of the limbs but the scarcity of perforators in this region limits the clinical usefulness of an inferiorly based lateral hemisoleus flap. The study demonstrates the distribution of arteries entering the soleus muscle and how the information may be used in the design of soleus muscle flaps. The average numbers of the perforators arising from the vessels and their distribution have been highlighted. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Comparative study of cardiac anatomic measurements obtained by echocardiography and dual-source computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nohwon; Lee, Miyoung; Lee, Ahra; Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Soyun; Song, Sunhye; Jung, Joohyun; Eom, Kidong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of echocardiography by dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Seven normal beagles underwent DSCT and echocardiography. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. The DSCT images were reconstructed onto the same echocardiographic image plane by using a reconstruction program, and then anatomical measurements were obtained. Nonparametric analysis was used for verifying the significance of each of the measured parameters. The anatomical measurements obtained using echocardiography and DSCT were not significant (P>0.05), and the difference between the measurements obtained using both the methods were within 95% confidence intervals except those for interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in end diastole. The reasons for these differences were considered to be the adjacent structures such as papillary muscles or chordae tendineae that may have influenced the echocardiographic findings, lower far-field image quality of echocardiography, low test-retest reproducibility of echocardiography, high-quality images of DSCT minimizing the motion artifact and the retrospective ECG gating technique of DSCT that offered an adequate timing decision for the systolic and diastolic phase during cardiac movement. Although there were differences in the measurements of interventricular septal thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in end diastole obtained using echocardiography and DSCT, we could conclude that echocardiographic measurement is as accurate and reliable as DSCT for cardiac anatomical assessment.

  20. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact.

  1. Glenoid morphology in light of anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: a dissection- and 3D-CT-based study in male and female body donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sandra; Burkhard, Marco; Serrano, Nabil; Link, Karl; Häusler, Martin; Frater, Nakita; Franke, Ingeborg; Bischofberger, Helena; Buck, Florian M; Gascho, Dominic; Thali, Michael; Serowy, Steffen; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Harper, Gareth; Qureshi, Ford; Böni, Thomas; Bloch, Hans-Rudolf; Ullrich, Oliver; Rühli, Frank-Jakobus; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2017-01-10

    Placement of the glenoid baseplate is of paramount importance for the outcome of anatomical and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. However, the database around glenoid size is poor, particularly regarding small scapulae, for example, in women and smaller individuals, and is derived from different methodological approaches. In this multimodality cadaver study, we systematically examined the glenoid using morphological and 3D-CT measurements. Measurements of the glenoid and drill hole tunnel length for superior baseplate screw placement were recorded to define size of the glenoid and the distance to the scapular notch on cadaveric specimens. Glenoid angles were determined on both, 3D-CT-scans of the thoraxes using the Friedman method and on subsequently isolated scapulae from 18 male and female donors (average 84 years, range 60-98 years). Mean glenoid height was 36.6 mm ± 3.6, and width 27.8 mm ± 3.1 with a significant sex dimorphism (p ≤ 0.001): in males, glenoid height 39.5 mm ± 3.5, and width 30.3 mm ± 3.3, and in females, glenoid height 34.8 mm ± 2.2, and width 26.2 mm ± 1.6. The average distance from the superior screw entry to its exit in the scapular notch measured by calliper was 27.2 mm ± 6.0 with a sex difference: in males, 29.4 mm ± 5.7, and in females, 25.8 mm ± 5.9 mm with a minimum recorded distance of 15 mm. Measured by CT, the mean inclination angle for male and female donors combined was 13.0° ± 7.0, and the ante-/retroversion angle -1.0° ± 4.0°. This study is one of the first to combine dissection, including drill holes, with anatomical measurements and radiological data. In some women and smaller individuals, smaller baseplates should be selected. The published safe zone of 20 mm is generally feasible for superior screw placement, however, in small patients this distance may be substantially shorter than expected and start as of 13 and 15 mm, respectively. No

  2. Distinct anatomical subtypes of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia: a cluster analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybelski, Scott A.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Shiung, Maria M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Knopman, David S.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    The behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by changes in personality and behaviour. It is typically associated with frontal lobe atrophy, although patterns of atrophy are heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to examine case-by-case variability in patterns of grey matter atrophy in subjects with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia and to investigate whether behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia can be divided into distinct anatomical subtypes. Sixty-six subjects that fulfilled clinical criteria for a diagnosis of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia with a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scan were identified. Grey matter volumes were obtained for 26 regions of interest, covering frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, striatum, insula and supplemental motor area, using the automated anatomical labelling atlas. Regional volumes were divided by total grey matter volume. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis using Ward's clustering linkage method was performed to cluster the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia subjects into different anatomical clusters. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss in each identified cluster of subjects compared to an age and gender-matched control group at P < 0.05 (family-wise error corrected). We identified four potentially useful clusters with distinct patterns of grey matter loss, which we posit represent anatomical subtypes of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia. Two of these subtypes were associated with temporal lobe volume loss, with one subtype showing loss restricted to temporal lobe regions (temporal-dominant subtype) and the other showing grey matter loss in the temporal lobes as well as frontal and parietal lobes (temporofrontoparietal subtype). Another two subtypes were characterized by a large amount of frontal lobe volume loss, with one

  3. A comparative biomechanical study of a novel integrated plate spacer for stabilization of cervical spine: an in vitro human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Kamran; Chinthakunta, Suresh; Muzumdar, Aditya; Khalil, Saif

    2012-07-01

    Integrated plate-spacer may provide adequate construct stability while potentially lowering operative time, decreasing complications, and providing less mechanical obstruction. The purpose of the current study was to compare the biomechanical stability of an anatomically profiled 2-screw integrated plate-spacer to a traditional spacer only and to a spacer and anterior cervical plate construct. In addition, the biomechanical stability of 2-screw integrated plate-spacer was compared to a commercially available 4-screw integrated plate-spacer. Two groups, each of nine cervical cadaver spines (C2-C7), were tested under pure moments of 1.5Nm. Range of motion was recorded at C5-C6 in all loading conditions (flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) for the following constructs: 1) Intact; 2) 2-screw or 4-screw integrated plate-spacer; 3) spacer and anterior cervical plate; and 4) spacer only. All fusion constructs significantly reduced motion compared to the intact condition. Within the instrumented constructs, spacer and anterior cervical plate, 2-screw and 4-screw integrated plate-spacer resulted in reduced motion compared to the spacer only construct. No significant differences were found in motion between any of the instrumented conditions in any of the loading conditions. The application of integrated plate-spacer for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is based on several factors including surgical ease-of-use, biomechanical characteristics, and surgeon preference. The study suggests that integrated plate-spacer provide biomechanical stability comparable to traditional spacer and plate constructs in the cervical spine. Clinical studies on integrated plate spacer devices are necessary to understand the performance of these devices in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadaveric renal transplantation in elderly recipients: is it worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, G E; Jamieson, N V; Small, J; Evans, D B; Calne, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse whether or not old age alone significantly affects the outcome of patient and graft survival in cadaveric renal transplantation, and thus whether it should be a selection criterion for induction into transplant programmes, given the current shortfall in donor organs in the United Kingdom. Data is presented on all 307 solitary cadaveric renal allografts performed at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge between January 1983 and December 1987. Patients are divided into those aged less than 60 years (n = 243) and those aged 60 years and over (n = 45) at the time of transplantation. There is no significant difference in graft survival between the two groups (60.3% and 62.2%) at 18-60 months (mean 42 months) post-transplantation. Patient survival in the two groups is significantly different (83% and 64.4%, P less than 0.01) at the same point. Causes of graft loss, death, and end-stage renal failure are analysed. It is suggested that patients aged 60 years and over may require less immunosuppression but that graft loss from rejection in this group has a high associated mortality. We conclude that cadaveric renal transplantation in the elderly should only be undertaken after careful selection, paying particular attention to evidence of cardiovascular disease and full counselling of the risk of death with these patients.

  5. Anatomical study and morphometric analyses on the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide an anatomical and morphometric basis for the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in order to aid in the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels in ligament surgical reconstruction. Study design: laboratory controlled study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The macroscopic details of the femoral insertions of the PCL's anterolateral (AL and posteromedial (PM bundles were analyzed in 24 cadaver knees. The specimens were photographed with a digital camera and the images obtained were studied using the software ImageJ. The bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of the structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The PCL's femoral insertion average total area was 87.29 ± 31.42 mm².The mean insertion's areas of the AL and PM bundles were, respectively, 47.13 ± 19.14 and 40.67 ± 16.19 mm². In 95.8% of the examined knees was verified the presence of the medial intercondylar ridge and in 83.3% of the knees was noted the medial bifurcated ridge. The average length of the medial intercondylar ridge was 20.54 ± 2.26 mm and the medial bifurcated ridge's average length was 7.62 ± 2.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The AL had a femoral insertion area larger than the PM bundle; these bundles' insertion areas were lower than those previously described in the literature. There were important individual variations related to the area of the bundles in the samples, suggesting that there should be an individual recommendation for anatomical reconstructions of the PCL with single or double femoral tunnels.

  6. Advances in the anatomic study of the interscapular region of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Maurizio; Modina, Silvia Clotilde; Bellotti, Andrea; Di Giancamillo, Mauro

    2015-10-05

    New clinical oriented approaches are supported by the integration of advanced imaging techniques, e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance, with gross anatomy imaging. The interscapular region of the cat is a typical site of a highly invasive infiltrative pathology, i.e. Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma. Even if chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been considered as pre-surgical therapies, extensive surgery is still the recommended treatment. Evidence suggested that the relationships between muscles, infiltrative mass and adjacent musculoskeletal structures could change according to the forelimb positions: a fact to be duly considered while planning the surgical approach. Anatomic and tomographic atlases provide only images of the interscapular region from cats positioned with their forelimbs extended cranially, which means that, they do not record musculoskeletal modifications due to the forelimb movements. Aim of this study was to provide detailed images of the changes occurring in the musculoskeletal structures of the interscapular region of cats according to their forelimb position by comparing cross-sectional gross anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We provide an atlas of normal cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the interscapular region of the cat, from the fifth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra. We compare and couple the slices obtained both in flexed and extended forelimb positioning with the animal maintained in sternal recumbency. This study shows a new and dynamic way to investigate the interscapular region of the cat and provides anatomical references for in vivo computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, considering changes in the muscular form according to the forelimb positioning. We believe that an in-depth anatomical knowledge of the interscapular region may be helpful to approach the study of any pathology located there and, in particular, to set up

  7. Anatomic hepatectomy as a definitive treatment for hepatolithiasis: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarufe, Nicolás; Figueroa, Eduardo; Muñoz, César; Moisan, Fabrizio; Varas, Julian; Valbuena, José R; Bambs, Claudia; Martínez, Jorge; Pimentel, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment requirements in hepatolithiasis may vary and may involve a multidisciplinary approach. Surgical resection has been proposed as a definitive treatment. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the clinical results of anatomic liver resection among Chilean patients with hepatolithiasis. Methods An historical cohort study was conducted. Patients who underwent hepatectomy as a definitive treatment for hepatolithiasis from January 1990 to December 2010 were included. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. Preoperative, operative and postoperative variables were evaluated. Results A total of 52 patients underwent hepatectomy for hepatolithiasis. The mean ± standard deviation patient age was 49.8 ± 11.8 years (range: 24–78 years); 65.4% of study subjects were female. A total of 75.0% of subjects had a history of previous cholecystectomy. The main presenting symptom was abdominal pain (82.7%). Hepatic involvement was noted in the left lobe in 57.7%, the right lobe in 34.6% and bilaterally in 7.7% of subjects. The rate of postoperative clearance of the biliary tree was 90.4%. Postoperative morbidity was 30.8% and there were no postoperative deaths. Three patients had recurrence of hepatolithiasis, which was associated with Caroli's disease in two of them. Overall 5-year survival was 94.5%. Conclusions Anatomic liver resection is an effective treatment in selected patients with hepatolithiasis and is associated with low morbidity and no mortality. At longterm follow-up, anatomic hepatectomy in these patients was associated with a lower rate of recurrence. PMID:22882197

  8. A model of horizontal and vertical integration of teaching on the cadaveric heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Samar; Ali, Soad Shaker; Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Eldeek, Basem Salama; El-Haggagy, Amira

    2010-12-20

    This work was performed in a trial to organize the learning process by focusing on the integration of medical education particularly between the three main subjects: gross anatomy, histology and pathology. It was a theoretical teaching draft designed to be implemented with second year students of the Medical school of the King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA, in order to overcome disadvantages in traditional teaching. The objectives of this work were to make medical students, at the pre-clinical stage of their medical carrier, alert to diagnosis and handling of clinical problems and to develop their ability to integrate pre-clinical and clinical subjects. Fifty human cadaveric hearts were anatomically and histopathologically examined. This examination revealed six different clinical problems such as pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiac hypertrophy, parasitic infestation, rheumatic heart disease and fatty infiltration. The medical students of the second year will be first introduced to the normal anatomical and histological structure of the heart, then allowed to visualize and examine the specimens of the cadaveric heart both macroscopically and microscopically. They will be introduced to a set of clinical problems through some clinical scenarios and asked to search for the possible etiological factors causing these changes, associated signs and symptoms. Finally they will be asked to present their findings and interpretations. This paper demonstrated a pathway of self-directed learning in an integrated teaching setting in the medical curriculum using available cadaveric material at a preparatory stage before developing the system-based curriculum. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain anatomical networks in world class gymnasts: a DTI tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Fan, Yuanyuan; Lu, Min; Li, Shumei; Song, Zheng; Peng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Ruibin; Lin, Qixiang; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2013-01-15

    The excellent motor skills of world class gymnasts amaze everyone. People marvel at the way they precisely control their movements and wonder how the brain structure and function of these elite athletes differ from those of non-athletes. In this study, we acquired diffusion images from thirteen world class gymnasts and fourteen matched controls, constructed their anatomical networks, and calculated the topological properties of each network based on graph theory. From a connectivity-based analysis, we found that most of the edges with increased connection density in the champions were linked to brain regions that are located in the sensorimotor, attentional, and default-mode systems. From graph-based metrics, we detected significantly greater global and local efficiency but shorter characteristic path length in the anatomical networks of the champions compared with the controls. Moreover, in the champions we found a significantly higher nodal degree and greater regional efficiency in several brain regions that correspond to motor and attention functions. These included the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus and temporal lobes. In addition, we revealed an increase in the mean fractional anisotropy of the corticospinal tract in the champions, possibly in response to long-term gymnastic training. Our study indicates that neuroanatomical adaptations and plastic changes occur in gymnasts' brain anatomical networks either in response to long-term intensive gymnastic training or as an innate predisposition or both. Our findings may help to explain gymnastic skills at the highest levels of performance and aid in understanding the neural mechanisms that distinguish expert gymnasts from novices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An anatomical study of the transversus abdominis plane block: location of the lumbar triangle of Petit and adjacent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Zorica B; du Feu, Frances M; McConnell, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new technique for providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. Most previous studies have used the lumbar triangle of Petit as a landmark for the block. In this cadaveric study, we determined the exact position and size of the lumbar triangle of Petit and identified the nerves affected by the TAP block. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit was assessed unilaterally in 26 cadaveric specimens relative to reliably palpable surface landmarks. In addition, a series of dissections were performed to explore the course of the nerves blocked by the TAP. The mean distance from the midaxillary line along the iliac crest to the center of the base of the lumbar triangle of Petit at the level of the subcutaneous tissue and over the skin surface was 6.9 cm (range, 4.5-9.2 cm) and 9.3 cm (range, 4-15.1 cm), respectively. The center of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 1.4 cm above the iliac crest. The depth of the TAP at the lumbar triangle of Petit position was 0.5-4 cm and at the midaxillary line it was 0.5-2 cm. The average size of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 2.3 cm x 3.3 cm x 2.2 cm, with an average area of 3.63 +/- 1.93 cm2. The three cadaveric specimens we explored showed the nerves blocked by TAP passed lateral to the triangle. An incidental finding was that in 66% of specimens the lumbar triangle of Petit contained small branches of the subcostal artery. The lumbar triangles of Petit found in the specimens in this study were more posterior than the literature suggests. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit varies largely and the size is relatively small. The relevant nerves to be blocked had not entered the TAP in the specimens in this study at the point of the lumbar triangle of Petit. At the midaxillary line, however, all the nerves were in the TAP.

  11. Atlas instrumentation guided by the medial edge of the posterior arch: An anatomic and radiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habib, Amro F; Al-Rabie, Abdulkarim; Aleissa, Sami; Albakr, Abdulrahman; Abobotain, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    This was an interventional human cadaver study and radiological study. Atlas instrumentation is frequently involved in fusion procedures involving the craniocervical junction area. Identification of the entry point at the center of atlas lateral mass (ALM) is challenging because of its rounded posterior surface and the surrounding venous plexus. This report examines using the medial edge of atlas posterior arch (MEC1) as a fixed and reliable anatomic reference to guide the entry point of ALM screws. Fifty, normal, cervical spine computed tomography studies were reviewed. ALM screw trajectories were planned at one point along MEC1 and another point 2 mm lateral to MEC1. Free-hand ALM instrumentation was performed in ten fresh human cadavers using the 2 mm entry point, with a sagittal trajectory parallel to atlas inferior arch (IAC1); three-dimensional imaging was then performed to confirm instrumentation accuracy. The average ALM diameter was 12.35 mm. Inserting a screw using the entry point 2 mm lateral to MEC1 was closer to ALM midpoint than using the entry point along MEC1 (P instrumentation. An entry point 2 mm point lateral to MEC1 is close to ALM midpoint. IAC1 also provides a guide for the sagittal trajectory. Attention to anatomic landmarks may help reduce complications associated with atlas instrumentation but should be verified in future clinical studies.

  12. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  13. High non-anatomic tunnel position rates in ACL reconstruction failure using both transtibial and anteromedial tunnel drilling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaecker, Vera; Zapf, Tabea; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Wafaisade, Arasch; Shafizadeh, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Although it is well known from cadaveric and biomechanical studies that transtibial femoral tunnel (TT) positioning techniques are associated with non-anatomic tunnel positions, controversial data exist as so far no clinical differences could have been found, comparing transtibial with anteromedial techniques (AM). The purpose of the study was to analyze if graft failure following TT ACL reconstruction was more commonly associated with non-anatomic tunnel position in comparison with the AM technique. We hypothesized that, compared to AM techniques, non-anatomic tunnel positions correlate with TT tunnel positioning techniques. A total of 147 cases of ACL revision surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Primary ACL reconstructions were analyzed regarding the femoral tunnel drilling technique. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions were determined on CT scans using validated radiographic measurement methods. Correlation analysis was performed to determine differences between TT and AM techniques. A total of 101 cases were included, of whom 64 (63.4%) underwent the TT technique and 37 (36.6%) the AM technique for primary ACL reconstruction. Non-anatomic femoral tunnel positions were found in 77.2% and non-anatomical tibial tunnel positions in 40.1%. No correlations were found comparing tunnel positions in TT and AM techniques, revealing non-anatomic femoral tunnel positions in 79.7 and 73% and non-anatomic tibial tunnel positions in 43.7 and 35.1%, respectively (p > 0.05). Considerable rates of non-anatomic femoral and tibial tunnel positions were found in ACL revisions with both transtibial and anteromedial femoral drilling techniques. Despite the potential of placing tunnels more anatomically using an additional AM portal, this technique does not ensure anatomic tunnel positioning. Consequently, the data highlight the importance of anatomic tunnel positioning in primary ACL reconstruction, regardless of the applied drilling technique.

  14. Evaluation by Medical Students of the Educational Value of Multi-Material and Multi-Colored Three-Dimensional Printed Models of the Upper Limb for Anatomical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogali, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Yeong, Wai Yee; Tan, Heang Kuan Joel; Tan, Gerald Jit Shen; Abrahams, Peter H.; Zary, Nabil; Low-Beer, Naomi; Ferenczi, Michael Alan

    2018-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric material has been the cornerstone of anatomical education. For reasons of changes in curriculum emphasis, cost, availability, expertise, and ethical concerns, several medical schools have replaced wet cadaveric specimens with plastinated prosections, plastic models, imaging, and digital models. Discussions about the…

  15. Anatomic study of the coracoid process: safety margin and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Ejnisman, Benno; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Cohen, Moises

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define a safety margin for coracoid process osteotomy that does not compromise the coracoclavicular ligaments and that can be used in the coracoid transfer procedures. Thirty shoulders from 15 cadavers were dissected, exposing the coracoid process and attached anatomic structures. The distance of the insertion of these structures to the coracoid process apex was measured. The average length of the coracoid process was 4.26 ± 0.26 cm. The average width and height at the tip were 2.11 ± 0.2 and 1.49 ± 0.12 cm, respectively. The average distance from the tip to the anterior and posterior margin of the pectoralis minor was 0.1 ± 1.17 and 1.59 ± 0.27 cm, respectively. The average distance from the tip to the posterior margin of the coracoacromial ligament was 2.79 ± 0.33 cm. The average distance from the apex to the most anterior part of the trapezoid ligament was 3.33 ± 0.38 cm. We obtained a constant value of 0.85 cm for this measure, and the value increased with each 1.0-cm increase in the distance from the tip to the posterior margin of the pectoralis minor. The safety margin for osteotomy (i.e., available bone distance for the coracoid process transfer) was 2.64 cm. This study established a safety margin of 2.64 cm for the osteotomy of the coracoid process and its relation with the posterior margin of the pectoralis minor. The anatomic descriptions of bone and soft tissue, as well as a measure of correlation for the safety margin of the coracoid, provide tools for surgeons performing anatomic surgical procedures to correct glenohumeral instability with significant bone loss. Knowing the safety margin allows the surgeon to perform a safe osteotomy without direct visualization of the coracoclavicular ligaments attachments, thereby making procedures more anatomic. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STUDY OF THE ANATOMICAL AND VISUAL RESULTS OF THERAPEUTIC PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

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    Chhaya Ashok Shinde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for corneal infections restores anatomical integrity. Improvement in instrumentation and surgical techniques, better postoperative management have improved corneal transplant outcome. Purpose of the study was to know what are the anatomical and visual results after therapeutic keratoplasty and to judge what could be the factors affecting the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, non-comparative, observational cohort study was done in 56 patient (56 eyes operated for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty at tertiary care institute .Patients were reviewed for demographic data, postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, graft clarity, and complications. Pre-operative treatment in bacterial infections included Cefazolin 50 mg/ml and Tobramycin 1.4 % or gentamicin 1.4% half hourly, 1% atropine drops. Fungal infections were treated with Natamycin 5% suspension. Debridement was done. Amphotericin B was used against yeasts. Voriconazole (1% eye drops were given in Aspergillus species. With full aseptic precautions penetrating keratoplasty was carried out. The graft was 0.5 mm larger than the lesion. Keratoplasties were evaluated for (1 Graft clarity at 1 month and 1 year postoperative. (2 Cure of the infectious disease after surgery. (3 Anatomical success rate and visual results. RESULTS At the end of one year clear graft with bacterial keratitis was seen in 23 eyes (74.19% out of 31 eyes. In fungal keratitis clear graft was seen in 10 eyes (45.45% out of 22 eyes. 48.22% patients had vision of FC 1m-6/60 compared to preoperative vision at the end of one year. At the end of one year anatomical integrity was maintained in 53 (94.64% cases and it was lost in 5.36% patients. CONCLUSION Patients who underwent keratoplasty with 7.5 mm graft size had maximum graft clarity at the end of one year. Graft was clear in 36 patients (64.29% out of total 56 patients. At the end of 1 year vision improved to FC 1 mt

  17. Celiac plexus block: an anatomical study and simulation using computed tomography

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    Pereira, Gabriela Augusta Mateus; Lopes, Paulo Tadeu Campos; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos, E-mail: pclopes@ulbra.br [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (Ulbra), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pozzobon, Adriane [Centro Universitario Univates, Lajeado, RS (Brazil); Duarte, Rodrigo Dias; Cima, Alexandre da Silveira; Massignan, Angela [Fundacao Serdil/Saint Pastous, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: to analyze anatomical variations associated with celiac plexus complex by means of computed tomography simulation, assessing the risk for organ injury as the transcrural technique is utilized. Materials and Methods: one hundred eight transaxial computed tomography images of abdomen were analyzed. The aortic-vertebral, celiac trunk (CeT)-vertebral, CeT-aortic and celiac-aortic-vertebral topographical relationships were recorded. Two needle insertion pathways were drawn on each of the images, at right and left, 9 cm and 4.5 cm away from the midline. Transfixed vital organs and gender-related associations were recorded. Results: aortic-vertebral - 45.37% at left and 54.62% in the middle; CeT-vertebral - T12, 36.11%; T12-L1, 32.4%; L1, 27.77%; T11-T12, 2.77%; CeT-aortic - 53.7% at left and 46.3% in the middle; celiac-aortic-vertebral - L-l, 22.22%; M-m, 23.15%; L-m, 31.48%; M-l, 23.15%. Neither correspondence on the right side nor significant gender-related associations were observed. Conclusion: considering the wide range of abdominal anatomical variations and the characteristics of needle insertion pathways, celiac plexus block should not be standardized. Imaging should be performed prior to the procedure in order to reduce the risks for injuries or for negative outcomes to patients. Gender-related anatomical variations involved in celiac plexus block should be more deeply investigated, since few studies have addressed the subject. (author)

  18. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

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    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  19. Anatomic study of coracoclavicular ligaments for reconstruction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

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    Zhu, Nai-Feng; Rui, Bi-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Long; Chen, Yun-Feng

    2016-11-01

    There has been a trend to reconstruct the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments anatomically for management of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations. The aim of this study was to determine the location and orientation of the CC ligaments for anatomic reconstruction of the AC joint. The subjects were a total of 40 shoulders from 20 Chinese cadavers. Two K-wires were drilled through the insertion center of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments respectively. The distance from the center of the CC ligaments to the bone landmarks of the clavicle and the oblique angle of the two K-wires was measured respectively. The distance from the center of the trapezoid ligament to the lateral end and the anterior border of the clavicle was 21.7 ± 1.1 mm and 6.4 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The valgus angle and retroversion angle of the trapezoid ligament was 39.3°±0.9° and 6.0°±0.6°, respectively. The distance from the center of the conoid ligament to the lateral end and the posterior border of the clavicle was 36.6 ± 0.9 mm and 5.5 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. The valgus angle and retroversion angle of the conoid ligament was 6.6°±0.7° and 11.0°±0.9°, respectively. These findings are important for the anatomic reconstruction of the AC joint dislocations, by predicting the location and orientation of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments accurately. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

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    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gemelli-obturator complex in the deep gluteal space: an anatomic and dynamic study.

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    Balius, Ramon; Susín, Antonio; Morros, Carles; Pujol, Montse; Pérez-Cuenca, Dolores; Sala-Blanch, Xavier

    2017-12-07

    To investigate the behavior of the sciatic nerve during hip rotation at subgluteal space. Sonographic examination (high-resolution ultrasound machine at 5.0-14 MHZ) of the gemelli-obturator internus complex following two approaches: (1) a study on cadavers and (2) a study on healthy volunteers. The cadavers were examined in pronation, pelvis-fixed position by forcing internal and external rotations of the hip with the knee in 90° flexion. Healthy volunteers were examined during passive internal and external hip rotation (prone position; lumbar and pelvic regions fixed). Subjects with a history of major trauma, surgery or pathologies affecting the examined regions were excluded. The analysis included eight hemipelvis from six fresh cadavers and 31 healthy volunteers. The anatomical study revealed the presence of connective tissue attaching the sciatic nerve to the structures of the gemellus-obturator system at deep subgluteal space. The amplitude of the nerve curvature during rotating position was significantly greater than during resting position. During passive internal rotation, the sciatic nerve of both cadavers and healthy volunteers transformed from a straight structure to a curved structure tethered at two points as the tendon of the obturator internus contracted downwards. Conversely, external hip rotation caused the nerve to relax. Anatomically, the sciatic nerve is closely related to the gemelli-obturator internus complex. This relationship results in a reproducible dynamic behavior of the sciatic nerve during passive hip rotation, which may contribute to explain the pathological mechanisms of the obturator internal gemellus syndrome.

  2. A cadaveric biomechanical study comparing the ease of femoral nail insertion: 1.0- vs 1.5-m bow designs.

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    Yuan, Huan; Acklin, Yves; Varga, Peter; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Windolf, Markus; Epari, Devakar; Schuetz, Michael; Schmutz, Beat

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic fit of intramedullary nails was suggested by previous studies to improve significantly when the nail radius of curvature (ROC) is closer to the average femoral anatomy. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the impact of different ROC designs on the nail insertion process. Therefore, this biomechanical study quantitatively compared the ease of insertion between femoral intramedullary nails with a 1.0-m and a 1.5-m bow radius. Long TFN-ADVANCED™ (TFNA, 1.0 m ROC) and Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation nails (PFNA, 1.5 m ROC) were implanted pairwise into seven paired cadaver femora. All bones were reamed 1.5 mm larger than the nail diameter. Using a material testing machine, intramedullary nailing was then performed stepwise with 20-mm steps and a 10-mm/s insertion rate, and force was measured. The nail deformation caused by the insertion was assessed through 3D computer models built from pre- and post-nailing CT scans. The ease of insertion between TFNA and PFNA nails was quantified in terms of insertion force, insertion energy and nail deformation. There was no significant difference in the peak force generated during nailing between TFNA and PFNA nails (P = 0.731). However, the force measured at the end of insertion (P = 0.002) was significantly smaller in TFNA nails compared to PFNA nails. After implantation, TFNA nails showed significantly smaller deformation when compared to PFNA nails (P = 0.005, both ends aligned). Furthermore, less energy was required to insert TFNA nails; however, the difference was not significant (P = 0.25). Compared to PFNA nails, a significant decrease in insertion force and nail deformation was found at the end of insertion for TFNA nails. Results suggest that TFNA having a 1.0-m ROC is easier to insert for the set of femora used in this study compared to PFNA with a 1.5-m ROC.

  3. Reporting of perfusion/ventilation lung scintigraphy using an anatomical lung segment chart: a prospective study.

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    Van Beek, E J; Tiel-Van Buul, M M; Hoefnagel, C A; Jagt, H H; Van Royen, E A

    1994-09-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the effect of the consistent use of a previously described anatomical lung segment chart on the interpretation of lung scans. Simultaneous perfusion/ventilation lung scintigraphy was performed in 221 consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. Lung scans were immediately reported as normal, high probability or non-diagnostic with the use of an anatomical lung segment chart. After at least 6 months, blinded lung scans were randomly read by a panel of nuclear medicine physicians. Initial lung scan reports were classified as normal, high probability or non-diagnostic in 64, 63 and 94 patients, respectively. Overall observer disagreement was 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-9.8%), while this was 7.8, 3.2 and 7.9% for lung scans that were initially reported as normal, non-diagnostic and high probability, respectively. Reclassification consisted of normal to non-diagnostic (5), non-diagnostic to normal (1), non-diagnostic to high probability (2), and high probability to non-diagnostic scan results (5). From the literature, an overall disagreement of 20% was expected if no chart had been used. In conclusion, this study confirms that the consistent use of a lung segment chart reduces observer disagreement in the reporting of lung scans.

  4. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF THE GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE- A DISSECTION-BASED STUDY

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    Rajat Dutta Roy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In human, the bulk of the posterior compartment of the leg is formed by the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle. The superficially-placed gastrocnemius is a bipennate muscle, but according to available literature, it exhibits numerous anatomical variations. The aim of the present study is to find out the anatomical variations of the gastrocnemius muscle in this part of Assam. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study undertaken in the Department of Anatomy, Jorhat Medical College, from August 2014 to August 2017 included 30 lower limbs from 15 embalmed cadavers of known sexes. These cadavers were provided to the first year MBBS students for routine dissection procedure. After carrying out the dissection as per Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy, the gastrocnemius muscle was examined for its two heads of origin. Any accessory heads found were noted and recorded. RESULTS Out of the 30 lower limb specimens, 28 (93.33% limbs presented with the normal two-headed gastrocnemius muscle, while 2 (6.66% limbs (1 right and 1 left, presented with four-headed gastrocnemius muscle. Both these limbs belonged to male cadavers. CONCLUSION The precise knowledge of occurrence of multi-headed gastrocnemius muscle should be kept in mind, while performing myocutaneous flaps around the knee joint and also during limb salvage procedures or limb sparing surgery.

  5. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

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    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  6. The Safety of the Thenar Portal: An Anatomical Study of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroscopy.

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    Pan, Yong-Wei; Hung, Leung-Kim

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To define the localization of the distal course of the motor branches of median nerve (MBMN) and its arborization and its quantitative relationships to the thenar portal of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint in the hope of evaluating the safety of this portal. Method In 16 embalmed cadaveric upper extremities, the localization of the course of the MBMN and its arborization were defined. In 14 fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities, the CMC arthroscopic portals, 1-U, 1-R, and a thenar portal, were established, after which the limbs were dissected. Measurements were taken from the portals to the superficial radial nerve, radial artery, and the MBMN. Results The distal course of the MBMN and its terminal branches were all located in the proximal third of the thenar muscles, where the thenar portal was introduced. The mean distances between vital structures and each traditional portal (1-R or 1-U) were consistent with the previously published studies. Both the superficial and the profound branches of MBMN were very close to the thenar portal, and the distance between these two main terminal branches and the thenar portal was 1.2 mm (range: 0-6.2; standard deviation [SD] = 2) and 2.2 mm (range: 0-7; SD = 2.1), respectively. Five (35.7%) of the 14 fresh-frozen specimens indicated the superficial branch lay directly over the portal. One hand (7.1%) had the profound branch crossed over the thenar portal. Four hands (28.5%) indicated both the superficial and profound branches directly overlay the thenar portal. The superficial palmar branch of the radial artery was found in six hands, and in four of them, it crossed over the thenar portal. Conclusion The distal course of the MBMN and its terminal branches were all located in the proximal third of the thenar muscles, where the thenar portal was introduced. Clinical Relevance The thenar portal could improve the view of the CMC joint of the thumb and provide better performance of procedures in this

  7. Galeal flap based on superficial temporal vessels for oral cavity and pharynx reconstruction: an anatomical study

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    Fabio Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Despite the advances in microvascular free tissue transfer for intraoral reconstruction, this surgery is not recommended for all patients. In specific cases, the pedicled temporoparietal galeal flap may be an option for reconstructive procedures in the head and neck regions. The objective of this paper is to present the anatomical aspects of a galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels and to test its potential for reconstructing diverse sites of the oral cavity and pharynx. METHODS: We performed 40 dissections on 34 fresh adult cadavers. The flap vascular anatomy was studied by injecting latex into the superficial temporal vessels. A standardized square-shape flap measuring 10 x 10 cm², pedicled on the superficial temporal vessels, was raised. Oral cavity and oropharynx reconstruction simulations were performed after flap transposition into the mouth by passing it under the zygomatic arch. Hypopharyngeal reconstruction was tested by transposing the flap to the neck under the facial nerve. RESULTS: After latex injection, a rich vascular network over the temporoparietal galea was observed directly from the superficial temporal artery, and a well-vascularized flap based on this vessel was raised. In the reconstruction simulations, the flap was shown to be suitable for the coverage of hypothetical defects in most oral cavity and pharyngeal sites, mainly the retromolar trigone, tonsil area, and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: A galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels presents favorable anatomical characteristics for oral cavity and pharyngeal reconstruction.

  8. Comparative study of Passiflora taxa leaves: I. A morpho-anatomic profile

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    Luma Wosch

    Full Text Available AbstractDetermining the authenticity and quality of plant raw materials used in the formulation of herbal medicines, teas and cosmetics is essential to ensure their safety and efficacy for clinical use. Some Passiflora species are officially recognized in the pharmaceutical compendia of various countries and have therapeutic uses, particularly as sedatives and anxiolytics. However, the large number of Passiflora species, coupled with the fact that most species are popularly known as passion fruit, increases the misidentification problem. The purpose of this study is to make a pharmacognostic comparison between various Passiflora species to establish a morpho-anatomical profile that could contribute to the quality control of herbal drug products that contain passion fruit. This was conducted by collecting samples of leaves from twelve Passiflora taxa (ten species and two forms of P. edulis: P. actinia, P. alata, P. amethystina, P. capsularis, P. cincinnata, P. edulisf. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis, P. incarnata, P. morifolia, P. urnifolia, P. coccinea and P. setacea, from different locations and their morpho-anatomical features were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis allowed to indicate a set of characters that can help to differentiate species. These include midrib and petiole shape, midrib and petiole vascular pattern, medium vein shape, presence of trichomes, presence of blade epidermal papillae and sclerenchymatic cells adjoining the vascular bundles. These characters could be used to assist in the determination of herbal drug quality and authenticity derived from a species of Passiflora.

  9. SESLERIA ULIGINOSA OPIZ – A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LEAF ANATOMICAL TRAITS

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    LAKUŠIĆ DMITAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Sesleria uliginosa is relatively common and widespread in Central (Hungary, Czech republic, Slovakia, Austria, Romania and Northern Europe (Scandinavian peninsula, while in the Southeastern (Montenegro, Croatia, Bulgaria and Southern Europe (Italy it is a true natural rarity. Ecologically it is the typical species of calcareous swamps and by this feature it is an extreme quite singular within the whole genus. S. uliginosa can also grow on soils moist in spring but drying out later in summer, often at sunny stands, especially on clay soils.According to Deyl, S. uliginosa belongs to Calcaria section, turma Uliginosa. The wax cover of the young leaves is typical for this species, but this pruining is nearly completely absent in the old leaves. It is closely related to Sesleria heuflerana Schur with which it shares some common characters – pruinos leaves, three floretted spikes and the occurrence in lower altitudes. But in the Balkan peninusla it seems to have a far wider amplitude of its stands, so it can be found on the localities that reach up to the subalpine zone.The aim of this study was to establish and describe the anatomical differentiation of populations of S. uliginosa from Romania, Hungary and Montenegro. The measurements were carried out on permanent handmade slides, prepared by the standard method for the light microscopy. To determine the significance of anatomical variation and differentiation, the following analysis were carried out: Principal component analysis (PCA, Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA and cluster analysis by UPGMA method.

  10. The Study of Anatomical Structure and Karyotype of West Sumatran Dioscorea bulbifora L

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    Sjahridal Dahlan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Had been done from March 2005 to January 2006 in plant Structure and Development Laboratory of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Andalas University. In present study were used descriptives and quantitatives method by preparing semi-permanent and permanent slide. Anatomycal structures of green aerial stem were consisting of epidermal, cortex with endodermoid cells and sclerechima tissue centripetally. Vascular bundle can be rocognized in three distinct rings with amphycribal type. Transverse section of leave anatomical composed by both a layer epidermal on upper and lower leaf surface, palysade parechima, and spons parenchyma (dorsiventral type. The stomata were anomocytic type on both upper and lower surface of leaf (amphystomatic type. Idioblast of cell raphides crystals and tannin containing founded in leaf structure. In transverse section each of eight individual bundle surrounded by sclerenchyma. The root anatomical structures consist of epidermal, cortex, endodermal (U shape wall thickening, pericycle and pith (with three ring of vascular bundles centripetally. The air tuber lacking of starch grains containing of parenchyma cells. Idioblast cell expected contain of HCN distributed over all of tuber tissue. The somatic cell chromosome were diploid 2n=20 with basic chromosome number were x=10.

  11. Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.

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    Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

    2013-12-15

    In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomical study of the posterior cruciate ligament with the knee flexed at 90°,

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    Daniel Kyubin Cho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL and define anatomical parameters with the knee flexed at 90°.Methods:Eight knees from cadavers were dissected in order to make measurements from the center of the anterolateral band to the roof (AL1, from the center of the anterolateral band to the anterior cartilage (AL2, from the center of the posteromedial band to the roof (PM1, from the center of the posteromedial band to the anterior cartilage (PM2, from the center of the tibial insertion to the medial region of the tibia (TIM, from the center of the tibial insertion to the lateral region of the tibia (TIL, from the center of the medial insertion to the medial meniscus (IMM and the width of the origin of the PCL (WO. To obtain the results from each anatomical structure, the means and standard deviations of the measurements were calculated.Results:The measurements in millimeters that were found were AL1, 6.2; AL2, 4.9; PM1, 11.7; PM2, 5.5; TIM, 32.5; TIL, 40.6; IMM, 9.4; and WO, 32.5.Conclusions:The PCL has an extensive origin. The center of the anterolateral band is 6 mm from the roof and 5 mm from the anterior cartilage of the knee. The tibial insertion is slightly medial and 10 mm distal to the posterior cornu of the medial meniscus.

  13. A feasibility study for anatomical noise reduction in dual-energy chest digital tomosynthesis

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    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Thus, early diagnosis is of considerable importance. For early screening of lung cancer, computed tomography (CT) has been used as the gold standard. Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a recently introduced modality for lung cancer screening with a relatively low radiation dose compared to CT. The dual energy material decomposition method has been proposed for better detection of pulmonary nodules by means of reducing anatomical noise. In this study, the possibility of material decomposition in CDT was tested by both a simulation study and an experimental study using a CDT prototype. The Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) v6 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for the simulation study to create simulated phantom shapes consisting of five inner cylinders filled with different densities of bone and airequivalent materials. Furthermore, the CDT prototype system and human phantom chest were used for the experimental study. CDT scan in both the simulation and experimental studies was performed with linear movement and 21 projection images were obtained over a 30 degree angular range with a 1.5 degree angular interval. To obtain materialselective images, a projectionbased energy subtraction technique was applied to high and low energy images. The resultant simulation images showed that dual-energy reconstruction could achieve an approximately 32% higher contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in images and the difference in CNR value according to bone density was significant compared to single energy CDT. Additionally, image artifacts were effectively corrected in dual energy CDT simulation studies. Likewise the experimental study with dual energy produced clear images of lung fields and bone structure by removing unnecessary anatomical structures. Dual energy tomosynthesis is a new technique; therefore, there is little guidance regarding its

  14. Anatomical Study and Pollen Micromorphology of Onopordum L. in Iran

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    Elham AGHABABAEYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pollen micromorphological structure, leaf and stem anatomy structure of six species of Onopordum (O. acanthium L., O. armenum Grossh., O. carduchorum Bornm. & Beauv., O. carmanicum (Bornm. Bornm., O. heteracanthum C. A. Mey and O. leptolepis DC were examined with different repetitions. About 17 qualitative anatomical features were statistically analyzed. Glandular trichome, cortex fiber tissue, embowed in subsidiary vascular, its fiber tissue and vascular sheath extensions, adaxial collenchyma tissue and types of adaxial and abaxial stomata were distinct characters in separating of the species. In palynologic studies based on P/E ratio, 2 types of pollen grains were observed: oblate- spheroidal and suboblate. SEM study of the exine showed echinate, reticulate and perforate sculpturing in all six species.

  15. THE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS OF MORUS NIGRA

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    Yu. A. Vakhrusheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, plants have been the main source of new drugs. Morus nigra, which contains a rich complex of biologically active substances necessary for an organism (vitamins, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids is of great interest. We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of stems of Morus nigra, identified the main diagnostic characters of the studied medicinal plants. Experimental studies have shown that the stems of Morus nigra are characterized by the presence of thick-walled epidermal cells with slightly convoluted walls and a large number of ordinary thick-walled fuzz.

  16. Evaluation of an intraoperative ultrasound training model based on a cadaveric sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavruska, Jan; Buhl, Ralf; Petridis, Athanasios K; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of an ultrasound (US) practice course based on a sheep brain cadaver. Neurosurgical education is considerably restrained following patient safety objections and work time restrictions. It is therefore of vital importance to offer residents an opportunity to practice certain US techniques in a controlled environment without ethical or legal restrictions. We developed an US training model based on a sheep brain cadaver in order to demonstrate the feasibility of such a model, facilitate crucial anatomic knowledge, and demonstrate a learning curve from it. Over the course of 2 months from December 2012-January 2013, a total of 13 residents took part in a three part training session, each consisting of 20-30 min of individual US-training and performance evaluation based on a biological phantom. The first cadaver was a physiologic sheep brain. After initial familiarization with the US, the residents performed an US on a second cadaveric brain and tried to find a 0.5 cm big (in diameter) echogenic structure. In a third brain they were asked to identify a cyst (Fogarty catheter filled with water). Thirteen neurosurgical residents participated in the study. After the first training session, the learning curve improved significantly in the second and the third session. The ability to actuate the US device, the time needed to display crucial anatomic landmarks, and to locate the two different artificial masses increased, and respectively decreased remarkably by up to 80%. After 2 months and three training sessions, the handling of the US from the residents was excellent in the operating room. The accuracy and the dexterity in use of the US improved significantly. The participants found the model to be realistic and agreed on the need for further promotion of such courses.

  17. Comparison of in vivo vs. frozen vs. Thiel cadaver specimens in visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle on proton density Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, F; McNulty, J; Gatt, A; Formosa, C; Chockalingam, N; Evanoff, M G; Rainford, L

    2017-05-01

    The use of cadavers for medical education purposes and for radiology research methodologies which involve subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well documented. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of cadaver tissue preservation in producing MR images that are representative of living tissue by comparing the visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle obtained from live and cadaver (fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed) specimens through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study. A VGA study was conducted on an image data set consisting of 4 coronal proton density weighted (PDw) sequences obtained from ankles of a live patient and those of a cadaveric specimen, of which the right ankle was frozen and the left Thiel embalmed. Comparison of the image quality scores obtained from: the live patient vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the scores in favour of the Thiel specimen; between the live patient vs. the frozen specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the frozen specimen and between the frozen vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the Thiel specimen. The advantages of the use of cadavers (frozen or Thiel embalmed) has been shown to also apply for use with proton density (PD) MR imaging. The preservation of cadavers especially using Thiel is a suitable alternative for MRI optimisation and protocol development purposes. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Superior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries and their relationship with cerebello-pontine angle cranial nerves revisited in the light of cranial cephalometric indexes: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Zohreh; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Maleki, Farid; Tabatabai, Seyed

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to clarify the anatomical features of the superior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries in relation to the trigeminal nerve and acoustic-facial complex and to the bony structures of the skull in a sample of male Iranian cadavers. Bilateral dissections, calvariectomy, and brain evacuation were performed on 31 adult human fresh brains and skull bases to assess the neurovascular associations, and skull base morphometry. Equations were defined to estimate posterior fossa volume and the relationships between bony and neurovascular elements. Eight SCAs were duplicated from origin. There were 9 cases of SCA-trigeminal contacts, which were at the root entry zone in 7. Mean distance from the origin of AICA to the vertebrobasilar junction was 11.80 mm, while 79% of AICAs originated from the lower half of the BA. This was significantly associated with "posterior fossa funneling" and "basilar narrowing" indexes. In most cases AICA crossed the acoustic-facial complex and coursed between neural bundles (48.3%). The AICA reached or entered the internal acoustic canal in 22.6% of cases and was medial to porous in 77.4%. We documented anatomical variations of the superior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries along with some cephalometric equations with relevant neurovascular anatomy in Iranian cadavers.

  19. Palmar contracture release with arterialized venous instep flap: An anatomical and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Fatih; Yalçın, Bülent; Tekin, Levent; Eski, Muhitdin; Işık, Selcuk; Şengezer, Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Plantar skin has similar histologic features to the palmar area and appears to be the ideal tissue for reconstruction of the palmar region. In this study, an anatomic examination was performed to determine the superficial venous architecture of the instep area, and the use of arterialized venous instep flaps for palmar contracture release was assessed. The anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh cadaver feet. The arterialized venous instep flap, including the skin, subcutaneous tissue and superficial venous plexus, was harvested. To determine the venous structure, dissection (n = 6) and injection-corrosion (n = 6) techniques were used. In the clinical study, nine arterialized venous instep flaps were used for palmar contracture release. All flaps were harvested above the deep fascia and included skin, subcutaneous fat, and the superficial venous plexus. At the plantar site of the flap, two or three veins, one of which was used, were dissected for a sufficient length for the arterial anastomosis. The saphenous vein was used for the venous anastomosis. Dissection and injection-corrosion techniques revealed that the flap had 7-12 and 4-6 veins at its plantar and superior edges, respectively, with numerous anastomoses and interconnections between the veins. The flap dimensions were between 3 × 5 cm and 4 × 6 cm. All flaps survived, with two partial flap necrosis that healed with spontaneous epithelization. No debulking procedures were undertaken and all flaps adapted well to the recipient site. The arterialized venous instep flap is a good alternative to reconstruct palmar contractures by adding similar tissue that is thin and pliable with minimal donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomical, radiographical and computed tomographic study of the limbs skeleton of the Euphrates soft shell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Ahranjani, Behnaz; Shojaei, Bahador; Tootian, Zahra; Masoudifard, Madjid; Rostami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Euphrates turtle is the only soft shell turtle of Iran, and unfortunately is in danger of extinction due to multiple reasons. Imaging techniques, in addition to their importance in diagnosis of injuries to animals, have been used as non-invasive methods to provide normal anatomic views. A few studies have been conducted to understand body structure of the Euphrates turtle. Since there is only general information about the anatomy of turtle limbs, the normal skeleton of the Euphrates limbs was studied. For this purpose four adult Euphrates turtles were used. Digital radiographic examination was performed by computed radiographic (CR) in dorsoventral (DV) and lateral (L) positions. Spiral CT-scanning was done and 3D images of the bones were reconstructed for anatomical evaluation. For skeletal preparation, the skeleton was cleaned by a combination of boiling and mealworm methods and limbs' bones were examined anatomically. In the present study, simultaneous anatomic, radiographic and CT studies of bones in individual turtles made us possible to describe bones anatomically and provided comparable and complementary conditions to represent the abilities of the radiography and CT for better understanding of the anatomy. Arrangement and the number of carpal and tarsal bones are used in turtles' classification. Among the studied species, Euphrates turtle carpal and tarsal bones show the most similarities to the Apolone spinifera.

  1. Comparison of radiographic and anatomic distal metatarsal articular angle in cadaver feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James R; Coughlin, Michael J; Schutt, Shane; Hirose, Christopher; Kennedy, Michael; Grebing, Brett; Smith, Bertil; Cooper, Truitt; Golano, Pau; Viladot, Ramon; Doty, Jesse F

    2014-04-01

    A few studies report correlations between radiographic and anatomic measurements of the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). However, little is known about how the DMAA correlates with the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and with anatomic and clinical radiographic measurements. We dissected, measured, and radiographed 39 cadaveric feet for evidence of hallux valgus and the DMAA. We then correlated these values with paired clinical radiographic measurements made by physician evaluators. Physician measurement of DMAA and anatomic measurement of DMAA were significantly correlated with a mean r = 0.64 (evaluator range, 0.44-0.66). Pairwise correlation between physician evaluators ranged from r = 0.63 to 0.84. Sixty-six percent of physician-measured DMAAs were within 5 degrees of anatomic DMAA. The percentage of radiographic DMAAs that were within 5 degrees of anatomic DMAAs was only 66%. Additionally, the DMAA was increased in the specimens with moderate and severe hallux valgus compared with those with normal or mild hallux valgus angles. The DMAA is an important consideration in patients with hallux valgus. While it is less reliable than other radiographic measures, it was correlated to deformity severity in specimen with hallux valgus.

  2. Canine sacroiliac luxation: anatomic study of the craniocaudal articular surface angulation of the sacrum to define a safe corridor in the dorsal plane for placement of screws used for fixation in lag fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlt, Kelly L; Shales, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    To define a safe corridor in the dorsal plane relative to the articular surface for placement of a single screw in lag fashion to achieve stabilization of sacroiliac luxation in the dog. Cadaveric study. Dorsoventral radiographs of denuded canine sacra (n=49) were taken to determine the safe corridor in the craniocaudal plane, and the maximum, optimum and minimum angles were calculated that would allow a screw inserted in lag fashion to engage at least 60% of the width of the sacral body without cranial or caudal penetration through the bone. The mean safe corridor in the dorsal plane is ∼24° wide. Mean craniocaudal minimum, optimum and maximum drill angles from the drill start point were 88°, 100°, and 111° from the articular surface, respectively. No single angle will completely avoid risk of screw penetration beyond the safe corridor cranially and caudally. There is sufficient anatomic variation between different canine sacra that a single angle cannot be recommended for screw placement in the dorsal plane. A standard angle cannot be recommended for screw placement in lag fashion within the canine sacrum in the dorsal plane. Because of the narrow width of the safe corridor, preoperative measurements on radiographs are recommended and a range of angled drill guides may be useful to decrease surgeon margin of error. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Platysma suspension and platysmaplasty during neck lift: anatomical study and analysis of 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Daniel; Franco, R G; Nicolas, J

    2006-05-01

    The authors developed a technique for the treatment of the cervical area during face lifts. The authors called this technique platysma suspension and platysmaplasty rather than plication. After an anatomical study on 10 corpses on which the authors tested the various platysma suspension techniques, they carried out platysma suspension associated with platysmaplasty in 30 patients. This technique consists of suspending the free edge of the platysma muscle and fixing it to a resistant tissue close to the earlobe (Loré's fascia or tympanoparotid fascia). The anterior triangle of the neck was well defined, and there was no need to undermine the platysma muscle because of a perfect sliding plane between the platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles. This technique is both simple and effective. It generates long-lasting results, without the inconveniences or complications associated with other techniques.

  4. [Surgical wound infection in patients undergoing extra-anatomical arterial surgery. A retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, M; Callejas, J M; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Lerma, R; Boabaid, R; Mejía, S

    1993-01-01

    We present a retrospective review of a series of patients from our Service submitted to surgical extra-anatomical grafts. Correlation between diverse variants and ulterior obliteration by thrombosis or infection of the surgical wounds is analyzed. The series included 133 patients surgically treated between 1986 and 1991. The studied variants were: sex, age, type of graft, the material used, length and type of anesthesia, presentation of hypotension during the surgical intervention, diabetes, platelet recount. Fourteen patients (11%) presented early graft obliteration and 15 (11%) presented an infection of their surgical wound. Only the platelet variant showed statistical differences in patients presenting infection. A high recount of platelets could be a factor risk of infection.

  5. Anatomical study of the final common pathway for vocalization in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of an anatomical study of the neuronal pathways in the cat, via which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces excitation of motoneurons involved in vocalization. It is shown that a specific cell group in the lateral part of the caudal PAG and in the tegmentum just lateral to it projects bilaterally to the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the caudal medulla oblongata. Neurons in the NRA in turn project, via a contralateral pathway through the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord, to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating intercostal and abdominal muscles. In the brainstem, the NRA neurons project to the motoneuronal cell groups innervating mouth-opening and perioral muscles as well as to motoneurons innervating the pharynx, soft palate, and tongue. These results indicate that the projections from PAG via NRA to vocalization motoneurons form the final common pathway in vocalization.

  6. Comparative anatomical study of the leg's nerves of Cebus (barbed capuchins with baboons, chimpanzees and modern humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá de Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical comparative studies among the primates are important for the investigation of ethology, evolution, taxonomy, and comprehension of tools by hominoids. Especially the anatomical knowledge of Cebus contributes to conservation of the species, and to development of surgical procedures and clinical treatments of these animals, as they frequently are victims of automobile accidents. Recent anatomical studies came to a wrong conclusion regarding behavioral traits of Cebus, ascribed to few data available in previous literature. Therefore, to provide anatomical data and to support the other sciences related to anatomy, and to develop surgical and/or clinical procedures, we described the nerves of the legs of Cebus foccusing on their position and trajectory, as wll as innerved muscles, and compared these results with those of humans and other primates. Eight adult capuchin specimens were used for this study. The anatomical comparative study of the leg's nerves of Cebus demonstrated that, in general, structural organization of the nerves is similar among the four primates analyzed here (Cebus, chimpanzees, baboons and humans, which might be attributed to the fact that the all four primates have similar body structures. However, nerve trajectory and muscles innervation in Cebus was more similar to baboons.

  7. The larynx. Anatomic and dynamic US study; La laringe: studio ecografico anatomico e funzionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappia, F. [AMT-Associazione Medicina e Tecnologia, Turin (Italy); Campani, R. [Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study is the investigation of capabilities of ultrasonography in morphological and functional studies of laryngeal structures. 50 healthy subjects were examined ranging in age 23 to 74 years; 17 of them were professional opera singers. All the anatomical structures that could be measured were clearly demonstrated. In addition to the advantages that ultrasonography is known to provide, it can also permit accurate measurements of the anatomical structures of the larynx and respiratory space at rest and in the dynamic phase, which are important data in some conditions (e.g., cord paralysis) or follow-up of drug or rehabilitation treatment. Finally ultrasonography can permit to detect atypical situations such as those in false/true vocal cords hypertrophy and abnormal cord growth. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' stato quello di verificare i risultati ottenibili con l'ecografia nello studio morfologico e funzionale delle strutture laringee. Sono stati eseguiti esami su 50 soggetti sani di eta' compresa tra 23 e 74 anni, tra i quali 17 cantanti lirici professionisti. Sono state evidenziate con chiarezza tutte le strutture anatomiche che e' stato possibile misurare. Oltre ai vantaggi noti e codificati, l'ecografia consente di effettuare precise misurazioni delle strutture anatomiche della laringe e dello spazio respiratorio a riposo e nella fase dinamica, dato importante in alcune malattie (paralisi cordale) e nei controlli dopo terapia farmacologica o logopedica riabilitativa. Puo' consentire di rilevare situazioni atipiche come l'ipertrofia delle false o delle vere corde, nelle anomalie degli accrescimenti cordali.

  8. Obturator internus muscle autotransplantation: a new concept for the treatment of obstructive constipation. An anatomical, physiological and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A; Gadallah, N A; el-Shereif, E M

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using obturator internus muscle autotransplantation in order to construct an anal dilator mechanism for the treatment of obstructive constipation was studied anatomically, physiologically and pathologically. Electromyographic studies of 15 obturator internus muscles in 10 healthy adult male volunteers and 3 other muscles in patients with documented spastic anal sphincters demonstrated the ability of the obturator internus muscles to contract during straining at stools. The proposed surgical approach was studied in 9 cadavers (5 stillbirths and 4 adults), followed by formal anatomical dissection of the obturator internus muscle and tendon, pudendal nerve and vessels, inferior rectal nerve and nerve to the obturator internus. Anatomical studies proved the feasibility, ease, rapidity and safety of the technique with or without division of the obturator internus tendon with no incidence of injury to the surrounding nerves, vessels or muscles using a purely perineal approach.

  9. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  10. Visual agnosia and posterior cerebral artery infarcts: an anatomical-clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Loubeyre, Maud; Hirsbein, David; Hannequin, Didier; Cohen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct) with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA), faces (FFA and OFA), houses (PPA) and common objects (LOC). Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words). Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations.

  11. Long-term psychosexual and anatomical outcome after vaginal dilation or vaginoplasty: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; De Cuypere, Griet; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Beerendonk, Catharina C M; van der Zwan, Yvonne G; van den Berg, Marjan; Monstrey, Stan; Van Kuyk, Maaike E; De Sutter, Petra; Dessens, Arianne B; Cools, Martine

    2012-07-01

    In patients with disorders of sex development requiring creation of a neovagina, a number of techniques are available, including surgical vaginoplasty and self-dilation therapy. Vaginal dilation therapy has been recommended as a first-line treatment because of its less invasive character and high success rate. However, no data exist on long-term psychosexual functioning after vaginal dilation as compared with that after vaginal surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the psychosexual and anatomical outcome of women with congenital vaginal hypoplasia followed in the same clinical setting after vaginoplasty with that after vaginal dilation. The sexual quality of life of 35 women at least 2 years after vaginoplasty (N = 15), vaginal dilation therapy (N = 8), or coital dilation/no treatment (N = 12) was investigated and compared with the Dutch test validation population (as control). Psychosexual functioning was assessed with the female sexual Function index, the female sexual distress scale-revised, and a semi-structured interview. A gynecological examination was performed to determine the anatomical outcome after both vaginal treatment regimens. After either treatment, 26% of these women had a shortened vaginal length of less than 6.6 cm, i.e., more than two standard deviations below the published mean value (9.6 ± 1.5 cm). Irrespective of the treatment, 47% of the patients had (a) sexual dysfunction(s) and experienced sexual distress. However, after vaginoplasty, patients reported significantly more problems with lubrication (P = 0.025) than after self-dilation therapy. Both psychological and physical factors are predisposing for sexual difficulties. To optimize psychosexual comfort, the clinical management of women with vaginal hypoplasia needs to be multidisciplinary and individually tailored. With high success rates reported, vaginal dilation should remain the cornerstone of treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual

  12. Leg perforators and leg length: an anatomic study focusing on topography and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriani, Filippo; Bruschi, Stefano; Fraccalvieri, Marco; Cipriani, Riccardo

    2010-07-01

    The highly variable anatomic distribution of lower leg perforators is explored, with a standardization based on leg length. The possibility of a correlation between leg length and number of perforators is investigated. Twenty-two lower limbs of cadavers were utilized for an anatomic study on the leg perforators branching from the three major vascular axes, anterior tibial, posterior tibial, and fibular. The parameters considered were the number of vascular pedicles per each major axis, the caliber, the distance of the fascial hole from the bony landmark (knee joint line), and the route of the vessels (muscular, septal). Arteries taken into account had a caliber of 0.5 mm or greater, with a maximum of 1.7 and a mean of 0.78. The perforators of the anterior tibial artery distribute along the entire length of the leg, but the peak of concentration is between second and third tenth and around the middle tenth. The fibular system provides perforators between the fourth and seventh tenth. The posterior tibial perforators concentrate to the middle third and to the supramalleolar region. A correlation exists between leg length and number of perforating vessels for the tibial vascular systems, possibly due to neoangiogenesis during growth, at the level of the metaphyseal plates. On the contrary no relationship was noticed for the fibular artery, whose perforators concentrate far from the growth cartilages. Some tenths where perforators concentrate are identifiable. Tibial systems have a perforator incidence depending on leg length, which, on the contrary, does not influence the number of fibular perforators. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [Anatomic study on perforating branch flap of medial vastus muscle and its clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Liang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Chenqi; Guo, Deliang; Wang, Changde; Cui, Lei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the anatomic features of the perforating branch flap of the medial vastus muscle, so as to provide a new perforating branch flap for repairing the soft tissue defect. Six fresh donated lower limb specimens underwent an intra-arterial injection of a lead oxide and lactoprene preparation. The integument of the thigh was dissected to observe the origin, course, size, and location of the perforating branch of the medial vastus muscle by angiography and photography. Based on the anatomic study, the free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle (14 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 5 cm) were used to repair skin and soft tissue defects (8 cm x 6 cm to 12 cm x 8 cm) of the feet in 4 patients between June 2009 and August 2011. The artery of the medial vastus was sent out constantly from the femoral artery, and then descended in the vastus muscle to lateral patella where it anastomosed with the terminal branches of lateral femoral circumflex artery to form prepatellar vascular network. The artery of the medial vastus sent out 3-5 musculocutaneous perforating branches into the deep fascia and then extended superficially to the overlying skin. Four flaps survived after surgery; wounds at the donor site and recipient site healed by first intention. After follow-up of 6-12 months, the flaps had good appearance and texture. All ankles had normal movement range of plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. The free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle can be harvested easily, and have the advantage of good texture and abundant donor site.

  14. Visual agnosia and posterior cerebral artery infarcts: an anatomical-clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Martinaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate systematically the cognitive deficits following posterior cerebral artery (PCA strokes, especially agnosic visual disorders, and to study anatomical-clinical correlations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated 31 patients at the chronic stage (mean duration of 29.1 months post infarct with standardized cognitive tests. New experimental tests were used to assess visual impairments for words, faces, houses, and objects. Forty-one healthy subjects participated as controls. Brain lesions were normalized, combined, and related to occipitotemporal areas responsive to specific visual categories, including words (VWFA, faces (FFA and OFA, houses (PPA and common objects (LOC. Lesions were located in the left hemisphere in 15 patients, in the right in 13, and bilaterally in 3. Visual field defects were found in 23 patients. Twenty patients had a visual disorder in at least one of the experimental tests (9 with faces, 10 with houses, 7 with phones, 3 with words. Six patients had a deficit just for a single category of stimulus. The regions of maximum overlap of brain lesions associated with a deficit for a given category of stimuli were contiguous to the peaks of the corresponding functional areas as identified in normal subjects. However, the strength of anatomical-clinical correlations was greater for words than for faces or houses, probably due to the stronger lateralization of the VWFA, as compared to the FFA or the PPA. CONCLUSIONS: Agnosic visual disorders following PCA infarcts are more frequent than previously reported. Dedicated batteries of tests, such as those developed here, are required to identify such deficits, which may escape clinical notice. The spatial relationships of lesions and of regions activated in normal subjects predict the nature of the deficits, although individual variability and bilaterally represented systems may blur those correlations.

  15. Linking graph features of anatomical architecture to regional brain activity: A multi-modal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Wen; Xue, Shao-Wei

    2017-06-09

    Previous empirical research has treated regional neural responses and network architecture separately. However, anecdotal reports have suggested a close relationship between the two. This study aims to investigate the influence of structural connectivity on regional spontaneous activities. Datasets of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) of 36 right-handed healthy subjects (average age 27.4) were selected from the NKI Rockland sample. In the sMRI data, the cerebral cortex was parcellated into 70 regions of interest (ROIs) according to an anatomical atlas. Two indices were calculated from rs-fMRI for each ROI: the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Diffusion tensor imaging was computed from DWI and was converted to tractography. Four graph indices of structural connectivity were retrieved from the tractography results and the 70 ROIs, as follows: nodal degree, clustering coefficient, local efficiency and betweenness centrality. ReHo values were significantly correlated with all 4 graph features, whereas ALFF values were significantly correlated with nodal degrees and clustering coefficients. Both ReHo and ALFF tended to increase with segregation (clustering coefficient and local efficiency) and decrease with centrality (nodal degree and betweenness centrality). Though derived from local spontaneous activities, ReHo and ALFF may reflect the network properties of the underlying anatomical architecture. The results supported the hypothesis that the properties of the network structure may shape the regional neural response profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Position of the mental foramen in adult black Zimbabwean mandibles: a clinical anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbajiorgu, E F; Mawera, G; Asala, S A; Zivanovic, S

    1998-02-01

    To provide some anatomical information on the shape, size, and position of the mental foramen among Black Zimbabweans that could be used as reference material by dental and other health practitioners during clinical practice in Zimbabwe. Cross sectional anatomical study. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. 32 mandibles derived from adult Black Zimbabweans. The shape of the mental foramen, its relation to the lower teeth and its position in relation to the mandibular symphysis, the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible, the lower border of the mandible, and the alveolar margin. The shape of the mental foramen was round in 14 out of 32 mandibles (43.8%) and was oval in the remaining 18 (56.3%). The percentage of occurrence of the mental foramen was highest below the lower second premolar tooth on the right side (position 4) and posterior to it on the left side (position 5). In the vertical plane, the mental foramen lay slightly below the midpoint of the distance between the lower border of the mandible and the alveolar margin (44.1% and 45.5% for the right and left sides respectively). In the horizontal plane, it lay approximately one quarter (27.3% for the right and 27.4% for the left sides) of the distance from the mandibular symphysis to the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible. The percentage distribution of the mental foremen in relation to the lower teeth in the adult Black Zimbabwean mandible was at variance with that of other population groups. However, the quantitative position of the mental foremen was bilaterally symmetrical in the adult Black Zimbabwean mandible. The latter observation is of clinical significance to dental and other health practitioners in Zimbabwe with regards to the achievement of effective mental nerve block anaesthesia and the prevention of damage to the mental nerve during surgical procedures on the lower jaw.

  17. Ultrasound of the Gruberi Bursa With Cadaveric and MRI Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Jacobson, Jon A; Bhatti, Zeeshaan S; Smith, Jay; Parameswaran, Aishwarya; Fessell, David P

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the appearance and ultrasound characteristics of the Gruberi bursa using a cadaveric model and retrospective ultrasound imaging review. For the cadaveric study, ultrasound of the dorsolateral ankle of a foot-ankle specimen was performed and was followed by injection of latex between the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) tendons and the talus and dissection. For the ultrasound imaging review, the radiology database was searched for ultrasound studies performed from September 15, 2000, through April 1, 2015, to identify subjects with a dorsolateral foot or ankle fluid collection detected on ultrasound. Images were retrospectively reviewed to characterize the location and size of the fluid collection, assess for the number of locules, and evaluate the compressibility of the fluid collection. It was determined whether the ultrasound findings were significantly different from chance: CI and p values were obtained from performing a test for one proportion. Dissection of a cadaveric specimen revealed latex within a well-defined region between the EDL tendons and the dorsolateral talus; this location is consistent with a Gruberi bursa. For the image review, the imaging examinations of 162 subjects (age range, 16-88 years; 31 male subjects and 131 female subjects) were reviewed. On the ultrasound images, a fluid collection with its epicenter between the dorsolateral talus and EDL was found in 93% of ankles. Of the fluid collections identified on ultrasound, 98% were unilocular and 94% were anechoic. Of these fluid collections, 133 were assessed for compressibility, and 89% were compressible. The positive findings for a Gruberi bursa that were different from chance (p bursa characteristically is located between the EDL and the talus; on ultrasound, the Gruberi bursa is most commonly unilocular, anechoic, and compressible.

  18. Anatomical and ultrasonographic study of the femoral nerve within the iliopsoas muscle in beagle dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, Giovanni; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Mahler, Stephan; Charrouin, Maxime; Boyer, Guillaume; Verwaerde, Patrick; Jourdan, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    An ultrasound (US)-guided ventral suprainguinal approach to block the femoral nerve (FN) within the iliopsoas muscle (IPM) has recently been described in dogs. The goal of the present study was to provide the operator with additional information to locate the FN within the IPM in dogs and cats using US. The study was carried out in three phases: a dissection of the FN (phase 1); an in vivo US-assisted nerve study (phase 2), and an anatomical cross-sectional study (phase 3). Nine healthy adult beagle dogs and nine healthy adult cats. Dissections were performed to investigate the anatomical characteristics of the FN and its related structures in one dog and one cat. Ultrasound scans of the left and right FN were performed in eight dogs and eight cats. The FN diameter and the distance between the FN and the external iliac artery (EIA) in US images and in anatomical cryosections were measured. The median FN diameter did not differ significantly between cats and dogs (1.1 mm versus 1.0 mm) or between the two techniques (US versus anatomical cross-sectional study) (1.1 mm versus 1.1 mm in dogs; 1.0 mm versus 1.1 mm in cats). The US and anatomical measurements of the median distances between the FN and EIA differed significantly between dogs and cats (8.2 mm versus 5.8 mm by US; 5.7 mm versus 4.8 mm in the anatomical study). The distance between the EIA and FN is reproducible in beagle dogs and cats and can be used in locating the FN within the IPM. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  19. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kevin K; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E; McAlonan, Gráinne M

    2011-11-01

    The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay--essentially, the "absence of language delay." To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus

  20. An in vitro study of the strain distribution in human femora with anatomical and customised femoral stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbyhaug, P O; Klaksvik, J; Romundstad, P; Aamodt, A

    2009-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite-coated standard anatomical and customised femoral stems are designed to transmit load to the metaphyseal part of the proximal femur in order to avoid stress shielding and to reduce resorption of bone. In a randomised in vitro study, we compared the changes in the pattern of cortical strain after the insertion of hydroxyapatite-coated standard anatomical and customised stems in 12 pairs of human cadaver femora. A hip simulator reproduced the physiological loads on the proximal femur in single-leg stance and stair-climbing. The cortical strains were measured before and after the insertion of the stems. Significantly higher strain shielding was seen in Gruen zones 7, 6, 5, 3 and 2 after the insertion of the anatomical stem compared with the customised stem. For the anatomical stem, the hoop strains on the femur also indicated that the load was transferred to the cortical bone at the lower metaphyseal or upper diaphyseal part of the proximal femur. The customised stem induced a strain pattern more similar to that of the intact femur than the standard, anatomical stem.

  1. Study on evaluating dose to fishes based on its anatomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Li; Senlin, Liu; Chunhong, Wang; Ruirui, Liu

    2011-08-01

    Here, an anatomic model of mullet is developed on sampling, dissection, and measurement on site. A Monte Carlo code is used to compute the energy-absorbed fraction in tissues and organs of the mullet, and dose rates are calculated. Some previous methods are selected for comparison. The results calculated by means of a newly developed anatomic model indicate that the dose rate to each tissue/organ is different, and dose rates to some tissues/organs are much larger than those calculated based on previous uniform models. This suggests that it is necessary to exploit an anatomic model if there are various concentration factors within the organism. Taking the organism as a whole, the anatomic model has smaller internal dose rates and middle external dose rates among these methods.

  2. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega de; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5...

  3. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  4. Shortening of an anatomical stem, how short is short enough? An in vitro study of load transfer and primary stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbyhaug, Per Olav; Klaksvik, Jomar; Romundstad, Pål; Aamodt, Arild

    2013-05-01

    An anatomical stem should be short enough to avoid distal locking and distal load transfer but long enough to ensure adequate primary stability of the stem. In this in vitro study, the cortical strains in the femur and the primary stability of the stem were measured after insertion of Anatomic Benoist Girard-I anatomical stems with gradually reduced stem length in six human cadaver femurs in order to find the optimal stem length. A shortening of 40-50 mm, corresponding to a stem extending 30-40 mm below the lesser trochanter, did not affect stem stability but nearly normalized the load distribution in the lower metaphysis and upper diaphysis. The large strain shielding observed in the calcar region was not influenced by shortening of the stem.

  5. [Pedicle flaps based on the sphenopalatine artery: anatomical and surgical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Cabrerizo, Juan R; Gras-Albert, Juan R; Monjas-Canovas, Irene; García-Garrigós, Elena; Montserrat-Gili, Joan R; Sánchez del Campo, Francisco; Kolanczak, Katarzyna; Massegur-Solench, Humbert

    2014-01-01

    Local pedicle flaps based on the sphenopalatine artery make it possible to reconstruct large defects of the skull base (SB). From January 2008 to January 2013, 64 lesions with involvement of SB were analysed. These lesions were treated using endoscopic endonasal approach and required a pedicle flap based on the sphenopalatine artery. In addition, measurements and flexibility of the flaps were examined in 4 cadaveric nasal cavities. Surgical group. Sixty-four nasoseptal flaps (NSF) were used, in 4 cases associated with a middle turbinate flap (MTF), and in 1 case supplemented with an inferior turbinate flap (ITF). Five cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (8%) were noted. Among patients with initial lesions, 7% presented an anosmia. Cadaveric group. The length of the NSF varied between 5.2 cm and 7.7 cm and the width ranged from 3 cm to 4.5 cm. The ITF provided an anterior-posterior distance between 4.2 cm and 5 cm, with a width between 1.2 cm and 2.8 cm. The mean length of MTFs varied between 3.5 cm and 4.2 cm, with a width between 1.4 cm and 1.9 cm. The most versatile local flap for the reconstruction of skull base defects is the NSF, and flaps pedicled to the posterolateral nasal artery offer an excellent alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  6. The Sophia Anatomical Infant Nose-Throat (Saint) model: a valuable tool to study aerosol deposition in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, H. M.; de Jongste, J. C.; Fokkens, W. J.; Robben, S. G.; Wouters, K.; Tiddens, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the variables that influence lung deposition of inhaled aerosols in children. A model of the upper airways of an infant could be a useful tool to study these variables in vitro. The objective of this study was to construct an anatomically correct model of the upper

  7. Anatomic variation of the clavicle: A novel three-dimensional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daruwalla, Zubin J

    2010-03-01

    An understanding of the complex anatomy of the clavicle is helpful in the treatment of clavicular fractures. Using three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape analysis, the author presents a novel method to assess geometric morphology of the clavicle. Fifteen fresh frozen shoulder specimens were scanned using high-resolution computerized tomography (CT) but four were excluded from the study. A further 16 high-resolution CT scans of the clavicle were obtained by searching the hospital database. All 27 scans were reconstructed and subsequently imported into and analyzed using a specifically developed statistical software package. Using statistical shape analysis, geometric parameters were then measured. Both gender as well as side specific geometric morphology were observed. Clavicles in men were longer, wider, and thicker than in women. Right clavicles had a greater medial depth than left clavicles, especially in women. Clavicles in men had a greater lateral depth than in women. The sternal angle in women was larger than in men. Using 3D statistical shape analysis and applying it to the clavicle standardizes the study of its anatomy, rules out any variability, and calculates morphological parameters that are accurate, precise, and reproducible. This unique approach provides information that is useful not only to the clinician but also in the modification of current or design of future clavicle fixation devices. More importantly, from an anatomy standpoint, implementation of this novel approach in anatomical studies would eliminate intra- and interobserver variation and allow all studies to be standardized and thus more comparable.

  8. Anatomical predictors of aphasia recovery: a tractography study of bilateral perisylvian language networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Kalra, Lalit; Murphy, Declan G M; Williams, Steven C R; Catani, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Stroke-induced aphasia is associated with adverse effects on quality of life and the ability to return to work. For patients and clinicians the possibility of relying on valid predictors of recovery is an important asset in the clinical management of stroke-related impairment. Age, level of education, type and severity of initial symptoms are established predictors of recovery. However, anatomical predictors are still poorly understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we intended to assess anatomical predictors of recovery derived from diffusion tractography of the perisylvian language networks. Our study focused on the arcuate fasciculus, a language pathway composed of three segments connecting Wernicke's to Broca's region (i.e. long segment), Wernicke's to Geschwind's region (i.e. posterior segment) and Broca's to Geschwind's region (i.e. anterior segment). In our study we were particularly interested in understanding how lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus impacts on severity of symptoms and their recovery. Sixteen patients (10 males; mean age 60 ± 17 years, range 28-87 years) underwent post stroke language assessment with the Revised Western Aphasia Battery and neuroimaging scanning within a fortnight from symptoms onset. Language assessment was repeated at 6 months. Backward elimination analysis identified a subset of predictor variables (age, sex, lesion size) to be introduced to further regression analyses. A hierarchical regression was conducted with the longitudinal aphasia severity as the dependent variable. The first model included the subset of variables as previously defined. The second model additionally introduced the left and right arcuate fasciculus (separate analysis for each segment). Lesion size was identified as the only independent predictor of longitudinal aphasia severity in the left hemisphere [beta = -0.630, t(-3.129), P = 0.011]. For the right hemisphere, age [beta = -0.678, t(-3.087), P = 0.010] and volume of the long

  9. An anatomic and biomechanic study of the wrist extensor retinaculum septa and tendon compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Morris, Randal P; Andersen, Clark; Patterson, Rita M; Viegas, Steven F

    2006-01-01

    The anatomy of the extensor retinaculum of the wrist has been described previously; the purpose of this study was to describe the specific anatomy of the septal attachments on the radius and to investigate the mechanical strength of each septal attachment on the radius and each of the 6 compartments of the extensor retinaculum. Thirty-four wrists from 24 fresh-frozen and 10 embalmed cadavers were used. First, anatomic measurements of the individual extensor retinaculum septums were performed with calipers and a 3-dimensional digitizer. Next each extensor retinaculum septum was excised as a bone-retinaculum-bone autograft and was tested in tension to failure with a materials testing machine. Finally the 6 extensor retinaculum compartments were tested to failure. Septum 1/2 had the largest radial surface area and septum 3/4 had the smallest. Septum 1/2 also was found to have the highest failure strength at 51.3 +/- 15.3 N. In compartment testing, compartments 1 and 2 had the highest overall resistance to failure and compartment 5 had the lowest. Compartment 6, which was thought to be the weakest because of clinically observed subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, had stronger failure data than expected. This study offers detailed analysis of the extensor retinaculum compartments and 3-dimensional anatomy of the septal attachments. Clinically this study lends insight to the strength of bone-retinaculum-bone autografts and the etiology of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation.

  10. Estudo anatômico do forame esfenopalatino Anatomical study of the sphenopalatine foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bernardini Antunes Scanavine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As variações anatômicas do forame esfenopalatino podem corresponder às alterações na entrada da irrigação nasal arterial, condição relevante para o tratamento das epistaxes graves através da ligadura da artéria esfenopalatina. OBJETIVO: Estudar o forame esfenopalatino quanto à sua variação numérica e sua localização na parede lateral nasal em relação à crista etmoidal óssea do osso palatino. Material e Método: Os estudos anatômicos foram realizados em 54 hemicrânios. RESULTADOS: O forame esfenopalatino apresentou a seguinte variação numérica: único (87,0% ou 47 peças, duplo (11,1% ou 6 peças e triplo (1,9% ou uma peça; foi localizado no meato nasal superior em 81,5% ou 44 peças, 14,8% (8 peças entre os meatos nasais médio e superior e no meato nasal médio apenas em um caso (1,9%. CONCLUSÃO: Foi demonstrada a variação numérica do FEP, a sua relação com a crista etmoidal óssea, e sua localização nos meatos nasais superior, médio e em ambos.Anatomical variations of the sphenopalatine foramen may correspond to alterations at the arterial nasal irrigation input, which is a relevant condition to treat severe epistaxis through ligation of the sphenopalatine artery. AIM: To study the sphenopalatine foramen in terms of its numeric variation and its location on the lateral nasal wall in relation to the bony ethmoidal crest of the palatine bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anatomical studies were carried out in 54 hemifaces. RESULTS: the sphenopalatine foramen presented the following numeric variation: single (87%, or 47 specimens, double (11,1%, or 6 specimens, and triple (1.9% or one specimen; it was located at the superior nasal meatus in 81.5%, or 44 specimens; 14.8% (8 specimens between the middle and superior nasal meatus and in the middle nasal meatus in only one case (1.9%. CONCLUSION: We have been able to show a numeric variation of the SPF, its relation with the bony ethmoidal crest and its location in

  11. A comprehensive study of the anatomical variations of the circle of willis in adult human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S

    2013-11-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, aneurysms and arterio-venous malformations are very much prevalent in our country. Circle of Willis, as an anastomotic polygon at the base of the brain forms an important collateral network to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. Changes in the normal morphology of the circle may condition the appearance and severity of symptoms of cerebrovascular disorders, such as aneurysms, infarctions and other vascular anomalies. A possible link between abnormalities of the circle of Willis and the mentally ill patients has been observed. The aim of the present study is to have an intimate knowledge of the variations in the cerebral arterial circle and to clarify the clinical importance of these variations in certain forms of cerebrovascular diseases. So an attempt was made to analyse the anatomical variations of the circle in a random population. The work was based on fifty adult brains from persons died of diverse causes. The materials were obtained during routine autopsy studies. The base of the brain including the brain stem with intact arterial circle was preserved in 10% formalin for 10 days. The circle of Willis and its major branches were carefully dissected under water using a magnifying lens. The variations were recorded and photographed. Majority of the circles (52%) showed anomalies. Hypoplasia was the most frequent anomaly and was found in 24% of the brains. Accessory vessels in the form of duplications/triplications of anterior communicating artery were seen in 12% of the circles. The embryonic origin of the posterior cerebral artery from the internal carotid persisted in 10% of the circles. An incomplete circle due to the absence of one or other posterior communicating artery was found in 6% of the specimens.Variations are more frequent in posterior half of the circle. The anatomical variations of the circle of Willis were probably genetically determined, develop in early embryonic stage and persist in post natal life

  12. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND GROSS ANATOMICAL STUDY OF HUMAN PLACENTA IN PATIENTS WITH PREECLAMPSIA

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    Vimla Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The beginning reason for preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia starts to lessen with the conveyance of the placenta and can happen without a baby, however, with the nearness of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In perspective of this, investigation of the placenta ought to give knowledge into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation, we look at placental pathological and anatomical changes with preeclampsia and Foetal Development Limitation (FGR. No doubt, this examination ought to enlighten as both conditions are associated with comparably unusual placentation yet just in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological disorder. Comparative bits of knowledge about ahead of schedule and late onset preeclampsia ought to likewise be given by such information. METHODS A prospective study was led in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Bettiah. 250 instances of pregnancy actuated hypertension were concentrated on. The cases with systolic circulatory strain more prominent than 130 mmHg, diastolic pulse more noteworthy than 90 mmHg on two estimations dismantled 6 hours in relationship with histological finding were incorporated into the study. These cases were further separated as mild preeclampsia if the diastolic circulatory strain was ≤100 mmHg and as moderate preeclampsia if the diastolic pulse was 110 mmHg. Extreme cases were characterised if the systolic pulse - ≥160 mmHg, diastolic circulatory strain ≥110 mmHg. Maternal and foetal result was considered and post conveyance placenta was sent for histopathologic examination. Gross anatomical and microscopic examination was done and discoveries were connected with the seriousness of PIH. RESULTS Out of 250 cases, there were 156 instances of mild PIH, 53 moderate and 41 were of severe PIH. On gross examination (Table 1, the mean weight of placenta was 429.9 gm in gentle instances of PIH, 364 gm in moderate

  13. Anatomic variations of the hepatic arteries in 250 patients studied with 64-row CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecco, Carlo Nicola de [University of Rome Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy); University of Rome Sapienza, St. Andrea Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Ferrari, Riccardo; Rengo, Marco; Paolantonio, Pasquale; Vecchietti, Fabrizio; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome Sapienza, Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Latina (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of different hepatic arterial variants identified on abdominal CT angiography (CTA) with a 64-row CT system and a high resolution protocol. A total of 250 consecutive abdominal CTAs performed on a 64-row CT system were evaluated. Two radiologists in consensus analyzed arterial phase images; the anatomical findings were grouped according to Michels' classification. An anomalous arterial pattern was observed in 34% of the cases. The most common anomaly was Michels type III (9.2%), followed by types II and V (5.2%), type VI (4.0%), types IV, VII, and IX (2.0%), and type VIII (0.6%). No cases of type X were detected. Unclassified variations were observed in 3.3% of the cases. The new generation of 64-row MDCT allows optimal visualization of splanchnic vascular anomalies with a minimally invasive examination. This visualization is extended to those vessels with a small caliber and slow flow resulting in difficult recognition by classic angiographic studies. The knowledge of anomalous arterial patterns could be very useful in the preoperative planning of surgical and interventional liver procedures. (orig.)

  14. Audiovisual preconditioning enhances the efficacy of an anatomical dissection course: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne M; Quinlan, Christine S; Dolan, Roisin T; O'Neill, Shane P; Tierney, Paul; Cronin, Kevin J; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    The benefits of incorporating audiovisual materials into learning are well recognised. The outcome of integrating such a modality in to anatomical education has not been reported previously. The aim of this randomised study was to determine whether audiovisual preconditioning is a useful adjunct to learning at an upper limb dissection course. Prior to instruction participants completed a standardised pre course multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ). The intervention group was subsequently shown a video with a pre-recorded commentary. Following initial dissection, both groups completed a second MCQ. The final MCQ was completed at the conclusion of the course. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant improvement in the performance in both groups over the duration of the three MCQs. The intervention group significantly outperformed their control group counterparts immediately following audiovisual preconditioning and in the post course MCQ. Audiovisual preconditioning is a practical and effective tool that should be incorporated in to future course curricula to optimise learning. Level of evidence This study appraises an intervention in medical education. Kirkpatrick Level 2b (modification of knowledge). Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomical and radiographic study of the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris skull1

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    Bruno C. Schimming

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was made to investigate the anatomical features of the white-eared opossum skull, by osteology and radiographic anatomy. For this, five animals were used without sexual distinction. The skull was examined by radiographic and macroscopic characteristics. The skulls were then subjected to maceration. The skull was described macroscopically according to standard views, i.e. dorsal and caudal, lateral, ventral, and midsagittal. The skull can be divided into facial (viscerocranium and cranial (neurocranium regions. The facial region was elongated and more developed than neurocranium. The supraorbital foramen was absent. The tympanic bulla is not well developed. The zygomatic arch was formed by zygomatic process of the temporal bone, zygomatic process of the maxilla, and temporal process of the zygomatic bone. There was no significant difference between bones found in this study when compared with those described for others mammals. These findings may contribute to the better understanding of the anatomy and biology of the white-eared opossum.

  16. Anatomic study to determine a safe surgical reference point for mandibular ramus osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Gi-Jung; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a surgical reference point on the mandibular ramus that can be used during ramus osteotomy to prevent injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A total of 125 subjects' mandibles were analyzed and compared on a three-dimensional (3D) model constructed from computed tomography (CT). 25 volunteer subjects with normal class I occlusion (group I, control), 50 consecutive subjects (25 females and 25 males) diagnosed with mandibular retrognathism (group II), and 50 consecutive subjects (25 females and 25 males) with prognathism (group III) were included. This study created a landmark (the midwaist point) at the halfway point on a horizontal plane between the most concave points on the anterior and posterior borders of mandibular ramus, with the vertical plane bisecting the horizontal plane. The midwaist point was compared to other anatomic landmarks including antilingula, lingula, and mandibular foramen for correlation. The distance from the midwaist point to lingula and mandibular foramen along the horizontal plane was not significantly different among three groups. Lingula and mandibular foramen were mostly located within 2 mm posterior of the midwaist point, whereas the locations of lingula and mandibular foramen along the vertical plane to the midwaist point were highly variable. The midwaist point is an excellent intraoperative reference point that can help surgeons to identify the position of the lingual and the mandibular foramen, thus preventing inferior alveolar nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  18. Morpho-anatomical study of Stevia rebaudiana roots grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael V. Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is used as a food additive because its leaves are a source of steviol glycosides. There are examples of tissue culture based on micropropagation and phytochemical production of S. rebaudiana leaves but there are few studies on adventitious root culture of S. rebaudiana. More than 90% of the plants used in industry are harvested indiscriminately. In order to overcome this situation, the development of methodologies that employ biotechnology, such as root culture, provides suitable alternatives for the sustainable use of plants. The aim of this study was to compare morpho-anatomical transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro system used to maintain root cultures consisted of a gyratory shaker under dark and light conditions and a roller bottle system. Transverse sections of S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro were structurally and morphologically different when compared to the control plant; roots artificially maintained in culture media can have their development affected by the degree of media aeration, sugar concentration, and light. GC–MS and TLC confirmed that S. rebaudiana roots grown in vitro have the ability to produce metabolites, which can be similar to those produced by wild plants.

  19. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Emamhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers.   Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons.

  20. Closure of the cribriform fascia: an efficient anatomical barrier against postoperative neovascularisation at the saphenofemoral junction? A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maeseneer, M. G.; Philipsen, T. E.; Vandenbroeck, C. P.; Lauwers, P. R.; Hendriks, J. M.; de Hert, S. G.; van Schil, P. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neovascularisation at the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) ligation site in the groin may occur within one year after great saphenous vein (GSV) surgery. Several anatomical and prosthetic barrier techniques have been proposed to prevent this evolution. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study

  1. Anatomical and radiographical study of the retromolar canal and retromolar foramen in macerated mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nilton; Deana, Naira F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of the RMF in mandibles, considering gender and ethnic group. The RMC was also analyzed using periapical radiography. Eighty-six mandibles from adult individuals of both sexes, of white and black skin colours were analyzed. The presence of RMF (bilateral or unilateral) was observed, with the side and the number of foramina in each hemimandible. Five mandibles were selected for RMC evaluation by periapical radiography. We observed at least 1 RMF in 16 mandibles out of a total of 86 (18.60%) and in 21 out of 172 sides (12.20%). The percentages were 27% in black individuals, 15.6% in white individuals, 23.8% in females and 13.8% in males. The RMF is a reasonably frequent anatomical variation and shows no differences between sexes or ethnic group, can be unilateral or bilateral and presents no side preference. The RMC presents different types of course and can even establish contact with the alveolar cortical, which might further complicate surgical and anaesthetic procedures in this region.

  2. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Characteristics of the Femoral Canal Isthmus: An Anatomical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-yun Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish a new approach for measuring and locating the femoral intramedullary canal isthmus in 3-dimensional (3D space. Methods. Based on the computed tomography data from 204 Chinese patients, 3D models of the whole femur and the corresponding femoral isthmus tube were reconstructed using Mimics software (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium. The anatomical parameters of the femur and the isthmus, including the femur length and radius, and the isthmus diameter and height, were measured accordingly. Results. The mean ratio of the isthmus height versus the femoral height was 55 ± 4.8%. The mean diameter of the isthmus was 10.49 ± 1.52 mm. The femoral length, the isthmus diameter, and the isthmus tube length were significantly larger in the male group. Significant correlations were observed between the femoral length and the isthmus diameter (r=0.24, p<0.01 and between the femoral length and the isthmus height (r=0.6, p<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the femoral length and radius were the most important factors influencing the location and dimension of the femoral canal isthmus. Conclusion. The current study developed a new approach for measuring the femoral canal and for optimization of customer-specific femoral implants.

  3. Intraosseous rotation of the scaphoid: assessment by using a 3D CT model - an anatomic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidle, Gernot; Gabl, Markus [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Rieger, Michael [Regional Hospital Hall, Department of Radiology, Hall in Tirol (Austria); Klauser, Andrea Sabine; Thauerer, Michael [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Hoermann, Romed [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology-Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess intraosseous rotation as the third dimension of scaphoid anatomy on a 3D CT model using common volume rendering software to impact anatomical reconstruction of scaphoid fractures. CT images of 13 cadaver wrist pairs were acquired. Reference axes for the alignment of distal and proximal scaphoid poles were defined three-dimensionally. Two methods for rotation measurement - the reference axis method (RAM) and the scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal joint method (STTM) - were developed and compared by three independent observers. Rotation measured by the RAM averaged 66.9 ± 7 for the right and 67.2 ± 5.8 for the left wrists. Using the STTM there was a mean rotation of 68.6 ± 6.6 for the right and 68.6 ± 6.8 for the left wrists. The overall results showed a significant variability of the measured values between different specimens (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between left and right wrists of the same specimen, neither for the RAM (P = 0.268) nor for the STTM (P = 0.774). Repeatability coefficients between the observers were low, indicating good repeatability. The presented methods are practical tools to quantify intraosseous rotation between distal and proximal scaphoid poles using common volume rendering software. For clinical application the opposite side provides the best reference values to assess malrotation in scaphoid fracture cases. (orig.)

  4. Divergent lymphatic drainage routes from the heel to the inguinal region: anatomic study and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; Levy, Sidney M; Wang, De-Guang

    2014-09-01

    To determine routes of lymphatic drainage from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes to assist in the clinical management of lower limb lymphatic disorders. Six lower limbs from three unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Under a surgical microscope, 6% hydrogen peroxide was used to detect lymphatic vessels on the medial and lateral sides of the heel. The lymphatic vessel on either side was then injected with a radio-opaque mixture. The lymphatic vessels were traced, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate the lymphatic pathways from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes. The final results were transferred to computer for digital image analysis. Two groups of lymph collecting vessels were identified. The medial group, arising from the skin between the medial malleolus and the Achilles tendon, coursed along the medial side of the leg and thigh to the inguinal lymph nodes. The lateral group, arising from the skin between the lateral malleolus and the Achilles tendon, coursed along the postero-lateral side of the leg to the popliteal fossa. Alternative routes were then identified from the popliteal fossa to the inguinal lymph nodes. The number, size, type, and distribution of lymph vessels and nodes were variable from person to person. Two different lymphatic routes from the heel to the inguinal lymph nodes have been described. This information upgrades current anatomical knowledge and the results will be of benefit for the clinical management of lower limb trauma and malignancy.

  5. Superficial lymphatic drainage of the lower extremity: anatomical study and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Ren; Wang, De-Guang; Levy, Sidney M; Chen, Yuan

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the lymphatic anatomy in the lower extremity is inadequate. A reevaluation is needed to assist in guiding clinical management. A total of five lower extremities from three unembalmed human cadavers were studied. Under a surgical microscope, 6% hydrogen peroxide was used to detect the lymphatic vessels commencing from the foot, the leg, and the thigh. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a radiopaque lead oxide mixture. The vessels were traced, photographed, and radiographed to demonstrate the superficial lymphatic pathways of the lower extremity. The final results were transferred to the computer for image analysis. Numerous lymph collecting vessels were identified in the subcutaneous tissue and the superficial femoral vascular bundle of the lower extremity. They originated beneath the dermis of each side of the toes, the foot, and the lateral side of the thigh. The diameters of the vessels varied from 0.2 to 2.2 mm. The vessels traveled in the subcutaneous tissue of the lower limb toward the popliteal, femoral, superficial, and deep inguinal lymph nodes. During their tortuous course, some vessels branched, diverged, and converged; sometimes, they anastomosed with neighboring vessels or crossed them. Most vessels converged to form larger collectors and then diverged into small branches before entering the lymph nodes. Accurate lymphatic distribution within the lower extremity has been described. This information upgrades our anatomical knowledge, and the results will be of benefit for clinical management.

  6. High resolution CT study of the chorda tympani nerve and normal anatomical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dalveer; Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Bhuta, Sandeep; Skalski, Matt; Jones, Rhondda

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the normal anatomical variation of the course of the CTN through the mastoid temporal bone on high resolution CT (HRCT). Retrospective review of 27 consecutive normal HRCT bilateral temporal bones (n = 54, 14 males and 13 females, mean age 41 years) reconstructed at 0.4-mm slice thickness specifically measuring (1) origin of CTN from the posterior genu of the facial nerve (CNVII) and (2) the lateral-most position of the CTN from the mastoid segment of CNVII. The mean distance of the CTN origin from the mastoid segment of CNVII was 11.5 mm (standard deviation, SD = 3.2, 95% CI 10.7-12.3) with no statistically significant difference between the left and right side observed (p = 0.08). The most lateral distance of the CTN from CNVII was a mean of 1.3 mm (SD = 0.6, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), range 0-2.5 mm and again no statistical significance between contralateral sides was observed (p = 0.11). These measurements demonstrated an excellent level of agreement between observers as assessed by intraclass correlation calculation. Reproducible measurements demonstrate variability of the CTN in both its origin from the mastoid segment of CNVII and its lateral-most course. Precise description of the course of the CTN with HRCT may be useful for planning of otologic surgery and limiting inadvertent nerve injury.

  7. Morphometric analysis and anatomical variations of infraorbital foramen: a study in adult North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, S G; Kaur, J; Nayyar, A K; Agrawal, D

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have been conducted on morphometric variations of infraorbital foramen to provide data to surgeons for nerve block in infraorbital region. This study aims to analyse the anatomical variations by comparing various morphometric measurements of infraorbital foramen in dry skulls of adult North Indian population. This study becomes relevant in the present study group as very scant data is available about the variations and morphometric measurements in Indian population. The data thus collected can be standardized and become useful for the surgeons working in this area of face. The study was conducted on 75 dry adult human skulls, which were a part of Department of Anatomy, used for teaching purposes in medical colleges. Straight distance of the Infraorbital foramen from the infraorbital rim, supraorbital foramen and sagittal plane was measured. The position of the infraorbital foramen was determined in relation to maxillary teeth and supraorbital foramen. The data thus obtained was analysed. The distance of infraorbital foramen from infraorbital rim, supraorbital foramen, sagittal plane in the present study was found to be 6.71 ± 1.11 mm, 42.02 ± 4.31 mm and 31.94 ± 4.88 mm respectively. The position of infraorbital foramen was lateral in relation to supraorbital foramen (in 88% of cases). Infraorbital foramen was above the 1st premolar tooth in most of the cases. Accessory infraorbital foramen was found in 11.2% cases (double foramen). The data thus obtained will perhaps be helpful to the surgeons in identifying the extent of the operative field thereby reducing procedural risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  9. PIP joint volar rotatory dislocation: An anatomical study to explore extensor system lesions and the Stener effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journé, A; Dana, C; Kilinc, A S; Nourissat, G; Doursounian, L

    2013-06-01

    Volar rotatory dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint results from volar rotation of the condyle around an intact opposite collateral ligament. A cadaveric study was preformed to better understand the mechanisms of this injury. Thirty-two long fingers (II to V) were studied. After partial section of the triangular ligament, the radial collateral ligament was cut (partly or completely, at proximal or distal insertion) and volar rotatory dislocation was induced. We studied the incidence of a fixed dislocation, the distal extension of the triangular ligament lesion, and the Stener lesion of the radial collateral ligament. A buttonhole lesion was produced by a dislocated lateral band in all cases with complete section of the collateral ligament. When the lesion of the triangular ligament extended distally, dislocation became irreducible. A Stener effect (interposition of the lateral band between the condyle and the collateral ligament) was observed after reduction in 21% of cases with proximal lesions of the radial collateral ligament. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomic study of the retaining ligaments of the face and applications for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell-Perry, Percy; Paredes-Leandro, Percy

    2013-06-01

    The retaining ligaments of the face support the facial soft tissue in a normal anatomic position, thereby resisting gravitational change. In this study, a technique utilizing surgical plication of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) to the retaining ligaments of the face and finger-assisted malar elevation (FAME) dissection of the midface is presented. The anatomy of the facial retaining ligaments was studied in 20 half-faces of ten fresh cadavers, and the localization of the ligaments was examined macroscopically. Surgical correction of facial aging with plication of the SMAS to the retaining ligaments and FAME dissection of the midface has been performed in 74 face-lift patients since 2006. Outcomes were determined by case notes, clinical review, and a patient questionnaire. The studied ligaments (zygomatic and masseteric) were present in all cadaver dissections. The zygomatic ligament was located 4.3-5.5 cm from the tragus and originates near the inferior border of the anterior zygomatic arch. The masseteric ligament was located 3.7-5.2 cm from the tragus below the junction of the zygomatic arch and masseter muscle. All the patients answered a satisfaction questionnaire and reported high levels of satisfaction at least 1 year after treatment. We have identified the facial retaining ligaments in all cadaver dissections and their relationship with other structures of the face are described here. This study demonstrates that our face-lift technique is safe and produces highly predictable and natural results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. ANATOMIC VARIATIONS OF HEPATIC ARTERY: A STUDY IN 479 LIVER TRANSPLANTATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Lima, Heloise Caroline de Souza; Rabelo, Priscylla; Melo, Paulo Sérgio Vieira de; Amorim, Américo Gusmão; Lacerda, Cláudio Moura

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of anatomic variations of hepatic artery ranges from 20-50% in different series. Variations are especially important in the context of liver orthotopic transplantation, since, besides being an ideal opportunity for surgical anatomical study, their precise identification is crucial to the success of the procedure. To identify the anatomical variations in the hepatic arterial system in hepatic transplantation. 479 medical records of transplanted adult patients in the 13-year period were retrospectively analyzed, and collected data on hepatic arterial anatomy of the deceased donor. It was identified normal hepatic arterial anatomy in 416 donors (86.84%). The other 63 patients (13.15%) showed some variation. According to the Michels classification, the most frequently observed abnormalities were: right hepatic artery branch of superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=27, 5.63%); left hepatic artery branch of the left gastric artery (Type II, n=13, 2.71%); right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery associated with the left hepatic artery arising from the left gastric artery (Type IV, n=4, 0.83%). Similarly, in relation to Hiatt classification, the most prevalent changes were: right hepatic accessory artery or substitute of the superior mesenteric artery (Type III, n=28, 6.05%)), followed by liver ancillary left artery or replacement of gastric artery left (Type II, n=16, 3.34. Fourteen donors (2.92%) showed no anatomical abnormalities defined in classifications, the highest frequency being hepatomesenteric trunk identified in five (01.04%). Detailed knowledge of the variations of hepatic arterial anatomy is of utmost importance to surgeons who perform approaches in this area, particularly in liver transplantation, since their identification and proper management are critical to the success of the procedure. A incidência das variações anatômicas da artéria hepática varia de 20-50% em diferentes casuísticas. Elas s

  12. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuho, J., E-mail: jarmo.teuho@tyks.fi [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Johansson, J. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Linden, J. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M. [Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-11

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template. -- Highlights: • Comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR was performed with a novel brain phantom. • The performance of reconstruction and attenuation correction in PET/MR was studied. • A recently developed brain phantom was found feasible for PET/MR imaging. • Contrast reduction

  13. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus – an anatomical, digital, and statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; WoŸniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-01-01

    Background Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Material/Methods Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14–25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Results No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2–96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. Conclusions The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities. PMID:23857411

  14. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus -- an anatomical, digital, and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-07-16

    Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14-25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2-96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities.

  15. Anatomic brain disease in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although dialysis patients are at high risk of stroke and have a high burden of cognitive impairment, there are few reports of anatomic brain findings in the hemodialysis population. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, we compared the prevalence of brain abnormalities in hemodialysis pati...

  16. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle for complex head and neck defects: anatomical study and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin-Ho; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Khong-Yik; Tan, Bien-Keem; Song, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In patients with extensive bone and soft-tissue defects, the inclusion of the hemisoleus muscle with the fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap would provide the needed soft-tissue volume to the flap. This study evaluates the reliability and technical considerations for the inclusion of the hemisoleus with the fibula and skin paddle as a chimeric, peroneal artery-based flap. The location and size of major arterial branches of the peroneal artery supplying the lateral hemisoleus muscle were investigated in 10 cadaveric injected lower limb specimens. The utility of this design was demonstrated in five clinical cases. The lateral hemisoleus was noted to be consistently supplied by large muscle branches from the peroneal artery, soleus vessels 1 (proximal) and 2 (distal). The mean diameter and distance from the origin of the peroneal artery for soleus vessels 1 and 2 were 1.8 mm and 2.1 cm, and 1.6 mm and 6.3 cm, respectively. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle was performed in five clinical cases. All were successful. Either soleus vessel 1 or soleus vessel 2 can be used as the pedicle to the muscle, depending on the specific reconstructive requirements for the reach and placement of the hemisoleus. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle can reliably be raised by preserving constant muscle branches that arise from the peroneal artery to supply the lateral hemisoleus. This flap provides the additional bulk in selected cases, with little additional donor-site morbidity.

  17. Anatomic pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy: the Brazilian experience (VATS Brazil study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Ricardo Mingarini; Kazantzis, Thamara; Pinto-Filho, Darcy Ribeiro; Camargo, Spencer Marcantonio; Martins-Neto, Francisco; Guimarães, Anderson Nassar; Araújo, Carlos Alberto; Losso, Luis Carlos; Ghefter, Mario Claudio; Lima, Nuno Ferreira de; Gomes-Neto, Antero; Brito-Filho, Flávio; Haddad, Rui; Saueressig, Maurício Guidi; Lima, Alexandre Marcelo Rodrigues; Siqueira, Rafael Pontes de; Pinho, Astunaldo Júnior de Macedo E; Vannucci, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the results of anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil. Thoracic surgeons (members of the Brazilian Society of Thoracic Surgery) were invited, via e-mail, to participate in the study. Eighteen surgeons participated in the project by providing us with retrospective databases containing information related to anatomic pulmonary resections performed by video-assisted thoracoscopy. Demographic, surgical, and postoperative data were collected with a standardized instrument, after which they were compiled and analyzed. The surgeons provided data related to a collective total of 786 patients (mean number of resections per surgeon, 43.6). However, 137 patients were excluded because some data were missing. Therefore, the study sample comprised 649 patients. The mean age of the patients was 61.7 years. Of the 649 patients, 295 (45.5%) were male. The majority-521 (89.8%)-had undergone surgery for neoplasia, which was most often classified as stage IA. The median duration of pleural drainage was 3 days, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. Of the 649 procedures evaluated, 598 (91.2%) were lobectomies. Conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in 30 cases (4.6%). Postoperative complications occurred in 124 patients (19.1%), the most common complications being pneumonia, prolonged air leaks, and atelectasis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2.0%, advanced age and diabetes being found to be predictors of mortality. Our analysis of this representative sample of patients undergoing pulmonary resection by video-assisted thoracoscopy in Brazil showed that the procedure is practicable and safe, as well as being comparable to those performed in other countries. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os resultados de ressecções pulmonares anatômicas por videotoracoscopia no Brasil. Cirurgiões torácicos (membros da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Torácica) foram convidados, por correio eletr

  18. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  19. Lesion flow coefficient: a combined anatomical and functional parameter for detection of coronary artery disease--a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelukhana, Srikara V; Effat, Mohamed; Kolli, Kranthi K; Arif, Imran; Helmy, Tarek; Leesar, Massoud; Kerr, Hanan; Back, Lloyd H; Banerjee, Rupak

    2015-01-01

    Invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease utilizes either anatomical or functional measurements. In this study, we tested a futuristic parameter, lesion flow coefficient (LFC, defined as the ratio of percent coronary area stenosis (%AS) to the square root of the ratio of the pressure drop across the stenosis to the dynamic pressure in the throat region), that combines both the anatomical (%AS) and functional measurements (pressure and flow) for application in a clinical setting. In 51 vessels, simultaneous pressure and flow readings were obtained using a 0.014" Combowire (Volcano Corporation). Anatomical details were assessed using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR), hyperemic stenosis resistance index (HSR), and hyperemic microvascular index (HMR) were obtained at baseline and adenosine-induced hyperemia. QCA data were corrected for the presence of guidewire and then the LFC values were calculated. LFC was correlated with FFR, CFR, HSR, and HMR, individually and in combination with %AS, under both baseline and hyperemic conditions. Further, in 5 vessels, LFC group mean values were compared between pre-PCI and post-PCI groups. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. LFC measured at hyperemia correlated significantly when the pressure-based FFR, flow-based CFR, and anatomically measured %AS were combined (r = 0.64; P<.05). Similarly, LFC correlated significantly when HSR, HMR, and %AS were combined (r = 0.72; P<.05). LFC was able to significantly distinguish between pre-PCI and post-PCI groups (0.42 ± 0.05 and 0.05 ± 0.004, respectively; P<.05). Similar results were obtained for the LFC at baseline conditions. LFC, a futuristic parameter that combines both the anatomical and functional endpoints, has potential for application in a clinical setting for stenosis evaluation, under both hyperemic and baseline conditions.

  20. An alternative endoscopic portal for suprascapular nerve approach: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Gazi; Üzümcügil, Akin; Biçer, Omer S; Ozturk, Hakan; McFarland, Edward G; Doral, Mahmut N

    2015-05-01

    Arthroscopic approaches have been less preferred than open techniques for treating suprascapular nerve entrapment, possibly because current arthroscopic portals are based on distances to reference points, resulting in discrepancies from differing shoulder sizes. This study reports a portal placement based on proportions rather than absolute length. Open dissection (12 left shoulders) and arthroscopy (12 contralateral shoulders) of the suprascapular notch were performed. In left shoulders, the posterolateral prominence of the acromion, the T1 spinous process, and the suprascapular notch were marked (K-wires). Distances from the posterolateral prominence of the acromion to the suprascapular notch and to the T1 spinous process were measured, and the proportion of those distances (distance to the suprascapular notch/distance to the T1 spinous process) was calculated to indicate the portal's location. In right shoulders, arthroscopy anatomically assessed that proportion's reliability. Median distances from the posterolateral prominence of the acromion to the T1 spinous process and to the suprascapular notch were 175.7 mm (average 180.4, SD 11.8 mm) and 72.3 mm (average 73.9, SD 4.9), respectively. The medians of the proportions of the defined distances were 40.9 % (range 40-42 %) and 41 % (range 39.3-42.1 %), respectively. Locating the portal at the lateral, 41 % of the distance between the posterolateral prominence of the acromion and the T1 spinous process was accurate and reproducible for suprascapular notch visualization. Clinically, this portal seems to eliminate perioperative morbidity by reducing excessive soft-tissue dissection with a shorter arthroscopic route and avoiding the ligamentous damage.

  1. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical study of different fruit types in Argentine species of Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarini, Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of 11 species of Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum were studied. Cross and/or longitudinal microtome sections, stained mostly with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were prepared for microscopic examination. The fruits, notably heterogeneous, were classified into three categories. Three different kinds of cells were found of the epidermis, immediately below which a hypodermis, consisting in any of five types of structures, was always found. The mesocarp presented two histologically differentiated zones, an external one (formed by normal or spongy parenchyma, depending on the species, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and with proliferations among the seeds. This morpho-anatomical information was used to distinguish between non-capsular dehiscent fruits and the berry traditionally described for Solanum. The relationship between structure and function, and the probable dispersal syndromes are also discussed.Se estudiaron los frutos de 11 especies de Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum. Para ello, se efectuaron cortes microtómicos longitudinales y/o transversales, teñidos en su mayor parte con azul astral/fucsina, y fueron examinados al microscopio. Los frutos, notablemente heterogéneos, fueron clasificados en tres categorías. Tres diferentes tipos de células fueron encontrados en la epidermis, e inmediatamente por debajo se observó siempre una hipodermis, constituida por uno de cinco tipos de estructuras. El mesocarpio presentó dos zonas histológicamente diferenciadas: una externa (formada por parénquima normal o esponjoso, según la especie y una interna, comúnmente jugosa y con proliferaciones entre las semillas. Esta información morfoanatómica fue usada para distinguir entre el fruto dehiscente no capsular y la baya tradicionalmente descrita para Solanum. Se discutieron además la relación entre estructura y función y los probables síndromes de dispersión.

  3. Anatomical, histological and histochemical study of the eye of snake Hemorrhois ravergieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Kh.H. Al-Khalefa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the anatomical and histological structure as well as some histochemical aspects of the eye in Hemorrhois ravergieri snake by using the light microscope. The results show that the eye was spherical and located at head sides. Histologically, the sclera composed from collagen fibers located between it fibroblasts and pigment cells. The cornea divided in to peripheral cornea and central cornea, from the special results that appeared in the central cornea was the appearance of the tertiary spectacles on its external surface. The lens was spherical, translucent and didn't contain a pigment cells in its surrounding. The Uvea composed from Choroid, Ciliary body and Iris. The Choroid composed of connective tissue contained collagen fibers, blood vessels and pigment cells. Ciliary body appeared concave in its middle and give a few folds. While, the Iris connected to Ciliary body and it straight toward the lens and it convex toward the cornea. The retina appeared duplex and it composed from eight layers and two membranes. The photoreceptors layer contained one type of rods and two types of cones that were the single and double cones. From the distinct results that appeared in the retina of this snake that the appearance of blood vessels which supplied the retina, this mean the retina in this snake was vascular, and the vitreal vessels that lined also appeared. Also, from the distinct and strange results that appeared in the retina of this snake was appearance of strange vascular structure which may be a Supplemental nutritive device.

  4. Potential Mechanism for Some Postoperative C5 Palsies: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Voin, Vlad; Iwanaga, Joe; Hanscom, David; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-01

    Anatomical Study. Determine if shoulder depression (eg, taping the shoulders) might result in C5 nerve traction and subsequent injury. Postoperative C5 nerve palsy is a recognized entity that is still often enigmatic. Inferior shoulder depression is usually employed to assist with surgical visualization during cervical spine procedures. In the supine position, 10 adult fresh frozen human cadavers underwent dissection of the spinal cord and its adjacent dorsal, ventral roots, and spinal nerves from C4 to T1. In the supine position, the head was rotated ipsilaterally, contralaterally, and in lateral flexion. The shoulder was elevated, retracted, protracted, and depressed all with direct observation of nerve roots, intradural ventral/dorsal rootlets, or the spinal cord. The effects of these movements upon the cervical nerve rootlets were measured. The greatest displacement of nervous tissue was generated by shoulder depression and occurred primarily at the intradural rootlet level. The nerve rootlets that underwent the greatest average displacement were found at C5, with a decreasing gradient to C7 and no gross motion at C8 or T1. With maximal shoulder depression, C5-C7 rootlet tension produced cord movement to the ipsilateral side, touching the dura mater covering the lateral vertebral column with the C5 nerve root moving farthest. Shoulder depression is often used during cervical spine surgery. In cadavers, shoulder depression causes significant tension and displacement of the C5 nerve rootlets, and in the extreme, cord displacement to the ipsilateral side. This could be a mechanism for injury, putting patients at greater risk for postoperative C5 palsy. 5.

  5. Broth versus solid agar culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    As part of the donor assessment protocol, bioburden assessment must be performed on allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples collected at the time of tissue retrieval. Swab samples of musculoskeletal tissue allografts from cadaveric donors are received at the microbiology department of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (Australia) to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. This study will review the isolation rate of organisms from solid agar and broth culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swabs were inoculated onto horse blood agar (anaerobic, 35 °C) and chocolate agar (CO2, 35 °C) and then placed into a cooked meat broth (aerobic, 35 °C). A total of 1,912 swabs from 389 donors were received during the study period. 557 (29.1 %) swabs were culture positive with the isolation of 713 organisms, 249 (34.9 %) from solid agar culture and an additional 464 (65.1 %) from broth culture only. This study has shown that the broth culture of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal swab samples recovered a greater amount of organisms than solid agar culture. Isolates such as Clostridium species and Staphylococcus aureus would not have been isolated from solid agar culture alone. Broth culture is an essential part of the bioburden assessment protocol of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue in this laboratory.

  6. Anatomical reconstruction versus tenodesis for the treatment of chronic anterolateral instability of the ankle joint: a 2- to 10-year follow-up, multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, R.; van Dijk, C. N.; Halasi, T.; Lehtonen, H.; Moyen, B.; Lanzetta, A.; Farkas, T.; Karlsson, J.

    2000-01-01

    The clinical outcome of anatomical reconstruction or tenodesis in the treatment of chronic anterolateral ankle instability was assessed in a retrospective multicenter study. The anatomical reconstruction group (group A) consisted of 106 patients (mean age at operation 24 +/- 8.4 years) and the

  7. Long-term outcome of anatomical reconstruction versus tenodesis for the treatment of chronic anterolateral instability of the ankle joint: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, R.; van Dijk, C. N.; Halasi, P. T.; Lehtonen, H.; Corradini, C.; Moyen, B.; Karlsson, J.

    2001-01-01

    The long-term clinical outcome after anatomical reconstruction and tenodesis in the treatment of chronic anterolateral ankle instability was assessed in a retrospective multicentre study. The first group (AR) consisted of 25 patients (mean age at operation 22 yrs +/- 5.7) who underwent anatomical

  8. Using ring width correlations to study the effects of plantation density on wood density and anatomical properties of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Y. Zhu; C. T. Scott; K. L. Scallon; G. C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated that average ring width (or average annual radial growth rate) is a reliable parameter to quantify the effects of tree plantation ndensity (growth suppression) on wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. The average ring width successfully correlated wood density and tracheid anatomical properties of red pines (Pinus resinosa Ait.) from...

  9. STUDY OF PERONEUS DIGITI MINIMI QUINTI IN INDIAN POPULATION: A CADAVERIC STUDY. Estudio del peroneo dígiti minimi quinti en la población india: Un estudio cadavérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha D Jadhav

    2016-03-01

    fifth digit. The prevalence of it is not precisely known. There is much confusion in the literature, as there are multiple overlapping classif-ications and a vast array of descriptive terminology regarding the accessory peroneal muscles. Peroneus Digiti Minimi Quinti was observed by some researchers in literature but Macalister (1872 and Testut (1921 described this muscle with its variations in detail. Material and methods: We studied 100 lower limbs of adult cadavers of unknown sex. Lateral compartment of each leg was carefully dissected to determine the incidence of peroneus digiti minimi quinti. Its origin, insertion was noted and diameter was taken. Results: We observed this muscle in 51% of case with left side dominance. Bilaterally it was present only in 5% lower limb. Its diameter varied from0.7 mmto3 mm. We reported higher incidence of this muscle with variation in its distal attachments. Knowledge of this variant muscle is important not for anatomist but also for surgeons to diagnose lateral ankle and foot complaints. This muscle can also be used in grafting and reconstruction in foot and ankle surgery. Further studies should be performed to determine its incidence in different population with the help of cadaveric study and new techniques.

  10. Anatomical study of leaf and stem of Carex L. species (Cyperaceae in Shomali, Razavi and Jounobi Khorasan provinces

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    Jinus Hejazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Carex L. is one of the largest genera (2000 spp. of the flowering plants . There are 85 species of Carex in Iran plateau that approximately half of them are present in Iran. In this study, stem and leaf anatomy of 12 species and subspecies of Carex from two subgenera, Carex and Vignea, were investigated using hand cutting method and blue toluidine staining. The results showed that some of anatomical features such as, location of vascular bundles, size of air cavities, type of triangular stem, number of sclerenchyma layer and amount of lignified stem and cuticle thickness were effective in determining the species. This study did not confirm the classical taxonomy based on morphological characteristics and the results revealed that anatomical characteristics were correlated with plant water conditions.

  11. CT Images Are Noninferior to Anatomic Specimens in Teaching Cardiac Anatomy-A Randomized Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolossváry, Márton; Székely, Andrea D; Gerber, Gábor; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-03-01

    The new generation's learning habits demand reforms in the methods by which we teach anatomy. Medical imaging techniques such as CT may offer a solution to help the understanding of complex anatomic structures. Our objective was to assess the noninferiority of using radiologic images in teaching anatomy as opposed to prosections or lecture slides. Seventy-three first-year medical students were assigned to three experimental groups taught using different approaches: lecture slides (LG), prosections (PG), or radiology images (RG). All three groups received a 2-hour presentation on cardiac anatomy. Three days after the lectures, the participants were subjected to a gross anatomic "pin test" followed by a written theoretical examination to evaluate their knowledge of cardiac anatomy. We found a significant difference between the three groups regarding their gross anatomic examination scores (LG: 8.1 ± 4.1, PG: 10.6 ± 3.3, RG: 8.5 ± 3.4, P = .03; Tukey's honest significant difference: P(LG-PG) = .04, P(PG-RG) = .08, P(LG-RG) = .94), whereas no significant difference was apparent regarding their written theoretical examination scores (LG: 16.6 ± 4.2, PG: 18.6 ± 3.5, RG: 18.3 ± 3.0, P = .13). Concerning gross anatomic knowledge, groups taught using prosections or radiologic images showed no significant difference. Demonstrative materials do not seem to significantly affect the theoretical knowledge of the students. The use of medical imaging techniques could represent a valuable contribution toward teaching anatomy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SURGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Zanoschi; D. Niculescu; D. St. Antohe; A.H. Nedelcu; Simona Niculescu; Graţiela Grosu; Ana Maria Enăchescu

    2010-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the pathological condition characterized by involuntary loss of urine produced by abdominal-loaded loops of various acts during physiological or physical effort. In the present paper attempts a review of anatomical and physiological elements contributing to the urethral occlusive function on the one hand, and on the other hand, taking into account the data obtained was tested theoretical foundations of a method for treatment of SUI in the First Surgical Cl...

  13. Functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped polycarbonate urethane total meniscus replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancken, A.C.T.; Eggermont, F.; van Tienen, T.G.; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Janssen, D.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional biomechanical performance of a novel anatomically shaped, polycarbonate urethane total meniscus implant. Methods: Five human cadaveric knees were flexed between 0° and 90° under compressive loads mimicking a squat movement. Anteroposterior (AP) laxity tests were

  14. Anterior interhemispheric transsplenial approach to pineal region tumors: anatomical study and illustrative case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağmurlu, Kaan; Zaidi, Hasan A; Kalani, M Yashar S; Rhoton, Albert L; Preul, Mark C; Spetzler, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Pineal region tumors are challenging to access because they are centrally located within the calvaria and surrounded by critical neurovascular structures. The goal of this work is to describe a new surgical trajectory, the anterior interhemispheric transsplenial approach, to the pineal region and falcotentorial junction area. To demonstrate this approach, the authors examined 7 adult formalin-fixed silicone-injected cadaveric heads and 2 fresh human brain specimens. One representative case of falcotentorial meningioma treated through an anterior interhemispheric transsplenial approach is also described. Among the interhemispheric approaches to the pineal region, the anterior interhemispheric transsplenial approach has several advantages. 1) There are few or no bridging veins at the level of the pericoronal suture. 2) The parietal and occipital lobes are not retracted, which reduces the chances of approach-related morbidity, especially in the dominant hemisphere. 3) The risk of damage to the deep venous structures is low because the tumor surface reached first is relatively vein free. 4) The internal cerebral veins can be manipulated and dissected away laterally through the anterior interhemispheric route but not via the posterior interhemispheric route. 5) Early control of medial posterior choroidal arteries is obtained. The anterior interhemispheric transsplenial approach provides a safe and effective surgical corridor for patients with supratentorial pineal region tumors that 1) extend superiorly, involve the splenium of the corpus callosum, and push the deep venous system in a posterosuperior or an anteroinferior direction; 2) are tentorial and displace the deep venous system inferiorly; or 3) originate from the splenium of the corpus callosum.

  15. (Agronomical and anatomical study of resulted early cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa grafting and budding is usually carried out on 4-5 month old seedling, thus it needs 9-12 months to be ready tranplanted to the field. Effort to shorten time in the nursery can be done by early propagation. The aim of this research was to study effect of clones, tying and foliar application of grafsticks on the percentage of graftake. This study was carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, 45 m a.s.l. and D climate type (Schmidt & Ferguson. First experiment was RCBD design and replicated 3 times, and factorial treatment 4 x 3. The first factor were clones, i.e. TSH 858, ICS 13, ICS 60 and DR 2, the second factor was grafstick wiring, i.e. without, wiring 2 and 4 weeks before using. The 2nd experiment using RCBD design replicated 3 times and factorial treatment 3 x 3 x 2. The first factor was clones, i.e. KW 162, KW 163 and KW 165; the second ones was wiring, i.e. without, wiring 2 and 4 weeks before using, and the 3rd factor was manuring, i.e. with and without foliar application. Rootstock was ICS 60 seedlings of 30 day old, and grafting method was cleft grafting above cotyledons. Variables observed include C and N total of the grafstick, percentage of graftake, shoot length, diameter, wet and dry weight. The result showed that because the grafstick flush periodically, graftstick wiring was not effective to increase total nutrient (C and N on the grafstick. Furthermore, their effect on the graftake was not significant. Until 30 days first, percentage of graftake was 90-100%, but then decreased sharply to 30-60% depend on the clones. From the first experiment, DR 2 showed the highest graftake (62%, and KW 162 (39% was the 2nd ones. Symptom on the death plants was started on the new leaves, that showed wilt, necrotic then fall. Isolation of those symptoms in the laboratory showed that Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora palmivora and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Anatomical analysis of the death graft union showed parenchymatous linked

  16. Anatomical study of the coracoid process in Mongolian male cadavers using the Latarjet procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianqiang; Dong, Lele; Zhao, Yanjun; Sun, Jinlei; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Chunzheng

    2016-10-24

    The Latarjet procedure addresses recurrent anterior shoulder instability in the context of a significant bony defect. However, the bony and soft tissue anatomy of the coracoid in coracoid transfer procedures has not yet been defined in Mongolian men. The aims of this study were to describe the soft tissue attachments of the coracoid regarding the bony anatomy, define the average amount of bone available for coracoid transfer, analyze the characteristics of the pectoralis minor and coracoid, and study the relationship between the bony dimensions of the coracoid and body length in Mongolian men. We dissected 30 shoulders from 15 male Mongolian cadavers, exposing the coracoid process and attached anatomical structures including the lateral clavicle and acromion, then measured the bony dimensions of the coracoid and the locations and sizes of the coracoid soft tissue footprints. The mean length of the coracoid available for transfer was 23.93 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the coracoid was 42.10 ± 2.3 mm, and the mean width and height of the coracoid midpoint were 15.29 ± 1.70 mm and 11.61 ± 1.98 mm, respectively. The pectoralis minor was part of the joint capsule and passed over the coracoid in some samples. The mutation rate of the pectoralis minor footprint, which was asymmetrical and irregular, was 23.33 %. Statistical analysis involved a multiple linear regression equation. The average amount of bone available for use in coracoid transfer in Mongolian men was less than that of other populations. Mutation of the pectoralis minor may induce intraoperative capsule injury because this muscle passes over the coracoid deep to the joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint and constitutes part of the shoulder joint, strengthening the joint. Statistically, higher coracoids appeared in shorter patients and longer coracoids appeared in taller patients. Surgically, great care should be taken to consider a patient's height to precisely implement the

  17. Anatomical study on Myoforceps aristatus, an invasive boring bivalve in S.E. Brazilian coast (Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, also known as Lithophaga aristata, have been recently collected in the coasts of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil; a species that bores shells of other mollusks. This occurrence has been interpreted as an invasion of this species, originally from the Caribbean. The distinguishing character of the species is the posterior extensions of the shell crossing with each other. Because specimens with this character have also been collected in the Pacific Ocean, they all have been considered a single species. However, it is possible that more than one species may be involved in such worldwide distribution. With the objective of providing full information based on Atlantic specimens, a complete anatomical description is provided, which can be used in comparative studies with specimens from other oceans. Additional distinctive features of M. aristatus are the complexity of the incurrent siphon, the kidney opening widely into the supra-branchial chamber (instead of via a nephropore, and the multi-lobed auricle.O bivalve Myoforceps aristatus (Dillwyn, 1817, também conhecido como Lithophaga aristata, tem sido recentemente coletado nas costas do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, Brasil; uma espécie que perfura conchas de outros moluscos. Esta ocorrência está sendo interpretada como uma invasão de uma espécie originada do Caribe. O caráter distintivo da espécie é a região posterior da concha, com extensões que se cruzam. Como espécimes com esta característica também têm sido coletados no oceano Pacífico, eles tem sido considerados como pertencentes à mesma espécie. Entretanto, é possível que mais de uma espécie possam estar envolvidas nesta suposta distribuição mundial. Com o objetivo de fornecer informação completa baseada em material do Atlântico, uma descrição anatômica completa é dada, a qual pode ser usada em estudos comparativos com espécimes de outros oceanos. As caracter

  18. Bridging the gap between cadaveric and in vivo experiments: A biomechanical model evaluating thumb-tip endpoint forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Sarah J.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The thumb is required for a majority of tasks of daily living. Biomechanical modeling is a valuable tool, with the potential to help us bridge the gap between our understanding of the mechanical actions of individual thumb muscles, derived from anatomical cadaveric experiments, and our understanding of how force is produced by the coordination of all of the thumb muscles, derived from studies involving human subjects. However, current biomechanical models do not replicate muscle force production at the thumb-tip. We hypothesized that accurate representations of the axes of rotation of the thumb joints were necessary to simulate the magnitude of endpoint forces produced by human subjects. We augmented a musculoskeletal model with axes of rotation derived from experimental measurements (Holzbaur et al., 2005) by defining muscle–tendon paths and maximum isometric force-generating capacity for the five intrinsic muscles. We then evaluated if this augmented model replicated a broad range of experimental data from the literature and identified which parameters most influenced model performance. The simulated endpoint forces generated by the combined action of all thumb muscles in our model yielded comparable forces in magnitude to those produced by nonimpaired subjects. A series of 8 sets of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that the difference in the axes of rotation of the thumb joints between studies best explains the improved performance of our model relative to previous work. In addition, we demonstrate that the endpoint forces produced by individual muscles cannot be replicated with existing experimental data describing muscle moment arms. PMID:23332233

  19. Reflective journals: unmasking student perceptions of anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L; Sookrajh, R; Satyapal, K S

    2017-01-01

    In medical education, reflection has been considered to be a core skill in professional competence. The anatomy laboratory is an ideal setting for faculty/ student interaction and provides invaluable opportunities for active learning and reflection on anatomical knowledge. This study was designed to record student attitudes regarding human cadaveric dissection, explore their experiences of anatomy through an analysis of their journal-reflective writings and determine whether this type of creative writing had a beneficial effect on those students who chose to complete them. A total of 75 journals from Medical and Allied Health Science students were collected and analysed. Results were categorised according to the following themes: (i) Dissecting room stressors (27.6%); (ii) Educational value of dissection (26.3%); (iii) Appreciation, Gratitude, Respect and Curiosity for the cadaver (18.9%); (iv) Positive and negative sentiments expressed in the dissecting room (25.8%); (v) Benefit of alternate teaching modalities (4.6%); (vi) Spirituality/Religious Beliefs (3.7%); (vii) Shared humanity and emotional bonds (3.69%); (viii) Acknowledgement of human anatomical variations (3.2%); (ix) Beauty and complexity of the human body (1.8%) and (x) Psychological detachment (0.9%). Students appreciated the opportunity to share their emotions and reflect on the humanistic dimension of anatomy as a subject. Student reflections illustrated clearly their thoughts and some of the difficult issues with which they wrestled. The anatomy laboratory is seen as the budding clinician's first encounter with a patient, albeit a cadaver. This was the first time that reflective journals were given to students in the discipline. Reflective journals allow students to express themselves in an open-ended and creative fashion. It also assists students to integrate anatomy and clinical medicine and assists in applying their basic anatomical knowledge in an authentic, yet safe environment.

  20. Three-dimensional anatomic analysis of the lingula and mandibular foramen: a cone beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Yavuz; Yildirim, Derya; Baykul, Timuçin

    2014-03-01

    The authors analyzed the anatomic location differences of the mandibular foramen (MF) and lingula in a cone beam computed tomography study, aiming to obtain information that could be used when performing mandibular osteotomies and the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Three-dimensional mandibular computed tomography images were reconstructed from data for 139 patients (278 sides) aged between 9 and 18 years (growth group, 27 patients) and aged 19 to 71 years (adult group, 112 patients). In the adult group, positive correlations were seen between right and left measurements. In the growth group, there are significant differences in lingula-anterior and MF-posterior ramus measurements. In the adult group, there are significant differences between man and woman MF-gonion distance measurements. Differences were seen in edentulous and asymmetry patients. The MF is an important anatomic landmark for ramus surgery and IANB. When applied to ramus operations and IANB, the anatomic data provided by this study may help surgeons gain more understanding of nerve position during surgery.

  1. A Feasibility Study on Ribs as Anatomical Landmarks for Motion Tracking of Lung and Liver Tumors at External Beam Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi

    2017-02-01

    At external beam radiotherapy for some tumors located at thorax region due to lack of information in gray scale fluoroscopic images tumor position determination is problematic. One of the clinical strategies is to implant clip as internal fiducial marker inside or near tumor to represent tumor position while the contrast of implanted clip is highly observable rather than tumor. As alternative, using natural anatomical landmarks located at thorax region of patient body is proposed to extract tumor position information without implanting clips that is invasive method with possible side effect. Among natural landmarks, ribs of rib-cage structure that result proper visualization at X-ray images may be optimal as representative for tumor motion. In this study, we investigated the existence of possible correlation between ribs as natural anatomical landmarks and various lung and liver tumors located at different sites as challenging issue. A simulation study was performed using data extracted from 4-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom that is able to simulate motion effect of dynamic organs, as well. Several tumor sites with predefined distances originated from chosen ribs at anterior-posterior direction were simulated at 3 upper, middle, and lower parts of chest. Correlation coefficient between ribs and tumors was calculated to investigate the robustness of ribs as anatomical landmarks for tumor motion tracking. Moreover, a consistent correlation model was taken into account to track tumor motion with a rib as best candidate among selected ribs. Final results represent availability of using rib cage as anatomical landmark to track lung and liver tumors in a noninvasive way. Observations of our calculations showed a proper correlation between tumors and ribs while the degree of this correlation is changing depends on tumor site while lung tumors are more varied and complex with less correlation with ribs motion against liver tumors.

  2. Computed Tomographic Angiography-Based Planning of Bipedicled DIEP Flaps with Intraflap Crossover Anastomosis: An Anatomical and Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    When using deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps in breast reconstruction, harvesting bipedicled flaps can be a valuable option in cases requiring the transfer of a large portion of harvested flaps. Connecting the bilateral deep inferior epigastric arteries (DIEAs) by intraflap crossover anastomosis is one of the most popular methods of constructing bipedicled DIEP flaps. Planning the primary and secondary pedicle configurations for reliable intraflap crossover anastomosis is crucial. To achieve this, detailed anatomical DIEA information might be helpful. However, meticulous planning of bipedicled DIEP flaps based on computed tomographic angiography has not been reported. Detailed anatomical investigation of DIEA branches was conducted using computed tomographic angiographs of 100 hemiabdomens. Thirty-eight prospectively collected patients who underwent breast reconstruction using bipedicled DIEP flaps with intraflap crossover under computed tomographic angiography-based planning were reviewed. Three intramuscular DIEA branching patterns with distinct branch point topography, branch diameters, and superior continuations cranial to sizable perforators were observed. In the prospective clinical study, a primary pedicle with a recipient branch for intraflap crossover anastomosis could be specified preoperatively using computed tomographic angiography-based anatomical data of the pedicles, including size of DIEA branches or their superior continuation and size of perforators. In all cases, the bipedicle configuration was easily achieved as planned on computed tomographic angiography, and secure perfusion of the entire flap was achieved. The authors' results suggest that computed tomographic angiography provides detailed anatomical DIEA information, and comprehensive analysis of these data allows precise planning of bipedicle configurations with intraflap crossover anastomosis in DIEP flaps. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. Return of the cadaver: Key role of anatomic dissection for plastic surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-07-01

    Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.

  4. Intra-pelvic pressure changes after pelvic fracture: A cadaveric study quantifying the effect of a pelvic binder and limb bandaging over a bolster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rhys; Loftus, Andrew; Friedmann, Yasmin; Parker, Paul; Pallister, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Unstable pelvic fractures can be life-threatening due to catastrophic haemorrhage. Non-invasive methods of reducing and stabilising these injuries include pelvic binder application and also lower limb bandaging over a knee-flexion bolster. Both of these methods help close the pelvic ring and should tamponade bleeding. This study aimed to quantify the intra-pelvic pressure changes that occurred with 3 different manoeuvres: lower limb bandaging over a bolster; a Trauma Pelvic Orthotic Device (T-POD) pelvic binder, and a combination of both. Following a pilot study with 2 soft embalmed cadavers, a formal study with 6 unembalmed cadavers was performed. For each specimen an unstable pelvic injury was created (OA/OTA 61-C1) by dividing the pelvic ring anteriorly and posteriorly. A 3-4cm manometric water-filled balloon was placed in the retropubic space and connected to a 50ml syringe and water manometer via a 3-way tap. A baseline pressure of 8cmH2O (equating to the average central venous pressure) was used for each cadaver. Steady intra-pelvic pressures (more reliably reflecting the pressures achieved following an intervention) were used in the subsequent statistical analysis, using R statistical language and Rstudio. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon's rank sum test were used (depending on the normality of the dataset) to determine the impact of each intervention on the intra-pelvic pressure. The mean steady intra-pelvic pressures were significantly greater than the baseline pressure for each intervention. The binder and limb bandaging over a bolster alone increased the mean steady pelvic pressures significantly to 24 (SE=5) (pbinder application significantly increased intra-pelvic pressure above the baseline pressure. This was further increased through combining these interventions, which could be useful clinically to augment haemorrhage control in these fractures. Lower-limb bandaging over a bolster, and pelvic binder application, both significantly increased intra

  5. Nerve preservation in tension-free vaginal mesh procedures for pelvic organ prolapse: a cadaveric study using fresh and fixed cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Masami; Koyama, Masayasu; Murakami, Gen; Nagata, Ichiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Furuya, Kenichi

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were, using fixed and fresh cadavers, to clarify how closely the pelvic splanchnic nerve, levator ani nerve (LAN), and sacrospinous ligament (SSL) are located and to examine how to avoid nerve injury during the posterior tension-free vaginal mesh procedure (TVMP), in which mesh is applied through the SSL. Macroscopic dissection of fixed cadavers demonstrated that the LAN crossed the inside of the SSL at a point 0-18 mm medial to the ischial spine and entered the muscle at a point 12-26 mm inferior to the ischial spine and 40-55 mm anterolateral to the coccyx. Dissection after TVMP of fresh cadavers revealed that the point of penetration of mesh through the SSL was close to the LAN. To preserve the LAN, penetration of the SSL should be within 5 mm of the lower margin at a point 20-25 mm medial to the ischial spine.

  6. Comparisons of bone volumes and densities relating to osseointegrated implants in microvascularly reconstructed mandibles: a study of cadaveric radius and fibula bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesper, B; Wahn, J; Koebke, J

    2000-04-01

    The study was designed to compare the dimensions and densities of two frequently used bone donor sites with regard to placement of endosseous dental implants in microvascularly reconstructed mandibles. A total of 40 radii and of 40 fibulae were investigated. Fifty two percent of the fibulae had adequate bone volume for the positioning of four 10 mm implants, while this figure was 55% for the radii. After using the 'double barrel' technique the placement of four 10 mm implants succeeded in 87% of all the fibulae. Due to the lack of bone length required, this special technique was not possible in the radii investigated. Cortical thickness and density of bone were higher in the radii when compared with the fibulae. In each bone the central and distal parts presented the highest values of cortical thickness and density. Although the radius offers enough substantial bone for implant placement in some cases this cannot be used for clinical purpose, as only hemicortical grafts can be obtained. Otherwise the resulting donor site morbidity would be intolerable. In conclusion, our results support the clinical experience that the fibula is today's 'work horse' donor site for reconstruction of the mandible.

  7. Anteroposterior and rotational stability in fixed and mobile bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty: a cadaveric study using the robotic force sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Roland; Mauer, Christian; Stärke, Christian; Brosz, Mathias; Zantop, Thore; Lohmann, Christoph H; Schulze, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Different bearing designs in unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been developed in order to influence the rate of polyethylene wear. Increased anteroposterior translation and rotation after UKA has been hypothesized due to changes in joint surface geometry. The mobile bearing design was expected to show increased anteroposterior translation compared to the fixed bearing and biconcave bearing design. Six human cadaver knees were used for the tests. Anteroposterior and rotational knee stability was analysed in 0°, 30°, 60°, 90° and 120° of knee flexion using a robotic testing system (KR 125, KUKA Robots Augsburg, Germany). Three forces and moments were measured in a Cartesian coordinate system with a resolution of 1.0 N and 0.1 Nm. There was no difference between the native knees and the knees after UKA in AP translation and rotation in all knee flexion angles. The factor knee flexion angle had a significant impact on the anterior translation when the type of bearing was neglected (p ≤ 0.015). This study shows that the natural knee stability in AP translation and rotation can be preserved in UKA. The preserved knee stability in different planes after UKA underlines the advantage of UKA when surgery is required in osteoarthritic changes of the medial compartment.

  8. Evaluation of the dorsal acetabular coverage obtained by a modified triple pelvic osteotomy (2.5 pelvic osteotomy): an ex vivo study on a cadaveric canine codel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petazzoni, M; Tamburro, R; Nicetto, T; Kowaleski, M P

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the acetabular ventroversion obtained with a modified triple pelvic osteotomy (2.5 PO) compared with that resulting from standard double pelvic osteo-tomy (DPO). Ex vivo study. Seven pelves obtained from skeletally mature dogs with a total body weight ranging from 26-41 kg were used. Unilateral DPO technique and dorsal ischial mono-cortical osteotomy were performed on every right hemipelvis. Angular ventral rotation was measured by determining the relative orientation of two Kirschner wires placed in the ilial wing and in the dorsal acetabular rim. The mean angle of ventroversion was 9.5 ± 5.2 degrees for the DPO group (range 2.1-18.1) and 10.9 ± 4.8 degrees for the 2.5 PO group (range 4.1-19.5). The mean difference between the 2.5 PO and DPO was 1.5 ± 0.6 degrees (range 0.5-2.1). The 2.5 PO technique increased acetabular ventroversion versus DPO.

  9. Potential Risk to the Superior Gluteal Nerve During the Anterior Approach to the Hip Joint: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Ackland, Timothy; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus S

    2015-09-02

    The anterior approach to the hip joint is widely used in pediatric and adult orthopaedic surgery, including hip arthroplasty. Atrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle has been observed in some cases, despite the use of this internervous approach. We evaluated the nerve supply to the tensor fasciae latae and its potential risk for injury during the anterior approach to the hip joint. Cadaveric hemipelves (n = 19) from twelve human specimens were dissected. The course of the nerve branch to the tensor fasciae latae muscle, as it derives from the superior gluteal nerve, was studied in relation to the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery where it enters the tensor fasciae latae. The nerve supply to the tensor fasciae latae occurs in its proximal half by divisions of the inferior branch of the superior gluteal nerve. The nerve branches were regularly coursing in the deep surface on the medial border of the tensor fasciae latae muscle. In seventeen of nineteen cases, one or two nerve branches entered the tensor fasciae latae within 10 mm proximal to the entry point of the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Coagulation of the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and the placement of retractors during the anterior approach to the hip joint carry the potential risk for injury to the motor nerve branches supplying the tensor fasciae latae. During the anterior approach, the ligation or coagulation of the ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery should not be performed too close to the point where it enters the tensor fasciae latae. The nerve branches to the tensor fasciae latae could also be compromised by the extensive use of retractors, broaching of the femur during hip arthroplasty, or the inappropriate proximal extension of the anterior approach. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  10. Volar fixed-angle plating of distal radius extension fractures: influence of plate position on secondary loss of reduction--a biomechanic study in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobetz, Herwig; Bryant, Adam L; Pokorny, Tom; Spitaler, Ralf; Leixnering, Martin; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2006-04-01

    Treatment of extension fractures of the distal radius with volar fixed-angle plates has become increasingly popular in the past 2 years. It has been observed clinically that placement of the distal screws as close as possible to the subchondral zone is crucial to maintain radial length after surgery. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate radial shortening after plating with regard to plate position and (2) to evaluate whether plate position has an influence on the strength and rigidity of the plate-screw construct. An extra-articular fracture (AO classification, A3) was created in 7 pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver radiuses. The radiuses then were plated with a volar distal radius locking compression plate. Seven plates were applied subchondrally; 7 plates were applied 4.5 mm to 7.5 mm proximal to the subchondral zone. The specimens were loaded with 800-N loads for 2,000 cycles to evaluate radial shortening in the 2 groups. Each specimen then was loaded to failure. Radial shortening was significantly greater when the distal screws were placed proximal to the subchondral zone. The amount of shortening after cyclic loading correlated significantly with the distance the distal screws were placed from the subchondral zone. Rigidity of the plate systems was significantly higher in radiuses in which the distal screws were placed close to the subchondral zone. To maintain radial length after volar fixed-angle plating, placement of the distal screws as subchondral as possible is essential. The subchondral plate-screw-bone constructs showed significantly greater rigidity, indicating higher resistance to postoperative loads and displacement forces.

  11. Arthroscopic Fixation of Cell Free Polymer-Based Cartilage Implants with a Bioinspired Polymer Surface on the Hip Joint: A Cadaveric Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lahner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the adhesion capacity of a polyglycolic acid- (PGA- hyaluronan scaffold with a structural modification based on a planar polymer (PM surface in a cadaver cartilage defect model. Two cadaver specimens were used to serially test multiple chondral matrices. In a cadaver hip model, cell free polymer-based cartilage implants with a planar bioinspired PM surface (PGA-PM-scaffolds were implanted arthroscopically on 10 mm × 15 mm full-thickness femoral hip cartilage lesions. Unprocessed cartilage implants without a bioinspired PM surface were used as control group. The cartilage implants were fixed without and with the use of fibrin glue on femoral hip cartilage defects. After 50 movement cycles and removal of the distraction, a rearthroscopy was performed to assess the outline attachment and integrity of the scaffold. The fixation techniques without and with fibrin fixation showed marginal differences for outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation after 50 cycles. The PGA-PM-scaffolds with fibrin fixation achieved a higher score in terms of the attachment, integrity, and endpoint fixation than the PGA-scaffold on the cartilage defect. Relating to the outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation, the fixation with PGA-PM-scaffolds accomplished significantly better results compared to the PGA-scaffolds (P=0.03752, P=0.03078, P=0.00512, P=0.00512. PGA-PM-scaffolds demonstrate increased observed initial fixation strength in cadaver femoral head defects relative to PGA-scaffold, particularly when fibrin glue is used for fixation.

  12. Anatomical study on the surgical technique used for xenotransplantation: porcine hearts into humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepe, Matthias; Martin, Juergen; Sarai, Koppany; Ihling, Christian; Sommer, Philipp; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2007-12-01

    The pig heart is an ideal graft for orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation regarding its physiological attributes and ready availability. Although single clinical attempts have been performed since the 1960s, details concerning the surgical technique of pig-to-human transplantation have never been reported. The present investigation should verify which anatomical differences between humans and pigs require special care in cardiac xenotransplantation. We transplanted four pig hearts into human thoraces after autopsy. Implantation was performed using both the biatrial (modified Shumway) and bicaval techniques. The implanted hearts were not perfused. The four-legged walk of the pig implies a more transverse heart position and therefore a different outflow-angle of the great vessels. Accordingly, the thin-walled pulmonary artery and the superior vena cava (in bicaval technique) tend to kink and narrow. A special feature of porcine anatomy is the left azygous vein that empties into the coronary sinus. It must be ligated before the implantation. Keeping the porcine anatomical particularities in mind, technical problems in pig-to-human heart transplantation can be avoided. The anastomosis of the pulmonary artery requires special care. By using the biatrial technique surgeons can prevent imminent stenoses of the caval vein anastomoses.

  13. Adjacent Joint Kinematics After Ankle Arthrodesis During Cadaveric Gait Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturnick, Daniel R; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Ellis, Scott J; Queen, Robin M; Kolstov, Jayme C B; Deland, Jonathan T; Baxter, Josh R

    2017-11-01

    Arthrodesis is an effective and reliable treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis; however, many patients develop ipsilateral adjacent joint arthritis following surgery. The mechanism that drives adjacent joint arthritis remains uncertain. Cadaveric simulation permits direct investigation of the effects of both arthrodesis and movement strategy on adjacent joints during simulated walking. The objective of this study was to identify the isolated effect of ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics during simulated walking. Effects of ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics were assessed in 8 cadaveric foot and ankle specimens using a robotic gait simulator. Gait parameters acquired from healthy adults and patients with ankle arthrodesis were used as inputs for simulations. Three-dimensional subtalar and talonavicular joint kinematics were directly measured before and after ankle arthrodesis, and healthy- and arthrodesis-gait parameters were applied to identify the isolated effect of the ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics. Ankle arthrodesis increased subtalar and talonavicular joint motion during early and midstance independent of which gait parameters were used as inputs to the gait simulator. However, adjacent joint motions did not differ between the control and arthrodesis condition during late stance, when the healthy gait parameters were used as inputs. Conversely, adjacent joint motion decreased during late stance following arthrodesis when simulating gait using parameters typical in arthrodesis patients. Regardless of the gait parameter inputs, subtalar and talonavicular joint motions increased from normal kinematics, which likely increase the biomechanical burden placed on these adjacent joints and may lead to joint degeneration. Increased motion of the adjacent joints caused by ankle arthrodesis may explain the articular degeneration observed clinically.

  14. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  15. How the fixation method stiffness and initial tension affect anterior load-displacement of the knee and tension in anterior cruciate ligament grafts: a study in cadaveric knees using a double-loop hamstrings graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Paul; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    2004-05-01

    There were two objectives to this study. The first was to investigate the relationship of graft fixation stiffness and graft initial tension on the anterior load-displacement behavior of knees reconstructed with a double-loop hamstrings tendon graft. The second was to determine the corresponding graft tensions at 225 N of anterior force applied to the knee. To satisfy these objectives, the anterior-load displacement curves were measured for seven cadaveric knees with the ACL intact at flexion angles ranging from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The ACL was reconstructed in the same knees using a double-loop hamstrings graft. A/P load-displacement curves of the knee and graft tension were measured as the fixation method stiffness and the initial tension applied at full extension were varied (25-326 N/mm and 25-300 N). The 0 N posterior limit (unloaded position of tibia) and the anterior laxity (difference between the 0 N posterior limit and 225 N anterior limit) were computed to characterize the A/P load-displacement of the intact and reconstructed knees. The key results were that the 0 N posterior limit of the tibia was insensitive to changes in stiffness (p>0.6503) but that increasing initial tension caused increasing posterior subluxation of the tibia with respect to the femur (p=0.0001). The tibia was subluxed posteriorly by 5-6 mm on average at high levels of initial tension. Both initial tension and stiffness significantly affected the anterior laxity (p=0.0001 for both factors). Anterior laxity was restored closely to normal (i.e. <1 mm difference) by relatively high initial tension of 200 N in combination with low stiffness of 25 N/mm and by low initial tension of 25 N in combination with higher stiffness ranging between 94 and 326 N/mm. When anterior laxity is restored to normal using a high initial tension-low stiffness combination however, the tibia undergoes a large posterior subluxation with respect to the femur in the unloaded state (approximately 5 mm) and a

  16. Tracheal dimensions in human fetuses: an anatomical, digital and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Daroszewski, Marcin; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Anna; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2012-05-01

    Rapid advances in perinatal medicine have resulted in increased number of various tracheo-bronchial interventions on fetal and neonatal airways. The present study was performed to compile normative data for external dimensions of the trachea at varying gestational age. Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS-Elements BR 3.0) and statistical analysis (ANOVA, regression analysis), a range of measurements (prebifurcation and bifurcation lengths, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, proximal external cross-sectional area, and external volume) for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted fetuses (39 male, 34 female) aged 14-25 weeks was examined. No significant male-female differences were found (P > 0.05). The prebifurcation and bifurcation lengths ranged from 8.14 ± 1.90 to 20.77 ± 0.50 mm and from 2.23 ± 0.25 to 5.77 ± 0.76 mm, according to the functions y = -54.291 + 23.940 × ln (Age) ± 1.681 (R (2) = 0.78) and y = -10.756 + 4.860 × ln (Age) ± 0.731 (R (2) = 0.44), respectively. Their relative growth, expressed as the bifurcation-to-prebifurcation length ratio, was stable from the age of 16 weeks and attained the value 0.22 ± 0.05. The proximal external transverse diameter of the trachea was greater (36 fetuses, 49.3%), smaller (34 fetuses, 46.6%) or similar (3 fetuses, 4.1%), when compared to the distal external transverse diameter. The values for proximal and distal transverse diameters ranged from 2.39 ± 0.04 to 5.20 ± 0.17 mm and from 2.42 ± 0.20 to 4.93 ± 0.08 mm, expressed by the functions: y = -9.659 + 4.574 × ln (Age) ± 0.313 (R (2) = 0.79) and y = -10.897 + 4.984 × ln (Age) ± 0.327 (R (2) = 0.81). The values of proximal external cross-sectional area ranged from 3.38 ± 0.12 to 15.98 ± 1.04 mm(2), according to the linear function y = -11.798 + 1.077 × Age ± 1.463 (R (2) = 0.78). The values of external volume of the trachea ranged from 34.3 ± 11.6 to 370.6 ± 94.1 mm(3) and generated the quadratic function y

  17. Comparative morpho-anatomical studies of the lesions caused by citrus leprosis virus on sweet orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.R. Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leprosis disease shows a viral etiology and the citrus leprosis virus is considered its etiologic agent. The disease may show two types of cytopatologic symptom caused by two virus: nuclear (CiLV-N and cytoplasmic (CiLV-C types. The aim of this study was to compare the morpho-anatomical differences in the lesions caused by leprosis virus-cytoplasmic and nuclear types in Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. Leaf and fruit lesions were collected in Piracicaba/São Paulo (cytoplasmic type and Monte Alegre do Sul/São Paulo and Amparo/São Paulo (nuclear type. The lesions were photographed and then fixed in Karnovsky solution, dehydrated in a graded ethylic series, embedded in hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate resin (Leica Historesin, sectioned (5 μm thick, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. The digital images were acquired in a microscope with digital video camera. Leaf and fruit lesions caused by the two viruses were morphologically distinct. Only the lesion caused by CiLV-N virus presented three well-defined regions. In both lesions there was the accumulation of lipidic substances in necrotic areas that were surrounded by cells with amorphous or droplets protein. Only leaf and fruit lesions caused by CiLV-N virus exhibited traumatic gum ducts in the vascular bundles.A doença leprose dos citros tem etiologia viral sendo o citrus leprosis virus seu agente etiológico. Demonstrou-se que há dois vírus distintos que causam sintomas de leprose em ci-tros: citoplasmático (CiLV-C e o nuclear (CiLV-N. O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar as diferenças morfo-anatômicas nas lesões causadas por CiLV-C e por CiLV-N em laranjeira doce (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck 'Pêra'. As lesões foliares e dos frutos foram coletadas em Piracicaba/SP (tipo citoplas-mático e em Monte Alegre do Sul/SP e Amparo/SP (tipo nuclear. As lesões foram fotografadas e em seguida fixadas em solução Karnovsky, desidratadas em série etílica, incluídas em historesina e

  18. Development of an anatomical wrist joint coordinate system to quantify motion during functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Garg, Rohit; Kraszewski, Andrew; Lenhoff, Mark; Carter, Timothy; Backus, Sherry I; Wolff, Aviva; Syrkin, Grigory; Cheng, Richard; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis based anatomical wrist joint coordinate system for measurement of in-vivo wrist kinematics. The convergent validity and reliability of the 3D motion analysis implementation was quantified and compared with manual and electrogoniometry techniques on 10 cadaveric specimens. Fluoroscopic measurements were used as the reference. The 3D motion analysis measurements (mean absolute difference [MAD] = 3.6°) were significantly less different (P goniometry (MAD = 5.7°) but not (P = .066, power = 0.45) electrogoniometry (MAD = 5.0°) compared with fluoroscopy. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1]) was highest for 3D motion analysis compared with manual and electrogoniometry, suggesting better reliability for this technique. To demonstrate the utility of this new wrist joint coordinate system, normative data from 10 healthy subjects was obtained while throwing a dart.

  19. Reliability of Anatomic Reference Planes in Establishing the Occlusal Plane in Different Jaw Relationships: A Cephalometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Prince; Parkash, Hari; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Bagga, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of different anatomic reference planes in determination of Occlusal plane in dentulous and edentulous subjects with Angle’s class I and class II Maxillomandibular relationship. Eighty subjects were included in the study which was divided into four Groups based on dentition and skeletal relationship. The Group I (n = 20) and Group II (n = 20) includes young and completely dentulous subjects in Angle’s class I and class II relationship, ...

  20. Anatomic study of cranial nerve emergence and associated skull foramina in cats using CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eymeric; Degueurce, Christophe; Ruel, Yannick; Dennis, Ruth; Begon, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of four normal cats were reviewed retrospectively to assess the emergence and course of the cranial nerves (CNs). Two-millimeter-thick images were obtained in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T unit. CN skull foramina, as anatomic landmarks for MR imaging, were identified by computed tomography performed on an isolated cat skull using thin wire within each skull foramen. Thin slice (1 mm slice thickness) images were obtained with a high-resolution bone filter scan protocol. The origins of CNs II, V, VII, and VIII and the group of IX, X, XI, and XII could be identified. The pathway and proximal divisions of CNs V were described. CNs III, IV, and VI were not distinguished from each other but could be seen together in the orbital fissure. CN V was characterized by slight contrast enhancement.

  1. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  2. Human cadaveric dissection: a historical account from ancient Greece to the modern era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475

  3. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana), common tegu (Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Selleri, Paolo; Veladiano, Irene A; Martin, Andrea; Zanetti, Emanuele; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-05-11

    Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of: 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (-20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any imaging modality involving these

  4. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  5. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer by anatomical subsite in Japan: Results from the HERPACC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa-Senda, Hiroko; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-07-15

    Consumption of coffee, a popular beverage worldwide, has been associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Although CRC exhibits different biological characteristics by anatomical subsite, the possibly heterogeneous impact of coffee on CRC by anatomical subsite has remained unclear. Here, we conducted two case-control studies to examine the association between coffee consumption and CRC risk as well as risk by anatomic subsite among Japanese using data from the Hospital-based Epidemiological Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center I and II (HERPACC-I and II). Subjects were enrolled in HERPACC-I between 1988 and 2000 and in HERPACC-II between 2001 and 2005. Coffee consumption was measured with a self-administered questionnaire. A conditional logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of CRC with coffee consumption, adjusted for potential confounders of age, smoking, alcohol drinking, red meat intake, BMI, exercise, family history of CRC, and diabetes mellitus history. We estimated summary ORs by pooling study-specific ORs with a fixed effects model. In total, 2,696 CRC cases and 13,480 non-cancer outpatients as controls were included. Overall, compared to non-drinkers, ORs of less than 1 cup/day, 1-2 cups/day and 3 or more cups/day for CRC were 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-1.00), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.80-1.01) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65-0.92), respectively (trend-p = 0.009). Subsite-specific analysis revealed a significant inverse linear trend between coffee consumption and distal colon cancer (p-trend = 0.048), and a tendency toward a lower risk of rectal cancer (p-trend = 0.068). These findings suggest that coffee consumption might impact the prevention of CRC, especially distal colon cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  7. Determining the best recipient vessel site for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction with DIEP flaps: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuaire, Martin; Hivelin, Mikael; Dramé, Moustapha; Abrahams, Peter; Kianmanesh, Reza; Fontaine, Christian; Lantieri, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a reliable and reproducible technique for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction. Several recipient vessels sites for microvascular anastomosis have been described such as the internal thoracic vessels, the thoracodorsal vessels, and the circumflex scapular vessels. Nonetheless, the choice of the recipient site depends mainly on individual operator's experience and preferences, and currently the best recipient vessel site is under debate. This anatomical observational study aimed to determine whether anatomy could address this dilemma by determining the best vessel diameter to match the donor with these three recipient sites. Our series reports 80 dissections of the three anatomical regions of interest. Forty formalin-preserved female cadavers were dissected bilaterally. Internal vessels diameter measurements were recorded with a vascular gauge ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mm with successive half-millimeter graduations. The median diameter of the deep inferior epigastric (DIEA), internal thoracic (ITA), circumflex scapular (CSA), and thoracodorsal arteries (TDA) were: 2.0, 2.5, 2.5, and 1.5 mm, respectively. The median diameter of the deep inferior epigastric, internal thoracic, circumflex scapular, and thoracodorsal veins were: 3.0, 3.0, 3.0, and 2.5 mm, respectively. At the individual level, the perfect match between DIEA and ITA was significantly more frequent than between DIEA and TDA (p = 0.002), and it was more frequent between DIEA and CSA than between DIEA and TDA (p = 0.009). This study supports the use of the internal thoracic pedicle as the first recipient vessel choice, which should be considered, at least anatomically, as the best one with the closest diameter matching with the donor pedicle. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective comparative study of clinical and functional outcomes between anatomic double bundle and single bundle hamstring grafts for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Nag, Hira Lal; Chowdhury, Buddhadev; Sankineani, Sukesh Rao; Naranje, Sameer M

    2015-09-01

    Despite a number of studies comparing postoperative stability and function after anatomic single bundle and double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, it remains unclear whether double bundle reconstruction has better functional outcome than single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To compare the subjective functional outcome as well as clinical stability in patients treated with either anatomic single bundle or anatomic double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in the postoperative functional outcome and clinical stability between anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions when compared to single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. We prospectively followed 40 patients out of which, 20 patients were operated for anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction and other 20 patients underwent anatomic double bundle ACL reconstruction. Patient evaluation using the laxity tests and outcome scales was done preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 48 months after the surgery. Clinical stability was assessed by Lachman test, Pivot shift test and Delhi active test. Functional outcome was assessed by International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm and Modified Cincinnati scores. Patients in both groups were evaluated at regular intervals for a minimum period of 48 months (mean 51 months, range 48-56 months). For all subjective scores, double bundle group patients reported statistically significant higher scores compared to single bundle group patients. Graded stability results of the Lachman, and Pivot shift tests were significantly higher in the anatomically reconstructed double bundle patient group. We suggest that functional outcome and clinical stability may be better with anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as compared to anatomical single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright

  9. Studying the Relation Between Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome and Anatomic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Military Male Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush

    2015-06-01

    Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions.

  10. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  11. Veneered anatomically designed zirconia FDPs resulting from digital intraoral scans: Preliminary results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selz, Christian F; Bogler, Jan; Vach, Kirstin; Strub, Joerg R; Guess, Petra C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of veneered anatomically designed zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) resulting from intraoral digital impressions. 24 patients requiring treatment were provided with all-ceramic FDPs. Intraoral scans (iTero) were performed and veneered anatomically designed CAD/CAM-zirconia FDPs (Zerion/VitaVM9) were fabricated. A feldspar veneering ceramic following a slow cooling firing protocol was applied. A self-curing resin based luting material was used for adhesive cementation. Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months recalls according to the modified USPHS-criteria. Intraoral digital surface scans (iTero) were performed at each recall examination and were digitally superimposed (Geomagic) to evaluate potential veneer cohesive fractures. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis comprised secondary caries, clinically unacceptable fractures, root canal treatment and debonding. Kaplan-Meier success rate included restorations with minimal crevices, tolerable color deviations and clinically acceptable fractures. Data were statistically analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate and success rate of the FDPs were 100% and 91.7%, respectively. Clinically acceptable veneer cohesive fractures and crevices at the restoration margin were observed in two patients. These shallow veneer fractures were only detected by overlapping baseline and recall scans. Ceramic surface roughness increased significantly over time (pVeneered zirconia FDPs fabricated from digital intraoral scans showed a favorable clinical performance over an observation period of 18 months. Anatomical zirconia core design and slow cooling firing protocol of the veneering ceramic reduced the incidence of chip fractures to a level that could not be detected clinically. The digital workflow on the basis of intraoral digital impressions resulted in clinically satisfying outcomes for veneered zirconia FDPs. Copyright

  12. Kinematic analysis of the shoulder complex after anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roren, Alexandra; Nguyen, Christelle; Palazzo, Clémence; Fayad, Fouad; Revel, Michel; Gregory, Thomas; Poiraudeau, Serge; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2017-06-01

    The movement of the arm relative to the trunk results from coordinated 3D glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movements. Changes in scapula kinematics may occur after total shoulder arthroplasty and could affect clinical and functional outcomes. To assess the 3D movement of the scapula during arm elevation after anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This was a single-centre, non-randomized, controlled cross-sectional study. Patients with anatomic (n = 14) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (n = 9) were prospectively enrolled and were compared to age-matched asymptomatic controls (n = 23). 3D scapular kinematics were assessed by a non-invasive, electromagnetic method during arm abduction and flexion. 3D scapular rotations and 3D linear displacements of the barycentre (geometrical centre) at rest and at 30°, 60° and 90° arm elevation; as well as scapulohumeral rhythm were analysed. Participant groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc testing for normally distributed data, and Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed data. Total range of scapular lateral rotation and barycentre displacement were increased, and scapulohumeral rhythm was reduced, in patients with anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty compared with age-matched controls; however, the global scapular kinematic pattern was preserved. For patients after total shoulder arthroplasty, the increased contribution of the scapula to arm elevation is consistent with a compensatory mechanism for the reduced glenohumeral mobility. The stability of the global scapula kinematic pattern reflects its mechanical and neuromotor strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An anatomical study of the parasacral block using magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Maeve

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The parasacral approach to sciatic blockade is reported to be easy to learn and perform, with a high success rate and few complications. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging, we evaluated the accuracy of a simulated needle (perpendicular to skin) in contacting the sacral plexus with this approach in 10 volunteers. Intrapelvic structures encountered during the simulated parasacral blocks were also recorded. RESULTS: The sacral plexus was contacted by the simulated needle in 4 of the 10 volunteers, and the sciatic nerve itself in one volunteer. The plexus was accurately located adjacent to a variety of visceral structures, including small bowel, blood vessels, and ovary. In the remaining five volunteers (in whom the plexus was not contacted on first needle pass), small bowel, rectum, blood vessels, seminal vesicles, and bony structures were encountered. Historically, when plexus is not encountered, readjustment of the needle insertion point more caudally has been recommended. We found that such an adjustment resulted in simulated perforation of intrapelvic organs or the perianal fossa. CONCLUSIONS: These findings question the reliability of the anatomical landmarks of the parasacral block and raise the possibility of frequent visceral puncture using this technique.

  14. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole: Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2016-06-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge was examined on 20 anatomical dry skull specimens. The results were applied to one-piece OZ approaches performed on freshly frozen cadaver heads. We defined the center of the sphenoid ridge keyhole as a superficial projection on the lateral skull surface of the most anterior and thickest part of the sphenoid ridge. It was located 22 mm (standard deviation [SD], 0.22 mm) from the superior temporal line; 10.7 mm (SD, 0.08 mm) posterior and 7.1 mm (SD, 0.22 mm) inferior to the frontozygomatic suture. The sphenoid ridge burr hole provides exposure of frontal, temporal dura as well as periorbita, which is essential for the later bone cuts. There is direct access to removal of the thickest (sphenoidal) part of the orbital roof, after which the paper-thin (frontal) part of the orbital roof is easily fractured. The sphenoid ridge is an easily identifiable landmark on the lateral skull surface, located below the usual placement of the McCarty keyhole, with comparative exposure.

  15. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Bilateral Symmetry of the Scaphoid: An Anatomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. L. ten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative 3D CT imaging techniques provide displacement analysis of the distal scaphoid fragment in 3D space, using the matched opposite scaphoid as reference. Its accuracy depends on the presence of anatomical bilateral symmetry, which has not been investigated yet using similar techniques. Our purpose was to investigate symmetry by comparing the relative positions of distal and proximal poles between sides. We used bilateral CT scans of 19 adult healthy volunteers to obtain 3D scaphoid models. Left proximal and distal poles were matched to corresponding mirrored right sides. The left-to-right positional differences between poles were quantified in terms of three translational and three rotational parameters. The mean (SD of ulnar, dorsal, and distal translational differences of distal poles relative to proximal poles was 0.1 (0.6; 0.4 (1.2; 0.2 (0.6 mm and that of palmar rotation, ulnar deviation, and pronation differences was −1.1 (4.9; −1.5 (3.3; 1.0 (3.7°, respectively. These differences did not significantly differ from zero and thus were not biased to left or right side. We proved that, on average, the articular surfaces of scaphoid poles were symmetrically aligned in 3D space. This suggests that the contralateral scaphoid can serve as reference in corrective surgery. No level of evidence is available.

  16. The Pararectus approach for anterior intrapelvic management of acetabular fractures: an anatomical study and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, M J B; Ecker, T M; Cullmann, J L; Bergmann, M; Bonel, H M; Büchler, L; Siebenrock, K A; Bastian, J D

    2012-03-01

    A new anterior intrapelvic approach for the surgical management of displaced acetabular fractures involving predominantly the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate is described. In order to establish five 'windows' for instrumentation, the extraperitoneal space is entered along the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle. This is the so-called 'Pararectus' approach. The feasibility of safe dissection and optimal instrumentation of the pelvis was assessed in five cadavers (ten hemipelves) before implementation in a series of 20 patients with a mean age of 59 years (17 to 90), of whom 17 were male. The clinical evaluation was undertaken between December 2009 and December 2010. The quality of reduction was assessed with post-operative CT scans and the occurrence of intra-operative complications was noted. In cadavers, sufficient extraperitoneal access and safe instrumentation of the pelvis were accomplished. In the patients, there was a statistically significant improvement in the reduction of the fracture (pre- versus post-operative: mean step-off 3.3 mm (sd 2.6) vs 0.1 mm (sd 0.3), p fractures predominantly involving the anterior column and the quadrilateral plate, the Pararectus approach allowed anatomical restoration with minimal morbidity related to the surgical access.

  17. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Preoperative surgical rehearsal using cadaveric fresh tissue surgical simulation increases resident operative confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Erin L; Leland, Hyuma A; Azadgoli, Beina; Minneti, Michael; Carey, Joseph N

    2017-08-01

    Rehearsal is an essential part of mastering any technical skill. The efficacy of surgical rehearsal is currently limited by low fidelity simulation models. Fresh cadaver models, however, offer maximal surgical simulation. We hypothesize that preoperative surgical rehearsal using fresh tissue surgical simulation will improve resident confidence and serve as an important adjunct to current training methods. Preoperative rehearsal of surgical procedures was performed by plastic surgery residents using fresh cadavers in a simulated operative environment. Rehearsal was designed to mimic the clinical operation, complete with a surgical technician to assist. A retrospective, web-based survey was used to assess resident perception of pre- and post-procedure confidence, preparation, technique, speed, safety, and anatomical knowledge on a 5-point scale (1= not confident, 5= very confident). Twenty-six rehearsals were performed by 9 residents (PGY 1-7) an average of 4.7±2.1 days prior to performance of the scheduled operation. Surveys demonstrated a median pre-simulation confidence score of 2 and a post-rehearsal score of 4 (Pimprovement in confidence and performance was greatest when simulation was performed within 3 days of the scheduled case. All residents felt that cadaveric simulation was better than standard preparation methods of self-directed reading or discussion with other surgeons. All residents believed that their technique, speed, safety, and anatomical knowledge improved as a result of simulation. Fresh tissue-based preoperative surgical rehearsal was effectively implemented in the residency program. Resident confidence and perception of technique improved. Survey results suggest that cadaveric simulation is beneficial for all levels of residents. We believe that implementation of preoperative surgical rehearsal is an effective adjunct to surgical training at all skill levels in the current environment of decreased work hours.

  19. Usefulness of temporal bone prototype for drilling training: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussedat, C; Venail, F; Nguyen, Y; Lescanne, E; Marx, M; Bakhos, D

    2017-12-01

    Dissection of cadaveric temporal bones (TBs) is considered the gold standard for surgical training in otology. For many reasons, access to the anatomical laboratory and cadaveric TBs is difficult for some facilities. The aim of this prospective and comparative study was to evaluate the usefulness of a physical TB prototype for drilling training in residency. Prospective study. Tertiary referral centre. Thirty-four residents were included. Seventeen residents (mean age 26.7±1.6) drilled on only cadaveric TBs ("traditional" group), in the traditional training method, while seventeen residents (mean age 26.5±1.7) drilled first on a prototype and then on a cadaveric TB ("prototype" group). Drilling performance was assessed using a validated scale. Residents completed a mastoid image before and after each drilling to enable evaluation of mental representations of the mastoidectomy. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to age, drilling experience and level of residency. Regarding drilling performance, we found a significant difference across the groups, with a better score in the prototype group (P=.0007). For mental representation, the score was statistically improved (P=.0003) after drilling in both groups, suggesting that TB drilling improves the mental representation of the mastoidectomy whether prototype or cadaveric TB is used. The TB prototype improves the drilling performance and mental representation of the mastoidectomy in the young resident population. A drilling simulation with virtual or physical systems seems to be a beneficial tool to improve TB drilling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the murine liver: a micro-computed tomography-based anatomical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fiebig

    Full Text Available Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.