WorldWideScience

Sample records for cadaver

  1. Imaging Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofts, Paul S.; Jackson, Jonathan S.; Tozer, Daniel J.; Cercignani, Mara; Keir, Geoffrey; MacManus, David G.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Ridha, Basil H.; Schmierer, Klaus; Siddique, Durre; Thornton, John S.; Wroe, Stephen J.; Fox, Nick C.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in imaging cadavers for noninvasive autopsies for research purposes. However, the temperature is well below that of in vivo imaging, and a variety of interesting ‘cold brain’ effects are observed. At lower temperatures conventional FLAIR sequences no longer produce dark cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); T1 is reduced from about 4.0 sec in vivo to 1.7 sec at 1°C. The diffusion coefficient (DC) of CSF is much reduced (from 3.1 10−9 m2s−1 in vivo to 1.1 at 1°C). DC values therefore provide a noninvasive thermometer to measure brain core temperature to within 1.0°C. In three cadavers DC values were 1.1-1.5 10−9 m2s−1, indicating brain core temperatures of 1-10°C, consistent with external thermocouple measurements. An improved inversion time (TI0) can then be found for FLAIR. At 10°C this Cold FLAIR sequence (TI0 = 1.5 sec) gave black CSF. Expressions for CSF DC and T1 as a function of temperature were produced. A measurement of CSF DC could be converted directly to temperature and the required TI0 found. In vitro values of CSF DC were about 1% lower than that of water. Thus, FLAIR imaging can be optimized for cadaveric brains at low and unknown temperatures, thereby improving value for autopsy purposes and facilitating comparisons with in vivo imaging. PMID:18058937

  2. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  3. [Anatomy cadaver ceremonies in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T; Ha, H

    1999-07-01

    The practice of holding annual ceremonies in honor of cadaver donors in Taiwan's medical schools has a history of nearly a hundred years. It originated in Japan, where such ceremonies have been widely held in medical schools since the practice was founded by Toyo Yamawaki, who was the first medical scholar in Japan to engage in dissection of the human body and was the author of the first anatomy book to appear in Japan, the Zoshi. The practice of holding donor ceremonies was introduced into Taiwan after the Jaiwu Sino - Japanese war, when the island became a Japanese colony. The tradition was upheld in the Viceroy's Medical School, the Viceroy's College of Medicine, and Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University College of Medicine, and continued since the restoration of Chinese power to the present. The practice of holding cadaver donor ceremonies in institutions of medical education is intended to express respect for the donor as well as to encourage the practice of cadaver donation to the benefit of medical education.

  4. Arthroscopic latarjet procedure: safety evaluation in cadavers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira, Arnaldo Amado; Benegas, Eduardo; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Sunada, Edwin Eiji; Assunção, Jorge Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in cadavers. : Twelve cadaveric shoulders underwent arthroscopic Latarjet procedure in our laboratory for arthroscopy, by four different surgeons...

  5. 9 CFR 381.90 - Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cadavers. 381.90 Section 381.90 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.90 Cadavers. Carcasses of poultry showing evidence of having died from causes other than slaughter...

  6. Emotional response of undergraduates to cadaver dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisenden, Patricia A; Budke, Katherine J; Klemetson, Chelsea J; Kurtti, Tana R; Patel, Chandi M; Schwantz, Trenda L; Wisenden, Brian D

    2018-03-01

    The most effective way to learn human anatomy is through cadaver dissection. Historically, cadaver dissection has been the provenance of professional schools. Increasingly, cadaver-based courses in human anatomy are shifting to the undergraduate level, which creates both problems and opportunities because of differences between undergraduate and graduate student populations. Anxiety associated with dissecting cadavers can create a barrier to learning, and ultimately, entry into the health and medical sciences for some demographic subpopulations of undergraduates. We surveyed 76 students in 2007 and 51 students in 2009 at four times in the semester to investigate the timing and sociodemographic predictors of anxiety over cadaver dissection. We followed this with a second survey of 44 students in 2014 to test the effect of humanization of cadaver donors (providing information about donor occupation and cause of death) to reduce student anxiety. Students experienced anxiety upon first exposure to cadaver dissection. Female students experienced greater anxiety than male students upon first exposure to cadavers but this effect was short-lived. Self-identified non-white, non-Christian students experienced sustained anxiety throughout the semester, likely because cadaver stress compounded social and financial stressors unique to international students. Humanization was effective in reducing anxiety in non-white, non-Christian students but had the unexpected effect of increasing anxiety in female students. We recommend that humanizing information be offered to students who seek it out, but not forced upon students for whom the information would only add to their stress. Clin. Anat. 31:224-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  8. MRI of Thiel-embalmed human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguieva, Mariana J; Yeo, Desmond T B; Eisma, Roos; Melzer, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    To explain the observed considerable loss of signal and contrast when Thiel-embalmed human cadavers are imaged using clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, especially those based on spin-echo MRI. All cadavers were imaged with a medical 1.5T scanner using standard MRI sequences. Dual angle B1+ magnitude mapping and electromagnetic (EM) simulations that characterize the radiofrequency (RF) penetration in a male human body model (HBM) were carried out for a range of tissue conductivities. The EM simulations show that RF penetration issues begin to affect the image quality for values of electrical conductivity as low as 2.6 S/m. The electrical conductivity values of the embalming fluids were found to be within the range of 5-10.6 S/m, thus strongly suggesting that the observed loss in signal and contrast is due to diminished RF penetration inside the cadavers. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that gradient-echo (GRE)-based MRI sequences perform better than spin-echo (SE)-based sequences, as they are less susceptible to imperfections in the flip angle that are inevitably present when imaging Thiel cadavers. The diminished signal and contrast observed when imaging Thiel-embalmed human cadavers may be attributed to the high conductivity of the embalming liquids. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Medical Students' Attitudinal Changes towards Cadaver Dissection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students' attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students' attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. Methods: A ...

  10. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  11. Perception to Cadaver Dissection and Views on Anatomy as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadaver dissection has been used as the main method of teaching human anatomy for the last five centuries. There are emerging concerns on the negative consequences of cadaver dissection on medical students, leading to suggestions on use of alternative technological advancements to cadaver dissection. However ...

  12. Quantifying Cadaver Use in Physician Assistant Anatomy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, Mackenzie C; Bennett, Cynthia C; Cope, Janet M

    2017-12-01

    To quantify the number of cadavers used in physician assistant (PA) anatomy education and to ascertain the origins of those cadavers. An electronic survey was generated and distributed to all schools that had been accredited by the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. The survey had a 49% response rate. Among the responding programs, 79% reported working with 655 cadavers, with an average of one cadaver per 5.72 students. Programs reported that 21% receive cadavers from multiple sources. Of all programs using cadavers, 62% receive cadavers from medical schools, 23% from in-house anatomical gift programs, 19% from state anatomy boards, 9% from private organizations, and 8% from other sources. Anatomy educators reported that 55% know the origins of the cadavers in their programs, 18% do not, and 27% are uncertain. In categorizing cadavers at their programs, 56% were reported as registered donors, 4% as next-of-kin donations, 1% as unclaimed dead, 17% as uncertain origin, and 22% as unaccounted for by respondents. Among educators who teach anatomy to PA students, 45% do not know or are uncertain of the origins of the cadavers in their programs. Of the reported 655 cadavers used in PA education, 289 were not categorized as registered donors. Facing the expansion of PA programs, educators need to be aware of cadavers' origins to ensure that all aspects of PA education are consistent with the ethics that the students are being taught. Those ethics include the need for informed consent for all cadavers involved in PA education.

  13. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  14. Death and cadavers: knowledge, skills and attitudes will have to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Death and cadavers: knowledge, skills and attitudes will have to change. *Walsh K. Dear Editor,. Charlier et al are to be praised for bringing to light the beliefs of medical students from Parakou about death and cadavers1. Greater insight into such ... respected opinion leaders to deliver education should help – especially in ...

  15. Role of larval cadavers in recycling processes of Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N; Zgomba, M; Petric, D; Beck, M; Ludwig, M

    1995-09-01

    The influence of larval cadavers of Culex pipiens on recycling processes of Bacillus sphaericus was investigated by bioassays and spore counts in the laboratory. Studies conducted with 3 different B. sphaericus concentrations (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg B. sphaericus/liter) indicated that the presence of cadavers in the water contributed to the maintenance of toxic levels of B. sphaericus. Larval cadavers seem to contain all the nutrients necessary both for vegetative multiplication and for toxin synthesis associated with the sporulation process. Bioassays of B. sphaericus revealed that the mortality of Culex pipiens remained on a high level over a period of 26 days when larval cadavers were added every second day to the test vessels. This result was supported by a sharp increase in spore density when cadavers were added at the same interval. The test series showed B. sphaericus recycles in intact cadavers of Culex pipiens, whereas this phenomenon could not be observed when crushed cadavers were used in the trials. Therefore, our results demonstrated that for successful recycling processes it seems of crucial importance that infected cadavers remain intact at least for a certain time and also that the dosage of the applied B. sphaericus plays a major role in recycling processes whereas larval density is only of minor importance to these processes.

  16. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  17. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  18. The human cadaver in the age of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M Ashraf; McKenzie, James C; Wilson, James S; Cowie, Robert J; Ayeni, Sylvanus A; Dunn, Barbara K

    2002-02-15

    Major national and international critiques of the medical curriculum in the 1980s noted the following significant flaws: (1) over-reliance on learning by rote memory, (2) insufficient exercise in analysis and synthesis/conceptualization, and (3) failure to connect the basic and clinical aspects of training. It was argued that the invention of computers and related imaging techniques called to question the traditional instruction based on the faculty-centered didactic lecture. In the ensuing reform, which adopted case-based, small group, problem-based learning, time allotted to anatomical instruction was severely truncated. Many programs replaced dissection with prosections and computer-based learning. We argue that cadaver dissection is still necessary for (1) establishing the primacy of the patient, (2) apprehension of the multidimensional body, (3) touch-mediated perception of the cadaver/patient, (4) anatomical variability, (5) learning the basic language of medicine, (6) competence in diagnostic imaging, (7) cadaver/patient-centered computer-assisted learning, (8) peer group learning, (9) training for the medical specialties. Cadaver-based anatomical education is a prerequisite of optimal training for the use of biomedical informatics. When connected to dissection, medical informatics can expedite and enhance preparation for a patient-based medical profession. Actual dissection is equally necessary for acquisition of scientific skills and for a communicative, moral, ethical, and humanistic approach to patient care. Anat Rec (New Anat) 269:20-32, 2002. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing < or =3% NaCl (Pseudomonas). Of the cadavers found near estuaries, bioluminescent and blue colonies developed from two of them on media containing 2-4% NaCl (Photobacterium, Vibrio, Listonella), but not from two others on plates containing 4% NaCl (at < or =3%; blue colonies, Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning.

  20. Some observations on the dissection of cadavers in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, K G

    1983-04-01

    Medical knowledge of anatomy is found in Susruta Samhita, the classical Indian medical literature on surgery, The fifth chapter of the third book devoted to anatomy in its concluding part teaches the method by which a cadaver is to be dissected. Translation of the relevant passage and an explanation is attempted here.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Natekar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not

  2. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Arguello; Carissa Stoddard; Hao Liu; Mike Richardson; Andrea Hartis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician's thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51?91 years, and mean age = 76.9) were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and...

  3. Human cadaver brain infusion model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Sancho, Vidal

    2009-12-01

    Microneurosurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training before mastering these skills. There are diverse training models based on synthetic materials, anesthetized animals, cadaver animals, or human cadaver. Human cadaver models are especially beneficial because they are the closest to live surgery with the greatest disadvantage of lacking hemodynamic factors. We developed the "brain infusion model" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use or needs for special facilities. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. Carotids and vertebral arteries were cannulated with plastic tubes and fixed with suture. Water was flushed through the tubings until the whole arterial vasculature was observed as clean. The cannulated specimens were fixed with formaldehyde. Tap water infusion at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings controlled with a drip regulator filling the arterial tree and leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space. Multiple microneurosurgical procedures were performed by 4 trainees. Cisternal and vascular dissection was executed in a very realistic fashion. Bypass anastomosis was created as well as aneurysm simulation with venous pouches. Vessel and aneurysm clipping and rupture situations were emulated and solution techniques were trained. Standard microsurgical laboratories regularly have scarce opportunities for working with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. The human brain infusion model presents a realistic microneurosurgical training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical techniques. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulmonary complications of mustard gas exposure: a study on cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnoush, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%), pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%), malignant cellular infiltration (4%), and aspergilloma (1%). According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  5. Living and cadaver donor transplant programs in the maghreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Hachicha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Maghreb, organ failure constitutes a major public health problem, especially given the increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure and the high cost of care. In this study, we attempted to seek the recommendations, through a questionnaire, of various officials related to organ transplantation as well as leaders of ethics committees and religious groups in different countries of the Maghreb. The objective was to improve the rate of organ donation and transplantation. We received 36 replies (62% within the prescribed time limit. In our survey, 83% of the respondents felt that living donor transplantation should be promoted initially, followed gradually by measures to increase cadaver donor transplantation to achieve a target of about 30 transplants with cadaver kidney donors per million inhabitants. To expand the donor pool, 83% of the respondents proposed to expand the family circle to include the spouse and inlaws. To improve the cadaver donation activity, one should improve the organizational aspects to ensure at least 50 renal transplantations per year (100% and provide material motivation to the treatment team proportional to the activity of organ donation and transplantation. Finally, 93% of the respondents suggested suitable moral motivation of the donors.

  6. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  7. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Talebzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae, and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.

  8. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebzadeh, Fahimeh; Ghadipasha, Masoud; Gharedaghi, Jaber; Yeksan, Naser; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran district. Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identified using morphological characteristics. Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae), one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae), and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) and a beetle Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae) was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially. Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio-temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region. PMID:29322053

  9. Moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2010-07-15

    Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) or locate clandestine graves. Yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. Presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate PMI and locate clandestine graves. To address this, we buried juvenile rat (Rattus rattus) cadavers (approximately 18 g wet weight) in three contrasting soils from tropical savanna ecosystems located in Pallarenda (sand), Wambiana (medium clay), or Yabulu (loamy sand), Queensland, Australia. These soils were sieved (2mm), weighed (500 g dry weight), calibrated to a matric potential of -0.01 megapascals (MPa), -0.05 MPa, or -0.3 MPa (wettest to driest) and incubated at 22 degrees C. Measurements of cadaver decomposition included cadaver mass loss, carbon dioxide-carbon (CO(2)-C) evolution, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), protease activity, phosphodiesterase activity, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) and soil pH. Cadaver burial resulted in a significant increase in CO(2)-C evolution, MBC, enzyme activities, NRN and soil pH. Cadaver decomposition in loamy sand and sandy soil was greater at lower matric potentials (wetter soil). However, optimal matric potential for cadaver decomposition in medium clay was exceeded, which resulted in a slower rate of cadaver decomposition in the wettest soil. Slower cadaver decomposition was also observed at high matric potential (-0.3 MPa). Furthermore, wet sandy soil was associated with greater cadaver decomposition than wet fine-textured soil. We conclude that gravesoil moisture content can modify the relationship between temperature and cadaver decomposition and that soil microorganisms can play a significant role in cadaver breakdown. We also conclude that soil NRN is a more reliable indicator of gravesoil than soil pH. (c

  10. Medical students' attitudinal changes towards cadaver dissection: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Abay; Tegabu, Desalegn

    2012-03-01

    Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students' attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students' attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. A longitudinal survey was conducted among second year medical students in 2010 at the college of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar. All second year medical students (n=147) were included in the study where their attitudes were surveyed at three time points (one week prior to dissection session, a week after the initiation of dissection and eight weeks after the second survey). Three standardized and pretested questionnaires prepared in English were used to collected relevant data from the subjects. Out of the 147 students 85.7% were males. The subjects' age ranged between 18 and 23 with a mean and standard deviation of 19.5±1 years. This study has revealed that among majority of the students fear and nausea have decreased while their interest and excitement has increased on subsequent exposure to dissection (Pstudents considered the dissection room as slightly or highly stressful. Smell of the cadaver and eye irritation as a result of the chemicals in it were the major aspects identified as making the dissecting room stressful. The result also showed that almost all (99%) considered cadaver dissection had very important educational value for anatomy learning. In the majority of the students fear and nausea had decreased while interest and excitement had increased on subsequent exposure to dissection. It also showed that chemical odour and eye irritations were the leading factors which create discomfort in the dissection room even though anatomical dissection by itself was not considered as a stressor. Thus, instructors are recommended to adequately prepare students mentally and emotionally before the commencement of the dissection session for an exciting and stress

  11. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  12. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

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    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  13. Human cadaver brain infusion skull model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Roda, Jose Maria; Sancho, Vidal

    2011-01-01

    Microsurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training. Human cadaver models are especially valuable as they supply a good microsurgical training environment simultaneously providing authentic brain anatomy. We developed the "skull infusion model" as an extension of our previous "brain infusion model" taking it a step further maintaining simplicity but enhancing realism. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. The specimens were prepared cannulating carotid and vertebral arteries with plastic tubings, flushed with abundant water and fixed for 1 month in formaldehyde. They were then enclosed with white silk clothing (emulating the dura mater) and inserted into human skulls cut previously into two pieces. Tap water at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings. Diverse microsurgical procedures were performed by two trainees, including craniotomies with microsurgical approaches and techniques such as sylvian fissure exposure, extra-intracranial and intra-intracranial bypass, approaches to the ventricles and choroidal fissure opening. The water infusion fills the arterial system, leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space and finally moistening the whole specimen. This makes vascular microsurgical techniques become extremely realistic, increasing its compliance making manipulations easier and more authentic. Standard microsurgical laboratories frequently have difficulties to work with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. Using the infusion model and inserting it in a human skull makes the environment much more realistic. Its simplicity and inexpensiveness make it a good alternative for developing microsurgical techniques.

  14. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  15. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  16. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  17. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  18. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer

    2017-01-02

    Jan 2, 2017 ... Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical ...

  19. The use of lower formalin-containing embalming solution for anatomy cadaver preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viskasari P. Kalanjati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We used cadaver embalming technique with a high concentration of formaldehyde (37% formaldehyde. However, it gives toxic effects which can endanger the technicians, lecturers and students. For that reason, the effective, efficient and safer embalming process is needed; in this article we describe the use of low formalin solution (5-7.5% formaldehyde to achieve prior purposes.Methods: Cadaver is embalmed by actively pumping low formalin-containing solution (5-7.5% via femoral arteries. Further methods are detailed in this manuscript.Results: Paler cadaver with more intact and easier to dissect specimen (drier and still moist with no fungal growth was resulted by using this low formalin technique.Conclusion: The use of low formalin-containing solution in cadaver embalming gave good quality results for anatomy teaching. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:203-7Keywords: Anatomy specimen, cadaver preparation, low formaldehyde solution

  20. Suture patterns and corneal graft rotation in the cadaver eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Y K; Mahjoub, S B; Hart, J C

    1990-07-01

    Torque and antitorque running sutures as described by Eisner are commonly used in penetrating keratoplasty. We tested the rotational effect of three different 16-bite running suture patterns on eight cadaver eyes, with the following results: (1) the torque pattern rotates the corneal graft counterclockwise by 0.7 +/- 0.1 mm at the wound or 11 degrees; (2) the antitorque pattern rotates the corneal graft clockwise by 0.7 +/- 0.1 mm at the wound or 11 degrees; (3) an intermediate "no torque" pattern, the bites of which form an isosceles triangle, produces no rotational effect. We recommend the use of a "no torque" pattern to minimize corneal graft rotation.

  1. Progression of thanatophagy in cadaver brain and heart tissues

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    Gulnaz T. Javan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully elucidated whether postmortem autophagy, also known as thanatophagy, occurs in dead bodies is a function of the time of death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that thanatophagy would increase in proportion to time elapsed since death for tissues collected from cadavers. Brain and heart tissue from corpses at different time intervals after death were analyzed by Western blot. Densitometry analysis demonstrated that thanatophagy occurred in a manner that was dependent on the time of death. The autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 II, p62, Beclin-1 and Atg7, increased in a time-dependent manner in heart tissues. A potent inducer of autophagy, BNIP3, decreased in the heart tissues as time of death increased, whereas the protein levels increased in brain tissues. However, there was no expression of BNIP3 at extended postmortem intervals in both brain and heart samples. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time that thanatophagy occurs in brain and heart tissues of cadavers in a time-dependent manner. Further, our data suggest that cerebral thanatophagy may occur in a Beclin-1- independent manner. This unprecedented study provides potential insight into thanatophagy as a novel method for the estimation of the time of death in criminal investigationsAbstract: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process for maintaining cellular homeostasis during both normal and stress conditions. Metabolic reprogramming in tissues of dead bodies is inevitable due to chronic ischemia and nutrient deprivation, which are well-known features that stimulate autophagy. Currently, it is not fully

  2. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  3. Transaxillary single-port subtotal parathyroidectomy: feasibility study in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillac, Alexandre Elmães de; Fiorelli, Rossano Kepler Alvim; Phillips, Henrique Neubarth; Novellino, Pietro; Oliveira, André Lacerda; Zorron, Ricardo Paiva A Scheiba

    2017-01-01

    to test the minimally invasive technique of single-port transaxillary subtotal parathyroidectomy in non-formalized cadavers to evaluate its viability and reproduction. we performed ten subtotal parathyroidectomies through a transaxillary TriPort access in cadavers. The technique consisted of access through the axillary fossa, creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the anterior cervical region, for handling of the thyroid gland and dissection and resection of the parathyroid glands. all surgeries were successful. The mean time of surgery was 65 minutes (57-79 min), with uncomplicated identification of all anatomical structures. There was no need for complementary incisions in the cervical region. the transaxillary single-port subtotal parathyroidectomy technique was feasible and reproducible, suggesting an alternative for minimally invasive cervical surgery. testar a técnica minimamente invasiva de paratireoidectomia subtotal transaxilar single-port em cadáveres não formalizados para avaliar sua viabilidade e reprodução. foram realizadas dez paratireoidectomias subtotais por via transaxilar através de acesso por TriPort em cadáveres. A técnica realizada consistiu em acesso pela fossa axilar, criando-se um túnel subcutâneo até a região cervical anterior, para manuseio da glândula tireoide e dissecção e ressecção das paratireoides. todas as cirurgias foram realizadas com sucesso. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi 65 minutos (57-79 min), com identificação, sem dificuldades, de todas as estruturas anatômicas. Não houve necessidade de incisões complementares na região cervical. a técnica de paratireoidectomia subtotal transaxilar single-port foi viável e reprodutível, sugerindo uma alternativa para a cirurgia cervical minimamente invasiva.

  4. The wider importance of cadavers: educational and research diversity from a body bequest program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D

    2009-10-01

    The debate surrounding the use of cadavers in teaching anatomy has focused almost exclusively on the pedagogic role of cadaver dissection in medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the wider aspects of a body bequest program for teaching and research into gross anatomy in a University setting. A retrospective audit was undertaken on body donation and the use of cadaver specimens for teaching and research at our institution between 1876 and 2009. The body bequest program, first established in 1943, now receives more than 40 donations per year. In addition to the medical course, nine other University degrees and courses currently use cadaver specimens for gross anatomy; four of these are research degrees and the remainder undergraduate degrees and courses. The use of cadaver specimens by non-University groups has also increased, particularly during the past decade, such that there are now 16 different groups using cadaver specimens for instructional courses; most of these are professional medical courses. The use of cadavers for both research and teaching may encourage a more evidence-based approach to clinical anatomy. This unique audit, spanning more than a century of anatomy education within a single University Medical School, highlights the utility of a robust body bequest program and the wide range of students and health professionals who interact with this precious resource.

  5. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakuma, Ernesto Sasaki; Ussami, Edson Yassushi; Meyer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  6. Evaluation of methods to reduce formaldehyde levels of cadavers in the dissection laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Mark C; Savoia, Maria C

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of conventionally embalmed cadavers exposes students, staff, and faculty to formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. Therefore, prudent practices should seek to minimize formaldehyde exposure. In this study, we evaluated two commercially available chemicals, InfuTrace and Perfect Solution, for their effectiveness in reducing ambient formaldehyde levels. Four cadavers embalmed conventionally with formaldehyde and/or with the above agents were compared for their formaldehyde levels under conditions that strictly controlled for air circulation and for locations and methods of testing, and during activities that simulated student dissecting. For InfuTrace, one cadaver was reinfused with InfuTrace after initial standard perfusion with formaldehyde; a second cadaver had InfuTrace injected into the thoracic and abdominal body cavities after formaldehyde perfusion. For Perfect Solution, the product was used for embalming a third cadaver in lieu of formaldehyde. For a control, a fourth cadaver was embalmed with the standard formaldehyde solution. Testing of personal and ambient room air samples and of fluid obtained from the cadavers was performed and analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results indicated that both Perfect Solution, substituted for standard formaldehyde embalming, and InfuTrace infused through the vasculature after formaldehyde embalming, resulted in lower concentrations of formaldehyde than embalming with formaldehyde solution alone or in combination with body cavity injection of InfuTrace. These differences in formaldehyde concentrations are consistent across measuring methods, for example, of room air, of breathing zone air during cadaver handling and dissection, and of liquid samples obtained from the cadavers. Perfect Solution yielded suboptimum fixation and a different texture, color, and smell than the formaldehyde treatments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Colonoscopy tutorial software made with a cadaver's sectioned images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Hyung Seon; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2016-11-01

    Novice doctors may watch tutorial videos in training for actual or computed tomographic (CT) colonoscopy. The conventional learning videos can be complemented by virtual colonoscopy software made with a cadaver's sectioned images (SIs). The objective of this study was to assist colonoscopy trainees with the new interactive software. Submucosal segmentation on the SIs was carried out through the whole length of the large intestine. With the SIs and segmented images, a three dimensional model was reconstructed. Six-hundred seventy-one proximal colonoscopic views (conventional views) and corresponding distal colonoscopic views (simulating the retroflexion of a colonoscope) were produced. Not only navigation views showing the current location of the colonoscope tip and its course, but also, supplementary description views were elaborated. The four corresponding views were put into convenient browsing software to be downloaded free from the homepage (anatomy.co.kr). The SI colonoscopy software with the realistic images and supportive tools was available to anybody. Users could readily notice the position and direction of the virtual colonoscope tip and recognize meaningful structures in colonoscopic views. The software is expected to be an auxiliary learning tool to improve technique and related knowledge in actual and CT colonoscopies. Hopefully, the software will be updated using raw images from the Visible Korean project. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  9. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  10. Integrating Cadaver Needle Forces Into a Haptic Robotic Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepley, David F; Yovanoff, Mary A; Mirkin, Katelin A; Miller, Scarlett R; Han, David C; Moore, Jason Z

    2018-03-01

    Accurate force simulation is essential to haptic simulators for surgical training. Factors such as tissue inhomogeneity pose unique challenges for simulating needle forces. To aid in the development of haptic needle insertion simulators, a handheld force sensing syringe was created to measure the motion and forces of needle insertions. Five needle insertions were performed into the neck of a cadaver using the force sensing syringe. Based on these measurements a piecewise exponential needle force characterization, was implemented into a haptic central venous catheterization (CVC) simulator. The haptic simulator was evaluated through a survey of expert surgeons, fellows, and residents. The maximum needle insertion forces measured ranged from 2.02 N to 1.20 N. With this information, four characterizations were created representing average, muscular, obese, and thin patients. The median survey results showed that users statistically agreed that "the robotic system made me sensitive to how patient anatomy impacts the force required to advance needles in the human body." The force sensing syringe captured force and position information. The information gained from this syringe was able to be implemented into a haptic simulator for CVC insertions, showing its utility. Survey results showed that experts, fellows, and residents had an overall positive outlook on the haptic simulator's ability to teach haptic skills.

  11. Measurement of cadaver lumbar spine motion segment stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark D; Holmes, David C; Heiner, Anneliese D

    2002-05-01

    Prospective. To measure lumbar spine motion segment stiffness and relate it to the degree of disc degeneration. The association between the instability of the lumbar spine motion segment and disc degeneration remains unclear. The traditional method for determining motion segment instability at the time of decompressive surgery is a manual test performed by the surgeon. To quantify instability of the lumbar spine, a vertebrae distractor was developed in the authors' laboratory to measure motion segment stiffness by applying a defined load at a constant rate. Lumbar stiffness was measured by subjecting cadaver lumbar spine motion segments to a constant rate flexion-traction load and recording the magnitude of the resistance to distraction versus the range of motion. Disc degeneration was measured by pressure-volume discography and by grading of disc morphology. Motion segment stiffness decreased with the initial stages of disc degeneration and then increased with severe disc degeneration. This measure of motion segment stiffness correlated well with a manual stiffness measure. The observed results follow an accepted hypothesis of motion segment instability associated with disc degeneration.

  12. Safety zone for posterosuperior shoulder access: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pereira Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The posterosuperior shoulder access used in surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation was constructed through dissection of 20 shoulders from 10 recently chilled adult cadavers, and the distances from this route to the nearby neurovascular structures were analyzed. METHODS: A Kirschner wire was introduced into the top of the base of the coracoid process through the posterosuperior shoulder access, in the area of the origin of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments, thus reproducing the path for inserting two anchors for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. The smallest distance from the insertion point of the Kirschner wire to the suprascapular nerve and artery/vein was measured. RESULTS: The mean distance from the suprascapular nerve to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments at the top of the base of the coracoid process was 18.10 mm (range: 13.77-22.80 in the right shoulder and 18.19 mm (range: 12.59-23.75 in the left shoulder. The mean distance from the suprascapular artery/vein to the origin of the coracoclavicular ligaments was 13.10 mm (range: 9.28-15.44 in the right shoulder and 14.11 mm (range: 8.83-18.89 in the left shoulder. Comparison between the contralateral sides did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior shoulder access route for anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments in treating acromioclavicular dislocation should be performed respecting the minimum limit of 8.83 mm medially.

  13. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Barreto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  14. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae) and beetles (Silphidae) from human cadavers in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio; Burbano, María Elena; Barreto, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae), Musca domestica (Muscidae), Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae) and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  15. Assessment of Thiel-Embalmed Cadavers as a Teaching Tool for Oral Anatomy and Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Mutahira; McKenna, Joseph P; Balta, Joy Y; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Cryan, John F; Downer, Eric J; Toulouse, André

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers would provide a useful anatomy teaching tool for topics that cannot be approached using formalin-fixed cadavers such as oral cavity examination and maxillary anesthesia. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed bodies for performing oral examinations was assessed by asking first-year dental and dental hygiene students at a dental school in Ireland to identify oral structures on a classmate and on a Thiel-embalmed body. The study was conducted in 2016. The ease of location was compared in the two settings, and their quality was assessed on the cadavers. The suitability of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach maxillary anesthesia was assessed by students' performing mock injections at five adjacent sites daily for five consecutive days, followed by inspection of the gingival surface by experienced anatomists and dentists. Data were obtained from 57 students, but only the 54 forms that were fully completed were analyzed, for an overall response rate of 85.7%. The results showed that most oral structures were more difficult to locate on cadavers. The texture and appearance of features in the cadavers were rated at a midpoint between realistic and unrealistic. The relative inexperience of the participants, the accumulation of fixative in the oral cavity, and discoloration were mentioned as potential confounding factors. Visual analysis of images obtained following repeated injections revealed no deterioration of the tissue. Importantly, the puncture marks appeared to reduce over time, suggesting that the gingival tissue maintains some elasticity following Thiel fixation. These findings suggest that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may be a useful tool to provide students more time to localize and study aspects of the oral cavity. Likewise, the recoiling capacity of gingival tissue suggests that Thiel-embalmed cadavers may provide an ideal tool for teaching injection technique of local anesthetics.

  16. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  17. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  18. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Emamhadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers.   Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons.

  19. Introduction of a fresh cadaver laboratory during the surgery clerkship improves emergency technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Saman; Kaplan, Stephen J; Knapp, Christopher M; Ho, Hang; Alvarado, Jared; Viscusi, Rebecca; Adamas-Rappaport, William

    2015-08-01

    Student acquisition of technical skills during the clinical years of medical school has been steadily declining. To address this issue, the authors instituted a fresh cadaver-based Emergency Surgical Skills Laboratory (ESSL). Sixty-three medical students rotating through the third-year surgery clerkship participated in a 2-hour, fresh cadaver-based ESSL conducted during the first 2 days of the clerkship. The authors evaluated students utilizing both surgical skills and written examination before the ESSL and at 4 weeks post ESSL. Students demonstrated a mean improvement of 64% (±11) (P technical skills and clinical knowledge, respectively. When technical skills were compared between cohorts, there were no differences observed in both pre- and post-testing (P = .08). A fresh cadaver laboratory is an effective method to provide proficiency in emergency technical skills not acquired during the clinical years of medical school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroanatomy and cadaver dissection in Italy: History, medicolegal issues, and neurosurgical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Frati, Alessandro; Salvati, Maurizio; Marinozzi, Silvia; Frati, Riccardo; Angeletti, Luciana Rita; Piccirilli, Manolo; Gaudio, Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2006-11-01

    Despite the significant Italian tradition of important anatomical studies, an outdated law historically influenced by the Catholic church restricts the use of cadavers for teaching and scientific purposes. The object of the present paper was to trace the historical evolution of the Italian anatomical tradition, particularly neuroanatomical studies, in relation to the juridical regulations on the use of cadavers today. Special attention was paid to the opportunities offered to neurosurgery by using cadavers and to the scientific and social issues in neurosurgical training in the twenty-first century. Considering the new Common European Constitution, the authors advocate a political solution from the European community to improve the quality of training in the disciplines with a social impact such as neurosurgery.

  1. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  2. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fresh frozen cadavers in surgical teaching: a gelatine arterial infusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Shirley; Kirk, Darryl; Tuppin, Kristie; Cowie, Margaret; Bharadwaj, Avinash; Hamdorf, Jeffrey M

    2011-12-01

    Fresh frozen human cadavers have been used at the Clinical Training and Evaluation Centre, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA for years and are an excellent model for surgical dissection thanks to their representative tissue quality. Differentiation between artery and vein can be difficult as both collapse post mortem. A historical technique was therefore refined to increase arterial rigidity using gelatine prior to freezing. Two fresh human cadavers were selected after ethical approval. Gelatine was infused into the carotid artery in one, and into the common femoral artery in the second at a more dilute concentration. In both cases, infusion continued until the rate slowed spontaneously indicating filling prior to setting. The cadavers were frozen according to our standard policy and thawed for a teaching course. These were observational. Examination by palpation and dissection after freezing and subsequent thawing revealed arterial turgor to have developed at the popliteal and brachial levels in the first cadaver, and to the distal vessels in the second. Arterial/venous discrimination was therefore enhanced and confirmed by participant feedback on subsequent courses. The fresh frozen cadaver is already a superior model for teaching thanks to its near life-like representation of tissue quality and handling. A successful technique for infusion of gelatine into the arterial tree of fresh human cadavers prior to freezing has been refined resulting in enhancement of arterial/venous discrimination during anatomical, interventional and surgical teaching, further optimizing its use in teaching and this now our standard means of preparation. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. [The forensic expertise of cadavers of females suspected to be victims of sexually motivated homicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2004-01-01

    According to the author's independent observations, the criminal, as a rule, strangles his victim in sex-related murders. In cases of suspected sex-related murders of women, the female urogenital system needs to be examined as an anatomically whole preparation. It was proven that the spermatozoid structure (in the cadaveric vagina, whose condition was optimal) began to change from week 2 with almost all their heads being destroyed by the end of week 6. When cadavers are found in 1.5-2 months after the event, there is no reason to give up examinations of the sperm from cadaver.

  5. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inculcate into students carefulness and empathy, which is important in the subsequent medical practice. Regarding the opinion of respondents on cadaver dissection and human anatomy, we found overwhelmingly favourable opinions, with majority disagreeing to the statement that they dislike anatomy, while 62.7% and ...

  6. How to decrease the emotional impact of cadaver dissection in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teaching anatomy is based on cadaver dissection. Working  with cadavers, whether through active dissection or by examination of prosected specimens, constitutes a potential stressor in medical  education.Purpose.To reduce the anxiety of the medical students by mentally preparing them before going to the dissection room.Methods: The questionnaires were distributed among 68 medical students. The pre-dissection questionnaire comprised questions related to demographic data and the first encounter with a cadaver. The students were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was prepared psychologically prior to dissection, but the control group entered the dissection room without any preparation. After the first dissection class, all students were surveyed by the second questionnaire  which surveyed physical and cognitive symptoms of anxiety, resulting from exposure to the dissection room at the first visit and six weeks later.Results: There was a significant difference (p<.05 in the rate of anxiety between experimental and control group in the initial visit. The difference in the rate of anxiety between the first exposure and six weeks later was significant in control group (p<.008, while it was not significant in the experimental group.Conclusion: The initial preparation could relatively reduce the rate of stress, so that the experimental group experienced less errs tonal effects during dissection compared to control group.Keyword: Emotional impact, cadaver dissection, medical students

  7. Absence of the Left Lobe of the Liver in a Cadaver: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital liver abnormalities are rare. Herein, we report, review, discuss and compare the literature on the absence of the left lobe of the liver in cadavers with our finding during routine cadaveric dissection for undergraduate medical students in the Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo ...

  8. The Thermoprecipitin Method in the Diagnosis of Bubonic Plague in Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of bubonic plague in rat cadavers, the examination of which is a recognised method of prophylaxis for ships or other communities, which may have been in contact with endemic centres, is attended by especial difficulties, and, on the other hand, calls for especial speed and finality in technique

  9. [Proposed difficult airway teaching methodology. Presentation of an interactive fresh frozen cadaver model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá Bauset, J C; de Andres Ibañez, J A; Valverde Navarro, A; Martinez Soriano, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a methodology based on the use of fresh-frozen cadavers for training in the management of the airway, and to evaluate the degree of satisfaction among learning physicians. About 6 fresh-frozen cadavers and 14 workstations were prepared where participants were trained in the different skills needed for airway management. The details of preparation of the cadavers are described. The level of satisfaction of the participant was determined using a Likert rating scale of 5 points, at each of the 14 stations, as well as the overall assessment and clinical usefulness of the course. The mean overall evaluation of the course and its usefulness was 4.75 and 4.9, out of 5, respectively. All parts of the course were rated above 4 out of 5. The high level of satisfaction of the course remained homogeneous in the 2 editions analysed. The overall satisfaction of the course was not finally and uniquely determined by any of its particular parts. The fresh cadaver model for training physicians in techniques of airway management is a proposal satisfactory to the participant, and with a realism that approaches the live patient. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  11. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  12. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  13. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p training was rated as 78.5 ± 13.3 for tube thoracostomy and 78.7 ± 14.3 for cricothyrotomy. All respondents felt this difference in fidelity to be important for procedural training with 21/22 respondents specifically citing the importance of superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training. Cadaver-based training provides superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training and may be a valuable addition to EM

  14. Soft embalming of cadavers for training purposes: Optimising for long-term use in tropical weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuveer Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical and anatomical training has been found to be most optimally simulated in a cadaver than any other available methods. Soft embalming methods have made the bodies more 'lifelike' and better suited for training. The widely accepted soft embalming techniques, including Thiel embalming, are designed for temperate climates. Their use in tropical locations has been found to be associated with poor short-term and long-term preservation of the bodies. In fact, adequate reports from tropical countries on effective methods for soft embalming are lacking. Materials and Methods: This article details the modifications made in the Thiel embalming technique over a period of 2 years which has enabled us to preserve the anatomical features of bodies in an optimal way for longer periods in tropical conditions. This study was carried out in a tertiary care referral centre located in a tropical climate zone. A total of 13 frozen and thawed cadavers were used over a period of 2 years for developing such soft embalming technique. The efficacy of the technique was tested using these cadavers for varying types of surgical exercises on multiple occasions. Results: The conventionally described technique of Thiel embalming did not provide desired results. Hence, various modifications to this technique were instituted which helped us to get superior quality of soft-embalmed cadavers. In the final year, these cadavers were used successfully for workshops in flap dissection. Head and neck access surgery, arthroscopic and laparoscopic procedures as well as mock face and hand transplant dissections. Conclusions: The Theil embalming technique for obtaining soft embalmed cadavers, even though found to be best in many centres in the world, has not been found to be suitable to tropical weather. By modifying it, we have succeeded in developing a technique suitable to the tropical weather. This technique yields cadavers suitable for various surgical simulation

  15. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  16. Hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy skills acquisition: augmented reality simulator versus human cadaver training models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Fabien; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a simulator with the human cadaver model for hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training. An observational prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the laparoscopic surgery training models. The study took place during the laparoscopic colectomy training course performed at the annual scientific meeting of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Thirty four practicing surgeons performed hand-assisted laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy on human cadavers (n = 7) and on an augmented reality simulator (n = 27). Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Trainers and trainees completed independently objective structured assessment forms. Training models were compared by trainees' technical skills scores, events scores, and satisfaction. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both surgeon groups. Generic and specific skills scores were similar on both training models. Generic events scores were significantly better on the cadaver model. The 2 most frequent generic events occurring on the simulator were poor hand-eye coordination and inefficient use of retraction. Specific events were scored better on the simulator and reached the significance limit (p = 0.051) for trainers. The specific events occurring on the cadaver were intestinal perforation and left ureter identification difficulties. Overall satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p = 0.009). With regard to skills scores, the augmented reality simulator had adequate qualities for the hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy training. Nevertheless, events scores highlighted weaknesses of the anatomical replication on the simulator. Although improvements likely will be required to incorporate the simulator more routinely into the colorectal training, it may be useful in its current form for more junior trainees or those early on their learning curve. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  17. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Small-sample preclinical study. HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127).

  18. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  19. A comparison of human cadaver and augmented reality simulator models for straight laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Fabien; Champagne, Bradley J; Augestad, Knut M; Neary, Paul C; Senagore, Anthony J; Ellis, Clyde N; Delaney, Conor P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the human cadaver model with an augmented reality simulator for straight laparoscopic colorectal skills acquisition. Thirty-five sigmoid colectomies were performed on a cadaver (n = 7) or an augmented reality simulator (n = 28) during a laparoscopic training course. Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was assessed. Objective structured technical skills assessment forms were completed by trainers and trainees independently. Groups were compared according to technical skills and events scores and satisfaction with training model. Prior laparoscopic experience was similar in both groups. For trainers and trainees, technical skills scores were considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. For trainers, generic events score was also considerably better on the simulator than on the cadaver. The main generic event occurring on both models was errors in the use of retraction. The main specific event occurring on both models was bowel perforation. Global satisfaction was better for the cadaver than for the simulator model (p < 0.001). The human cadaver model was more difficult but better appreciated than the simulator for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy training. Simulator training followed by cadaver training can appropriately integrate simulators into the learning curve and maintain the benefits of both training methodologies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fish as aquatic “sniffer dogs”: Olfactory-mediated behaviors and conditioning of common carps to cadaver odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wade Jamandre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even with the aide of modern technology, the search for cadaver or human remains underwater is still assisted by sniffer dogs mainly because of their superior sense of olfaction. However, dogs rely on volatile organic compounds in the air and that this may constraint their ability when searching for submerged cadavers. On the other hand, it has long been recognized that fishes use olfaction to sample odors from their surroundings to accomplish a task and are capable of acquiring new skills through training or conditioning. Despite decades of experimental and observational studies of the olfactory sensitivities of fishes, its potential application to forensic sciences has never been truly explored. In this pioneering research, we explore the possibility of using fish olfaction in detecting cadaver odors (porcine origin, using common carps Cyprinus carpio as model species in a series of experiments under laboratory conditions. We first observed the innate behavior of carps towards cadaver odors. Afterwards, the carps were trained in two-choice chamber experimental tanks by appetitive olfactory conditioning and odor masking methods. We also experimented on the effects of cadaver odors by early exposure using eggs and larval impregnation techniques, and observing the behaviors when they develop to early juveniles. In general, we found out that common carps are naturally repelled to cadaver odors. However using our devised conditioning protocol, results show that the conditioned carps were able to learn to be attracted to cadaver odors despite their innate aversion. The development of fish for cadaver detection is a simple but innovative idea and that it may present a cost-effective and reliable solution for the shortcomings of the existing methods in underwater cadaver search. We anticipate that this research will open up a variety of different studies in pursuit of developing fishes as biosensors and its application to forensic sciences.

  1. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possibly Active Persistent Thymus Found in a Human Adult Cadaver – A Morpho-histological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; Kumar N; Aithal AP; Shetty SD; Rao SS; Guru A

    2016-01-01

    Thymus is a bilobed organ usually situated in the superior mediastinum. Thymus is normally active until puberty and as age advances it undergoes considerable fibro-fatty degeneration and is replaced by fatty tissue. We found a persistent thymus in an adult male cadaver aged 70 years approximately. It apparently looked healthy. Hence the objective of this study was to know the morpho-histology of a persistent human thymus gland. Associated with this we also found a concurrent absence of isthmu...

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of sensory nerve endings in ankle ligaments: a cadaver study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rein, Susanne; Hagert, Elisabet; Hanisch, Uwe; Lwowski, Sophie; Fieguth, Armin; Zwipp, Hans

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and types of sensory nerve endings in ankle ligaments using immunohistochemical techniques, in order to gain more insight into functional ankle stability. METHODS: One hundred forty ligaments from 10 cadaver feet were included: the calcaneofibular and anterior/posterior talofibular ligaments from the lateral complex; inferior extensor retinaculum complex, talocalcaneal oblique and canalis tarsi ligaments from the sinus tarsi; d...

  4. Total mesorectal excision using a soft and flexible robotic arm: a feasibility study in cadaver models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezzo, Alberto; Mintz, Yoav; Allaix, Marco Ettore; Arolfo, Simone; Bonino, Marco; Gerboni, Giada; Brancadoro, Margherita; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna; Wurdemann, Helge; Noh, Yohan; Althoefer, Kaspar; Fras, Jan; Glowka, Jakob; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Cassidy, Gavin; Walker, Rich; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored by the European Commission, the FP7 STIFF-FLOP project aimed at developing a STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able manipulator for surgical operations, in order to overcome the current limitations of rigid-link robotic technology. Herein, we describe the first cadaveric series of total mesorectal excision (TME) using a soft and flexible robotic arm for optic vision in a cadaver model. TME assisted by the STIFF-FLOP robotic optics was successfully performed in two embalmed male human cadavers. The soft and flexible optic prototype consisted of two modules, each measuring 60 mm in length and 14.3 mm in maximum outer diameter. The robot was attached to a rigid shaft connected to an anthropomorphic manipulator robot arm with six degrees of freedom. The controller device was equipped with two joysticks. The cadavers (BMI 25 and 28 kg/m 2 ) were prepared according to the Thiel embalming method. The procedure was performed using three standard laparoscopic instruments for traction and dissection, with the aid of a 30° rigid optics in the rear for documentation. Following mobilization of the left colonic flexure and division of the inferior mesenteric vessels, TME was completed down to the pelvic floor. The STIFF-FLOP robotic optic arm seemed to acquire superior angles of vision of the surgical field in the pelvis, resulting in an intact mesorectum in both cases. Completion times of the procedures were 165 and 145 min, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. No technical failures were registered. The STIFF-FLOP soft and flexible robotic optic arm proved effective in assisting a laparoscopic TME in human cadavers, with a superior field of vision compared to the standard laparoscopic vision, especially low in the pelvis. The introduction of soft and flexible robotic devices may aid in overcoming the technical challenges of difficult laparoscopic procedures based on standard rigid instruments.

  5. Feasibility of a Novel Optoacoustic Device to Precisely Localize Endotracheal Tube Positioning in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    carina, significant alterations need to be made to the design of the device to make it more compact and user friendly before it can be easily used in...location of an ETT, significant alterations need to occur to the design of the device to make it more compact and user friendly. Additionally, since...therapist. Mallinckrodt ETTs (6.0 mm and 7.0 mm) were used for all intubations. All cadavers were removed from the freezer prior to the experimental

  6. Ultrasound Improves Cricothyrotomy Success in Cadavers with Poorly Defined Neck Anatomy: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Naveed; Arzola, Cristian; Friedman, Zeev; Guerina, Laarni; You-Ten, Kong Eric

    2015-11-01

    Misidentification of the cricothyroid membrane in a "cannot intubate-cannot oxygenate" situation can lead to failures and serious complications. The authors hypothesized that preprocedure ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane would reduce complications associated with cricothyrotomy. A group of 47 trainees were randomized to digital palpation (n = 23) and ultrasound (n = 24) groups. Cricothyrotomy was performed on human cadavers by using the Portex device (Smiths Medical, USA). Anatomical landmarks of cadavers were graded as follows: grade 1-easy = visual landmarks; 2-moderate = requires light palpation of landmarks; 3-difficult = requires deep palpation of landmarks; and 4-impossible = landmarks not palpable. Primary outcome was the complication rate as measured by the severity of injuries. Secondary outcomes were correct device placement, failure to cannulate, and insertion time. Ultrasound guidance significantly decreased the incidence of injuries to the larynx and trachea (digital palpation: 17 of 23 = 74% vs. ultrasound: 6 of 24 = 25%; relative risk, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39 to 5.94; P = 0.001) and increased the probability of correct insertion by 5.6 times (P = 0.043) in cadavers with difficult and impossible landmark palpation (digital palpation 8.3% vs. ultrasound 46.7%). Injuries were found in 100% of the grades 3 to 4 (difficult-impossible landmark palpation) cadavers by digital palpation compared with only 33% by ultrasound (P palpation (196.1 s [60.6 s] vs. 110.5 s [46.9 s]; P anatomy significantly reduces complications and improves correct insertion of the airway device in the cricothyroid membrane.

  7. Flash x-ray observations of cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, C N; Holland, G E; Seely, J F

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to record flash x-ray images of cavitation in human cadaver thighs caused by the passage of high-velocity bullets. The images are an initial step for understanding the cavitation process in human tissue and for implementing a better definition of extensive tissue injury. Bullets were fired through the mid-thighs of 13 cadaver legs. The bullets were of two calibers, 7.62-mm full metal jacket boat tail with strike velocities in the range of 794 m/s to 880 m/s (10 thighs) and 5.70 mm full metal jacket with velocities in the range of 973 m/s to 992 m/s (3 thighs). Short duration (35 ns) x-ray images were recorded at various selected times after the bullets passed near the femurs. This study was carried out at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology under approved human subject protocols. The cavity sizes and shapes were observed for the two types of bullets and at a number of times during the expansion and collapse of the cavities. As the bullets passed through the thighs, narrow cavities behind the bullets were observed. At later times, large expanded cavities were observed that encompassed the entire mid-thigh region. The observed cavities are at variance with those which were reported previously in gelatin tissue simulants. Flash x-ray radiography is an effective technique for the observation of internal cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets. These observations suggest that gelatin is not a proven simulant for human cadaver tissue in the study of cavitation subsequent to high-velocity missile impact.

  8. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  9. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  10. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff members, and workers in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer; Madiha Awad Elsayed Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    .... This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff members, and workers at the Anatomy department in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine (AFM). Methods...

  11. Integrating gross pathology into teaching of undergraduate medical science students using human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Vinod; Dissabandara, Lakal; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Forwood, Mark R; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Human cadavers offer a great opportunity for histopathology students for the learning and teaching of tissue pathology. In this study, we aimed to implement an integrated learning approach by using cadavers to enhance students' knowledge and to develop their skills in gross tissue identification, handling and dissection techniques. A total of 35 students enrolled in the undergraduate medical science program participated in this study. A 3-hour laboratory session was conducted that included an active exploration of cadaveric specimens to identify normal and pathological tissues as well as tissue dissection. The majority of the students strongly agreed that the integration of normal and morbid anatomy improved their understanding of tissue pathology. All the students either agreed or strongly agreed that this laboratory session was useful to improve their tissue dissection and instrument handling skills. Furthermore, students from both cohorts rated the session as very relevant to their learning and recommended that this approach be added to the existing histopathology curriculum. To conclude, an integrated cadaver-based practical session can be used effectively to enhance the learning experience of histopathology science students, as well as improving their manual skills of tissue treatment, instrument handling and dissection. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  13. Stability behavior of human tibias after bone removal--comparative examination in 15 cadaver tibia pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressen, Marcus; Riediger, Dieter; Marx, Rudolf; Saxe, Jan; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    To obtain scientific information on the loss of stability of tibias after removal of bone grafts, we performed a comparative study of 15 freshly preserved adult cadavers to determine the axial breaking loads of the operated and nonoperated tibial heads. From all cadavers, 1 tibia was randomly selected from which the maximum possible amount of cancellous bone was harvested. The respective contralateral side remained untouched. After maceration, the proximal tibias of each cadaver were removed bilaterally and adjusted to precisely equal lengths. Using a Zwick universal testing machine, the tibial heads were loaded by an axial force until fracture. As the final breaking load, the force value was recorded when the first distinct decrease in the feed-force curve was observed. To compare the mean breaking loads of the operated and nonoperated control tibias, a t test for related samples at P = .05 was used. The mean breaking load for the donor tibias was 3,767 N and was significantly lower than that of the control side with an average of 5,126 N. This finding was independent of age and gender. Bone removal from the proximal tibia leads to a significant reduction of the axial load capacity. Therefore, we recommend partial loading of up to one half of the body weight during the first postoperative week. For an additional 5 weeks, patients should bear their full body weight on the affected leg only when walking normally and on flat ground.

  14. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  15. Simulation of the temperature increase in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Kurtz, Ronald M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. The temperature increase induced by a 60 kHz iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser (AMO Inc., Santa Ana, CA) in porcine cadaver iris was simulated using COMSOL (Comsol Inc., Burlington, MA) finite element software. Temperature increases up to 2.45 °C (corresponding to 2 μJ laser pulse energy and 24 second illumination) were observed in the porcine cadaver iris from the simulation with little variation in temperature profiles compared with specimens for the same laser energy illumination in experiment. : The commercial iFS Advanced Femtosecond Laser operating with pulse energies at approximately the lower limit of the range evaluated in this study would be expected to result in a 1.23 °C temperature increase and, therefore, does not present a safety hazard to the iris.

  16. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  17. "Live cadavers" for training in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Emad; Aboud, Ghaith; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Aboud, Talal; Rammos, Stylianos; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Hsu, Sanford P C; Koga, Sebastian; Arthur, Adam; Krisht, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Intraoperative rupture occurs in approximately 9.2% of all cranial aneurysm surgeries. This event is not merely a surgical complication, it is also a real surgical crisis that requires swift and decisive action. Neurosurgical residents may have little exposure to this event, but they may face it in their practice. Laboratory training would be invaluable for developing competency in addressing this crisis. In this study, the authors present the "live cadaver" model, which allows repetitive training under lifelike conditions for residents and other trainees to practice managing this crisis. The authors have used the live cadaver model in 13 training courses from 2009 to 2014 to train residents and neurosurgeons in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture. Twenty-three cadaveric head specimens harboring 57 artificial and 2 real aneurysms were used in these courses. Specimens were specially prepared for this technique and connected to a pump that sent artificial blood into the vessels. This setting created a lifelike situation in the cadaver that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation, and softness of tissue. A total of 203 neurosurgical residents and 89 neurosurgeons and faculty members have practiced and experienced the live cadaver model. Clipping of the aneurysm and management of an intraoperative rupture was first demonstrated by an instructor. Then, trainees worked for 20- to 30-minute sessions each, during which they practiced clipping and reconstruction techniques and managed intraoperative ruptures. Ninety-one of the participants (27 faculty members and 64 participants) completed a questionnaire to rate their personal experience with the model. Most either agreed or strongly agreed that the model was a valid simulation of the conditions of live surgery on cerebral aneurysms and represents a realistic simulation of aneurysmal clipping and intraoperative rupture. Actual performance improvement with this model will require detailed

  18. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87, mannequin (2.83; 2.64-3.02, human cadaver (1.93; 1.72-2.14, and living patient (1.56; 1.33-1.79. Response averages for the commonality of means used to teach a new procedure are as follows: human cadaver (3.63; 3.46-3.80, mannequin (2.70; 2.50-2.90, living patient (2.09; 1.85-2.33, and textbook (1.57; 1.32-1.82. When asked if the University of Nebraska Medical Center residency ranked higher in the individual's match list because of its procedural cadaver lab, 14.8% strongly disagreed, 14.8% disagreed, 40.7% were neutral, 14.8% agreed, and 14.8% strongly agreed.CONCLUSION: We conclude that, although cadaveric procedural training is viewed by senior medical student learners as a desirable means

  19. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue for skin tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sweta K. [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims to fabricate scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue and evaluate it for skin tissue engineering applications. Decellularized goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by removing cells from cadaver goat-lung tissue enzymatically, to have cell-free 3D-architecture of natural extracellular matrix. DNA quantification assay and Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the absence of cellular material in the decellularized lung-tissue. SEM analysis of decellularized scaffold shows the intrinsic porous structure of lung tissue with well-preserved pore-to-pore interconnectivity. FTIR analysis confirmed non-denaturation and well maintainance of collagenous protein structure of decellularized scaffold. MTT assay, SEM analysis and H and E staining of human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cell, seeded over the decellularized scaffold, confirms stem cell attachment, viability, biocompatibility and proliferation over the decellularized scaffold. Expression of Keratin18 gene, along with CD105, CD73 and CD44, by human skin-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells over decellularized scaffold signifies that the cells are viable, proliferating and migrating, and have maintained their critical cellular functions in the presence of scaffold. Thus, overall study proves the applicability of the goat-lung tissue derived decellularized scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We successfully fabricated decellularized scaffold from cadaver goat-lung tissue. • Decellularized goat-lung scaffolds were found to be highly porous. • Skin derived MSC shows high cell viability and proliferation over the scaffold. • Phenotype of MSCs was well maintained over the scaffold. • The scaffold shows potential for applications in skin tissue engineering.

  1. Development of a Novel Medial Synoviocentesis Approach to the Bicipital Bursa in an Equine Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Milosz; McNamara, Jennifer; Roper, Darren; Warren-Smith, Chris; Busschers, Evita

    2016-05-01

    To describe the volume and dimensions of the bicipital bursa and its position in relation to bony and soft tissue structures, in order to develop a novel medial synoviocentesis approach to the bicipital bursa. Cadaveric study. Adult equine cadaver limbs (n=19). Bicipital bursa dimensions, volume, and relationship to bony structures were obtained from positive contrast computed tomography images after distension of the bursa (n=7). Following an intra-bursal injection of polyurethane resin, the bicipital bursa (n=4) was dissected and its relationship to soft tissue structures described. After computed tomography and dissection, a novel medial bicipital bursocentesis approach was investigated on intact cadavers (n=8). Median (range) of measurements were: length 9.02 cm (8.48-9.45 cm); width 7.06 cm (6.71-8.01 cm); and volume 51 mL (45-58 mL). The medial aspect of the bicipital bursa was located at the junction of the subclavius and biceps muscles, which corresponds with the externally visible lateral pectoral sulcus. Needle insertion 5-10 mm craniolateral to the center of the lateral pectoral sulcus midway between the palpable distal aspect of the deltoid tuberosity and the cranial part of the greater tubercle was found to be a reliable landmark for the novel medial bursocentesis approach. This approach was successful in all cadavers. The novel approach to the bicipital bursa provided access to the medial aspect of the bursa and is an alternative to the lateral approaches. Further validation in live horses is warranted to establish the safety and efficacy of this technique. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  3. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Cobaugh

    Full Text Available The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death. Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem, respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%, with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%. Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem, respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9% and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional

  4. Self-guided clinical cases for medical students based on postmortem CT scans of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Francois, Webster; Gest, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In the summer of 2009, we began full body computed tomography (CT) scanning of the pre-embalmed cadavers in the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) dissection lab. We theorized that implementing web-based, self-guided clinical cases based on postmortem CT (PMCT) scans would result in increased student appreciation for the clinical relevance of anatomy, increased knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy, and increased ability to identify common pathologies on CT scans. The PMCT scan of each cadaver was produced as a DICOM dataset, and then converted into a Quicktime movie file using Osirix software. Clinical cases were researched and written by the authors, and consist of at least one Quicktime movie of a PMCT scan surrounded by a novel navigation interface. To assess the value of these clinical cases we surveyed medical students at UMMS who are currently using the clinical cases in their coursework. Students felt the clinical cases increased the clinical relevance of anatomy (mean response 7.77/10), increased their confidence finding anatomical structures on CT (7.00/10), and increased their confidence recognizing common pathologies on CT (6.17/10). Students also felt these clinical cases helped them synthesize material from numerous courses into an overall picture of a given disease process (7.01/10). These results support the conclusion that our clinical cases help to show students why the anatomy they are learning is foundational to their other coursework. We would recommend the use of similar clinical cases to any medical school utilizing cadaver dissection as a primary teaching method in anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Tensile transmission across the lumbar fasciae in unembalmed cadavers: effects of tension to various muscular attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Priscilla J; Briggs, Christopher A; Bogeski, Goce

    2004-01-15

    Traction was applied to muscles attaching to the posterior and middle layers of lumbar fascia (PLF, MLF). Effects on fasciae were determined via tensile force measures and movement of markers. To document tensile transmission to the PLF and MLF when traction was applied to latissimus dorsi (LD), gluteus maximus (GM), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) in unembalmed cadavers. A previous study on embalmed cadavers applied traction to muscle attachments while monitoring fascial movement but did not test TrA or the MLF. The PLF and MLF were dissected then marked on eight unembalmed cadavers. A strain gauge was inserted through fascia at L3; 10N traction was applied to each muscle attachment while photographs and tension measures were taken. Movement of fascial markers was detected photographically. Fascial widths were also measured. Tension was clearly transmitted to fascial vertebral attachments. Tensile forces and fascial areas affected were highest for traction on LD and TrA in the PLF and for TrA in the MLF. Movement of PLF markers from tension on LD and TrA occurred bilaterally between T12 and S1. Effects from other muscles were variably bilateral, with those from GM and IO occurring below L3 and those from EO occurring above L3. Tensile forces were relatively high in the MLF and its width was less than half that of the PLF. Low levels of tension are effectively transmitted between TrA and the MLF or PLF. Via them, TrA may influence intersegmental movement.

  6. Diagnosis of Complex Pulley Ruptures Using Ultrasound in Cadaver Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, Isabelle; Hugel, Arnica; Schöffl, Volker; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Pulley ruptures are common in climbing athletes. The purposes of this study were to determine the specific positioning of each pulley with regards to the joint, and to evaluate the ultrasound diagnostics of various pulley rupture combinations. For this, 34 cadaver fingers were analyzed via ultrasound, the results of which were compared to anatomic measurements. Different pulley ruptures were then simulated and evaluated using ultrasound in standardized dynamic forced flexion. Visualization of the A2 and A4 pulleys was achieved 100% of the time, while the A3 pulley was visible in 74% of cases. Similarly, injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys were readily observable, while A3 pulley injuries were more challenging to identify (sensitivity of 0.2 for singular A3 pulley, 0.5 for A2/A4 pulley and 0.33 for A3/A4 pulley ruptures). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the optimal tendon-bone distance for pulley rupture diagnosis, a threshold which was determined to be 1.9 mm for A2 pulley ruptures and 1.85 for A4 pulley ruptures. This study was the first to carry out a cadaver ultrasound examination of a wide variety of pulley ruptures. Ultrasound is a highly accurate tool for visualizing the A2 and A4 pulleys in a cadaver model. This method of pathology diagnosis was determined to be suitable for injuries to the A2 and A4 pulleys, but inadequate for A3 pulley injuries. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A-mode and B-mode ultrasound measurement of fat thickness: a cadaver validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Thompson, Brennan J; Anderson, D Andy; Schwartz, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    With technological advances, there has been a resurgence in ultrasound as a method to measure subcutaneous fat thickness. Despite the increased interest in this methodology, research comparing A-mode and B-mode ultrasound devices is lacking. Subcutaneous fat thickness measured by a low resolution (2.5 MHz) A-mode ultrasound and a high resolution (12 MHz) B-mode ultrasound were compared to the actual fat thickness in dissected cadavers. Subcutaneous fat thickness of six cadavers was measured at the abdomen, thigh, triceps, and calf (plus chest for males and suprailiac for females) with both ultrasound devices before the cadavers were dissected and site-specific thickness was measured. Correlations between both ultrasounds and the dissected measurement exceeded 0.90 at all sites with a few exceptions. At the abdomen, the relationship between the ultrasounds was 0.76, and the B-mode and dissected measurement was also 0.76. The correlation between dissection and A-mode was 0.75 for the suprailiac site, but it was not possible to discern the separation of tissue at this site when using the B-mode device. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the devices and the dissected measurement at any of the six sites. The mean difference in fat thickness between A-mode and B-mode was mode and B-mode ultrasound are equally capable of providing measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness with an accuracy of <1 mm at most sites.

  8. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  9. Anxiety of first cadaver demonstration in medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bati, Ayse Hilal; Ozer, Mehmet Asim; Govsa, Figen; Pinar, Yelda

    2013-07-01

    Anatomy is the fundamental of medical and health professional education. Anatomic dissection enables the examination of the organs in the human cadavers systematically and topographically. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the first cadaver demonstration and the anxiety of medical, dental and pharmacy students. A questionnaire was distributed to 486 students in the same academic year (2009-2010) at Ege University. The review of anxiety reveals the circumstances such as exhaustion, stress, depression, anxiety, destructive life, deterioration of mental or physical quality or asthenia (over-fatigue), professionally having a serious effect on the students. 486 (85.3 %) students in total participated in this research carried out as based on voluntariness as 338 (93.9 %) students from the medical faculty, 78 (70.9 %) students from the faculty of dentistry and 70 (70 %) students from the faculty of pharmacy.A medium level of anxiety was detected in the students in their first encounter with the cadaver. The state anxiety score (SAS) average taken by all the students who took part in the research is 42.6 ± 5.60 and trait anxiety score average is 46.6 ± 5.0. No discrepancy was detected among the faculties with respect to anxiety score. While the SASs of the male students were higher than the girls, the trait anxiety scores of the girl students were detected to be higher than male students. While the characteristics and the cultural life of our society force the male students into stronger behavioral patterns, they may actually increase their anxiety level in distressed conditions. The fact that trait anxiety is high in both sexes, particularly in female students can be explained by the patient responsibility and the work load undertaken in the professions in the medical field as early as the period of education.Before the students' applied lessons with the cadavers start, a preparatory session must be planned for this education to decrease the

  10. Stabilization of 2-column thoracolumbar fractures with orthoses: a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubery, Paul T; Brown, Robert; Prasarn, Mark; Small, John; Conrad, Bryan; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    A gross anatomic and motion analysis study in cadavers. Assess spinal motion in a cadaveric spinal fracture model and investigate the ability of external orthoses to control this motion. External orthoses are frequently prescribed for patients who have experienced burst fracture of the thoracolumbar spine. Despite the substantial expense involved, there is little data confirming their value. A T12 burst fracture model was created in 5 lightly embalmed cadavers by resecting the anterior and middle columns of the T12 vertebra through a thoracolumbar anterior approach to the spine. An electromagnetic motion tracking and analysis system was used to track angular and linear displacement at the fracture during routine patient maneuvers. Several commonly used orthoses, including an extension brace and both an "off-the-shelf" and custom-molded thoracic-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO), were applied to the cadavers and the affect on fracture site motion was assessed. Application of all 3 styles of brace resulted in angular motion of 8° to 12° in flexion-extension, 11° to 20° in axial rotation, and 8° to 10° of lateral bending. Brace application resulted in linear displacement of 29 to 46 mm in the medial-lateral plane, 21 to 23 mm in the axial plane, and 21 to 37 mm in the anterior-posterior plane. During logrolling maneuvers, TLSO style braces diminished angular motion, although residual motion in the range of 5° remained. TLSO style braces had little effect on linear translation. When placed in a seated position in bed, TLSO style braces diminished flexion and extension modestly, but did not influence lateral bending or linear translation. Extension style braces had no effect on fracture motion during any activity tested. In a cadaver model of a burst fracture, there is surprising angular and linear motion at the fracture during common hospital activities. TLSO orthoses can decrease angular motion but do not effect translation at the fracture. An extension orthosis

  11. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope Force and Cervical Spine Motion during Intubation in Cadavers-Cadavers versus Patients, the Effect of Repeated Intubations, and the Effect of Type II Odontoid Fracture on C1-C2 Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley J; From, Robert P; Fontes, Ricardo B; Traynelis, Vincent C; Todd, Michael M; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Puttlitz, Christian M; Santoni, Brandon G

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study are to characterize (1) the cadaver intubation biomechanics, including the effect of repeated intubations, and (2) the relation between intubation force and the motion of an injured cervical segment. Fourteen cadavers were serially intubated using force-sensing Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes in random order, with simultaneous cervical spine motion recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. Motion of the C1-C2 segment was measured in the intact and injured state (type II odontoid fracture). Injured C1-C2 motion was proportionately corrected for changes in intubation forces that occurred with repeated intubations. Cadaver intubation biomechanics were comparable with those of patients in all parameters other than C2-C5 extension. In cadavers, intubation force (set 2/set 1 force ratio = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.81; P = 0.002) and Oc-C5 extension (set 2 - set 1 difference = -6.1 degrees; 95% CI, -11.4 to -0.9; P = 0.025) decreased with repeated intubations. In cadavers, C1-C2 extension did not differ (1) between intact and injured states; or (2) in the injured state, between laryngoscopes (with and without force correction). With force correction, in the injured state, C1-C2 subluxation was greater with the Airtraq (mean difference 2.8 mm; 95% CI, 0.7 to 4.9 mm; P = 0.004). With limitations, cadavers may be clinically relevant models of intubation biomechanics and cervical spine motion. In the setting of a type II odontoid fracture, C1-C2 motion during intubation with either the Macintosh or the Airtraq does not appear to greatly exceed physiologic values or to have a high likelihood of hyperextension or direct cord compression.

  12. SIM Life: a new surgical simulation device using a human perfused cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, J P; Breque, C; Danion, J; Delpech, P O; Oriot, D; Richer, J P

    2017-02-01

    In primary and continuing medical education, simulation is becoming a mandatory technique. In surgery, simulation spreading is slowed down by the distance which exists between the devices currently available on the market and the reality, in particular anatomical, of an operating room. We propose a new model for surgical simulation with the use of cadavers in a circulation model mimicking pulse and artificial respiration available for both open and laparoscopic surgery. The model was a task trainer designed by four experts in our simulation laboratory combining plastic, electronic, and biologic material. The cost of supplies needed for the construction was evaluated. The model was used and tested over 24 months on 35 participants, of whom 20 were surveyed regarding the realism of the model. The model involved a cadaver, connected to a specific device that permits beating circulation and artificial respiration. The demonstration contributed to teaching small groups of up to four participants and was reproducible over 24 months of courses. Anatomic correlation, realism, and learning experience were highly rated by users CONCLUSION: This model for surgical simulation in both open and laparoscopic surgery was found to be realistic, available to assessed objectively performance in a pedagogic program.

  13. Systematized methods of surface reconstruction from the serial sectioned images of a cadaver head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional models have played important roles in medical simulation and education. Surface models can be manipulated in real time and even online; surface models have significant features for an interactive simulation system. The objective surface models are obtainable from accumulation of each structure's outlines, followed by surface reconstruction. The aim of this research was to suggest the arranged methods of surface reconstruction, which might be applied to building surface models from serial images, such as computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. We used recent state-of-the-art sectioned images of a cadaver head in which several structures were delineated. Four reconstruction methods were regulated according to the structure's morphology: all outlines of a structure are overlapped and singular (method 1), overlapped and not singular (method 2), not overlapped but singular (method 3), and neither overlapped nor singular (method 4). From the trials with various kinds of head structures, we strongly suggested methods 1 and 2, in which volume reconstruction before surface reconstruction accelerated the processing speed on 3D-DOCTOR. So as to use methods 1 and 2, how to make the neighboring outlines overlapped in advance was discussed. The surface models of detailed head structures prepared in this investigation will hopefully contribute to various simulations for clinical practice. The value of the surface models are enhanced if they are placed over the original sectioned images, outlined images, and magnetic resonance images of the same cadaver.

  14. Biomechanical analysis of partial flexor tendon lacerations in zone II of human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David W; Spiguel, Andre R; Mass, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine nonrepaired 90% partial lacerations of human cadaver flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon after simulated active motion, and to assess the residual ultimate tensile strength. Partial, transverse zone II flexor tendon lacerations were made in the volar 90% of the tendon substance in 10 FDP tendons from 5 fresh-frozen human cadaver hands. The tendons were cycled in the curvilinear fashion described by Greenwald 500 times to a tension 25% greater than the maximum in vivo active FDP flexion force measured by Schuind and colleagues. The tendons were then loaded to failure using the same curvilinear model. No tendons ruptured during cycling. Triggering occurred in 3 tendons. All 3 began triggering early in the cycling process, and continued to trigger throughout the remainder of the 500 cycles. The observed triggering mechanics in each case involved the interaction of the proximal face of the lacerated tendon with Camper's chiasm and the pulley edges during extension. The load to failure value of the 90% partially lacerated tendons averaged 141.7 +/- 13 N (mean +/- standard deviation). Tendon failure occurred by delamination of the intact collagen fibers from the distal, discontinuous 90% of the tendon. Cadaveric transverse zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations have residual tensile strength greater than the force required for protected active mobilization. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A new malleostapedotomy prosthesis. Experimental analysis by laser doppler vibrometer in fresh cadaver temporal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Luis A; Manzano, María T; Hidalgo, Antonio; Hernández, Alberto; Sabas, Juan; Lara, Hugo; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Herrero, David

    One of the problems with total ossicular replacement prostheses is their stability. Prosthesis dislocations and extrusions are common in middle ear surgery. This is due to variations in endo-tympanic pressure as well as design defects. The design of this new prosthesis reduces this problem by being joined directly to the malleus handle. The aim of this study is to confirm adequate acoustic-mechanical behaviour in fresh cadaver middle ear of a new total ossicular replacement prosthesis, designed using the finite elements method. Using the doppler vibrometer laser, we analysed the acoustic-mechanical behaviour of a new total ossicular replacement prosthesis in the human middle ear using 10 temporal bones from fresh cadavers. The transfer function of the ears in which we implanted the new prosthesis was superimposed over the non-manipulated ear. This suggests optimum acoustic-mechanical behaviour. The titanium prosthesis analysed in this study demonstrated optimum acoustic-mechanical behaviour. Together with its ease of implantation and post-surgical stability, these factors make it a prosthesis to be kept in mind in ossicular reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of serosal patch supplementation of surgical anastomoses in intestinal segments from canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lane A; Monnet, Eric L

    2013-08-01

    To compare leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures of intestinal anastomoses with and without serosal patch supplementation in dogs. Healthy small intestine segments from cadavers of 2 dogs euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study. 12 enterectomy constructs were created by anastomosis of intestinal segments with a standard simple continuous suture pattern. Half of the constructs were randomly selected for additional serosal patch support. Leakage and maximum intraluminal pressures were measured in and compared between patch-supplemented and nonsupplemented constructs. Mean ± SD leakage pressure was significantly greater for the patch-supplemented anastomoses (81.8 ± 6.7 mm Hg) than for the nonsupplemented anastomoses (28.0 ± 6.7 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures were not significantly different between the groups. Serosal patch-supplemented anastomoses were able to sustain a significantly higher pressure before leakage than were nonsupplemented anastomoses in intestinal specimens from canine cadavers. The serosal patch supplementation may protect against leakage immediately after enterectomy in dogs.

  17. Return of the cadaver: Key role of anatomic dissection for plastic surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Swenn Maxence; Čvančara, Paul; Stieglitz, Thomas; Bonvin, Raphaël; Michetti, Murielle; Flahaut, Marjorie; Durand, Sébastien; Deghayli, Lina; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim

    2017-07-01

    Successful Plastic Surgery Residency training is subjected to evolving society pressure of lower hourly work weeks imposed by external committees, labor laws, and increased public awareness of patient care quality. Although innovative measures for simulation training of surgery are appearing, there is also the realization that basic anatomy training should be re-enforced and cadaver dissection is of utmost importance for surgical techniques.In the development of new technology for implantable neurostimulatory electrodes for the management of phantom limb pain in amputee patients, a design of a cadaveric model has been developed with detailed steps for innovative transfascicular insertion of electrodes. Overall design for electrode and cable implantation transcutaneous was established and an operating protocol devised.Microsurgery of the nerves of the upper extremities for interfascicular electrode implantation is described for the first time. Design of electrode implantation in cadaver specimens was adapted with a trocar delivery of cables and electrodes transcutaneous and stabilization of the electrode by suturing along the nerve. In addition, the overall operating arena environment with specific positions of the multidisciplinary team necessary for implantable electrodes was elaborated to assure optimal operating conditions and procedures during the organization of a first-in-man implantation study.Overall importance of plastic surgery training for new and highly technical procedures is of importance and particularly there is a real need to continue actual cadaveric training due to patient variability for nerve anatomic structures.

  18. Human cadaver retina model for retinal heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yun, Jin; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Yan, Ying; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers are widely used in everyday clinical procedures to perform minimally invasive corneal refractive surgery. The intralase femtosecond laser (AMO Corp. Santa Ana, CA) is a common example of such a laser. In the present study a numerical simulation was developed to quantify the temperature rise in the retina during femtosecond intracorneal surgery. Also, ex-vivo retinal heating due to laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke Corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation. A computer simulation was developed using Comsol Multiphysics to calculate the temperature rise in the cadaver retina during femtosecond laser corneal surgery. The simulation showed a temperature rise of less than 0.3 degrees for realistic pulse energies for the various repetition rates. Human cadaver retinas were irradiated with a 150 kHz Intralase femtosecond laser and the temperature rise was measured withan infrared thermal camera. Thermal camera measurements are in agreement with the simulation. During routine femtosecond laser corneal surgery with normal clinical parameters, the temperature rise is well beneath the threshold for retina damage. The simulation predictions are in agreement with thermal measurements providing a level of experimental validation.

  19. Sacro-iliac joint arthroscopy for arthrodesis after traumatic dislocation. Cadaver and clinical feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Slimane, M; Foulongne, E; Leroux, J; Bertiaux, S; Lenoir, T; Guigui, P; Hoffmann, E

    2014-02-01

    Sacro-iliac arthrodesis usually requires an extended posterior approach, which is associated with a number of dreaded complications. Here, we assessed the feasibility of arthroscopic exploration of the dislocated sacro-iliac joint. In the first step of our study, we used ligament section to induce loss of sacro-iliac joint coaptation in a cadaver. We then studied 5 patients with Tile C pelvic ring injuries. Arthroscopy was used to clear the joint of fibrous tissue and to roughen the bone to subchondral level in order to induce sacro-iliac arthrodesis. In addition, posterior fixation was performed using a hinge system or an ilio-sacral screw. The cadaver study confirmed the feasibility of sacro-iliac arthroscopy after disruption of the strong posterior inter-osseous ligament. In the clinical part of the study in 5 patients with Tile C pelvic ring injuries, arthroscopy allowed direct visualisation extending to the anterior part of the joint space. A power burr and synovial knife were introduced to remove the interposed fibrous tissue and to roughen the bone to subchondral level in order to induce joint fusion. In addition, percutaneous or open posterior fixation was performed in all 5 patients. No infectious complications were recorded. An arthroscope cannot be introduced into the normal sacro-iliac joint. In contrast, after traumatic sacro-iliac dislocation, arthroscopy can be used to evaluate the intra-articular injuries and to roughen the bone to subchondral level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Les imaginaires de la mort dans le roman policier macabre, entre cadavérisation et putréfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Soldini, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Cet article analyse les représentations de la mort et du cadavre dans la littérature policière contemporaine, qui peut être considérée comme macabre car elle s’attache aux représentations du corps mort et à sa thanatomorphose, qui se déroule en deux étapes, la cadavérisation et la putréfaction. Les romans donnent à voir les représentations de la mauvaise mort, qui s’imprime dans la corporalité cadavérisée. La cadavérisation en souffrance déshumanise le mort pour le bestialiser et le réifier. ...

  1. Intra-oral mandibular sagittal osteotomy technique to correct mandibular distocclusion and mesio-occlusion. Study in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, V G G; Gioso, M A; Carvalho, P E G; Cunha, F P; Martinez, L A V; Lemos, L S

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal malocclusions may be due to disturbances in the growth of the mandible or maxilla. In most cases, discomfort is the result of tooth-to-tooth malocclusion or tooth-to-soft-tissue contact. Currently, in veterinary medicine, these problems are treated palliatively. In humans, orthognathic surgery is indicated to correct severe skeletal malocclusions, offering aesthetic and functional benefits to the patients. This research evaluated the effects of an intra-oral mandibular sagittal split osteotomy in 20 dog cadavers with skeletal malocclusion. After sagittal osteotomy and mandibular repositioning, the osteotomies were fixed with titanium mini-plates and 1.5 mm diameter screws or 1.5 mm bicortical screws. The statistical analysis revealed a significant occlusion difference in the treated cadavers (Wilcoxon test, pmalocclusion in cadavers. However, it would be important to prepare a preoperative orthodontic-surgical treatment plan to obtain a satisfactory occlusion during the surgery in clinical patients.

  2. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2017-07-18

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. "The blood fights on in other veins": Norman Bethune and the transfusion of cadaver blood in the Spanish Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, David

    2012-01-01

    During the Spanish Civil War, Dr. Norman Bethune instituted a research laboratory to determine whether the blood from cadavers could be transfused into wounded soldiers and civilians at the front. Dr. Herman J. Muller joined him in this effort carrying out extensive experimentation into the technique and practice of such transfusions. At the same time, Bethune was in frequent contact with Dr. Reginald Saxton who later publicly advocated that the Spanish government should organize a large-scale supply of cadaver blood to the front-line hospitals. Recent evidence suggests that Saxton carried out cadaveric transfusions to an extent not previously recognized.

  4. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordance...... between the US findings and the surgically induced lesions in the cadaver model. RA-like tendon damage was surgically induced in the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) and tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) of ten ankle/foot fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Of the 20 tendons examined, six were randomly assigned...

  5. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  6. Analysis of vector alignment with the Zitelli bilobed flap for nasal defect repair: a comparison of flap dynamics in human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumalan, Richard Abraham; Hazan, Carole; Levine, Vicki J; Shah, Anil R

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether differences of angles between the alar rim and the long axis of the secondary defect in a Zitelli bilobed flap affect alar displacement in a fresh cadaver model. In fresh cadaver heads, identical, unilateral 1-cm circular defects were created at the superior alar margin. Three different laterally based bilobed flap templates for reconstruction were used. One template, used on 3 cadavers, had an angle of 60 degrees between the alar rim and the long axis of the secondary defect. Another template, used on 3 cadavers, had an angle of 90 degrees . The last template had an angle of 135 degrees and was used on 2 cadavers. Photographs were taken before the repair and after with the camera and cadaver heads in the same spatial relationship to each other. In the 3 cadavers that had repair using an angle of 60 degrees , all cadavers experienced alar retraction, with a mean displacement of 1.3 mm. This was not a statistically significant change (P = .07). In the defects that had repair using an angle of 90 degrees , there was also no significant alar displacement (P = .72). In the 2 cadavers that underwent repair using an angle of 135 degrees , both ala underwent depression by 1.0 mm. When the differences achieved between the different angles were compared, there was a significant difference in measured distortion between the cadavers that had 90 degrees and 60 degrees vector placement (P = .02). There were no measurable changes to the contralateral maximal nostril distance. Vector alignment can have an impact on nostril displacement. In bilobed flaps, the axis of the secondary defect may play an important role. This study suggests that secondary defects aligned perpendicular to the nostril have the least amount of alar distortion.

  7. Use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Gosselin, Matthias; Hedouin, Valéry

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as indicators of post-mortem displacement is discussed in many texts, courses and TV shows, and several studies addressing this issue have been published. Although the concept is widely cited, it is poorly understood, and only a few forensic cases have successfully applied such a method. The use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation actually involves a wide range of biological aspects. Distribution, microhabitat, phenology, behavioral ecology, and molecular analysis are among the research areas associated with this topic. This article provides the first review of the current knowledge and addresses the potential and limitations of different methods to evaluate their applicability. This work reveals numerous weaknesses and erroneous beliefs as well as many possibilities and research opportunities.

  8. Effects of endoscopic sinus surgery and delivery device on cadaver sinus irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard J; Goddard, John C; Wise, Sarah K; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2008-07-01

    Assess paranasal sinus distribution of topical solutions following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) using various delivery devices. Experimental prospective study. Ten cadaver sinus systems were irrigated with Gastroview before surgery, after ESS, and after medial maxillectomy. Delivery was via pressurized spray (NasaMist), neti pot (NasaFlo), and squeeze bottle (Sinus Rinse). Scans were performed before and after each delivery with a portable CT machine (Xoran xCAT), and blinded assessments were made for distribution to individual sinuses. Total sinus distribution was greater post-ESS (P squeeze bottle > pressurized spray (P spray solutions in un-operated sinuses provide little more than nasal cavity distribution. Use of squeeze bottle/neti pot post-ESS offers a greatly enhanced ability to deliver solutions to the paranasal sinuses.

  9. STUDY OF COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE AND MEDIAN NERVE IN ADULT CADAVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangulappa Derangula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Variations of the musculocutaneous nerve and the median nerve, like the communications between the two, may prove valuable in the traumatology of the shoulder joint and upper arm region. These variations are important in the procedure of blocking the brachial plexus and in clinical neurology. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 upper limbs belonging to 50 cadavers (Right 50 &left 50 obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Kakatiya medical college, Warangal, Telangana. Dissection of the infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus was done. The variations in the origin, course and communications with the median nerve were noted. RESULTS In 2% of the limbs the nerve was found to give one communicating branch to the median nerve after piercing the coracobrachialis. CONCLUSION Knowledge of possible variations between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve is necessary to general surgeons, plastic surgeons, neurologists and orthopaedic surgeons.

  10. Imaging in anatomy: a comparison of imaging techniques in embalmed human cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A large variety of imaging techniques is an integral part of modern medicine. Introducing radiological imaging techniques into the dissection course serves as a basis for improved learning of anatomy and multidisciplinary learning in pre-clinical medical education. Methods Four different imaging techniques (ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) were performed in embalmed human body donors to analyse possibilities and limitations of the respective techniques in this peculiar setting. Results The quality of ultrasound and radiography images was poor, images of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were of good quality. Conclusion Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have a superior image quality in comparison to ultrasound and radiography and offer suitable methods for imaging embalmed human cadavers as a valuable addition to the dissection course. PMID:24156510

  11. Establishment of human retinal mitoscriptome gene expression signature for diabetic retinopathy using cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Gowthaman; Mathews, Saumi; Srinivasan, Karthik; Ramasamy, Kim; Periasamy, Sundaresan

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness due to retinal microvasculature. We used microarray analysis for the first time to establish the retinal mitoscriptome gene expression signature for DR using human cadaver eyes. Among the 1042 genes, 60 (52-down, 8-up) and 39 (36-down, 3-up) genes were differentially expressed in the DR as compared to normal control and diabetic retinas respectively. These genes were mainly responsible for regulating angiogenesis, anti-oxidant defense mechanism, ATP production and apoptosis contributing to the disease pathology of DR. These findings might be useful for the discovery of biomarker and developing therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Charabidze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of insects as indicators of post-mortem displacement is discussed in many texts, courses and TV shows, and several studies addressing this issue have been published. Although the concept is widely cited, it is poorly understood, and only a few forensic cases have successfully applied such a method. The use of necrophagous insects as evidence of cadaver relocation actually involves a wide range of biological aspects. Distribution, microhabitat, phenology, behavioral ecology, and molecular analysis are among the research areas associated with this topic. This article provides the first review of the current knowledge and addresses the potential and limitations of different methods to evaluate their applicability. This work reveals numerous weaknesses and erroneous beliefs as well as many possibilities and research opportunities.

  13. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery using the CO2 laser: experimental studies in human cadaver eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud I.; Barequet, Irina S.; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Non-penetrating trabeculectomy (NPT) is a potential replacement to conventional trabeculectomy, as it eliminates the necessity of penetrating the eye which is the cause of most of the complications entailed by the latter operation. NPT however, requires considerable surgical skill, is time consuming and entails complications of its own. We have shown that it can be easily performed by using the CO2 laser to ablate the sclera and corneoscleral tissues to the required depth. The use of the CO2 laser eliminates the danger of inadvertent perforation, a common complication of NPT as the tissue ablation ceases when the end-point of the operation, the aqueous humor percolation, is reached. Our experiments, performed on animal and human cadaver eyes showed that CO2 laser NPT rapid is easily mastered and performed rapid and eliminates almost completely the risk of complications.

  14. Histotopography of the female cavernous nerve: a study using donated fetuses and adult cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masao; Niikura, Hitoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Murakami, Gen; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Matsubara, Akio

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the histotopography of the female cavernous nerve. The study used semi-serial horizontal sections of seven fetuses and ten adult cadavers. In fetuses, the female cavernous nerve ran anteriorly between the distal vagina and the levator ani and entered the corpus cavernosum clitoridis. Its course through the argental hiatus was similar to that of the male cavernous nerve. However, the fascial arrangement along the female cavernous nerve was different from that of the three male fetuses included in this study. In female adults, the putative cavernous nerve was found running along the lateral aspect of the rhabdosphincter, along the superior surface of the urethrovaginal sphincter and around the lateral end of the latter sphincter. Because the female cavernous nerve and lateral vaginal wall are closely related, surgical treatment along the mid- and distal urethra should be conducted cautiously so as not to injure the perivaginal autonomic nerves.

  15. Study of Variations in External Morphology of Gall Bladder in Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Desai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background- In modern era increasing interventional and diagnostic procedures and laparoscopic cholecystectomy make study of variation in external morphology of gall bladder important .variation of morphology of gall bladder commonly encounter during radiological investigation a during surgeries. Objective- Aim of this literature was to study morphology of gallbladder in Gujarat region. Material and method:-Study was conducted on 50 gallbladder obtained from formalin fixed cadavers. Shape length and transverse diameter of gall bladder studied. Result: - Commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 84% cases. Average length of gallbladder was found to be 9.5cm. Mean diameter of gall bladder was 3.6 cm, folding of neck and fundus observed in 8% cases. Conclusion: - Variation in extra hepatic billiary in not uncommon. Knowledge of this variation important for surgeon and radiologist for avoid iatrogenic injuries during procedures.

  16. ENTRY POINT FOR THE ANTEGRADE FEMORAL INTRAMEDULLARY NAIL: A CADAVER STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Galeno, Luiz; Teixeira, Thiago Martins; Franco, José Sergio; Hoffmann, Rolix; de Toledo Lourenço, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Giordano, Vincenzo; Pallottino, Alexandre; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the natural exit of the wire guides in major trochanter through retrograde femoral approach, in cadaver specimens. 100 femurs had been perforated between the femoral condyles, at 1.2 cm of the intercondylar region. A 3-mm straight wire guide was introduced, through retrograde approach, until the proximal extremity of femur was reached. Femurs were assessed for posterosuperior and anterosuperior portions of major trochanter, pear-shaped cavity, and upper median line between the head-neck and the major trochanter. in 62%, the straight wire guides exited at the anterior surface of major trochanter. In the pear-shaped cavity, the median distance found was 1.0 cm and the interquartile range was 0.5 cm, initially expressing, in relation to pear-shaped cavity, better accuracy. the central axis of the medullar canal, at coronal plane, projected better accuracy in the region of the pear-shaped cavity.

  17. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  18. Assessment of a Human Cadaver Model for Training Emergency Medicine Residents in the Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikar Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess a human cadaver model for training emergency medicine residents in the ultrasound diagnosis of pneumothorax. Methods. Single-blinded observational study using a human cadaveric model at an academic medical center. Three lightly embalmed cadavers were used to create three “normal lungs” and three lungs modeling a “pneumothorax.” The residents were blinded to the side and number of pneumothoraces, as well as to each other’s findings. Each resident performed an ultrasound examination on all six lung models during ventilation of cadavers. They were evaluated on their ability to identify the presence or absence of the sliding-lung sign and seashore sign. Results. A total of 84 ultrasound examinations (42-“normal lung,” 42-“pneumothorax” were performed. A sliding-lung sign was accurately identified in 39 scans, and the seashore sign was accurately identified in 34 scans. The sensitivity and specificity for the sliding-lung sign were 93% (95% CI, 85–100% and 90% (95% CI, 81–99%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the seashore sign were 80% (95% CI, 68–92% and 83% (95% CI, 72–94%, respectively. Conclusions. Lightly embalmed human cadavers may provide an excellent model for mimicking the sonographic appearance of pneumothorax.

  19. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  20. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  1. Musical preferences and learning outcome of medical students in cadaver dissection laboratory: A Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Nto, J N; Agu, A U; Ekezie, J; Esom, E A

    2016-11-01

    Background music has been reported to enhance learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory. This study was designed to determine the impact of various forms of musical genre and some of their characteristics on students' learning outcome in the dissection laboratory. Some selected musical genre in vocal and non-vocal forms and at different tempi and volume were played as background music (BM) to 253 Medical and Dental students during various sessions of cadaver dissection. Psychological Stress assessment was done using Psychological stress measure-9. Participants love for music, preferred musical genre and other musical characteristics were assessed. The impact of the various musical genre and their characteristics on learning was done via written examination on the region dissected during each musical session. A positive relationship was noted between students' preference for musical genre during leisure with their preference for BM during private study time (Pmusical genre on some selected learning factors. Country and Classical music gave the highest positive impact on the various learning factors in CDL followed by R&B. No significant difference was noted between the cognitive values of vocal and non-vocal music. Classical music most effectively reduced the stress induced by dissection in the CDL while Reggae and High life musical genre created a more stressful environment than regular background noise (Pmusical genre and their various characteristics. The inability to isolate the particular musical genre with these desired properties could account for the controversies in the reports of the role of music in academic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the efficacy and potential complications of transjugular liver biopsy in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, A S; Weisse, C; Donovan, T A; Berent, A C

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) is used in humans at risk of bleeding. There are no reports of its use in veterinary medicine. To assess the efficacy and potential complications of TJLB in canine cadavers, and compare with samples obtained via needle liver biopsy (NLB) and surgical liver biopsy (SLB). Twenty-five medium and large breed canine cadavers. Prospective study. TJLBs were procured through the right jugular vein. After biopsy, intravenous contrast and gross inspection were used to assess the biopsy site. Minor and major complications were recorded. NLBs and SLBs were then obtained. Histopathology was performed, and TJLB and NLB were compared for number of complete portal tracts (CPTs), length, and fragmentation. Pathologic process and autolysis were assessed in all samples. All TJLBs yielded liver tissue. The proportion of minor complications was 12/25 (48%), and major complications 16/25 (64%); 13/16 (81%) of the major complications were liver capsule perforation. In 21/25 (84%), the histopathology in the SLB was reflected in the TJLBs. For cases with minimal autolysis, median number of CPTs in TJLBs was 7.5, compared with 4 in NLBs (P = .018). Median length of TJLB specimen was 28 mm compared to 22 mm in NLBs (P = .007). Fragmentation rate was median of 1.25 for TJLB compared to 1.50 in NLBs (P = .11). TJLB is technically feasible and achieves comparable results to NLB and SLB. The number of complications, in particular liver capsule perforation, was greater than expected. Further studies are indicated before clinical use is recommended.

  3. Scaphoid and lunate translation in the intact wrist and following ligament resection: A cadaver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frederick W.; Sutton, Levi G.; Allison, Mari A.; Gilula, Louis A.; Short, Walter H.; Wollstein, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The two purposes of this study were a) to determine the amount of scaphoid and lunate translation that occurs in normal cadaver wrists during wrist motion and b) to quantify the change in ulnar translation when specific dorsal and volar wrist ligaments were sectioned. Methods The scaphoid and lunate motion of 37 cadaver wrists were measured during wrist radioulnar deviation and flexion-extension motions using a wrist joint motion simulator. The location of centroids of the bones were quantified during each motion in the intact wrists and after sectioning either two dorsal ligaments along with the scapholunate interosseous ligament or two volar ligaments and the scapholunate interosseous ligament. Results In the intact wrist the scaphoid and lunate statistically translated radially with wrist ulnar deviation. With wrist flexion the scaphoid moved volarly and the lunate dorsally. After sectioning either the dorsal or volar ligaments, the scaphoid moved radially. After sectioning the dorsal or volar ligaments, the lunate statistically moved ulnarly and volarly. Conclusion These results indicate that measureable changes in the scaphoid and lunate translation occur with wrist motion and change with ligament sectioning. However, for the ligaments that were sectioned, these changes are small and an attempt to clinically measure these translations of the scaphoid and lunate radiographically may be limited. The results support the conclusion that ulnar translocation does not occur unless multiple ligaments are sectioned. Injury of more than the scapholunate interosseous ligament along with either the dorsal intercarpal and dorsal radiocarpal or the radioscaphocapitate and scaphotrapezial ligaments are needed to have large amounts of volar and ulnar translation. PMID:21276893

  4. Anatomic Basis for Brachial Plexus Block at the Costoclavicular Space: A Cadaver Anatomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Reina, Miguel Angel; Pangthipampai, Pawinee; Karmakar, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The costoclavicular space (CCS), which is located deep and posterior to the midpoint of the clavicle, may be a better site for infraclavicular brachial plexus block than the traditional lateral paracoracoid site. However, currently, there is paucity of data on the anatomy of the brachial plexus at the CCS. We undertook this cadaver anatomic study to define the anatomy of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS and thereby establish the anatomic basis for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block at this proximal site. The anatomy and topography of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS was evaluated in 8 unembalmed (cryopreserved), thawed, fresh adult human cadavers using anatomic dissection, and transverse anatomic and histological sections, of the CCS. The cords of the brachial plexus were located lateral and parallel to the axillary artery at the CCS. The topography of the cords, relative to the axillary artery and to one another, in the transverse (axial) plane was also consistent at the CCS. The lateral cord was the most superficial of the 3 cords and it was always anterior to both the medial and posterior cords. The medial cord was directly posterior to the lateral cord but medial to the posterior cord. The posterior cord was the lateral most of the 3 cords at the CCS and it was immediately lateral to the medial cord but posterolateral to the lateral cord. The cords of the brachial plexus are clustered together lateral to the axillary artery, and share a consistent relation relative to one another and to the axillary artery, at the CCS.

  5. Injury to the Lumbar Plexus and its Branches After Lateral Fusion Procedures: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Peter; Drazin, Doniel; Iwanaga, Joe; Schmidt, Cameron; Alonso, Fernando; Moisi, Marc; Chapman, Jens R; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-09-01

    Neurologic deficits from lumbar plexus nerve injuries commonly occur in patients undergoing lateral approaches. However, it is not yet clear what types of injury occur, where anatomically they are located, or what mechanism causes them. We aimed to study 1) the topographic anatomy of lumbar plexus nerves and their injuries in human cadavers after lateral transpsoas approaches to the lumbar spine, 2) the structural morphology of those injuries, and 3) the topographic anatomy of the lumbar plexus throughout the mediolateral approach corridor. Fifteen adult fresh frozen cadaveric torsos (26 sides) underwent lateral approaches (L1-L5) by experienced lateral spine surgeons. The cadavers were subsequently opened and the entire plexus dissected and examined for nerve injuries. The topographic anatomy of the lumbar plexus and its branches, their injuries, and the morphology of these injuries were documented. Fifteen injuries were found with complete or partial nerve transections (Sunderland IV and V). Injuries were found throughout the mediolateral approach corridor. At L1/2, the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and subcostal nerves were injured within the psoas major muscle, the retroperitoneal space, or the outer abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Genitofemoral nerve injuries were found in the retroperitoneal space. Nerve root injuries occurred within the retroperitoneal space and psoas muscle. Femoral nerve injuries were found only within the psoas major muscle. No obturator nerve injuries occurred. Lateral approaches can lead to structural nerve damage. Knowledge of the complex plexus anatomy, specifically its mediolateral course, is critical to avoid approach-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of alternate light sources for detection of bruises in non-embalmed and embalmed cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Langlois, Neil E I

    2017-03-01

    Bruising is frequently documented in cases of violence for use as forensic evidence. However, bruises can be overlooked if they are not visible to the naked eye. Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent. However, there is a significant gap in knowledge surrounding this technique as it has not been validated against histology to confirm that bruising is genuinely being enhanced. A recent study evaluated the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises using a pigskin model. However, histological confirmation of bruising in humans using these light sources has not yet been performed. In this study, embalmed and non-embalmed human cadavers were used. Bodies were surveyed with alternate light sources, and enhanced regions that were unapparent under white light were photographed with the alternate light sources and sampled for histological assessment. Immunohistochemical staining for the red blood cell surface protein glycophorin was used determine if the enhanced area was a bruise (defined by the presence of extravasated erythrocytes). Photographs of areas confirmed to be bruises were analyzed using the program Fiji to measure enhancement, which was defined as an increase in the measured transverse diameter. In the non-embalmed and the embalmed cadavers violet alternate light produced the greatest enhancement of histologically confirmed bruises, followed by blue (both p light sources may not be specific. This suggests that the use of light sources to enhance the visibility of bruising should be undertaken with caution and further studies are required.

  7. The subtalar joint axis palpation technique part 2: reliability and validity results using cadaver feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alsenoy, Ken K; D'Août, Kristiaan; Vereecke, Evie E; De Schepper, Joris; Santos, Derek

    2014-07-01

    Clinically locating the point of no rotation to determine the subtalar joint axis location by applying pressure on the plantar surface of the foot was described by Kirby in 1987 but was never validated. We sought to extend a previously validated mechanical model to cadaver feet and to examine the intratester and intertester reliability. Four testers with different levels of experience determined the subtalar joint axis location and moved the subtalar joint through its range of motion, capturing the movement using kinematic analysis. The comparison of the spatial subtalar joint axis location as determined by palpation between and within testers determined the intertester and intratester reliability. The helical axis method was performed to validate the model. The intrarater reliability varied from a high of α = 0.96 to a low of α = 0.26 for the slope and was, in general, high (α = 0.78-0.95) for the intersection. The interrater reliability scored moderate to high, depending on the specific cadaver specimen. Concerning the exact location of the subtalar joint axis, no significant difference was found between the results determined by different testers and the helical axis method. The palpation technique as part of the subtalar joint axis location and rotational equilibrium theory proposed by Kirby is a reliable and valid clinical tool. Experience in performing the palpation technique has a positive influence on the accuracy of the results. In the context of evidence-based practice, this technique could be a standard tool in the examination of patients with lower-limb-related pathologic disorders.

  8. Evaluation of automatic image quality assessment in chest CT - A human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caro; De Crop, An; De Roo, Bieke; Smeets, Peter; Vergauwen, Merel; Dewaele, Tom; Van Borsel, Mathias; Achten, Eric; Van Hoof, Tom; Bacher, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of clinical image quality (IQ) is important to optimize CT protocols and to keep patient doses as low as reasonably achievable. Considering the significant amount of effort needed for human observer studies, automatic IQ tools are a promising alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate automatic IQ assessment in chest CT using Thiel embalmed cadavers. Chest CT's of Thiel embalmed cadavers were acquired at different exposures. Clinical IQ was determined by performing a visual grading analysis. Physical-technical IQ (noise, contrast-to-noise and contrast-detail) was assessed in a Catphan phantom. Soft and sharp reconstructions were made with filtered back projection and two strengths of iterative reconstruction. In addition to the classical IQ metrics, an automatic algorithm was used to calculate image quality scores (IQs). To be able to compare datasets reconstructed with different kernels, the IQs values were normalized. Good correlations were found between IQs and the measured physical-technical image quality: noise (ρ=-1.00), contrast-to-noise (ρ=1.00) and contrast-detail (ρ=0.96). The correlation coefficients between IQs and the observed clinical image quality of soft and sharp reconstructions were 0.88 and 0.93, respectively. The automatic scoring algorithm is a promising tool for the evaluation of thoracic CT scans in daily clinical practice. It allows monitoring of the image quality of a chest protocol over time, without human intervention. Different reconstruction kernels can be compared after normalization of the IQs. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical anatomy of the first extensor compartment: A systematic review and comparison of normal cadavers vs. De Quervain syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z-Hye; Stranix, J T; Anzai, Lavinia; Sharma, Sheel

    2017-01-01

    De Quervain syndrome or tenosynovitis is a common wrist pathology caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant anatomic variation within the first extensor compartment. The terms "De Quervain's tenosynovitis" and "first extensor compartment anatomy" were comprehensively searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database. The presence of a septum within the first dorsal compartment, the number of APL (abductor pollicis longus), and EPB (extensor pollicis brevis) tendon slips were identified. A total of 574 articles were identified on initial search, of which 21 met inclusion criteria. There were 1901 normal cadaver specimens and 470 surgically treated De Quervain disease patients, whose data were available. A septum was present in 43.7% of normal cadavers versus 62.2% De Quervain patients with 58.5% (327 of 559) of the septi characterized as incomplete. There was a difference in the number of APL tendons with a single APL tendon slip noted in 18.3% of normal cadavers (200/1096) versus 27.2% of De Quervain patients (87/230). There was a difference in the number of EPB tendons between the normal cadavers and De Quervain's wrists with 2 or more EPB tendinous slips observed in 5.9% of normal cadavers compared with 2.9% of De Quervain patients. Significant anatomic variability exists within the first extensor compartment. Patients with De Quervain disease were more likely to have a septum dividing the compartment and a single slip of APL. These variations are clinically relevant in the pathophysiology and treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Prognostic studies. Level III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J A; Dandorf, Stewart J; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (pmedical students to improve and maintain their technical skills.

  11. Temporal and Spatial Impact of Human Cadaver Decomposition on Soil Bacterial and Arthropod Community Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneshwar Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As vertebrate carrion decomposes, there is a release of nutrient-rich fluids into the underlying soil, which can impact associated biological community structure and function. How these changes alter soil biogeochemical cycles is relatively unknown and may prove useful in the identification of carrion decomposition islands that have long lasting, focal ecological effects. This study investigated the spatial (0, 1, and 5 m and temporal (3–732 days dynamics of human cadaver decomposition on soil bacterial and arthropod community structure and microbial function. We observed strong evidence of a predictable response to cadaver decomposition that varies over space for soil bacterial and arthropod community structure, carbon (C mineralization and microbial substrate utilization patterns. In the presence of a cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was greater, while the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia was lower when compared to samples at 1 and 5 m. Micro-arthropods were more abundant (15 to 17-fold in soils collected at 0 m compared to either 1 or 5 m, but overall, micro-arthropod community composition was unrelated to either bacterial community composition or function. Bacterial community structure and microbial function also exhibited temporal relationships, whereas arthropod community structure did not. Cumulative precipitation was more effective in predicting temporal variations in bacterial abundance and microbial activity than accumulated degree days. In the presence of the cadaver (i.e., 0 m samples, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased significantly with cumulative precipitation. Furthermore, soil bacterial communities and C mineralization were sensitive to the introduction of human cadavers as they diverged from baseline levels and did not recover completely in approximately 2 years. These data are valuable for understanding

  12. Do dental undergraduates think that Thiel-embalmed cadavers are a more realistic model for teaching exodontia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C; Wilkinson, T; Macluskey, M

    2018-02-01

    Teaching exodontia to novice undergraduates requires a realistic model. Thiel-embalmed cadavers retain the flexibility of the soft tissues and could be used to teach exodontia. The objective was to determine whether Thiel-embalmed cadavers were perceived to be a more realistic model by undergraduates in comparison with mannequins. Over a period of 4 years (2011-2014), students were randomly assigned into two groups: those taught exodontia on mannequins only (NT) and those who also experienced cadaveric teaching (T). This was followed by an assessment. There were 174 students in the T group and 108 in the NT group. Sixty-five per cent of the T group and 69% of the NT group provided feedback. Ninety-eight per cent (98%) felt that they had been advantaged by being included in the group compared with 95% in the NT who felt disadvantaged. The majority (98%) thought that using the cadavers was advantageous and gave a realistic feel for soft tissue management (89%) and that it was similar to managing a patient (81%). Self-reported confidence in undertaking an extraction was not different between the two groups (P=.078), and performance in the extraction assessment was not significantly different between the two groups over the 4 years (P=.8). The Thiel-embalmed cadavers were well received by the students who found it a more realistic model for exodontia than a mannequin, even though this did not impact on their performance in a following assessment. Future work on these cadavers may be expanded to include surgical procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

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    Ryan Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Results: Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001 and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001. Conclusion: The use of

  14. Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species associated with human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-10

    The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasonography-guided de Quervain Injection: Accuracy and Anatomic Considerations in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversedge, Fraser J; Cotterell, Ilvy H; Nickel, Brian T; Crosmer, Megan; Richard, Marc; Angermeier, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Confirmation of pertinent anatomy and accurate needle placement for de Quervain injection may improve outcomes and limit complications. We evaluated the accuracy of the first extensor compartment in regard to the following: (1) anatomic assessment, (2) needle placement without imaging guidance, and (3) ultrasonography-guided injection with priority for the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. Anatomic assessment and ultrasonography-guided first extensor compartment injection was completed in 50 cadaver specimens. Initial needle placement was done without the guidance of ultrasonography; its final position was evaluated with ultrasonography. Then, using ultrasonography, 1 mL of India ink was injected into the extensor pollicis brevis compartment. Open evaluation confirmed pertinent anatomy and injection accuracy. A subcompartment of the first extensor compartment was identified in 27 of 50 wrists; 18 of 27 compartments were complete and 9 of 27 were incomplete, with ultrasonographic evaluation having an accuracy rate of 94%. Accurate needle placement occurred in 26 of 50 wrists (52%) when ultrasonography was not used, but only 2 of 27 needles (7%) were located within the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. Ultrasonography-guided injection was 100% accurate (50 out of 50) and extensor pollicis brevis injection was 96% accurate (26 of 27) when two compartments were present. Minimal extravasation was identified in 6 of 50 wrists (12%). Ultrasonography-guided de Quervain injection improves injection accuracy through the visualization of compartmental anatomy and needle placement and may improve clinical outcomes by minimizing complications associated with extra-compartmental injection.

  17. Evaluation of tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Marmotti, Antonio; Castoldi, Filippo

    2010-07-01

    Various techniques exist for establishing tibial rotational alignment during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study is to establish the most precise and reproducible method to assess tibial component rotational alignment during TKA by comparing the flexion-extension technique (ROM) and the Posterior-lateral Corner Locked Technique (PLCL). Twenty posterior stabilized TKAs were performed on cadavers. The rotation angles of the tibial components obtained using the two techniques were evaluated. The tibial component rotation axis obtained using the ROM technique and the PLCL method averaged, respectively, 0.35 degrees (+ or - 4.2 degrees ) externally rotated and 0.34 degrees (+ or - 3 degrees ) internally rotated to the Akagi line. No significant differences between the two methods were found and a high correlation exists between the two techniques (Pearson's coefficient = 0.88). The ROM and PLCL techniques are both precise and reproducible methods to assess tibial component rotation during TKA. However, while the ROM technique is dependent on the correct positioning of the femoral component and the soft tissue balancing, the PCLC method is easier if a complete visualization of the posterior-lateral corner of the cut tibial plateau is achieved.

  18. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on scapular measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation between stature and scapular measurements in a Japanese population, using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) images, and derived regression equations for predicting stature. A total of 194 cadavers (100 males 94 females) underwent postmortem CT (PMCT) and subsequent forensic autopsy in our department between May 2011 and April 2014. Left and right longitudinal scapular lengths (LLSL and RLSL, respectively) and left and right transverse scapular lengths (LTSL and RTSL, respectively) were measured on 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only scapular data. The correlation between stature and each of the scapular measurements were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. The four variables correlated significantly with stature, regardless of sex. The LLSL measurement had the lowest standard error of estimation value among all subjects (4.22 cm) and among all females (4.37 cm), whereas the RLSL measurement had the lowest standard error of estimation value among all males (3.75 cm). The results of this study indicate that scapular measurements may be useful for the forensic estimation of the stature of Japanese individuals, particularly in cases where better predictors, such as long bone lengths, are unavailable.

  19. CLOSURE TIME OF SPHENO-OCCIPITAL SUTURE IN THE MALE CADAVERS REFERRED TO LEGAL MEDICINE ORGANIZATION

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    M. Akhlaghi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The identity of dead is an essential part of post-mortem examination. The identification of unknown human remnants begins with the creation of an anthropological profile, which includes sex, biological age, stature and individualizing features. The estimation of age at death is based on the bodily biological changes that occur throughout life. Closure of spheno occipital synchondrosis is one of factors used for age estimation although its importance and reliability has been challenged with different authors. We studied its closure time among Iranian 8 to 26 years old male cadavers with direct inspection during autopsy. We divided synchondrosis situation depending on its fusion state into three categories: open, semi closed and closed. During 2004-5, 106 cases studied. Mean age of open, semi closed and closed were 12.78, 16.86 and 21.36 years, respectively. Their difference was significant (p< 0.05. Partial fusion (semi closed was seen at 12 years while complete fusion (closed should be 15 years or above. Spearman's correlation ratio coefficient showed linear correlation between age and suture situation (rho = 0.684, P < 0.05. Our results showed that closure of spheno occipital suture can be used as a good indicator for age estimation in males. With sensitivity of 88.31% and specificity of 79.31% males can be correctly grouped above or below 16 years.

  20. Advancement of the external oblique muscle flap to improve the waistline: a study in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, F X

    2001-08-01

    Waist definition is an important goal of abdominoplasty. The purpose of this report is to study the effect of advancement and rotation of the external oblique muscles in the waistline. Twenty cadavers were dissected. Two parameters were analyzed: measurement of the waist circumference and the width of overlapped skin flaps of the abdomen in the midline. Three stages of dissection were compared: (1) initial stage, in which the myoaponeurotic structure of the anterior abdominal wall was intact; (2) stage 1, after advancement of the rectus muscles and its anterior aponeurosis toward the midline; and (3) stage 2, after advancement and rotation of the external oblique muscle. A significant statistical difference was found when waist circumference measured before dissection was compared with values obtained after the procedure. When the width of the overlapped skin flaps was compared during the different stages of dissection, a significant statistical difference was observed after each stage (paired t test). Therefore, the approximation of the rectus muscles alone improves the waistline, and when associated with external oblique muscle flap advancement and rotation, the cosmetic result in this area is even better. In conclusion, the procedure described decreases waist circumference and improves the frontal view of the waist.

  1. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people.

  2. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krüger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3 were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years. Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation. After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p0.05. All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation.

  3. Arthroscopic approaches to the fetlock joint of adult cattle: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin; Bertagnoli, Alberto; Räber, Marta; Nuss, Karl; Rasekh, Mehdi; Steiner, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe the arthroscopic anatomy of the bovine fetlock joint using one palmar/plantar and three dorsal joint approaches. A comparative anatomic, ultrasonographic and arthroscopic study using 20 cadaveric feet from 13 non-lame adult dairy cows was performed. Arthroscopy was accomplished using a rigid arthroscope to view the synovial cavities with their synovial villi and parts of the following structures: the distal ends of the metacarpal/metatarsal III/IV bones with their trochleae and sagittal ridges, synovial grooves, the articular surfaces of the proximal sesamoid bones, the proximal aspects of the first phalanges, the lateral and medial collateral ligaments, the suspensory ligament and the interdigital ligaments as parts of the interosseus muscle, the cruciate sesamoidean ligaments, the communication site between the lateral and medial pouch in the palmar/plantar area, and dorsally the septum between the lateral and the medial pouch. The technique allowed a good overall view of most relevant structures in the sound cadaver joint. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic applications of these techniques in the treatment of septic arthritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  5. Possibly Active Persistent Thymus Found in a Human Adult Cadaver – A Morpho-histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is a bilobed organ usually situated in the superior mediastinum. Thymus is normally active until puberty and as age advances it undergoes considerable fibro-fatty degeneration and is replaced by fatty tissue. We found a persistent thymus in an adult male cadaver aged 70 years approximately. It apparently looked healthy. Hence the objective of this study was to know the morpho-histology of a persistent human thymus gland. Associated with this we also found a concurrent absence of isthmus of thyroid gland. Thymus obtained was processed according to the standard procedures and sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin stain to study the age related changes of the thymus gland. Stained sections of thymus revealed a normal, healthy architecture of lobes of thymus. Knowledge regarding these morpho-histological features of the persistent thymus is important for clinicians and radiologists for the differential diagnosis of any mediastinal mass or presence of ectopic thymic tissue before doing any investigative procedure

  6. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  7. [Biomechanics of the knee joint after meniscus resection. Stress analysis of the cadaver knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, O; Magin, M N; Nachtkamp, J

    1995-06-01

    Load bearing analysis has been performed in cadaver knees after different types of inner meniscus resection in extension and in 30 degrees and 60 degrees flexion. Contact areas, mean and maximum pressure differences and load flow changes were measured in the medial and lateral compartment of the knee. The investigation led to following findings: After posterior meniscal tear the resection of the tear with marginal smoothing is followed by a minimum of parameter deviation. All the other types of resection like simple tear resection, partial meniscus resection, amputation of the posterior horn or subtotal resection are accompanied by highly increased deviations of the measured biomechanical parameters. Those are not only observed in the medial part of the knee but also in the lateral compartment. At the medial site a decrease of the load bearing area and the pressure can be registered. In contrast to that there is an increase of these parameters at the lateral site. Consecutive osteoarthritis after medial meniscectomy is therefore interpreted not as a result of increased pressure but of a floating load bearing.

  8. Detecting Dentinal Microcracks Using Different Preparation Techniques: An In Situ Study with Cadaver Mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Paymon; Scott, Raymond; Galicia, Johnah C; Arias, Ana; Peters, Ove A

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the frequency of dentinal microcracks using a cadaver mandible model in teeth instrumented with TRUShape (TS; Dentsply Sirona, York, PA), WaveOne Gold (WO, Dentsply Sirona), or K-files (KF) compared with an uninstrumented control group (CG). Fifteen human mandibles with 95 single-rooted teeth were randomly distributed into the following groups: CG (no preparation, n = 11), TS (n = 28), WO (n = 28), and KF (step-back preparation with K-Flex-o-files [Dentsply Sirona], n = 28). Teeth were prepared to apical sizes of #25/.06 or #25/.07; overlying bone was removed, and then teeth were lifted out of the socket and sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex using a low-speed saw. Resulting slices were photographed at 20× and 25× magnification. Three independent and blinded evaluators assessed the images for the presence of dentinal microcracks and their extension, direction, and location. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (P  .05). There was no difference in the frequency of microcracks among the experimental groups instrumented with TS, WO, and KF or uninstrumented controls. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Penetration profile and human cadaver skin distribution of finasteride from vesicular nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Liang, Xingguang; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2015-12-01

    The skin accumulation of therapeutic agents affects the efficiency of topical drug delivery. In this study, in vitro distribution of finasteride of ethosomes and liposomes in human cadaver skin after percutaneous delivery were investigated. Experiments were performed using modified Franz diffusion cells. Finasteride ethosomes, liposomes or hydroethanolic solutions were used as donor medium. Drug distribution at different skin layers and depths were studied by hotplate separation and frozen horizontal slicing technique. The result showed that the accumulation of finasteride in skin ranged from 9.7-24.3 μg/cm(2) at 12 or 24 hours. The ethosomes demonstrated better enhancing ability to deliver finasteride into the dermis layer than liposomes did. The finasteride concentration in the dermis layer from ethosomes was more than sevenfold higher than from liposomes. The finasteride accumulation in ethosomes group showed a distinctive reversed distribution profile. This distinctive reversed distribution profile is meaningful for exerting a favorable pharmacological effect for finasteride. The drug distribution profile in skin layers showed no significant difference between 12 and 24 hours application (p > 0.05). The study demonstrated that finasteride can be accumulated at target site more effectively and maintained at higher level through the application of novel ethosomal carriers.

  10. [Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque de; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira Dos Santos; Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos da

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how occurs the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath through the axiliary infraclavicular space and hence prove the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, and 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; da Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery.

  13. Simulation of cerebrovascular circulation in the human cadaver for surgical neuroanatomy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvençer, Mustafa; Sayhan, Salih; Ay Dereli, Nuran; Tetik, Süleyman; Yücesoy, Kemal; Arda, M Nuri

    2007-10-01

    The current progress in diagnostic and screening methods and surgical equipment technologies facilitates the accessibility to numerous anatomic structures through various interventional approaches. Consequently, the exact knowledge of the anatomic locations of neurovascular structures and their interactions may ensure that the surgical intervention is planned in the most appropriate way and the structures are accessed with the least complication risk during the intervention. A decapitated and formalin fixated whole-head of a male human cadaver kept for educational and research purposes in the Dokuz Eylul University Department of Anatomy was used in this study. Two separate reservoirs (for the arterial and the venous system) were connected to the Truno System 3 labeled perfusion pump. The reservoirs were filled with blue and red warm tap water. Colored tap water pumped on the right was emptied from the left. Continuous flow of the water in the closed-circuit arterial and venous systems was achieved. As the circulation was continuing, pterional craniotomy was performed and the dura mater was accessed and lifted under the Zeiss dissecting microscope. We believe that this model may contribute to neuroanatomy education and provide experience for the safe and ethical performance of surgical interventions during the intraoperative period.

  14. Endoscopic supraorbital extradural approach to the cavernous sinus: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Komatsu, Mika; Inoue, Tooru; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2011-05-01

    The cavernous sinus is a small complex structure located at the central base of the skull. Recent extensive use of endoscopy has provided less invasive approaches to the cavernous sinus via endonasal routes, although transcranial routes play an important role in the approach to the cavernous sinus. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of the purely endoscopic transcranial approach to the cavernous sinus through the supraorbital keyhole and to better understand the distorted anatomy of the cavernous sinus via endoscopy. Eight fresh cadavers were studied using 4-mm 0° and 30° endoscopes to develop a surgical approach and to identify surgical landmarks. The endoscopic supraorbital extradural approach was divided into 4 stages: entry into the extradural anterior cranial fossa, exposure of the middle cranial fossa and the periorbita, exposure of the superior cavernous sinus, and exposure of the lateral cavernous sinus. This approach provided superb views of the cavernous sinus structures, especially through the clinoidal (Dolenc) triangle. The lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, including the infratrochlear (Parkinson) triangle and anteromedial (Mullan) triangle, was also clearly demonstrated. An endoscopic supraorbital extradural approach offers excellent exposure of the superior and lateral walls of the cavernous sinus with minimal invasiveness via the transcranial route. This approach could be an alternative to the conventional transcranial approach.

  15. The radial approach to the wrist with styloidectomy: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, F-A; Sébilo, A; Bellemère, P

    2017-09-01

    The radial approach to the wrist is already used in several surgical techniques such as radial styloidectomy and Zaidemberg's vascularized radial graft. The aim of our work was to describe the surgical anatomy of that approach and to determine the acceptable limits of radial oblique styloidectomy that does not damage the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. This radial approach was performed on 11 cadaver specimens. The superficial branches of the radial nerve and the antebrachial cephalic vein were carefully located in the superficial plane. The radiocarpal articular capsule was opened longitudinally between the first and second compartments of the extensor tendons. We drew the oblique radial styloidectomy line at 3, 6 and 9mm from the apex of radial styloid process on the articular surface and then measured the width of ligaments theoretically taken away by the styloidectomy. An oblique radial styloidectomy of less than 6mm preserved the anterior and posterior radiocarpal ligaments. There was one case of radial artery damage while opening the joint capsule. The radial approach to the wrist as described in this work provided good access to the radial styloid process, the radioscaphoid joint and the proximal pole of the scaphoid, if the approach is done carefully to preserve the superficial branches of the radial nerve, the antebrachial cephalic vein and the radial artery. Radial styloidectomy can be performed up to 6mm from the apex without significantly damaging the radiocarpal ligaments, particularly the volar ones. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  17. Accuracy Assessment of Using Rapid Prototyping Drill Templates for Atlantoaxial Screw Placement: A Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of using rapid prototyping drill templates (RPDTs for C1 lateral mass screw (C1-LMS and C2 pedicle screw (C2-PS placement. Methods. 23 formalin-fixed craniocervical cadaver specimens were randomly divided into two groups. In the conventional method group, intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to assist the screw placement. In the RPDT navigation group, specific RPDTs were constructed for each specimen and were used intraoperatively for screw placement navigation. The screw position, the operating time, and the fluoroscopy time for each screw placement were compared between the 2 groups. Results. Compared with the conventional method, the RPDT technique significantly increased the placement accuracy of the C2-PS (p0.05. Moreover, the RPDT technique significantly decreased the operating and fluoroscopy times. Conclusion. Using RPDTs significantly increases the accuracy of C1-LMS and C2-PS placement while decreasing the screw placement time and the radiation exposure. Due to these advantages, this approach is worth promoting for use in the Harms technique.

  18. Ultrasound evaluation of cranial and long bone fractures in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Gerard; Migliore, Salvatore; Bennett, Donald R; McCann, Michael D; Kalynych, Colleen J; Falgatter, Kiva; Simon, Leslie

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound has been utilized in various settings for evaluation and treatment of skeletal injuries. Bone has different tissue acoustic impedance than soft tissue allowing visualization of the cortical disruption found in fractures. To determine emergency physicians' accuracy in diagnosing cranial and long bone fractures using ultrasound. This multi-center prospective double-blinded study used high-frequency linear ultrasound to detect induced fractures among eight test locations from eight cadaver models. After a standard orientation, blinded emergency physicians interpreted real-time sonographic images of test locations. Proximal tibia combined sensitivity (SE)/specificity (SP) was 87.3/69.8% with a combined positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value (NPV) of 84.6/74.3%. Distal radius combined SE/SP was 93.7/93.5% with a combined PPV/NPV of 93.4/90.8%. Frontal combined SE/SP was 84.1/88.9% with a PPV/NPV of 84.9/88.3%. Temporal-parietal combined SE/SP was 95.2/87.9% with a PPV/NPV of 94.8/88.2%. Time to decision varied from less than 10 seconds to 357 seconds. Mean time to decision was 43 to 63 seconds depending on fracture site. Ultrasound by trained emergency medicine physicians can reliably identify fractures in the radius, tibia, frontal, and temporal bones in a very short amount of time, allowing for triage, treatment, and resource management.

  19. Effects of five hindfoot arthrodeses on foot and ankle motion: Measurements in cadaver specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yanxi; Qiang, Minfei; Hao, Yini

    2016-10-18

    Single, double, and triple hindfoot arthrodeses are used to correct hindfoot deformities and relieve chronic pain. However, joint fusion may lead to dysfunction in adjacent articular surfaces. We compared range of motion in adjacent joints before and after arthrodesis to determine the effects of each procedure on joint motion. The theory of moment of couple, bending moment and balanced loading was applied to each of 16 fresh cadaver feet to induce dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, internal rotation, external rotation, inversion, and eversion. Range of motion was measured with a 3-axis coordinate measuring machine in a control foot and in feet after subtalar, talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, double, or triple arthrodesis. All arthrodeses restricted mainly internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion. The restriction in a double arthrodesis was more than that in a single arthrodesis, but that in a calcaneocuboid arthrodesis was relatively low. After triple arthrodeses, the restriction on dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements was substantial, and internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion were almost lost. Considering that different arthrodesis procedures cause complex, three-dimensional hindfoot motion reductions, we recommend talonavicular or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved functions of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion before operation, subtalar or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved abduction/adduction, and talonavicular arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved eversion/inversion.

  20. Percutaneous pins versus volar plates for unstable distal radius fractures: a biomechanic study using a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey; Ambrose, Heidi; McCallister, Wren; Trumble, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A biomechanic study using a cadaver model of a dorsally unstable distal radius fracture was used to compare the stability of percutaneous pinning and volar fixed-angle plating. Among the many surgical options for treating distal radius fractures are percutaneous pinning and internal plate fixation. Although percutaneous pin fixation requires less soft-tissue trauma and has low complication rates, plate fixation allows for early active movement with good clinical results. The biomechanic stability of these 2 methods was studied by using a cadaver model of a dorsally unstable intra-articular distal radius fracture. This study was performed on 7 fresh-frozen cadaver arms, in each of which an unstable intra-articular fracture with dorsal comminution was created. The fracture was first fixed with 0.062-mm K-wires inserted in standard crossed fashion and was tested in a pneumatic loading device that indirectly loaded the wrists through the 5 motor tendons 3 times at each level of force in flexion and extension. Testing was then repeated after removal of the pins and fixation with a fixed-angle DVR distal volar radius plate system (Hand Innovations, Inc., Miami, FL). Testing was performed in flexion up to 68 N and in extension up to 100 N, and the distance across the fracture site was measured. Volar plating was significantly more stable than pinning, with an average movement across the fracture site of 2.51 mm for pin fixation and 1.07 mm for plate fixation. The pins also showed a substantial degree of slipping after repeated stressing, but the plates remained stable. These results show the superior biomechanic stability of internal fixation using plates for dorsally comminuted intra-articular distal radius fractures in this cadaver model. Further clinical correlations are needed.

  1. Transoral robotic-assisted thyroidectomy with central neck dissection: preclinical cadaver feasibility study and proposed surgical technique

    OpenAIRE

    Richmon, Jeremy D.; Holsinger, F. Christopher; Kandil, Emad; Moore, Michael W.; Garcia, Jose Armando; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a transoral robotic-assisted technique to access the thyroid gland has been introduced. Despite the advantages this approach may have over other minimally invasive and robotic-assisted techniques, we found that the placement of the camera through the floor of mouth led to restricted freedom of movement. We describe our modification to this technique to overcome this problem. In a study using two fresh human cadavers, the camera port of the da Vinci robot was placed in the midline or...

  2. Medical Student Dissection of Cadavers Improves Performance on Practical Exams but not on the NBME Anatomy Subject Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent Jones, Leslie; Paulman, Lance E.; Thadani, Raj; Terracio, Louis

    2009-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  3. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagley, Jennifer Elaine; Randall, K; Anderson, MP

    2015-01-01

    .... This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design...

  4. Correlation of contrast-detail analysis and clinical image quality assessment in chest radiography with a human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crop, An; Bacher, Klaus; Van Hoof, Tom; Smeets, Peter V; Smet, Barbara S; Vergauwen, Merel; Kiendys, Urszula; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; D'Herde, Katharina; Thierens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between the clinical and physical image quality of chest images by using cadavers embalmed with the Thiel technique and a contrast-detail phantom. The use of human cadavers fulfilled the requirements of the institutional ethics committee. Clinical image quality was assessed by using three human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel technique, which results in excellent preservation of the flexibility and plasticity of organs and tissues. As a result, lungs can be inflated during image acquisition to simulate the pulmonary anatomy seen on a chest radiograph. Both contrast-detail phantom images and chest images of the Thiel-embalmed bodies were acquired with an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector. Tube voltage (70, 81, 90, 100, 113, 125 kVp), copper filtration (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm Cu), and exposure settings (200, 280, 400, 560, 800 speed class) were altered to simulate different quality levels. Four experienced radiologists assessed the image quality by using a visual grading analysis (VGA) technique based on European Quality Criteria for Chest Radiology. The phantom images were scored manually and automatically with use of dedicated software, both resulting in an inverse image quality figure (IQF). Spearman rank correlations between inverse IQFs and VGA scores were calculated. A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.80, P detail phantom analysis for evaluating clinical image quality in chest radiography. © RSNA, 2011.

  5. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. Methods In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intra-operative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge, quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Results Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65. Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Conclusions Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays

  7. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M; Thelen, Simon; Jungbluth, P; Betsch, M; Miersch, D; Windolf, J; Hakimi, M

    2011-01-27

    Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years) a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intraoperative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge), quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65). Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays advantages over the established operative procedures.

  8. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers using the sacral and coccygeal length measured with multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between stature and the length of the sacrum and coccyx using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and derived regression equations for stature estimation in the modern Japanese population. Two hundred and sixteen Japanese subjects (110 males and 106 females) who underwent postmortem computed tomography with subsequent forensic autopsy between January 2010 and August 2013 were measured. A sagittal-plane image of the sacrum and coccyx was used. Anterior sacral length (ASL) was defined as the linear distance from the anterosuperior edge of the first sacral vertebra (S1) to the anteroinferior edge of the fifth sacral vertebra (S5), and posterior sacral length (PSL) was defined as the linear distance from the posterosuperior edge of S1 to the anteroinferior edge of S5. Anterior sacrococcygeal length (ASCL) was defined as the linear distance from the anterosuperior edge of S1 to the anteroinferior edge of the last coccygeal vertebra (LCV), and posterior sacrococcygeal length (PSCL) was defined as the linear distance from the posterosuperior edge of S1 to the anteroinferior edge of the LCV. The correlation between stature and each parameter was evaluated by simple regression analysis using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Each parameter was significantly and positively correlated with stature among both males and females. Cadaver stature (CS, cm)=0.39×PSL (mm)+123.70 [Corrected] provided the most accurate stature prediction (R=0.507, SEE=5.83 cm) in males. CS (cm)=0.56×PSCL (mm)+85.29 provided the most accurate stature prediction (R=0.659, SEE=6.68 cm) in females. We conclude that sacral/sacrococcygeal length measured with MDCT is a potentially useful tool for stature estimation, particularly in cases where better predictors such as the long bones are not available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Prostatic Volume and its Variations in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Azam, A S; Choudhury, S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ismatsara, M; Yesmin, M; Zisa, R S; Khan, S H

    2016-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders of Bangladeshi male in recent years. Volume of the prostate is necessary to estimate the amount of BPH adenoma to determine the appropriate therapy or to select the surgical approach. Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is preferred for small glands and open prostatectomy for larger ones. Decrease in prostatic mass after hormonal manipulation or radiation therapy can be used as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. The effect of prostate volume on biopsy outcome was assessed and was noted that there was an inverse relationship in between size of the gland and prostate cancer. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in volume of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The volume of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean volume of the prostate gland was 13.75ml in Group A, 24.44ml in Group B and 29.72ml in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of volume of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The volume of prostate gland was found to be increased with increasing age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the volume of prostate gland of Bangladeshi

  10. A cadaver study of mastoidectomy using an image-guided human-robot collaborative control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Lee, Hwan Seo; Yang, Chan Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Hoon; Lee, Seongpung; Yi, Byung-Ju; Chung, Jong Woo

    2017-10-01

    Surgical precision would be better achieved with the development of an anatomical monitoring and controlling robot system than by traditional surgery techniques alone. We evaluated the feasibility of robot-assisted mastoidectomy in terms of duration, precision, and safety. Human cadaveric study. We developed a multi-degree-of-freedom robot system for a surgical drill with a balancing arm. The drill system is manipulated by the surgeon, the motion of the drill burr is monitored by the image-guided system, and the brake is controlled by the robotic system. The system also includes an alarm as well as the brake to help avoid unexpected damage to vital structures. Experimental mastoidectomy was performed in 11 temporal bones of six cadavers. Parameters including duration and safety were assessed, as well as intraoperative damage, which was judged via pre- and post-operative computed tomography. The duration of mastoidectomy in our study was comparable with that required for chronic otitis media patients. Although minor damage, such as dura exposure without tearing, was noted, no critical damage to the facial nerve or other important structures was observed. When the brake system was set to 1 mm from the facial nerve, the postoperative average bone thicknesses of the facial nerve was 1.39, 1.41, 1.22, 1.41, and 1.55 mm in the lateral, posterior pyramidal and anterior, lateral, and posterior mastoid portions, respectively. Mastoidectomy can be successfully performed using our robot-assisted system while maintaining a pre-set limit of 1 mm in most cases. This system may thus be useful for more inexperienced surgeons. NA.

  11. Ultrasound-guided injection of the intrapelvic portion of the obturator internus in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Rha, Dong-wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Hun-mu; Lee, Sang-Hee; Koh, DongJin

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal dysfunction of the pelvic floor is common. One of the intrapelvic muscles, the obturator internus (OI), can be substantially stressed during its sharply angulated exit from the pelvis. However, there may be considerable overlap between symptoms and signs arising from the OI and other potential pain generators including the levator ani in the pelvic region. Accurate diagnosis for the OI might permit more efficient treatment combined with OI-specific exercise and behavior modification. Therefore, we hypothesized that ultrasound (US)-guided needle insertion in the intrapelvic portion of the OI would be accurate when a pararectal approach is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Bilateral US-guided intramuscular injections in the pelvic area were performed using 6 fresh, nonembalmed male cadavers. When the needle was positioned in the targeted muscle, 0.5 mL of green filler was injected. After the injection procedure, each specimen was dissected to evaluate the accuracy of US-guided injection into the intrapelvic portion of the OI. Twelve injections were made into the targeted muscles in the 6 cadaveric specimens. All injections placed filler into the OI muscles just medial to the inferior pubic ramus. There was no case in which a needle passed through unintended structures, such as neurovascular structures. The newly developed US-guided pararectal approach allowed accurate insertion of a needle into the intrapelvic portion of the OI. This US-guided method facilitated a more precise approach to the intrapelvic portion of the OI and may help differentiate conditions or symptoms caused by other structures.

  12. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  13. Fixed-angle plates in patella fractures - a pilot cadaver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective Modified anterior tension wiring with K-wires and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring are currently the fixation of choice for patellar fractures. Failure of fixation, migration of the wires, postoperative pain and resulting revision surgery, however, are not uncommon. After preliminary biomechanical testing of a new fixed-angle plate system especially designed for fixation of patella fractures the aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and anatomical feasibility of implanting such a plate-device at the human patella. Methods In six fresh unfixed female cadavers without history of previous fractures around the knee (average age 88.8 years) a bilateral fixed-angle plate fixation of the patella was carried out after previous placement of a transverse central osteotomy. Operative time, intra-operative problems, degree of retropatellar arthritis (following Outerbridge), quality of reduction and existence of any intraarticular screw placement have been raised. In addition, lateral and anteroposterior radiographs of all specimens were made. Results Due to the high average age of 88.8 years no patella showed an unimpaired retropatellar articular surface and all were severely osteoporotic, which made a secure fixation of the reduction forceps during surgery difficult. The operation time averaged 49 minutes (range: 36-65). Although in postoperative X-rays the fracture gap between the fragments was still visible, the analysis of the retropatellar surface showed no residual articular step or dehiscence > 0.5 mm. Also in a total of 24 inserted screws not one intraarticular malposition was found. No intraoperative complications were noticed. Conclusions Osteosynthesis of a medial third patella fracture with a bilateral fixed-angle plate-device is surgically and anatomically feasible without difficulties. Further studies have to depict whether the bilateral fixed-angle plate-osteosynthesis of the patella displays advantages over the established

  14. Acromioclavicular joint dislocations: radiological correlation between Rockwood classification system and injury patterns in human cadaver species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Anica; Rösler, Klaus; Rotter, Robert; Gradl, Georg; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The classification system of Rockwood and Young is a commonly used classification for acromioclavicular joint separations subdividing types I-VI. This classification hypothesizes specific lesions to anatomical structures (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, capsule, attached muscles) leading to the injury. In recent literature, our understanding for anatomical correlates leading to the radiological-based Rockwood classification is questioned. The goal of this experimental-based investigation was to approve the correlation between the anatomical injury pattern and the Rockwood classification. In four human cadavers (seven shoulders), the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were transected stepwise. Radiological correlates were recorded (Zanca view) with 15-kg longitudinal tension applied at the wrist. The resulting acromio- and coracoclavicular distances were measured. Radiographs after acromioclavicular ligament transection showed joint space enlargement (8.6 ± 0.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, p < 0.05) and no significant change in coracoclavicular distance (10.4 ± 0.9 vs. 10.0 ± 0.8 mm). According to the Rockwood classification only type I and II lesions occurred. After additional coracoclavicular ligament cut, the acromioclavicular joint space width increased to 16.7 ± 2.7 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mm, p < 0.05. The mean coracoclavicular distance increased to 20.6 ± 2.1 mm resulting in type III-V lesions concerning the Rockwood classification. Trauma with intact coracoclavicular ligaments did not result in acromioclavicular joint lesions higher than Rockwood type I and II. The clinical consequence for reconstruction of low-grade injuries might be a solely surgical approach for the acromioclavicular ligaments or conservative treatment. High-grade injuries were always based on additional structural damage to the coracoclavicular ligaments. Rockwood type V lesions occurred while muscle attachments were intact.

  15. Prevention of Fat Embolism in Fat Injection for Gluteal Augmentation, Anatomic Study in Fresh Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gallardo, Guillermo; Orozco-Rentería, David; Medina-Zamora, Pablo; Mota-Fonseca, Eduardo; García-Benavides, Leonel; Cuenca-Pardo, Jesus; Contreras-Bulnes, Livia; Ambriz-Plasencia, Ana Rosa; Curiel-Beltran, Jesus Aaron

    2017-05-09

    Liposuction is a popular surgical procedure. As in any surgery, there are risks and complications, especially when combined with fat injection. Case reports of fat embolism have described a possible explanation as the puncture and tear of gluteal vessels during the procedure, especially when a deep injection is planned. A total of 10 dissections were performed in five fresh cadavers. Each buttocks was divided into four quadrants. We focused on the location where the gluteal vessels enter the muscle and the diameter of the vessels. Colorant at two different angles was injected (30° and 45°). We evaluated the relation of the colorant with the main vessels. We found two perforators per quadrant. The thickness of the gluteal muscle was 2.84 ± 1.54 cm. The area under the muscle where the superior gluteal vessels traverse the muscle was located 6.4 ± 1.54 cm from the intergluteal crease and 5.8 ± 1.13 cm from the superior border of the muscle. The inferior gluteal vessels were located 8.3 ± 1.39 cm from the intergluteal crease and 10 ± 2.24 cm from the superior border of the muscle. When we compared the fat injected at a 30° angle, the colorant stayed in the muscle. Using a 45° angle, the colorant was in contact with the superior gluteal artery and the sciatic nerve. No puncture or tear was observed in the vessels or the nerve. The location where the vessels come in contact with the muscle, which can be considered for fat injection, were located in quadrants 1 and 3. A 30° angle allows for an injection into the muscle without passing into deeper structures, unlike a 45° injection angle.

  16. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  17. The histopathologic reliability of tissue taken from cadavers within the gross anatomy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution. The tissue was processed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at six micrometers, and stained with H&E. The microscope slides were evaluated by a board certified pathologist to determine whether the cellular components of the tissues were preserved at a high enough quality to allow for histopathologic diagnosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between ratings and organ groups. Across all organs, there was a smaller proportion of "poor" ratings. The lung group had the highest percentage of "poor" ratings (23.1%). The heart group had the least "poor" ratings (0.0%). The largest percentage of "satisfactory" ratings were in the lung group (52.8%), and the heart group contained the highest percentage of "good" ratings (58.5%) The lung group had the lowest percentage of "good" ratings (24.2%). These results indicate that heart tissue is more reliable than lung, kidney, or liver tissue when utilizing tissue from the gross anatomy laboratory for research and/or educational purposes. This information advises educators and researchers about the quality and histopathologic reliability of tissue samples obtained from the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ 11: 207-214. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Bone strains around apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla of human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehreli, Murat Cavit; Akkocaoglu, Murat; Comert, Ayhan; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Akca, Kivanc

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bone strains of apically free versus grafted implants in the posterior maxilla. The experiments were undertaken in four edentulous maxillary posterior regions of fresh human cadavers, having a minimum bone height of 8 mm. In each bone fragment, two Ø 4.1 mm x 12 mm Straumann implants were placed, and insertion torque values (ITV) and implant stability quotients (ISQ) of the implants were quantified to determine implant anchorage. Two splinted crowns were fabricated for each experimental model. Strain gauges were bonded on the buccal and sinus floor cortical bones around apically free and grafted implants. Microstrains were recorded by a data acquisition system and corresponding software at a sample rate of 10 KHz under central and buccally oriented lateral-axial static loads of 100 and 150 N in separate cases. The data were compared by independent T test at a significance level set at PBone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apically free implants were higher than those of apically grafted implants (Pbone around apically free and grafted implants (PBone strains around anterior implants were higher than those of posterior implants. Microstrains in the sinus floor cortical bone in apically grafted models were slightly higher than apically free models. Bone tissue strains on the buccal cortical areas adjacent to apicallyfree implants are higher than those of apically grafted implants. Sinus lifting, resulting in an enhanced apical support, slightly increases strains at the sinus floor region, but leads to a decrease in bone strains around the collar of supporting implants.

  19. Feasibility of arthroscopic placement of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis grafts in the cadaver hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of clinical trials have been done presenting the effectiveness of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC for the regeneration of chondral leasions. The purpose of the study was to underline the accessability of the acetabulum and the femoral head through the known portals and prove i the feasibility of placing the AMIC in the different zones of the hip joint and ii check for dislocation after joint movement. Six human cadavers underwent hip arthroscopy on both hips. Two chondral lesions were set on each femoral head and two in the acetabulum to evaluate a total of 48 defects. After microfracturing an autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis graft was placed on these lesions arthroscopically. After repeated joint movement the dislocation of the graft was checked. It was possible to place the AMIC graft in all 48 chondral lesions. The time needed for placing the graft was 8±2.9 minutes. A trend of time reduction could be detected throughout this study as the surgeon gained more experience. For the femoral head, after twenty cycles of joint movement 18/24 spots showed no displacement, 4/24 showed minor displacement (<3 mm and 2/24 showed major displacement (>3 mm. None showed total displacement. For the acetabulum 22/24 spots showed no displacement and 2/24 showed minor displacement. A combined microfracturing and placing of an AMIC graft of focal chondral lesions of the hip joint can be done arthroscopically. Prospective randomized in vivo studies should compare the results of arthroscopilally placed AMIC grafts with microfracturing and microfracturing alone.

  20. Supraorbitary to infraorbitary nerve transfer for restoration of midface sensation in face transplantation: cadaver feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Andres; Audolfsson, Thorir; Rozen, Shai; Kildal, Morten; Nowinski, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The collected experience from facial allotransplantations has shown that the recovery of sensory function of the face graft is unpredictable. Unavailability of healthy donor nerves, especially in central face defects may contribute to this fact. Herein, the technical feasibility of transferring the supraorbitary nerve (SO) to the infraorbitary nerve (IO) in a model of central facial transplantation was investigated. Five heads from fresh cadavers were dissected with the aid of 3× loupe magnification. Measurements of the maximum length of dissection of the SO nerve through a supraciliary incision and the IO nerve from the skin of the facial flap to the infraorbital foramen were performed. The distance between supraorbital and infraorbital foramens and the calibers of both nerves were also measured. In all dissections, we simulated a central allotransplantation procedure and assessed the feasibility of directly transferring the SO to the IO nerve. The average maximum length of dissection for the IO and SO nerve was 1.4 ± 0.3 cm and 4.5 ± 1.0 cm, respectively. The average distance between the infraorbital and supraorbital foramina was 4.6 ± 0.3 cm. The average calibers of the nerves were of 1.1 ± 0.2 mm for the SO nerve and 2.9 ± 0.4 mm for the IO nerve. We were able to perform tension-free SO to IO nerve coaptations in all specimens. SO to IO nerve transfer is an anatomically feasible procedure in central facial allotransplantation. This technique could be used to improve the restoration of midfacial sensation by the use of a healthy recipient nerve in case of the recipient IO nerves are not available secondary to high-energy trauma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Medial collateral ligament lengthening by standardized pie-crusting technique: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois de Mont-Marin, G; Babusiaux, D; Brilhault, J

    2016-06-01

    Pie-crusting (PC) is a tissue expansion technique using multiple perforation to lengthen the medial collateral ligament (MCL), but has still to be codified. Standardized MCL PC allows measured opening of the medial femorotibial (MFT) joint line, without risk of MCL tear. Thirty-one knees were dissected, with medial parapatellar arthrotomy and resection of the cruciate ligaments and menisci. The deep MCL bundle was sectioned, and the thick anterior bundle (AB) of the MCL was observed in each knee. Knees were randomly allocated between AB sparing (AB+; n=15) or sectioning (AB-; n=16). A graduated dynometric tensor applied constant 80N distraction on the MFT joint line. MCL PC used a 19-G needle at the joint line, with a horizontal series of perforations every 2mm over the width of the MCL. MFT compartment opening was measured after each PC series. Mean MFT space after sectioning the cruciate ligaments was 5.52±0.37mm, increasing by 1.64±1.28mm with AB sectioning. Twenty-five perforations were made in the AB+ and 16 in the AB- group. Final mean joint-line increase was 0.18±0.18mm in AB+ and 3.16±2.70mm in AB-. There were no MCL tears. MCL pie-crusting was reliable and reproducible, achieving progressive MFT joint-line lengthening to a mean 8.71±2.62mm when associated to sectioning of the cruciate ligaments and MCL AB. Cadaver. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  3. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ device versus traditional airway suction in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, Demis N; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations.

  4. A cadaver study of mastoidectomy using an image‐guided human–robot collaborative control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Lee, Hwan Seo; Yang, Chan Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Hoon; Lee, Seongpung

    2017-01-01

    Objective Surgical precision would be better achieved with the development of an anatomical monitoring and controlling robot system than by traditional surgery techniques alone. We evaluated the feasibility of robot‐assisted mastoidectomy in terms of duration, precision, and safety. Study Design Human cadaveric study. Materials and Methods We developed a multi‐degree‐of‐freedom robot system for a surgical drill with a balancing arm. The drill system is manipulated by the surgeon, the motion of the drill burr is monitored by the image‐guided system, and the brake is controlled by the robotic system. The system also includes an alarm as well as the brake to help avoid unexpected damage to vital structures. Experimental mastoidectomy was performed in 11 temporal bones of six cadavers. Parameters including duration and safety were assessed, as well as intraoperative damage, which was judged via pre‐ and post‐operative computed tomography. Results The duration of mastoidectomy in our study was comparable with that required for chronic otitis media patients. Although minor damage, such as dura exposure without tearing, was noted, no critical damage to the facial nerve or other important structures was observed. When the brake system was set to 1 mm from the facial nerve, the postoperative average bone thicknesses of the facial nerve was 1.39, 1.41, 1.22, 1.41, and 1.55 mm in the lateral, posterior pyramidal and anterior, lateral, and posterior mastoid portions, respectively. Conclusion Mastoidectomy can be successfully performed using our robot‐assisted system while maintaining a pre‐set limit of 1 mm in most cases. This system may thus be useful for more inexperienced surgeons. Level of Evidence NA. PMID:29094065

  5. The amount of information provided in articles published in clinical anatomy and surgical and radiologic anatomy regarding human cadaveric materials and trends in acknowledging donors/cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, İlke Ali; Coşkun, Osman; Gürtekin, Başak; Kale, Ayşin

    2016-12-01

    Appreciating the contribution of donor-cadavers to medical education is a well observed practice among anatomists. However, the appreciation of their contribution in research and scientific articles remains dubious. We aimed to evaluate how much data anatomists provide about specimens they have used and how frequently anatomists acknowledge their cadavers in published articles. We evaluated all articles performed on human cadaveric specimens that were published in Clinical Anatomy and Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy between January 2011 and December 2015. We evaluated how much data on the demographics, preservation method(s), source, and ethical/legal permissions regarding cadavers were provided. We also evaluated the number of articles that acknowledged donor-cadavers. The majority of articles provided demographic data (age and sex) and preservation method used in the article. The source of the specimens was not mentioned in 45.6 % of the articles. Only 26.2 % of the articles provided a degree of consent and only 32.4 % of the articles reported some form of ethical approval for the study. The cadavers and their families were acknowledged in 17.7 % of the articles. We observed that no standard method for reporting data has been established. Anatomists should collaborate to create awareness among the scientific community for providing adequate information regarding donor-cadavers, including source and consent. Acknowledging donor-cadavers and/or their families should also be promoted. Scientific articles should be used to create a transparent relationship of trust between anatomists and their society.

  6. A comparison of arthrocentesis teaching tools: cadavers, synthetic joint models, and the relative utility of different educational modalities in improving trainees' comfort with procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jessica R; Ben-Artzi, Ami; Fisher, Mark C; Bass, Anne R; Pillinger, Michael H

    2012-06-01

    Each year, rheumatology programs across the country teach incoming trainees the skill of arthrocentesis, but the relative effectiveness of various teaching techniques has not been assessed in a systematic way. We compared approaches to teaching arthrocentesis using cadavers versus anatomic models. In a pilot study, new rheumatology fellows (n = 7) from 2 academic institutions were surveyed at 3 points during arthrocentesis training: (1) before assuming patient care; (2) after lecture with handouts, followed by practice either on cadavers (group A) or on synthetic joint models (group B); and (3) 6 weeks into fellowship. Fellows rated their comfort levels for arthrocentesis of specific joints using 9-point Likert scales. Fellows also retrospectively rated the utility of individual teaching modalities in helping them to learn. As a follow-up study, internal medicine residents taking part in a month-long rheumatology rotation were similarly surveyed on their comfort level performing knee and shoulder arthrocentesis before a cadaver teaching laboratory and at the end of their month rotation. The initial mean comfort level performing arthrocentesis for all fellows was low (2.01). After the cadaver teaching session, group A fellows experienced an overall comfort level increase of 1.95, with the largest single increase reported for shoulder arthrocentesis (3.86). After the anatomic model teaching session, group B fellows reported a mean comfort increase of 1.29, with the largest increase reported for knee arthrocentesis (3.13). The subsequent study with residents confirmed significant increases in comfort after the cadaver laboratory. When surveyed, the learning experience fellows considered most effective was the opportunity to perform procedures under supervision and guidance, followed by training on cadavers. Although all teaching interventions for trainees learning arthrocentesis were helpful for increasing trainee's comfort with arthrocentesis, the use of cadavers

  7. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, William H; Diederich, Chris J; Shu, Richard [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-06-21

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t{sub 43}) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  8. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  9. Anatomical study of the coracoid process in Mongolian male cadavers using the Latarjet procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianqiang; Dong, Lele; Zhao, Yanjun; Sun, Jinlei; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Chunzheng

    2016-10-24

    The Latarjet procedure addresses recurrent anterior shoulder instability in the context of a significant bony defect. However, the bony and soft tissue anatomy of the coracoid in coracoid transfer procedures has not yet been defined in Mongolian men. The aims of this study were to describe the soft tissue attachments of the coracoid regarding the bony anatomy, define the average amount of bone available for coracoid transfer, analyze the characteristics of the pectoralis minor and coracoid, and study the relationship between the bony dimensions of the coracoid and body length in Mongolian men. We dissected 30 shoulders from 15 male Mongolian cadavers, exposing the coracoid process and attached anatomical structures including the lateral clavicle and acromion, then measured the bony dimensions of the coracoid and the locations and sizes of the coracoid soft tissue footprints. The mean length of the coracoid available for transfer was 23.93 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the coracoid was 42.10 ± 2.3 mm, and the mean width and height of the coracoid midpoint were 15.29 ± 1.70 mm and 11.61 ± 1.98 mm, respectively. The pectoralis minor was part of the joint capsule and passed over the coracoid in some samples. The mutation rate of the pectoralis minor footprint, which was asymmetrical and irregular, was 23.33 %. Statistical analysis involved a multiple linear regression equation. The average amount of bone available for use in coracoid transfer in Mongolian men was less than that of other populations. Mutation of the pectoralis minor may induce intraoperative capsule injury because this muscle passes over the coracoid deep to the joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint and constitutes part of the shoulder joint, strengthening the joint. Statistically, higher coracoids appeared in shorter patients and longer coracoids appeared in taller patients. Surgically, great care should be taken to consider a patient's height to precisely implement the

  10. La donación cadavérica y su repercusión en las familias donantes mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Netza Cardoso, Cruz; Casas Martínez, M. de la Luz; Ramírez García, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    La muerte encefálica se asocia a donación de órganos. Sin embargo, las distintas repercusiones que este proceso tiene en las familias donantes no han sido bien estudiadas1. Por otro lado, tampoco sabemos hasta donde el diagnóstico de muerte encefálica es bien comprendido por los afectados. Por tal motivo desarrollamos este trabajo cuyo objetivo principal es censar las distintas afecciones que una familia donante puede tener por el proceso de donación cadavérica. Se capturó la información de s...

  11. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando H. Aballay; Albérico F. MURÚA; Acosta, Juan C.; Centeno, Néstor

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. ...

  12. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nester Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides a summary of a Keynote lecture delivered at the 2009 Australasian Podiatry Conference. The aim of the paper is to review recent research that has adopted dynamic cadaver and invasive kinematics research approaches to better understand foot and ankle kinematics during gait. It is not intended to systematically cover all literature related to foot and ankle kinematics (such as research using surface mounted markers. Since the paper is based on a keynote presentation its focuses on the authors own experiences and work in the main, drawing on the work of others where appropriate Methods Two approaches to the problem of accessing and measuring the kinematics of individual anatomical structures in the foot have been taken, (i static and dynamic cadaver models, and (ii invasive in-vivo research. Cadaver models offer the advantage that there is complete access to all the tissues of the foot, but the cadaver must be manipulated and loaded in a manner which replicates how the foot would have performed when in-vivo. The key value of invasive in-vivo foot kinematics research is the validity of the description of foot kinematics, but the key difficulty is how generalisable this data is to the wider population. Results Through these techniques a great deal has been learnt. We better understand the valuable contribution mid and forefoot joints make to foot biomechanics, and how the ankle and subtalar joints can have almost comparable roles. Variation between people in foot kinematics is high and normal. This includes variation in how specific joints move and how combinations of joints move. The foot continues to demonstrate its flexibility in enabling us to get from A to B via a large number of different kinematic solutions. Conclusion Rather than continue to apply a poorly founded model of foot type whose basis is to make all feet meet criteria for the mechanical 'ideal' or 'normal' foot, we should embrace variation

  13. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to Litopenaeus vannamei from infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M A; Shervette, V R; Lotz, J M

    2001-06-20

    Shrimp viruses can remain infectious in frozen shrimp tissue and have been found in frozen commodity shrimp. Therefore, the threat of viral outbreaks in wild and cultured shrimp via frozen commodity shrimp exists. Because frozen shrimp are imported with and without the cephalothorax, more knowledge is needed concerning the infectivity of a cephalothorax relative to that of an abdomen. We compared the mortality rates from shrimp exposed to a WSSV-infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver. Estimates of transmission coefficients from the exposures to the infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp were also calculated because the transmission coefficients account for differences in the initial doses. In addition, we compared the variability in infectivity of pieces of shrimp by feeding 24 equal-sized pieces of cephalothorax and abdomen to 24 individually isolated shrimp. In Expt 1, susceptible shrimp did not completely consume the infected abdomen, and a significant difference was detected among shrimp exposed to the abdomen (mortality rate = 0.40), cephalothorax (mortality rate = 0.75), and whole shrimp cadaver (mortality rate = 0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.95 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.59 from an infected abdomen, and 0.69 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 2, susceptible shrimp were starved to ensure complete ingestion of each dose. No significant difference was observed in the estimated mortality rates from an infected cephalothorax (0.58), abdomen (0.63), or whole shrimp (0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.84 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.83 from an infected abdomen, and 0.60 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 3, no difference was observed in the mortality rates resulting from exposures to pieces of infected cephalothorax (0.57) or abdomen (0.58). Our results suggested that there was no difference in the viral loads of a WSSV-infected cephalothorax or abdomen, but

  14. Death Becomes Them: Bacterial Community Dynamics and Stilbene Antibiotic Production in Cadavers of Galleria mellonella Killed by Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Amanda C; Jagdish, Tanush; Slough, Greg; Hoinville, Megan E; Wollenberg, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Insect larvae killed by entomopathogenic nematodes are thought to contain bacterial communities dominated by a single bacterial genus, that of the nematode's bacterial symbiont. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile bacterial community dynamics in greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae cadavers killed by Heterorhabditis nematodes and their Photorhabdus symbionts. We found that, although Photorhabdus strains did initially displace an Enterococcus-dominated community present in uninfected G. mellonella insect larvae, the cadaver community was not static. Twelve days postinfection, Photorhabdus shared the cadaver with Stenotrophomonas species. Consistent with this result, Stenotrophomonas strains isolated from infected cadavers were resistant to Photorhabdus-mediated toxicity in solid coculture assays. We isolated and characterized a Photorhabdus-produced antibiotic from G. mellonella cadavers, produced it synthetically, and demonstrated that both the natural and synthetic compounds decreased G. mellonella-associated Enterococcus growth, but not Stenotrophomonas growth, in vitro Finally, we showed that the Stenotrophomonas strains described here negatively affected Photorhabdus growth in vitro Our results add an important dimension to a broader understanding of Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus biology and also demonstrate that interspecific bacterial competition likely characterizes even a theoretically monoxenic environment, such as a Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus-parasitized insect cadaver. Understanding, and eventually manipulating, both human and environmental health depends on a complete accounting of the forces that act on and shape microbial communities. One of these underlying forces is hypothesized to be resource competition. A resource that has received little attention in the general microbiological literature, but likely has ecological and evolutionary importance, is dead/decaying multicellular organisms. Metazoan cadavers

  15. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A Novel, Adaptable Laryngeal Mask to Facilitate a Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy: Proof-of-Concept Prototype Demonstration on a Mannequin Model and Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Seth M; Cover, Christopher G; Chedid, Nicholas R; Kleinpeter, Scott M; Palomino, Jaime

    2015-10-01

    Most percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) mortalities result from airway-related complications. Improved airway pressure management and gas delivery are targets for innovation. This study describes an adaptable laryngeal mask (ALM) designed to remove the bronchoscope from the endotracheal tube (ETT) and place it in a separate lumen. Airflow and device efficacy were evaluated during PDTs with an ALM on mannequins and cadavers, respectively. Procedures were completed by a single physician using an 8.0 mm ETT and the Ciaglia Blue Rhino method on simulation mannequins (TruCorp AirSim Traci) and fresh-frozen cadavers. Mannequin simulation tested the respiratory capabilities of an ALM utilizing a BioPac spirometer and a Maquet Servo ventilator. Qualitative analysis on device efficacy was performed on 2 fresh-frozen cadavers (1 male, 1 female). Preliminary ventilation testing on a PDT-able mannequin using the ALM showed an increase in airflow reaching the lungs compared with a deflated ETT. During mannequin and cadaver testing, the ALM was placed over the in situ ETT effectively, thereby removing the bronchoscope from the ETT while maintaining a continuous visual of the incision site. Both mannequin and cadaveric testing using an ALM enabled a single physician to safely perform the PDT procedure with minimal assistance. Initial testing using an ALM during PDT on mannequins and cadavers showed an improvement in airflow and the removal of the bronchoscope from the ETT, respectively. Further studies using the ALM in a patient population compared with standard techniques would be useful.

  17. Time- and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase activity and cyanide concentration in excised mice organs and mice cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Rao, Pooja; Yadav, Shiv K; Gujar, Niranjan L; Satpute, Ravindra M; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Postmortem stability of cyanide biomarkers is often disputed. We assessed the time and temperature-dependent changes in cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and cyanide concentration in various organs of mice succumbing to cyanide. Immediately after death, excised mice organs and mice cadavers were stored at room temperature (35°C ± 5°C) or in frozen storage (-20°C ± 2°C). At various times after death, CCO activity and cyanide concentrations were measured in excised mice organs or organs removed from mice cadavers. The study revealed that (i) measuring both the biomarkers in mice cadavers was more reliable compared to excised mice organs, (ii) measuring temporal CCO activity and cyanide concentration in vital organs from mice cadavers (room temperature) was reliable up to 24 h, and (iii) CCO activity in the brain and lungs and cyanide concentration in organs from mice cadavers (frozen) were measurable beyond 21 days. This study will be helpful in postmortem determination of cyanide poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on pelvic measurements in three-dimensional multidetector computed tomographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of stature estimation by measuring the pelvic bones of Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). We assessed 3D reconstructed images of 210 Japanese subjects (108 males, 102 females) who had undergone postmortem CT between May 2011 and November 2013. We defined the linear distance from the anterosuperior margin of the left and right anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) to the posterior margin of the left and right ischial spines as the LSS and RSS, respectively. We also defined the linear distance from the anterosuperior margin of the left and right ASIS to the anteroinferior margin of the left and right ischial tuberosities as the LST and RST, respectively. The correlation between the cadaver stature (CS) and each parameter (LSS, LST, RSS, and RST) was evaluated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analysis was performed for stature estimation. All four parameters correlated significantly with stature independent of sex, suggesting that they can be used as a tool for stature estimation. The LST had the closest correlation with stature in both sexes.

  19. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1.5-Tesla MRI cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Fries, Simon [Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Orthopaedic Department, Wolhusen (Switzerland); Schweizer, Andreas [University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany); Bongartz, Georg [University Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position. (orig.)

  20. Absorption of 308-nm excimer laser radiation by balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, R.H.; Bloom, R.T.; Schneider, R.T.; Ren, Q.; Sohl, J.; Viscardi, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Absorption of the excimer laser radiations of 193-nm argon fluorine and 308-nm xenon chloride in balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes was measured. The absorption of these materials as considerably different for the two wavelengths; we found that 308-nm light experienced much less absorption than the 193-nm light. The extinction coefficient (k) for 308 nm was k = 0.19/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 0.22/cm for sodium hyaluronate. In contrast to this, the extinction coefficient for 193 nm was k = 140/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 540/cm for sodium hyaluronate. Two 1-day-old human phakic cadaver eyes showed complete absorption with both wavelengths. Using aphakic eyes, incomplete absorption was noted at the posterior pole with 308 nm and complete absorption was noted with 193 nm. The extinction in the anterior part of aphakic eyes (the first 6 mm) was 4.2/cm for 308 nm, meaning that the intensity of the light is reduced by a factor of 10 after traveling the first 5.5 mm. However, we observed that the material in the eye fluoresces, meaning the 308 nm is transformed into other (longer) wavelengths that travel through the total eye with minimal absorption. Conclusions drawn from this experiment are that the use of the 308-nm wavelength may have undesirable side effects, while the use of the 193-nm wavelength should be consistent with ophthalmic use on both the cornea and the lens.

  1. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. ABALLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

  2. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of finger A3 pulley rupture in the crimp grip position - a magnetic resonance imaging cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Adler, Werner [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schweizer, Andreas [Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The correct diagnosis of an A3 pulley rupture is challenging for musculoskeletal radiologists. An A3 pulley rupture should in theory influence the shape of the proximal interphalangeal joint volar plate (VP) and the amount of bowstringing at level of the VP during finger flexion. The purpose of this study was to perform MRI with metric analysis of the VP configuration and VP bowstringing in cadaver fingers in the crimp grip position and to determine cut points for A3 pulley rupture. MRI in the crimp grip position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (fingers with A3 pulley rupture n = 16, fingers without A3 pulley rupture n = 5). The distances of the translation of the VP relative to the middle phalanx base, the distances between the flexor tendons and the VP body, and the distances between the flexor tendon and bone (TB) were measured. Statistical analysis showed significantly lower VP translation distances and significantly higher VP tendon distances if the A3 pulley was ruptured. A2 TB and A4 TB distances did not differ significantly in specimens with and without A3 pulley rupture. The optimal cut points for A3 pulley rupture were a VP translation distance <2.8 mm and a VP tendon distance >1.4 mm. Reduction of the VP translation distance and augmentation of the VP tendon distance are suitable indirect signs of A3 pulley rupture. (orig.)

  4. Flexural strength of mini-implants developed for Herbst appliance skeletal anchorage: a study in Minipigs br1 cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Barretto Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to verify if mini-implant prototypes (MIP developed for Herbst appliance anchorage are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and to determine whether the flexural strength of these MIP varies depending on the site of insertion (maxilla and mandible. METHODS: Thirteen MIP were inserted in three minipig cadavers (six in the maxilla and seven in the mandible. The specimens were prepared and submitted to mechanical testing. The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each region. A two-way Student's t test was used to compare the strength between the sites. A one-way Student's t test was performed to test the hypothesis. Orthopedic forces above 1.0 kgf were considered. RESULTS: The MIP supported flexural strength higher than 1.0 kgf (13.8 ± 2.3 Kg, in the posterior region of the maxilla and 20.5 ± 5.2 Kg in the anterior region of the mandible with a significantly lower flexural strength in the anterior region of the mandible (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The MIP are capable of withstanding orthopedic forces, and are more resistant in the anterior region of the mandible than in the posterior region of the maxilla in Minipigs br1 cadavers.

  5. Accuracy of a flapless protocol for computer-guided zygomatic implant placement in human cadavers: expectations and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiroli, Guido; Angiero, Francesca; Zangerl, Antoniettel; Benedicenti, Stefano; Ferrante, Franco; Widmann, Gerlig

    2016-03-01

    This work evaluated the accuracy and safety of a protocol for minimally-invasive flapless zygomatic implant placement that uses computer-guided stereolithographic mucosa-supported surgical templates. A total of six zygomatic implants were placed in three formalin-fixed human cadaver heads, with edentulous and severely atrophic posterior maxillae. CT scans of each cadaver head were performed after zygomatic implant placement, to evaluate the lateral error (LE) at implant tip and base, and the angular error (AE) of the implant body. Excluding the implant placed outside the drilling channel, the LE at the implant base was less than 1 mm in all cases. The average LE at the tip was 3.86 mm, and the AE was less than 6° in all cases, with an average of 4.5°. Computer-guided minimally-invasive flapless zygomatic implant surgery remains challenging. Careful planning and perfect stability of the surgical guide are essential. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nerve preservation in tension-free vaginal mesh procedures for pelvic organ prolapse: a cadaveric study using fresh and fixed cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Masami; Koyama, Masayasu; Murakami, Gen; Nagata, Ichiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Furuya, Kenichi

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were, using fixed and fresh cadavers, to clarify how closely the pelvic splanchnic nerve, levator ani nerve (LAN), and sacrospinous ligament (SSL) are located and to examine how to avoid nerve injury during the posterior tension-free vaginal mesh procedure (TVMP), in which mesh is applied through the SSL. Macroscopic dissection of fixed cadavers demonstrated that the LAN crossed the inside of the SSL at a point 0-18 mm medial to the ischial spine and entered the muscle at a point 12-26 mm inferior to the ischial spine and 40-55 mm anterolateral to the coccyx. Dissection after TVMP of fresh cadavers revealed that the point of penetration of mesh through the SSL was close to the LAN. To preserve the LAN, penetration of the SSL should be within 5 mm of the lower margin at a point 20-25 mm medial to the ischial spine.

  7. Nudge, nudge or shove, shove-the right way for nudges to increase the supply of donated cadaver organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Kyle Powys; Selinger, Evan; Caplan, Arthur L; Sadowski, Jathan

    2012-01-01

    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein (2008) contend that mandated choice is the most practical nudge for increasing organ donation. We argue that they are wrong, and their mistake results from failing to appreciate how perceptions of meaning can influence people's responses to nudges. We favor a policy of default to donation that is subject to immediate family veto power, includes options for people to opt out (and be educated on how to do so), and emphasizes the role of organ procurement organizations and in-house transplant donation coordinators creating better environments for increasing the supply of organs and tissues obtained from cadavers. This policy will provide better opportunities for offering nudges in contexts where in-house coordinators work with families. We conclude by arguing that nudges can be introduced ethically and effectively into these contexts only if nudge designers collaborate with in-house coordinators and stakeholders.

  8. A study on the resistance at bone-implant interface during implant insertion in a cadaver goat jaw model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to determine the resistance at bone-implant interface during insertion of dental implant. Materials and Methods: Freshly procured cadaver goat mandibles were collected from slaughterhouses. Four dental implants of two different diameters were inserted into osteotomized sites of the goat mandibles. The gradual changes in resonance frequency (RF were recorded in RF analyzer for the five consecutive turns of implant insertion. Results and Observations: RF was found to be positively correlated with diameter of dental implants. Conclusion: RF analysis can be used to determine the type of resistance the implant faces during insertion and the kind of bone density through which it passes. It gives a forecast of expected initial stability.

  9. The Anatomy to Genomics (ATG) Start Genetics medical school initiative: incorporating exome sequencing data from cadavers used for Anatomy instruction into the first year curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Glenn S; Jin, Qunyan; Paynton, Barbara V; Popoff, Steven N

    2016-10-06

    The increasing use of next generation DNA sequencing in clinical medicine is exposing the need for more genetics education in physician training. We piloted an initiative to determine the feasibility of incorporating exome sequencing data generated from DNA obtained from cadavers used for teaching Anatomy into a first year medical student integrated block-style course. We optimized the procedure to obtain DNA for exome sequencing by comparing the quality and quantity of DNA isolated from several tissues by two different extraction methods. DNA was sequenced using exome capture and analyzed using standard methods. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs), as well as small insertions/deletions, with potential functional impact were selected by faculty for student teams to independently investigate and prepare presentations on their findings. A total of seven cadaver DNAs were sequenced yielding high quality results. SNVs were identified that were associated, with known physical traits and disease susceptibility, as well as pharmacogenomic phenotypes. Students presented findings based on correlation with known clinical information about the cadavers' diseases and traits. Exome sequencing of cadaver DNA is a useful tool to integrate Anatomy with Genetics and Biochemistry into a first year medical student core curriculum.

  10. Flapless implant surgery in the edentulous jaw based on three fixed intraoral reference points and image-guided surgical templates: accuracy in human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Zangerl, Antoniette; Keiler, Martin; Stoffner, Rudolf; Bale, Reto; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2010-08-01

    In edentulous patients, accurate and stable positioning of a surgical template is impeded by the mobile mucosal tissue. The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of flapless computer-assisted template-guided surgery in an edentulous human cadaver specimen using three fixed oral reference points (FRP) for fixation of the registration mouthpiece and the consecutive surgical template. Oral implants were planned on the computed tomography (CT) of an edentulous human cadaver specimen. Surgical templates have been fabricated using a multipurpose navigation system. Both the registration mouthpiece and consecutive surgical template were supported via three FRP. Study implants were inserted through the guide sleeves and the accuracy was evaluated on a post-surgical CT of the cadaver jaws fused with the pre-surgical planning CT. A Matlab script enabled comparison of the planned surgical path with the study implants. In five maxillary and three mandibular edentulous human cadaver specimens, a total of 51 implants (35 implants in the maxilla and 16 implants in the mandible) have been placed. The mean+/-standard deviation total error (Euclidean distance)/lateral error (normal deviation) were 1.1+/-0.6/0.7+/-0.5 mm at the implant base and 1.2+/-0.7/0.9+/-0.7 mm at the implant tip. The mean angular error was 2.8+/-2.2 degrees. Flapless surgery based on FRP-supported image-guided surgical templates may provide similar accuracy as reported for tooth-supported surgical templates or surgical navigation.

  11. Cadaver-specific CT scans visualized at the dissection table combined with virtual dissection tables improve learning performance in general gross anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paech, Daniel [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany); Giesel, Frederik L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Unterhinninghofen, Roland [Institute of Anthropomatics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kuner, Thomas; Doll, Sara [Heidelberg University, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefit of the incorporation of radiologic anatomy (RA), in terms of student training in RA seminars, cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables on the learning success in general anatomy. Three groups of a total of 238 students were compared in a multiple choice general anatomy exam during first-year gross anatomy: (1) a group (year 2015, n{sub 1} = 50) that received training in radiologic image interpretation (RA seminar) and additional access to cadaver CT scans (CT + seminar group); (2) a group (2011, n{sub 2} = 90) that was trained in the RA seminar only (RA seminar group); (3) a group (2011, n{sub 3} = 98) without any radiologic image interpretation training (conventional anatomy group). Furthermore, the students' perception of the new curriculum was assessed qualitatively through a survey. The average test score of the CT + seminar group (21.8 ± 5.0) was significantly higher when compared to both the RA seminar group (18.3 ± 5.0) and the conventional anatomy group (17.1 ± 4.7) (p < 0.001). The incorporation of cadaver CT scans and life-size virtual dissection tables significantly improved the performance of medical students in general gross anatomy. Medical imaging and virtual dissection should therefore be considered to be part of the standard curriculum of gross anatomy. circle Students provided with cadaver CT scans achieved 27 % higher scores in anatomy. (orig.)

  12. Heating produced by therapeutic ultrasound in the presence of a metal plate in the femur of canine cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Andrades

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the heat generated by a therapeutic ultrasound (TUS in a metal bone plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers. Ten pairs of hind limbs were used, and they were equally distributed between groups that were subjected to 1- and 3-MHz frequencies, with each frequency testing 1- and 2-W/cm² intensities. The right hind limb was defined as the control group (absence of the metal plate, and the left hind limb was the test group (presence of the metal plate. Therefore, the control groups (CG were denominated CGI, using TUS with 1-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; CGII, using 1-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity; CGIII, using 3-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; and CGIV, using 3-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity. For each control group, its respective test group (TG was denominated TGI, TGII, TGIII and TGIV. The TUS was applied to the lateral aspect of the thigh using the continuous mode and a 3.5-cm² transducer in a 6.25-cm² area for 2 minutes. Sensors were coupled to digital thermometers that measured the temperature in different sites before (t0 and after (t1 of the TUS application. The temperatures in t1 were higher in all tested groups. The intramuscular temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the groups used to test the 3-MHz frequency in the presence of the metal plate. The therapeutic ultrasound in the continuous mode using frequencies of 1 and 3 MHz and intensities of 1 and 2 W/cm2 for 2 minutes caused heating of the metal plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers.

  13. Influence of the abductor hallucis muscle on the medial arch of the foot: a kinematic and anatomical cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yue Shuen

    2007-05-01

    Most studies of degenerative flatfoot have focused on the posterior tibial muscle, an extrinsic muscle of the foot. However, there is evidence that the intrinsic muscles, in particular the abductor hallucis (ABH), are active during late stance and toe-off phases of gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic effect of a simulated contraction of the abductor hallucis muscle on a cadaver lower limb specimen. Eight below-knee cadaver specimens were prepared. The abductor hallucis muscle was exposed and the entire muscle-tendon unit excised. A suture secured to the calcaneal origin of the muscle and tendon was passed through a pulley at the ABH sesamoid attachment. The specimen was mounted on an experimental rig in a 'standing' position. Motions in the first metatarsal, tibia, and calcaneus were tracked using the 'Flock of Birds' motion analysis system (Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT). Muscle contraction was simulated by applying tension on the suture. All eight specimens showed an origin from the posteromedial calcaneus and an insertion at the tibial sesamoid. All specimens also demonstrated a fascial sling in the hindfoot, lifting the abductor hallucis muscle to give it an inverted 'V' shaped configuration. Simulated contraction of the abductor hallucis muscle caused flexion and supination of the first metatarsal, inversion of the calcaneus, and external rotation of the tibia, consistent with elevation of the arch. The abductor hallucis muscle acts as a dynamic elevator of the arch. Understanding this mechanism may change the way we understand and treat pes planus, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, hallux valgus, and Charcot neuroarthropathy.

  14. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm.

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    Lang, Hans-Joachim

    2013-10-01

    German anatomical institutes always had problems obtaining sufficient cadavers for research and training. In the National Socialist (NS) period this changed. Universities could count on "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery." Most frequently tacitly, many bodies were those of victims of NS crimes. Scientists increasingly exploited the exceptional political situation to systematically supplement their institutional collections. Their endeavors to fill the, in their terms, "lamentable gaps" in their collections took on truly bizarre forms. In Austria, Jewish cemeteries were plundered for racial-political expansion of anatomical collections. A change in paradigm was merely the next step: intentional murder for the benefit of NS-oriented science. In December of 1942, anatomists meeting in Tübingen discussed plans for "material acquisition." August Hirt, director of the anatomical institute at the Reichsuniversität in Strasbourg, was to develop guidelines. There was express reference to "Auftrag Beger," which had already been conceived although not yet realized: at the behest of Hirt and the SS-scientific organization, "Ahnenerbe," the anthropologists Bruno Beger and Hans Fleischhacker selected 86 Jewish prisoners in Auschwitz in June of 1943 and deported them to the concentration camp at Struthof near Natzweiler, where they were murdered. The bodies were delivered to the anatomy department in Strasbourg for preparation and used as anatomical specimens. The Reichsuniversität Strasbourg was considered a center of excellence for Nazi ideology. For modern scientists, the elucidation of these criminal acts is not exhausted in the search for an answer to the questions of perpetrator, place, modus operandi or motive. A suitable memorial to the victims must go beyond mere quantification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of fresh-frozen cadaver and high-fidelity virtual reality simulator as methods of laparoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mitesh; Horgan, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare fresh-frozen cadavers (FFC) with a high-fidelity virtual reality simulator (VRS) as training tools in minimal access surgery for complex and relatively simple procedures. A prospective comparative face validity study between FFC and VRS (LAP Mentor(™)) was performed. Surgeons were recruited to perform tasks on both FFC and VRS appropriately paired to their experience level. Group A (senior) performed a laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy, Group B (intermediate) performed a laparoscopic incisional hernia repair, and Group C (junior) performed basic laparoscopic tasks (BLT) (camera manipulation, hand-eye coordination, tissue dissection and hand-transferring skills). Each subject completed a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire rating the training modalities in nine domains. Data were analysed using nonparametric tests. Forty-five surgeons were recruited to participate (15 per skill group). Median scores for subjects in Group A were significantly higher for evaluation of FFC in all nine domains compared to VRS (p < 0.01). Group B scored FFC significantly better (p < 0.05) in all domains except task replication (p = 0.06). Group C scored FFC significantly better (p < 0.01) in eight domains but not on performance feedback (p = 0.09). When compared across groups, juniors accepted VRS as a training model more than did intermediate and senior groups on most domains (p < 0.01) except team work. Fresh-frozen cadaver is perceived as a significantly overall better model for laparoscopic training than the high-fidelity VRS by all training grades, irrespective of the complexity of the operative procedure performed. VRS is still useful when training junior trainees in BLT.

  16. Impact of shoulder internal rotation on ulnar nerve excursion and strain in embalmed cadavers. A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotti, Mark; Futterman, Bennett; Ahrens, Thomas; Block, David; Brown, Lauren; Dagro, Micheal; Falesto, James; Lyon, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    Design Laboratory study, repeated-measures design. Objective To determine if the substitution of shoulder internal rotation for external rotation during the upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT3) evokes a comparable ulnar nerve excursion and strain in embalmed cadavers. Shoulder external rotation is a primary movement component of the ULNT3. It has been suggested that shoulder internal rotation may provide a similar load to the nervous system. There are no data to either support or negate this claim. Methods Excursion and strain were measured in the ulnar nerve of six embalmed cadavers during the traditional ULNT3 and an experimental maneuver using shoulder internal rotation. Results The total means±SD of excursion for the traditional and experimental maneuvers were 2·11±0·89 and 2·09±0·92 mm, respectively. The total means±SD of strain for the traditional and experimental maneuvers were 5·274±2·223 and 5·241±2·308%, respectively. A very strong correlation (r = 0·98) was shown to exist between maneuvers and this relationship was determined to be significant (P = 0·001). Discussion The results of this study provide evidence that there is no appreciable difference in excursion or strain when substituting shoulder internal rotation for external rotation during the ULNT3. Patients who exhibit limitation of shoulder external rotation mobility may benefit from this substitution when presenting with signs of ulnar nerve pathodynamics. Further research involving patients will be needed to assess the validity of the experimental maneuver for clinical application. PMID:27559280

  17. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

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    Patrick Hahn

    Full Text Available Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field.Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm.The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5. A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation shows that the accuracy of this system is

  19. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

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    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only, and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was learned from the partner-prosected cadavers. Performance for each student on the exams was then assessed as a function of the regions those students actually dissected. While the results indicated a small performance advantage for MIs answering questions on material they had dissected on the NBME Subject Exam questions relevant to dissection (78-88% of total exam, the results were not statistically significant. However, a similar, small performance advantage on the course practical exams was highly significant.

  20. Study of the Artroscopic Anatomy of the Knee in Canine Cadavers Using 2.4 Mm Diameter Lens

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    Gabriel Oswaldo Alonso Cuéllar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mainly by a limited access to new techniques and technologies, veterinary medicine in developing countries, has been far behind from the human medicine. One of the causes is the limited access to technology and specific techniques. Moreover, it is clear that many new technologies have proven their benefits in the two disciplines, making necessary and almost mandatory their massive implementation in humans and animals. The possibility to use human elements for veterinary techniques would improve the technology access and veterinarians training, at lower costs. The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility to perform a knee arthroscopy in dogs with small human joints arthroscopic lenses. Under protocols established in veterinary 12 knee arthroscopies were performed in canine cadaver, using a wrist and ankle arthroscope human of 2.4 mm in diameter and 30° of angulation. All the structures reported in the literature were possible to visualize using a 2.4 mm arthroscope. In this sense, it is possible to develop training activities and subsequent implementation of endoscopic techniques in canine femorotibiopatellar joint, using a lens of small joints of human medicine.

  1. Distance between intramuscular nerve and artery in the extraocular muscles: a preliminary immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kei; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Extraocular muscles are quite different from skeletal muscles in muscle fiber type and nerve supply; the small motor unit may be the most well known. As the first step to understanding the nerve-artery relationship, in this study we measured the distance from the arteriole (25-50 μm in thickness) to the nerve terminal twigs in extraocular muscles. With the aid of immunohistochemistry for nerves and arteries, we examined the arteriole-nerve distance at 10-15 sites in each of 68 extraocular muscles obtained from ten elderly cadavers. The oblique sections were nearly tangential to the muscle plate and included both global and orbital aspects of the muscle. In all muscles, the nerve twigs usually took a course parallel to muscle fibers, in contrast to most arterioles that crossed muscles. Possibly due to polyinnervation, an intramuscular nerve plexus was evident in four rectus and two oblique muscles. The arteriole-nerve distance usually ranged from 300 to 400 μm. However, individual differences were more than two times greater in each of seven muscles. Moreover, in each muscle the difference between sites sometimes reached 1 mm or more. The distance was generally shorter in the rectus and oblique muscles than in the levator palpebrae muscle, which reached statistical significance (p muscle, between muscles, and between individuals might lead to an individual biological rhythm of fatigue in oculomotor performance.

  2. Device-length changes and implant function following surgical implantation of the KineSpring in cadaver knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNicholas MJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J McNicholas,1 Stefan M Gabriel,2 Anton G Clifford,2 Evelyne M Hasler2 1Aintree University Hospital, Teaching Hospital, Major Trauma Centre, NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK; 2Moximed, Hayward, CA, USA Introduction: The KineSpring implant system has been shown to provide load reductions at the medial compartment of the knee, and has demonstrated clinical success in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. These results depend on the ability of the KineSpring to rotate, lengthen, and shorten to accommodate knee motions, and in response to knee position and loading. Purpose: The present study was undertaken to determine length changes of the implanted KineSpring in response to a range of knee positions, external knee loads, and placements by different orthopedic surgeons. Materials and methods: KineSpring system components were implanted in ten cadaver leg specimens by ten orthopedic surgeons, and absorber-length changes were measured under combined loading and in different positions of the knee. Results and conclusion: Spring compression consistent with knee-load reduction, and device lengthening and shortening to accommodate knee loads and motions were seen. These confirm the functionality of the KineSpring when implanted medially to the knee. Keywords: KineSpring, knee, function, preservation, offloading, osteoarthritis

  3. Diagnostic endoscopy of the navicular bursa using a needle endoscope by direct or transthecal approach: A comparative cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Kathrin; Koch, Christoph; Bodó, Gábor

    2015-10-01

    To compare the practicability, visualization of structures, and iatrogenic damage of direct and transthecal approaches to the navicular bursa for diagnostic needle endoscopy. Descriptive study. Equine cadaver forelimbs (n = 30). Direct and transthecal approaches for insertion of a needle endoscope into the navicular bursa were performed. Video recordings of endoscopic procedures were assessed to determine all structures visualized within the navicular bursa. Number of attempts to gain access to the navicular bursa and total time for insertion and examination were recorded. Distribution and severity of iatrogenic lesions were assessed and scored after dissection. There were no statistical differences for number of attempts or time needed for insertion and examination between direct and transthecal approaches. The direct approach offered significantly increased visibility of the ipsilateral abaxial and proximal margins of the navicular bone, and ipsilateral collateral sesamoidean ligament. Iatrogenic lesions were superficial and focal, regardless of approach taken, or whether a blunt or sharp trocar tip was used. The direct approach provided significantly better visualization of the ipsilateral structures within the navicular bursa compared to the transthecal approach. Needle endoscopy offers a reliable technique to evaluate the navicular bursa and may complement or replace other diagnostic modalities in horses with lameness localized to the navicular region. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Ultrasonographic appearance of bony abnormalities at the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joint in geriatric cadaver horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, K; Gielen, I; Van Caelenberg, A; Van der Vekens, E; Raes, E V; Hauspie, S; van Bree, H; Saunders, J H

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of bony abnormalities on the dorsal aspect of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone of the equine fetlock in cadavers with radiographic signs of osteoarthrosis. After US, computed tomography was undertaken to better characterise the lesions. Twelve fetlock joints were collected and all had more than one bone abnormality on US. Normal subchondral bone appeared on US as a well-defined and regular hyperechoic line with distal acoustic shadowing. Bone abnormalities detected on US included (1) gaps in the proximal subchondral bone filled with material of heterogeneous echogenicity, (2) bone fragments represented as small straight smoothly delineated hyperechoic lines with distal shadowing located superficial to the surface of the adjacent bone, (3) proximal new bone formation visible as mild to severe cortical protrusions, (4) marginal osteophytoses seen as an elevation of the hyperechoic surface of the subchondral bone at the edges of the joint surfaces, (5) indentations in subchondral bone seen as a concave deviation of the hyperechoic line without interruption, (6) focal or diffuse irregularities of the subchondral bone seen as disruptions of the normal smooth bony contours, and (7) focal hyperechoic spikes originating from the subchondral plate and invading the articular cartilage. These findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Point Placement by Veterinary Professionals with Different Levels of Acupuncture Training in a Canine Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Toni; Shmalberg, Justin; Hochman, Lindsay; Miscioscia, Erin; Brumby, Meghan; McKenna, Kelsey; Roth, Amber

    2017-10-01

    Veterinary acupuncture is becoming increasingly implemented for various disease processes, with growing numbers of veterinarians pursuing advanced training to meet the rising demand for this relatively new intervention. Accurate acupoint placement remains challenging, with individual practitioners relying on varying methods of point identification, often compounded by the transpositional nature of points for companion animals. The aim of this study was to assess for differences in acupuncture needle placement of select points between veterinary professionals with three different levels of acupuncture training in an academic teaching environment. Seven participants placed a total of six acupoints on a canine cadaver. Digital radiography was used to document each participant's point placement. Each participant's point location was then compared to a control "correct" point, and the distance between the two points was measured. A significant difference in placement accuracy was identified between the participants when grouped by training level (p = 0.03). These results indicate that veterinary patients receiving acupuncture treatment from veterinarians with different levels of training may subsequently experience varying effects, although further studies are warranted on more specific acupoint description as well as the clinical implications of needle placement accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Radiographic Analysis of Simulated First Dorsal Interosseous and Opponens Pollicis Loading Upon Thumb CMC Joint Subluxation: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie E; O'Brien, Virginia; Magnusson, Erik; Rosenstein, Benjamin; Nuckley, David J

    2017-02-01

    Therapy programs to treat thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis may engage selective activation and reeducation of thenar muscles, particularly the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and opponens pollicis (OP) to reduce subluxation of the joint. We describe the effect of simulated selective activation of the FDI and OP muscles upon radiographic subluxation of the thumb CMC joint. In a cadaver model of CMC subluxation, loads were applied to the FDI, the OP, and then concomitantly at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% maximal loads and radial subluxation of the joint and reduction in subluxation was measured. Selective activation of the OP, alone, improved the subluxation ratio (SR) in a dose-dependent manner. Selective activation of FDI, alone, demonstrated minimal effects on SR. Concomitant activation of OP and FDI improved the SR across all loading states, and activation of 75% and greater, when compared with FDI activation alone, resulted in a statistically significant improvement in SR to within 10% of the presubluxed joint. Concomitant activation of the FDI and OP acts to reduce subluxation of the thumb CMC joint in a dose-dependent fashion. The OP is likely the predominant reducing force. Hand therapy programs that focus on selective strengthening programs likely function in part to encourage patients to activate the easily palpable and easily understood FDI. Concomitant coactivation of the OP may be the major reducing force to elicit clinical and radiographic reduction of subluxation, improved thumb positioning, and reduction of pain and arthritic symptoms.

  7. Rectus Abdominis Motor Nerves as Donor Option for Free Functional Muscle Transfer: A Cadaver Study and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Aaron B; Nicoson, Michael C; Moore, Amy M; Hunter, Dan A; Tung, Thomas H

    2017-04-01

    Current management of brachial plexus injuries includes nerve grafts and nerve transfers. However, in cases of late presentation or pan plexus injuries, free functional muscle transfers are an option to restore function. The purpose of our study was to describe and evaluate the rectus abdominis motor nerves histomorphologically and functionally as a donor nerve option for free functional muscle transfer for the reconstruction of brachial plexus injuries. High intercostal, rectus abdominis, thoracodorsal, and medial pectoral nerves were harvested for histomorphometric analysis from 4 cadavers from levels T3-8. A retrospective chart review was performed of all free functional muscle transfers from 2001 to 2014 by a single surgeon. Rectus abdominis nerve branches provide a significant quantity of motor axons compared with high intercostal nerves and are comparable to the anterior branch of the thoracodorsal nerve and medial pectoral nerve branches. Clinically, the average recovery of elbow flexion was comparable to conventional donors for 2-stage muscle transfer. Rectus abdominis motor nerves have similar nerve counts to thoracodorsal, medial pectoral nerves, and significantly more than high intercostal nerves alone. The use of rectus abdominis motor nerve branches allows restoration of elbow flexion comparable to other standard donors. In cases where multiple high intercostal nerves are not available as donors (rib fractures, phrenic nerve injury), rectus abdominis nerves provide a potential option for motor reconstruction without adversely affecting respiration.

  8. Effects of anterior offsetting of humeral head component in posteriorly unstable total shoulder arthroplasty: Finite element modeling of cadaver specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory S; Conaway, William K; Wee, Hwabok; Kim, H Mike

    2017-02-28

    A novel technique of "anterior offsetting" of the humeral head component to address posterior instability in total shoulder arthroplasty has been proposed, and its biomechanical benefits have been previously demonstrated experimentally. The present study sought to characterize the changes in joint mechanics associated with anterior offsetting with various amounts of glenoid retroversion using cadaver specimen-specific 3-dimensional finite element models. Specimen-specific computational finite element models were developed through importing digitized locations of six musculotendinous units of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles based off three cadaveric shoulder specimens implanted with total shoulder arthroplasty in either anatomic or anterior humeral head offset. Additional glenoid retroversion angles (0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°) other than each specimen׳s actual retroversion were modeled. Contact area, contact force, peak pressure, center of pressure, and humeral head displacement were calculated at each offset and retroversion for statistical analysis. Anterior offsetting was associated with significant anterior shift of center of pressure and humeral head displacement upon muscle loading (pincreased contact area and decreased peak pressure (p > 0.05). All study variables showed significant differences when compared between the 4 different glenoid retroversion angles (p < 0.05) except for total force (p < 0.05). The study finding suggests that the anterior offsetting technique may contribute to joint stability in posteriorly unstable shoulder arthroplasty and may reduce eccentric loading on glenoid components although the long term clinical results are yet to be investigated in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

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    Felicitas Miller

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  10. Comparison of non-invasive radiographic measurements of soft tissue in the interdental space: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniha, Kristian; Möhlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Peters, Florian; Yovev, Tsanko; Räsch, Manuel; Prescher, Andreas; Hölzle, Frank; Modabber, Ali

    2017-06-01

    When we use implants the aesthetic appearance of the patient is dependent to a large extent on identification of factors that influence the presence of interdental papillae. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different non-invasive measurements to indicate the top of the interdental papilla on dental radiographs. The sample comprised six fresh, partly edentulous cadavers. The distance from the level of the interproximal bone next to the tip of the papilla was measured (n=330) on standard radiographic images. Five different mixtures of radiopaque markers that had been used to highlight the top of the papilla in recently published studies were analysed. All measurements were compared with the bone probing length, which was evaluated clinically. The mixture of zinc oxide, eugenol cement, and tungsten powder (mean (SD) 0.14 (0.17)mm) deviated least from the control value. The deviation was significant (pmeasuring the interproximal length of the papilla relative to the alveolar bone crest was therefore the mixture of zinc oxide, eugenol cement, and tungsten powder. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

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    Patrick Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%] were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

  12. Ligament strain on the iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments in cadaver specimens: biomechanical measurement and anatomical observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Egi; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Tomoki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2014-10-01

    The iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments are major structures that stabilize the hip joint. We have sought evidence on which to base more effective hip stretching positions. The purpose of this study was to measure strains on these ligaments and to observe them. Eight fresh/frozen translumbar cadaver specimens were used. Clinically available stretching positions for these ligaments were adopted. Strain on each ligament was measured by a displacement sensor during passive torque to the hip joint. Hip motion was measured using an electromagnetic tracking device. The strained ligaments were captured on clear photographs. Significantly, high strains were imposed on the superior iliofemoral ligament by external rotation of the hip (3.48%); on the inferior iliofemoral ligament by maximal extension and 10° or 20° of external rotation with maximal extension (1.86%, 1.46%, 1.25%); on the pubofemoral ligament by maximal abduction and 10°, 20°, or 30° of external rotation with maximal abduction (3.18%, 3.28%, 3.11%, 2.99%); and on the ischiofemoral ligament by 10° or 20° of abduction with maximal internal rotation (7.11%, 7.83%). Fiber direction in each ligament was clearly identified. Significantly, high strains on hip ligaments corresponded with the anatomical direction of the ligament fibers. Positions were identified for each ligament that imposed maximal increase in strain on it. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of the amounts of air leakage into the thoracic cavity associated with four thoracostomy tube placement techniques in canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hun-Young; Mann, F A; Lee, Suhwon; Branson, Keith R

    2009-09-01

    To compare the amount of air leakage into the thoracic cavity associated with each of 4 thoracostomy tube placement techniques in canine cadavers. 28 canine cadavers. Thoracostomy tube placement techniques (7 cadavers/technique) included subcutaneous tunneling with a silicone tube by use of Carmalt forceps or with a polyvinyl chloride tube by use of a trocar (SC-CARM and SC-TRO, respectively) and tunneling under the latissimus dorsi muscle with similar tube-instrument techniques (LD-CARM and LD-TRO, respectively). Differences in intrapleural pressures (IPPs) measured before and after tube placement and before and after tube removal were calculated; duration of air leakage around the tubes was assessed by use of a 3-chamber thoracic drainage system. Tunneling method and depth had no interaction effect on the difference in IPP measured before and after tube placement; the IPP difference for both forceps technique groups was significantly greater than findings for both trocar technique groups. Tunneling method and depth had an interaction effect on the difference in IPP measured before and after tube removal; compared with SC-TRO and LD-CARM group differences, the SC-CARM group difference was significantly greater, but the LD-TRO group difference was similar. More intermittent air leakage was associated with the 2 forceps techniques than with the 2 trocar techniques. Trocar-implemented thoracostomy tube placement in canine cadavers resulted in less air leakage than the forceps method. Air leakage upon tube removal was less pronounced for the LD-CARM technique than the SC-CARM technique. The LD-TRO technique is recommended to prevent iatrogenic pneumothorax in dogs.

  14. COMPARISON OF ULTRASOUND-GUIDED VS. STANDARD LANDMARK TECHNIQUES FOR TRAINING NOVICE OPERATORS IN PLACING NEEDLES INTO THE LUMBAR SUBARACHNOID SPACE OF CANINE CADAVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Anne-Laure; Delguste, Catherine; Busoni, Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The standard technique for placing a needle into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space is primarily based on palpation of anatomic landmarks and use of probing movements of the needle, however, this technique can be challenging for novice operators. The aim of the current observational, prospective, ex vivo, feasibility study was to compare ultrasound-guided vs. standard anatomic landmark approaches for novices performing needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space using dog cadavers. Eight experienced operators validated the canine cadaver model as usable for training landmark and ultrasound-guided needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space based on realistic anatomy and tissue consistency. With informed consent, 67 final year veterinary students were prospectively enrolled in the study. Students had no prior experience in needle placement into the lumbar subarachnoid space or use of ultrasound. Each student received a short theoretical training about each technique before the trial and then attempted blind landmark-guided and ultrasound-guided techniques on randomized canine cadavers. After having performed both procedures, the operators completed a self-evaluation questionnaire about their performance and self-confidence. Total success rates for students were 48% and 77% for the landmark- and ultrasound-guided techniques, respectively. Ultrasound guidance significantly increased total success rate when compared to the landmark-guided technique and significantly reduced the number of attempts. With ultrasound guidance self-confidence was improved, without bringing any significant change in duration of the needle placement procedure. Findings indicated that use of ultrasound guidance and cadavers are feasible methods for training novice operators in needle placement into the canine lumbar subarachnoid space. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  16. Estimation of attachment regions of hip muscles in CT image using muscle attachment probabilistic atlas constructed from measurements in eight cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Norio; Otake, Yoshito; Takao, Masaki; Yokota, Futoshi; Ogawa, Takeshi; Uemura, Keisuke; Nakaya, Ryota; Tamura, Kazunori; Grupp, Robert B; Farvardin, Amirhossein; Armand, Mehran; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-01

    Patient-specific musculoskeletal biomechanical simulation is useful in preoperative surgical planning and postoperative assessment in orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation medicine. A difficulty in application of the patient-specific musculoskeletal modeling comes from the fact that the muscle attachment regions are typically invisible in CT and MRI. Our purpose is to develop a method for estimating patient-specific muscle attachment regions from 3D medical images and to validate with cadaver experiments. Eight fresh cadaver specimens of the lower extremity were used in the experiments. Before dissection, CT images of all the specimens were acquired and the bone regions in CT images were extracted using an automated segmentation method to reconstruct the bone shape models. During dissection, ten different muscle attachment regions were recorded with an optical motion tracker. Then, these regions obtained from eight cadavers were integrated on an average bone surface via non-rigid registration, and muscle attachment probabilistic atlases (PAs) were constructed. An average muscle attachment region derived from the PA was non-rigidly mapped to the patients bone surface to estimate the patient-specific muscle attachment region. Average Dice similarity coefficient between the true and estimated attachment areas computed by the proposed method was more than 10% higher than the one computed by a previous method in most cases and the average boundary distance error of the proposed method was 1.1 mm smaller than the previous method on average. We conducted cadaver experiments to measure the attachment regions of the hip muscles and constructed PAs of the muscle attachment regions. The muscle attachment PA clarified the variations of the location of the muscle attachments and allowed us to estimate the patient-specific attachment area more accurately based on the patient bone shape derived from CT.

  17. Automatic radiographic quantification of hand osteoarthritis; accuracy and sensitivity to change in joint space width in a phantom and cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetink, Kasper; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Klooster, Ronald van' t; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Stoel, Berend C. [Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kaptein, Bart L.; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To validate a newly developed quantification method that automatically detects and quantifies the joint space width (JSW) in hand radiographs. Repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity to changes in JSW were determined. The influence of joint location and joint shape on the measurements was tested. A mechanical micrometer set-up was developed to define and adjust the true JSW in an acrylic phantom joint and in human cadaver-derived phalangeal joints. Radiographic measurements of the JSW were compared to the true JSW. Repeatability, systematic error (accuracy) and sensitivity (defined as the smallest detectable difference (SDD)) were determined. The influence of joint position on the JSW measurement was assessed by varying the location of the acrylic phantom on the X-ray detector with respect to the X-ray beam and the influence of joint shape was determined by using morphologically different human cadaver joints. The mean systematic error was 0.052 mm in the phantom joint and 0.210 mm in the cadaver experiment. In the phantom experiments, the repeatability was high (SDD=0.028 mm), but differed slightly between joint locations (p=0.046), and a change in JSW of 0.037 mm could be detected. Dependent of the joint shape in the cadaver hand, a change in JSW between 0.018 and 0.047 mm could be detected. The automatic quantification method is sensitive to small changes in JSW. Considering the published data of JSW decline in the normal and osteoarthritic population, the first signs of OA progression with this method can be detected within 1 or 2 years. (orig.)

  18. The Anatomy to Genomics (ATG Start Genetics medical school initiative: incorporating exome sequencing data from cadavers used for Anatomy instruction into the first year curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn S. Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of next generation DNA sequencing in clinical medicine is exposing the need for more genetics education in physician training. We piloted an initiative to determine the feasibility of incorporating exome sequencing data generated from DNA obtained from cadavers used for teaching Anatomy into a first year medical student integrated block-style course. Methods We optimized the procedure to obtain DNA for exome sequencing by comparing the quality and quantity of DNA isolated from several tissues by two different extraction methods. DNA was sequenced using exome capture and analyzed using standard methods. Single nucleotide variants (SNVs, as well as small insertions/deletions, with potential functional impact were selected by faculty for student teams to independently investigate and prepare presentations on their findings. Results A total of seven cadaver DNAs were sequenced yielding high quality results. SNVs were identified that were associated, with known physical traits and disease susceptibility, as well as pharmacogenomic phenotypes. Students presented findings based on correlation with known clinical information about the cadavers’ diseases and traits. Conclusion Exome sequencing of cadaver DNA is a useful tool to integrate Anatomy with Genetics and Biochemistry into a first year medical student core curriculum.

  19. Hook Plate Versus Suture Anchor Fixation for Thumb Ulnar Collateral Ligament Fracture-Avulsions: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H; Drake, Matthew L; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2016-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of hook plate fixation and suture anchor fixation for collateral ligament fracture-avulsions of the thumb metacarpophalangeal ulnar collateral ligament (UCL). A thumb UCL fracture-avulsion model was created in 7 matched pairs of cadaver hands. An osteotomy was made parallel to the shaft of the proximal phalanx along the entire insertion of the UCL. The simulated fracture was secured using either a suture anchor tied over bone tunnels in the avulsion fragment or with a hook plate. Specimens were mounted on a servohydraulic load frame and loaded to failure. Motion perpendicular to the osteotomy was measured using an implanted 3-mm differential variable reluctance transducer device. Differences in load to failure and construct stiffness were compared and analyzed using a t test. The hook plate construct failed at significantly higher loads than suture fixation. Mean load to failure in the hook plate construct was 58 N (± 20 N) compared with 27 N (± 19 N) in the suture anchor construct. The difference in construct stiffness was 49 N/mm (± 17 N/mm) for the plate compared with 7 N/mm (± 13 N/mm) for the suture anchor. The main mechanism of failure for the hook plate construct was screw pullout or screw bending. The usual mechanism of failure for the suture anchor construct was anchor pullout. The hook plate construct was biomechanically superior to the suture anchor construct for fixation of thumb metacarpophalangeal joint UCL fracture-avulsions with regard to load to failure. The hook plate construct provides stronger fixation than a suture anchor for thumb UCL fracture-avulsions. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  1. Validation of minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation using Advanced Bionics, Cochlear, and Medel electrodes in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRackan, Theodore R; Balachandran, Ramya; Blachon, Grégoire S; Mitchell, Jason E; Noble, Jack H; Wright, Charles G; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F

    2013-11-01

    Validation of a novel minimally invasive, image-guided approach to implant electrodes from three FDA-approved manufacturers-Medel, Cochlear, and Advanced Bionics-in the cochlea via a linear tunnel from the lateral cranium through the facial recess to the cochlea. Custom microstereotactic frames that mount on bone-implanted fiducial markers and constrain the drill along the desired path were utilized on seven cadaver specimens. A linear tunnel was drilled from the lateral skull to the cochlea followed by a marginal, round window cochleostomy and insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea through the drilled tunnel. Post-insertion CT scan and histological analysis were used to analyze the results. All specimens ([Formula: see text]) were successfully implanted without visible injury to the facial nerve. The Medel electrodes ([Formula: see text]) had minimal intracochlear trauma with 8, 8, and 10 (out of 12) electrodes intracochlear. The Cochlear lateral wall electrodes (straight research arrays) ([Formula: see text]) had minimal trauma with 20 and 21 of 22 electrodes intracochlear. The Advanced Bionics electrodes ([Formula: see text]) were inserted using their insertion tool; one had minimal insertion trauma and 14 of 16 electrodes intracochlear, while the other had violation of the basilar membrane just deep to the cochleostomy following which it remained in scala vestibuli with 13 of 16 electrodes intracochlear. Minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation is possible using electrodes from the three FDA-approved manufacturers. Lateral wall electrodes were associated with less intracochlear trauma suggesting that they may be better suited for this surgical technique.

  2. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  3. Septic arthritis of the knee: presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateschrang, Atesch; Albrecht, Dirk; Schröter, Steffen; Hirt, Bernhard; Weise, Kuno; Dolderer, Jürgen H

    2011-08-07

    The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. After ten minutes, the average extinction was e(1C) = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e(1N) = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e(2C) = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e(2N) = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p irrigation-suction system. A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of range of motion and failure characteristics of osteoporotic spinal compression fractures in human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Heary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebroplasty is a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The optimal location of needle placement for cement injection remains a topic of debate. As such, the authors assessed the effects of location of two types of cement instillations. In addition, the motion and failure modes at the index and adjacent segments were measured. Materials and Methods: Seven human osteoporotic cadaver spines (T1-L4, cut into four consecutive vertebral segments, were utilized. Of these, following the exclusion of four specimens not suitable to utilize for analysis, a total of 24 specimens were evaluable. Segments were randomly assigned into four treatment groups: unipedicular and bipedicular injections into the superior quartile or the anatomic center of the vertebra using confidence (Confidence Spinal Cement System®, DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA or polymethyl methacrylate. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive pure moments of 5 Nm, in 2.5 Nm increments, using pulleys and weights to simulate six degrees of physiological motion. A follower preload of 200 N was applied in flexion extension. Testing sequence: range of motion (ROM of intact specimen, fracture creation, cement injection, ROM after cement, and compression testing until failure. Nonconstrained motion was measured at the index and adjacent levels. Results: At the index level, no significant differences were observed in ROM in all treatment groups (P > 0.05. There was a significant increase in adjacent level motion only for the treatment group that received a unipedicular cement injection at the anatomic center. Conclusion: The location of the needle (superior or central and treatment type (unipedicular or bipedicular had no significant effect on the ROM at the index site. At the adjacent levels, a significant increase occurred with therapy through a unipedicular approach into the centrum of the vertebra at the treated segment.

  5. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop: A Cadaver-Based Workshop to Prepare Residents for Surgery in Austere Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Meguid, Robert A; Kuwayama, David P

    2017-08-29

    Interest in humanitarian surgery is high among surgical and obstetric residents. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop is an annual 2-day course exposing senior residents to surgical techniques essential in low- and middle-income countries but not traditionally taught in US residencies. We evaluated the course's ability to foster resident comfort, knowledge, and competence in these skills. The cohort of course participants was studied prospectively. Participants attended didactic sessions followed by skills sessions using cadavers. Sample areas of focus included general surgery (mesh-free hernia repair), orthopedics (powerless external fixation), and neurosurgery (powerless craniotomy). Before and after the course, participants answered a questionnaire assessing confidence with taught skills; took a knowledge-based test composed of multiple choice and open-ended questions; and participated in a manual skills test of tibial external fixation. The Center for Surgical Innovation, University of Colorado School of Medicine. A total of 12 residents (11 general surgical and 1 obstetric) from ten US institutions. After the course, participants perceived increased confidence in performing all 27 taught procedures and ability to practice in low- and middle-income countries. In knowledge-based testing, 10 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on multiple choice questioning and 9 of 12 residents demonstrated improvement on open-ended questioning with structured scoring. In manual skills testing, all external fixator constructs demonstrated objective improvement on structured scoring and subjective improvement on stability assessment. For senior residents interested in humanitarian surgery, a combination of skills-focused teaching and manual practice led to self-perceived and objective improvement in relevant surgical knowledge and skills. The Colorado Humanitarian Surgical Skills Workshop represents an effective model for transmitting essential surgical

  6. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obert Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH and radiological (X-rays, CT scans outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160, forward flexion was 108° (70–160, external rotation (elbow at body was 34° (0–55, the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59, the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75, and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109. Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible.

  7. Optimizing CT technique to reduce radiation dose: effect of changes in kVp, iterative reconstruction, and noise index on dose and noise in a human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin J; Collins, Scott; Li, Baojun; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2017-06-01

    For assessment of the effect of varying the peak kilovoltage (kVp), the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASiR), and automatic dose modulation on radiation dose and image noise in a human cadaver, a cadaver torso underwent CT scanning at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp, each at ASiR settings of 0, 30 and 50 %, and noise indices (NIs) of 5.5, 11 and 22. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), image noise, and attenuation values of liver and fat were analyzed for 20 data sets. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) and liver-to-fat contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated. Values for different combinations of kVp, ASiR, and NI were compared. The CTDIvol varied by a power of 2 with kVp values between 80 and 140 without ASiR. Increasing ASiR levels allowed a larger decrease in CTDIvol and SSDE at higher kVp than at lower kVp while image noise was held constant. In addition, CTDIvol and SSDE decreased with increasing NI at each kVp, but the decrease was greater at higher kVp than at lower kVp. Image noise increased with decreasing kVp despite a fixed NI; however, this noise could be offset with the use of ASiR. The CT number of the liver remained unchanged whereas that of fat decreased as the kVp decreased. Image noise and dose vary in a complicated manner when the kVp, ASiR, and NI are varied in a human cadaver. Optimization of CT protocols will require balancing of the effects of each of these parameters to maximize image quality while minimizing dose.

  8. Penis ligaments: their use in "increasing" the size of the penis in penile augmentation procedures. Anatomical description in human cadavers and clinical results of a phalloplasty series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protogerou, Vassilis; Anagnostopolou, Sofia; Venierates, Dionissis; Troupis, Theodoros; Plagou, Mara; Vlassis, Konstantinos; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    To present in human cadavers the anatomical basis of penis lengthening operations and reproduce this technique in a group of patients. Penis ligaments in ten human cadavers were identified and dissected releasing the penis from its fixation to pubic arch. The same technique was applied to a group of forty patients that demanded a penis lengthening operation. The dissection of penis ligaments increases the distance pubic bone-tip of the penis for 3.1 +/- 0.6 cm. In patients, the increase in length 12 months post-operatively was 3.5 +/- 1.3 cm (2.3-5.1 cm) flaccid and 1.8 +/- 1.4 cm (1.4-3.2 cm) erect. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.005) between preoperative and postoperative status. The overall satisfaction rate was 67.5%. Cadavers study shows that this technique offers significant mobilization of the penis with a 3 cm gain, while on living tissue it has similar results. Anatomical parameters that might influence the final outcome of the operation are the length (antero-posterior dimension) of the pubic arch (corresponds to the length of the ligament), its angle with the horizontal level, the amount of the fatty tissue in the pubic area and the angle of the repositioning of the penis. Division of ligaments of the penis increases its apparent length. Significant anatomical parameters are the length of the pubic arch, its angle with the horizontal level, the amount of the fatty tissue in the pubic area and the angle of the repositioning of the penis.

  9. Integration of basic science and clinical medicine: the innovative approach of the cadaver biopsy project at the Boston University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Anna; Vaisman, Lev; Johnston-Cox, Hillary; Gallan, Alexander; Shaffer, Kitt; Vaughan, Deborah; O'Hara, Carl; Joseph, Lija

    2014-01-01

    Curricular integration has emerged as a consistent theme in medical education reform. Vertical integration of topics such as pathology offers the potential to bring basic science content into the clinical arena, but faculty/student acceptance and curricular design pose challenges for such integration. The authors describe the Cadaver Biopsy Project (CBP) at Boston University School of Medicine as a sustainable model of vertical integration. Faculty and select senior medical students obtained biopsies of cadavers during the first-year gross anatomy course (fall 2009) and used these to develop clinical cases for courses in histology (spring 2010), pathology (fall 2010-spring 2011), and radiology (fall 2011 or spring 2012), thereby linking students' first experiences in basic sciences with other basic science courses and later clinical courses. Project goals included engaging medical stu dents in applying basic science princi ples in all aspects of patient care as they acquire skills. The educational intervention used a patient (cadaver)-centered approach and small-group, collaborative, case-based learning. Through this project, the authors involved clinical and basic science faculty-plus senior medical students-in a collaborative project to design and implement an integrated curriculum through which students revisited, at several different points, the microscopic structure and pathophysiology of common diseases. Developing appropriate, measurable out comes for medical education initiatives, including the CBP, is challenging. Accumu lation of qualitative feedback from surveys will guide continuous improvement of the CBP. Documenting longer-term impact of the curricular innovation on test scores and other competency-based outcomes is an ultimate goal.

  10. [Dactyloscopy of mummified cadavers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, M; Neukom, R

    1995-01-01

    The identification of mummified bodies places high demands on the skills of a forensic fingerprinting specialist. From a variety of methods, he must be able to choose the most appropriate one to reproduce the skin ridges from fingers, which are often shrunk and deformed. This article introduces and discusses a method for indirect fingerprinting. In this method, a negative cast of the mummified fingertip is first produced with a silicon mass. This 3-dimensional negative is then filled with several layers of a white glue/talc mixture, until a skin-thick positive is attained. Using this artificial skin it is possible to reproduce, in a relatively short time, a fingerprint which is free of disturbing skin wrinkles and deformities.

  11. Anatomical characterization of the brachial plexus in dog cadavers and comparison of three blind techniques for blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Thomason, Jeffrey; Moens, Noel

    2017-12-12

    To describe the ventral spinal nerve rami contribution to the formation of the brachial plexus (BP), and to compare ease of performing and nerve staining between three blind techniques for BP blockade in dogs. Prospective, randomized, blind study. A total of 18 dog cadavers weighing 28.2 ± 9.7 kg (mean ± standard deviation). Dogs were randomly assigned to two of three BP treatments: traditional approach (TA), perpendicular approach (PA), and axillary approach (AA). Dye (0.2 mL kg -1 ) was injected in the left BP using a spinal needle; another BP treatment was used in the right BP. Landmarks (L) included: L1, midpoint between point of the shoulder and sixth cervical (C 6 ) transverse process; L2, scapulohumeral joint; and L3, first rib. For TA, the needle was introduced craniocaudally through L1, medial to the limb and cranial to L3. For PA, the needle was directed perpendicular and caudal to L2, aligned with L1, until cranial to L3. For AA, the needle was directed ventrodorsally, parallel and cranial to L3 until at L1. All BPs were scored for dyeing quality [0 (poor) to 5 (excellent)]. The left BP was dissected for nerve origins. Durbin test was used to compare scores (p < 0.05). In all dogs, the musculocutaneous nerve originated from C 7 and C 8 ; the radial nerve from C 8 , the first thoracic vertebra (T 1 ) (16/18 dogs) and C 7 (2/18); and the median and ulnar nerves from C 8 , T 1 (17/18) and C 7 (1/18). Respective raw scores and adjusted scores for the incomplete block design were not significantly different (p = 0.72; ranks TA 16.5, PA 19.0, AA 18.5). The musculocutaneous, median, ulnar and radial nerves originate from C 7 , C 8 and T 1 . Regardless of the technique, knowledge of anatomy and precise landmarks are relevant for correct dye dispersion. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  13. Influence of meniscus on cartilage and subchondral bone features of knees from older individuals: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Bouhadoun, Hamid; Engelke, Klaus; Laredo, Jean Denis; Chappard, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage and subchondral bone form a functional unit. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of meniscus coverage on the characteristics of this unit in knees of older individuals. We assessed the hyaline cartilage, subchondral cortical plate (SCP), and subchondral trabecular bone in areas covered or uncovered by the meniscus from normal cadaver knees (without degeneration). Bone cores harvested from the medial tibial plateau at locations uncovered (central), partially covered (posterior), and completely covered (peripheral) by the meniscus were imaged by micro-CT. The following were measured on images: cartilage volume (Cart.Vol, mm3) and thickness (Cart.Th, mm); SCP thickness (SCP.Th, μm) and porosity (SCP.Por, %); bone volume to total volume fraction (BV/TV, %); trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, μm), spacing (Tb.Sp, μm), and number (Tb.N, 1/mm); structure model index (SMI); trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf); and degree of anisotropy (DA). Among the 28 specimens studied (18 females) from individuals with mean age 82.8±10.2 years, cartilage and SCP were thicker at the central site uncovered by the meniscus than the posterior and peripheral sites, and Cart.Vol was greater. SCP.Por was highest in posterior samples. In the upper 1-5 mm of subchondral bone, central samples were characterized by higher values for BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and connectivity (Tb.Pf), a more plate-like trabecular structure and lower anisotropy than with other samples. Deeper down, at 6-10 mm, the differences were slightly higher for Tb.Th centrally, DA peripherally and SMI posteriorly. The coverage or not by meniscus in the knee of older individuals is significantly associated with Cart.Th, SCP.Th, SCP.Por and trabecular microarchitectural parameters in the most superficial 5 mm and to a lesser extent the deepest area of subchondral trabecular bone. These results suggest an effect of differences in local loading conditions. In subchondral bone uncovered by the meniscus, the trabecular architecture

  14. Biomechanical effects of harvesting bone graft with the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator on the adult femur: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jason A; McCormick, Jeremy J; Reed, Mark A; Morse, Andrew S; Heffernan, Michael J; Lavado, Robert D; Billiar, Kristen; Wixted, John J

    2010-11-01

    Test the biomechanical properties of femurs that have undergone reaming with the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA) device with an aim to prove no difference in torsional strength between matched pairs. Intact femurs were harvested from embalmed cadavers, representing 19 matched pairs. One femur from each pair was randomly selected to undergo reaming using the RIA to 15 mm. The bones were then cut and potted using a uniform jig for testing. Each specimen was tested in torsion and torsional stiffness was calculated for each pair. Samples were loaded until fracture or 11 3 N·m of torque. Nine of the reamed specimens and 13 of the unreamed samples remained intact until the machine limit of 113 N·m was reached, representing approximately four times the peak torque of 30N·m seen with stair climbing [Garino J, Beredjiklian P. Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics: Adult Reconstruction and Arthroplasty. Chapter 1, page 33. Mosby, 2007]. Mean torsional stiffness for the reamed group was 532.1 N·m/rad (SD = 208.2), and the unreamed was 546.2 N·m/rad (SD=206). Torsional load capacity was calculated for all specimens and compared in groups in which both reamed and unreamed specimens failed. In these five groups, mean load capacity was 80.6 Nm (SD = 9.5) for the reamed group, and 85 Nm (SD = 16.1) for the unreamed group. 17 of our reamed specimens and all of our unreamed specimens withstood normal physiologic load seen with stair climbing. In addition, 16 of 19 reamed specimens remained intact at twice this load. The specimen in the reamed group with the lowest torsional load capacity was eccentrically reamed in the distal anterior cortex highlighting potential complications. Given these findings, reaming the cortex of the femur with the RIA device for the purpose of harvesting bone graft does not appear to dramatically diminish the mechanical properties of the cortex or require postoperative weight bearing restrictions. However, careful attention must be paid to technique as

  15. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  17. Liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers: localization of collagen types I, III, and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ki M; Chu, Edward; Lau, K H Vincent; Kwong, Allison J

    2012-07-01

    We have shown a high prevalence of liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers with diverse causes of death by Sirius red stain; however, the various collagen types in these samples have yet to be evaluated. To further characterize the histopathology of the fibrotic lesions in the livers of these elderly cadavers, this study used immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to identify the principal collagens produced in liver fibrosis, fibrogenic cells and elastic fibers. Collagen I and III immunoreactions were found to colocalize in collagen fibers of fibrotic central veins, perisinusoidal fibrotic foci, portal tract stroma, and fibrous septa. α-Smooth muscle actin-expressing perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as perivenular, portal, and septal myofibroblasts, were closely associated with collagen fibers, reflecting their fibrogenic functions. HSCs and myofibroblasts were also noted to express collagen IV, which may contribute to production of basal lamina-like structures. In fibrotic livers, the sinusoidal lining showed variable immunostaining for collagen IV. Collagen IV immunostaining revealed vascular proliferation and atypical ductular reaction at the portal-septal parenchymal borders, as well as capillary-like vessels in the lobular parenchyma. While elastic fibers were absent in the space of Disse, they were found to codistribute with collagens in portal tracts, fibrous septa and central veins. Our combined assessment of collagen types, HSCs, myofibroblasts, and elastic fibers is significant in understanding the histopathology of fibrosis in the aging liver. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of vehicle systems, pH and enhancers on the permeation of highly lipophilic aripiprazole from Carbopol 971P gel systems across human cadaver skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammed Anwar; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vehicle systems, pH and enhancers on the permeation of a highly lipophilic basic drug aripiprazole (ARPZ) through human cadaver skin. Solubility of ARPZ in single, binary, tertiary, and quaternary vehicle systems of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), water, ethanol and isopropyl myristate (IPM) was studied. Gel formulations of 5% ARPZ were developed with 0.5% Carbopol 971P in quaternary vehicle systems consisting of NMP, DMSO, water and ethanol or IPM at optimum ratio of 40/40/5/15. The effect of pH of the gel formulations and fatty acids with different chain lengths on the permeation was studied. The flux of ARPZ from gel formulation with IPM and ethanol was comparable. A four fold increase in APRZ flux was observed when the pH of the gel systems was lowered from pH 8.2 to pH 6 or pH 7. For fatty acids, the order of flux is lauric acid > myristic acid > caprylic acid > oleic acid. In all the cases, in vitro permeation rate of ARPZ through human cadaver skin followed zero order kinetics. This study demonstrated that ARPZ in tertiary vehicle system of NMP/DMSO/water/IPM at ratio of 40/40/5/15 and gel system of Carbopol 971P with pH 7 is a promising candidate for transdermal delivery.

  19. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E; Lee, Christina M; Anderson, Mark L; Barr, Bradd C; Read, Deryck H; Johnson, Bill J; Woods, Leslie W; Daft, Barbara M; Kinde, Hailu; Moore, Janet D; Farman, Cynthia A; Odani, Jenee S; Pesavento, Patricia A; Uzal, Francisco A; Case, James T; Ardans, Alex A

    2006-05-01

    To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images. Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds. Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of chi2 and logistic regression techniques. Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively. Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

  20. [Biomechanical study of four palmar locking plates and one non-locking palmar plate for distal radius fractures: stiffness and load to failure tests in a cadaver model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudig, Lothar; Mehling, Isabella; Klitscher, Daniela; Mehler, Dorothea; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef; Rommens, Pol M; Müller, Lars Peter

    2009-06-01

    Five different palmar fixation plate designs were compared in a distal radial osteotomy cadaver model with regard to their biomechanical properties. A metaphyseal osteotomy gap of 1 cm was performed and the osteosynthesis was plated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Axial load was applied to the construct by a pneumatic material testing machine. Five implant groups with eight cadavers each were tested concerning stiffness. None of the constructs developed deformity and movement of the fracture gap larger than 2 mm with a load of 100 N. Increasing the load to 250 N revealed significant differences in stiffness and failure load between the different plates. The mean stiffness under axial load (mean+/-standard deviation) was 356.4+/- 138.6 N/mm for the radius correction plate without lateral tongue, 299.7+/-86.3 N/mm for the radius correction plate with lateral tongue, 132.8+/-41.5 N/mm for the distal volar radius plate, 112.5+/-40.2 N/mm for the 3.5 mm titanium locking compression plate and 91.9+/-29.2 N/mm for the standard stainless steel 3.5 mm T-Plate. The non-angular stable implant (STP plate) had the lowest stiffness. Unexpectedly, there were differences over 100% concerning the stiffness between the at first glance nearly similar angular stable implants. Additionally, a review of the literature concerning biomechanical investigations of the distal radial fracture was performed.

  1. A comparison between the new Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS Blue) stent and the Flow Redirection Endoluminal Device (FRED) in bench-top and cadaver studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Chung, Joonho; Keigher, Kiffon; Lopes, Demetrius

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differences between the new Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support (LVIS Blue) stenting device and the Flow Redirection Endoluminal Device (FRED) using a series of bench-top evaluations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in a cadaveric preparation of the basilar artery. The first part of the evaluation was bench-top microscopic documentation of metal coverage for LVIS Blue and FRED stents. OCT images of the cerebral vessels and deployed stents were acquired using OCT intravascular imaging. The stents were deployed from the left posterior cerebral artery to the basilar artery in a fresh frozen cadaver. Wall apposition and the relationship to jailed perforators were evaluated. The metal coverage along the inner curves of the LVIS Blue stent was similar to that along the outer curves of the FRED stent. The LVIS Blue stent cell size was compatible for crossing with the tested microcatheters after deployment of the stent. The LVIS Blue stent showed better wall apposition and less coverage of the perforator than the FRED stent in the cadaver experiment. LVIS Blue has a good crossing profile for microcatheters, better wall apposition, and less perforator coverage than FRED. These are desirable features in territories with high densities of perforators such as the posterior circulation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and the costoclavicular space and their relationship to thoracic outlet syndrome: a study of 60 cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kelly A; Olinger, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome classically results from constrictions in 1 or more of 3 specific anatomical locations: the interscalene triangle, costoclavicular space, and coracopectoral tunnel. Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging studies suggest that, of the 3 potential locations for constriction, the costoclavicular space is the most susceptible to compression. This study of human cadavers aims to expand on the descriptive anatomy of the interscalene triangle and associated costoclavicular space. The interscalene angle, interscalene triangle base, and costoclavicular space were measured on 120 sides of embalmed human cadavers. Linear distances and angles were measured using a caliper and protractor, respectively. The data were analyzed by calculating the mean, range, and standard deviation. The range for the interscalene base was 0 to 21.0 mm with a mean of 10.7 mm. For the interscalene angle, the range was 4° to 22° with a mean of 11.3°. Measurements for the costoclavicular space ranged from 6 to 30.9 mm with a mean of 13.5 mm. No significant differences were observed between left and right interscalene triangles or costoclavicular spaces; furthermore, there were no differences between the sexes concerning these 2 locations. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope Force and Cervical Spine Motion during Intubation in Cadavers—Cadavers vs. Patients, the Effect of Repeated Intubations, and the Effect of Type II Odontoid Fracture on C1-C2 Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley J.; From, Robert P.; Fontes, Ricardo B.; Traynelis, Vincent C.; Todd, Michael M.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Puttlitz, Christian M.; Santoni, Brandon G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to characterize: 1) cadaver intubation biomechanics, including the effect of repeated intubations; and 2) the relationship between intubation force and the motion of an injured cervical segment. Methods Fourteen cadavers were serially intubated using force-sensing Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes in random order, with simultaneous cervical spine motion recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. Motion of the C1-C2 segment was measured in the intact and injured state (Type II odontoid fracture). Injured C1-C2 motion was proportionately corrected for changes in intubation forces that occurred with repeated intubations. Results Cadaver intubation biomechanics were comparable to those of patients in all parameters other than C2-C5 extension. In cadavers, intubation force (Set 2/Set1 force ratio = 0.61 [95% CI: 0.46, 0.81]; P=0.002) and Oc-C5 extension (Set 2 –Set 1 difference = −6.1 degrees [95% CI: −11.4, −0.9]; P=0.025) decreased with repeated intubations. In cadavers, C1-C2 extension did not differ: 1) between intact and injured states; or 2) in the injured state, between laryngoscopes (with and without force correction). With force correction, in the injured state, C1-C2 subluxation was greater with the Airtraq (mean difference 2.8 mm [95% CI: 0.7, 4.9 mm]; P=0.004). Discussion With limitations, cadavers may be clinically relevant models of intubation biomechanics and cervical spine motion. In the setting of a Type II odontoid fracture, C1-C2 motion during intubation with either the Macintosh or Airtraq does not appear to greatly exceed physiologic values or to have a high likelihood of hyperextension or direct cord compression. PMID:26288267

  5. The Effect of Specimen Preparation on Post-Excision and Post-Fixation Dimensions, Translation, and Distortion of Canine Cadaver Skin-Muscle-Fascia Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, Marije; Mathews, Kyle G; Griffith, Emily

    2016-07-01

    To assess the effect of various tissue apposition techniques on specimens after formalin fixation, and to assess canine cadaveric composite skin-muscle-fascia specimen changes after excision without and with addition of a tumor model. Canine cadaveric study; unbalanced paired design. Fresh canine cadavers (n = 30) METHODS: Experiment 1: Paired 7 cm diameter, circular skin-muscle-fascia specimens were harvested bilaterally from three sites (thorax, abdomen, and thigh) on 10 cadavers. For each pair, the skin-to-fascia was sutured with a circumferential continuous pattern in one specimen and left unsutured in the other during excision. Specimen length and width were measured post-excision and post-fixation. Specimen rotation, translation, and distortion was measured post-fixation. Experiment 2: A subcutaneous tumor model was implanted at 2 sites (neck, thorax) on 20 cadavers and specimens were then excised with 2 cm lateral margins and a deep fascial plane. Three suturing techniques of the skin-to-fascia at both sites were performed during excision: unsutured versus circumferential continuous suture (10 pairs) or circumferential versus 4 interrupted quadrant sutures (10 pairs). Lateral margins were compared post-excision and post-fixation. Experiment 1: There was significant reduction in the length and width of the fascia and skin post-excision, but no further reduction after fixation. The circumferential suture decreased rotation and translation of the tissue layers but did not significantly affect specimen shrinkage or distortion compared with the unsutured specimen. Experiment 2: All 4 lateral margins decreased significantly post-excision and post-fixation compared with the planned pre-excision margins. No difference was found between any of the 4 lateral margins for any skin-to-fascia suture technique. Canine skin-muscle-fascia specimens significantly decrease in size from gross pre-excision dimensions after removal. Suturing the specimen during surgery before

  6. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  7. Evaluación de técnicas de procesamiento y almacenamiento de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos

    OpenAIRE

    Laura A. Calvo-Castro; Maritza Guerrero-Barrantes; Andrea Ulloa-Fernández; Rafael Portuguez-Barboza; Carolina Centeno-Cerdas; Miguel Rojas Chaves

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se reproducen y analizan algunas de las técnicas más comunes a nivel internacional para el manejo de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la ablación, el procesamiento, la desinfección y el almacenamiento de piel utilizando un modelo animal (cerdo, Sus scrofa domesticus). Para verificar la calidad microbiológica del tejido se compararon dos diferentes métodos de desinfección (antibióticos y desinfección química con cloro). Además, se evaluó...

  8. Development of a fresh cadaver model for instruction of ultrasound-guided breast biopsy during the surgery clerkship: pre-test and post-test results among third-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Hilary C; Krate, Jonida; Savilo, Christine E; Tran, Melissa H; Ho, Hang T; Adamas-Rappaport, William J; Viscusi, Rebecca K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if a fresh cadaver model is a viable method for teaching ultrasound (US)-guided breast biopsy of palpable breast lesions. Third-year medical students were assessed both preinstruction and postinstruction on their ability to perform US-guided needle aspiration or biopsy of artificially created masses using a 10-item checklist. Forty-one third-year medical students completed the cadaver laboratory as part of the surgery clerkship. Eight items on the checklist were found to be significantly different between pre-testing and post-testing. The mean preinstruction score was 2.4, whereas the mean postinstruction score was 7.10 (P < .001). Fresh cadaver models have been widely used in medical education. However, there are few fresh cadaver models that provide instruction on procedures done in the outpatient setting. Our model was found to be an effective method for the instruction of US-guided breast biopsy among medical students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomechanical comparison of transosseous re-fixation of the deep fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments versus deep and superficial fibres: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Christian K; Niehoff, Anja; Unglaub, Frank; Müller, Lars P; Langer, Martin F; Neiss, Wolfram F; Oppermann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that the re-fixation of the deep and superficial fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments provide improved stability compared to reconstruction of the deep fibres alone. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaver upper extremities were used for biomechanical testing. Transosseous re-fixation of the deep fibres of the distal radioulnar ligaments alone (single mattress suture group; n = 7) was compared to the transosseous re-attachment of the deep and superficial fibres (double mattress suture group; n = 7). Cyclic load application provoked palmar translation of the radius with respect to the rigidly affixed ulna. Creep, stiffness, and hysteresis were obtained from the load-deformation curves, respectively. Testing was done in neutral forearm rotation, 60° pronation, and 60° supination. The re-fixation techniques did not differ significantly regarding the viscoelastic parameters creep, hysteresis, and stiffness. Several significant differences of one cycle to the consecutive one within each re-fixation group could be detected especially for creep and hysteresis. No significant differences between the different forearm positions could be detected for each viscoelastic parameter. The re-fixation techniques did not differ significantly regarding creep, hysteresis, and stiffness. This means that the additional re-attachment of the superficial fibres may not provide greater stability to the DRUJ. Bearing in mind that the study was a cadaver examination with a limited number of specimens we may suppose that the re-attachment of the superficial fibres seem to be unnecessary. A gradual decline of creep and hysteresis from first to last loading-unloading cycle is to be expected and typical of ligaments which are viscoelastic.

  10. Lengths of the external hip rotators in mobilized cadavers indicate the quadriceps coxa as a primary abductor and extensor of the flexed hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarbakken, Kjartan; Steen, Harald; Samuelsen, Gunnar; Dahl, Hans A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Nordsletten, Lars; Stuge, Britt

    2014-08-01

    The primary function of the external rotators of the hip is inadequately described. The descriptions for peak strength and stretch take no account of how these muscles change their length during normal movement. The latter relationship is known to greatly influence contraction forces and reflect moment arms. The aim of the present study was to indicate positions and directions for peak strength and stretch of piriformis and obturator internus (including the gemelli), collectively defined as the quadriceps coxa, by measuring their changes in length due to normal movements. Repeated measurements of muscle lengths and range of motions were acquired from dissected muscles on human cadaver hips. We measured at every 15° of flexion with and without adding end ab/adduction, rotations, and combinations thereof. Measurements were taken in three normal hips (1 female aged 59 years, 2 males aged 68 and 70 years) using a custom-engineered frame, electronic calipers, goniometer, and a string muscle model. Movement-lengthening relations were differentiated into movement-moment arm relations. The piriformis and obturator internus were maximally lengthened (35 and 30mm) by 105° flexion and 10° adduction and relaxed by extension and abduction. With significant moment arms for extension and abduction in the movement-lengthening range deduced as force-efficient, our findings indicate peak strength by extension and abduction at 60° to 90° flexed positions. This cadaver study indicates that the quadriceps coxa is a primary abductor and extensor from flexed positions, a strength function which may be of major importance in rising and propulsive motions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MR imaging of the ankle at 3 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla: protocol optimization and application to cartilage, ligament and tendon pathology in cadaver specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Cameron; Malfair, David; Henning, Tobias D.; Steinbach, Lynne; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bauer, Jan S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Ma, Benjamin [University of California San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this study was to optimize ankle joint MR imaging in volunteers at 1.5 Tesla (T) and 3.0 T, and to compare these optimized sequences concerning image quality and performance in assessing cartilage, ligament and tendon pathology in fresh human cadaver specimens. Initially our clinical ankle protocol consisting of T1-weighted (-w), fat-saturated (fs) T2-w, and short {tau} inversion-recovery fast spinecho (FSE) sequences was optimized at 1.5 T and 3.0 T by two radiologists. For dedicated cartilage imaging, fs-intermediate (IM)-w FSE, fs spoiled gradient echo, and balanced free-precession steady-state sequences were optimized. Using the optimized sequences, thirteen cadaver ankle joints were imaged. Four radiologists independently assessed these images concerning image quality and pathology. All radiologists consistently rated image quality higher at 3.0 T (all sequences p<0.05). For detecting cartilage pathology, diagnostic performance was significantly higher at 3.0 T (ROC-values up to 0.93 vs. 0.77; p<0.05); the fs-IM FSE sequence showed highest values among the different sequences. Average sensitivity for detecting tendon pathology was 63% at 3.0 T vs. 41% at 1.5 T and was significantly higher at 3.0 T for 2 out of 4 radiologists (p<0.05). Compared to 1.5 T, imaging of the ankle joint at 3.0 T significantly improved image quality and diagnostic performance in assessing cartilage pathology. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente R; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv L; Eriksen, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use. Pelvic limbs from cadavers of 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Patellar position in each limb at 7 stifle joint angles (30° to 148°) was assessed by use of the Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (mIS), de Carvalho (dC), patellotrochlear (PT), and Blackburne-Peel (BP) indices. Values for all indices varied significantly on the basis of joint angle, but for IS and mIS indices, this was minor and nonsignificant between 52° and 130° and between 52° and 148°, respectively. The dC index increased linearly, and PT and BP indices varied polynomially with increases in stifle joint angle. Stifle joint angles measured from radiographs agreed well with the goniometrically set stifle joint angles up to approximately 100° and diverged thereafter. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was substantial for all indices, and IS index was the most precise. IS and mIS index values were effectively independent of stifle joint angle, in contrast to dC, PT, and BP indices. The BP index varied nonsignificantly across a range of joint angles. To maximize angular accuracy, radiographs should not be obtained at joint angles > 100°. Although dC, PT, and BP indices appeared to be suitable for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of patellar position, BP index appeared to have the most promise for determination of patellar position in clinical applications.

  13. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Shi; Wu, Zeng-Hui; Xia, Hong; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Ai, Fu-Zhi; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jian-Hua; Mai, Xiao-Hong; Yin, Qing-Shui

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications. PMID:25518033

  14. The development and evaluation of individualized templates to assist transoral C2 articular mass or transpedicular screw placement in TARP-IV procedures: adult cadaver specimen study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Shi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate system treats irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation from transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-I to transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-III. However, this system has demonstrated problems associated with screw loosening, atlantoaxial fixation and concealed or manifest neurovascular injuries. This study sought to design a set of individualized templates to improve the accuracy of anterior C2 screw placement in the transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV procedure. METHODS: A set of individualized templates was designed according to thin-slice computed tomography data obtained from 10 human cadavers. The templates contained cubic modules and drill guides to facilitate transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate positioning and anterior C2 screw placement. We performed 2 stages of cadaveric experiments with 2 cadavers in stage one and 8 in stage two. Finally, guided C2 screw placement was evaluated by reading postoperative computed tomography images and comparing the planned and inserted screw trajectories. RESULTS: There were two cortical breaching screws in stage one and three in stage two, but only the cortical breaching screws in stage one were ranked critical. In stage two, the planned entry points and the transverse angles of the anterior C2 screws could be simulated, whereas the declination angles could not be simulated due to intraoperative blockage of the drill bit and screwdriver by the upper teeth. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use individualized templates to guide transoral C2 screw placement. Thus, these drill templates combined with transoral atlantoaxial reduction plate-IV, may improve the accuracy of transoral C2 screw placement and reduce related neurovascular complications.

  15. Primer estudio de artropodofauna cadavérica sobre modelos experimentales porcinos en el noreste de la provincia del Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. ARMANI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el proceso de descomposición y la composición de insectos presentes en biomodelos porcinos, en el NE de la provincia del Chubut. El objetivo fue determinar la composición específica, abundancia y riqueza de la artropodofauna carroñera en el ambiente de estepa. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante tres años consecutivos utilizándose tres cerdos domésticos para cada muestreo, colocados dentro de jaulas de madera cubiertas de alambre tejido. Diariamente se colectaron los artrópodos en el cuerpo, debajo y alrededor de este. Se registraron 36.157 individuos pertenecientes a 78 especies de 18 familias distribuidas entre los órdenes Diptera, Coleoptera e Hymenoptera. Se citan por primera vez de la provincia de Chubut tres especies de Calliphoridae: Paralucilia pseudolyrcea Mello, Paralucilia fulvinota Bigot y Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann; y una especie de Muscidae: Arthurella choelensis Patitucci & Mariluis. Se incorpora como primera cita para la fauna cadavérica argentina a Sarcophaga (Lipoptilocnema margaretae Lahille (Sarcophagidae. Se trata del primer estudio sobre entomología forense realizado en Patagonia que permite conocer los procesos de descomposición cadavérica y la fauna de insectos carroñeros presentes en esta zona. Por lo tanto, aporta información relevante que puede utilizarse en la resolución de casos forenses humanos en la región.

  16. Efficacy of radial styloid targeting screws in volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radial fractures: a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Toshihiko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locking screws target the radial styloid, theoretically provide greater stability against radial styloid fragment. However, it is unknown whether the radial styloid locking screws increased the stability of the volar plating system fixation along the entire distal radius or not. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the volar plating system fixation with or without the radial styloid screws using a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model. Methods Six matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver wrists complete from the proximal forearm to the metacarpal bones were prepared to simulate standardized 3-part intra-articular and severe comminuted fractures. Specimens were fixed using the volar plating system with or without 2 radial styloid screws. Each specimen was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min to failure. Load data was recorded and, ultimate strength and change in gap between distal and proximal fragments were measured. Data for ultimate strength and screw failure after failure loading were compared between the 2 groups. Results The average ultimate strength at failure of the volar plate fixation with radial styloid screws (913.5 ± 157.1 N was significantly higher than that without them (682.2 ± 118.6 N. After failure loading, the average change in gap between the ulnar and proximal fragment was greater than that between the radial and proximal fragment. The number of bent or broken screws in ulnar fragment was higher than that in radial fragment. The number of specimens with bent or broken screws in cases with radial styloid screws was fewer than that in the fixation without radial styloid screws group. Conclusion The ulnar fragment is more intensively stressed than the radial fragment under axial loading of distal radius at full wrist extension. The radial styloid screws were effective in stable volar plate fixation of distal radial fractures.

  17. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  18. Assessing validity of actual tooth height and width from cone beam images of cadavers with subsequent dissection to aid oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Peterson, Andrew; Cook, Valane

    2012-02-01

    Cone-beam computed technology (CBCT) is a relatively new medium for maxillofacial conditions. Developed in 1998, commercial cone beam technology has been commonly used since 2000. CBCT offers less radiation than computed tomography (CT) in 3D image construction. With the meteoric rise in the number of dental implant surgeries, CBCT could become a common machine in dental offices. The objective of this study is to validate the accuracy of CBCT tooth measurements. Twelve embalmed cadavers had a complete CBCT of the head and neck region. Ninety-six teeth (8 per cadaver) were extracted in total, but only 69 were collected and measured. CEN-TECH electronic calipers were used to measure the extracted teeth. iCAT measurements were used for imaged teeth. A literature search was conducted on the validity and use of CBCT regarding tooth measurements for implant surgery. Extracted teeth were measured in the vertical, facial to lingual, and mesial to distal dimensions. Exclusion factors included crown or root fracture damage during extraction. A literature search revealed studies that validated bone measurements using 14 different location points on the maxilla and 17 anatomical landmarks on the skull. Both studies validated bone measurements on CBCT. However, no studies were identified measuring teeth lengths for implant surgery. Three, two-tailed, paired t-test compared the iCAT image measurements to the extracted teeth measurements for each dimension. There was no statistical significance for each dimension. This study suggests using iCAT measurements on teeth from CBCT imaging would reflect the actual tooth length and could be beneficial for implant surgery. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidural migration of new methylene blue in 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 2% mepivacaine solution following injection into the first intercoccygeal space in foal cadavers and anesthetized foals undergoing laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Kerr, Carolyn L; Bouré, Ludovic P; Pearce, Simon G

    2005-08-01

    To determine the relationship between epidural cranial migration and injectate volume of an isotonic solution containing dye in laterally recumbent foal cadavers and evaluate the cranial migration and dermatome analgesia of an epidural dye solution during conditions of laparoscopy in foals. 19 foal cadavers and 8 pony foals. Foal cadavers received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, or 0.2 mL/kg) containing 1.2 mg of new methylene blue (NMB)/mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Length of the dye column and number of intervertebral spaces cranial and caudal to the injection site were measured. Anesthetized foals received an epidural injection of dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) containing saline solution or 2% mepivacaine. Foals were placed in a 100 head-down position, and pneumoperitoneum was induced. Dermatome analgesia was determined by use of a described electrical stimulus technique. Foals were euthanatized, and length of the dye column was measured. Epidural cranial migration of dye solution in foal cadavers increased with increasing volume injected. No significant difference was found in epidural cranial migration of a dye solution (0.2 mL/kg) between anesthetized foals undergoing conditions of laparoscopy and foal cadavers in lateral recumbency. Further craniad migration of the dye column occurred than indicated by dermatome analgesia. Epidural cranial migration increases with volume of injectate. On the basis of dermatome analgesia, an epidural injection of 2% mepivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) alone provides analgesia up to at least the caudal thoracic dermatome and could permit caudal laparoscopic surgical procedures in foals.

  20. A comparison of direct versus indirect laryngoscopic visualization during endotracheal intubation of lightly embalmed cadavers utilizing the GlideScope®, Storz Medi Pack Mobile Imaging System™ and the New Storz CMAC™ videolaryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Ben H; Nicholsal, Thomas A; Carpenter, Jennifer; Singh, Leighton; Bernhagen, Mary A; Murray, W Bosseau; Wadman, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the skills needed to use video laryngoscope systems are easily learned by healthcare providers. This study compared several video laryngoscopic (VL) systems and a direct laryngoscope (DL) view when used by medical residents practicing intubation on cadavers. The video devices used included the Storz Medi Pack Mobile Imaging System™, the Storz CMAC® VL System and the GlideScope®. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine (UNMC EM) residents were recruited and given a brief pre-study informational period. The cadavers were lightly embalmed. The study subjects were asked to perform intubations on two cadavers using both DL and VL while using the three different VL systems. Procedural data was recorded for each attempt and pre and post experience perceptions were collected. N=14. All subjects reported their varied previous intubation experience. The average airway score using DL: for the Storz VL was 1.54 (SD = 0.576) and for the C-MAC was 1.46 (SD = 0.637). Success in intubation of the standard airway using DL was 93% versus a 100% success rate when intubating with indirect VL visualization. Based on our data, we believe that the incorporation of VL into cadaver airway management training provided an improved learning environment for the study residents. In our study, the resident subjects were 93% successful with DL intubation even though 50% had less than 30 intubations. As well, there was a 100% success rate when intubating with indirect VL visualization. In conclusion, the researchers believe this cadaver model incorporated with VL is a powerful tool which may help improve the overall learning curve for orotracheal intubation. 2011.

  1. Comparison of in vivo vs. frozen vs. Thiel cadaver specimens in visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle on proton density Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarb, F; McNulty, J; Gatt, A; Formosa, C; Chockalingam, N; Evanoff, M G; Rainford, L

    2017-05-01

    The use of cadavers for medical education purposes and for radiology research methodologies which involve subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well documented. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of cadaver tissue preservation in producing MR images that are representative of living tissue by comparing the visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle obtained from live and cadaver (fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed) specimens through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study. A VGA study was conducted on an image data set consisting of 4 coronal proton density weighted (PDw) sequences obtained from ankles of a live patient and those of a cadaveric specimen, of which the right ankle was frozen and the left Thiel embalmed. Comparison of the image quality scores obtained from: the live patient vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the scores in favour of the Thiel specimen; between the live patient vs. the frozen specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the frozen specimen and between the frozen vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the Thiel specimen. The advantages of the use of cadavers (frozen or Thiel embalmed) has been shown to also apply for use with proton density (PD) MR imaging. The preservation of cadavers especially using Thiel is a suitable alternative for MRI optimisation and protocol development purposes. Copyright © 2016 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sequential hole enlargement on cortical bone temperature during drilling of 6.2-mm-diameter transcortical holes in the third metacarpal bones of horse cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescun, Timothy B; Frank, Elizabeth A; Zacharias, Joshua R; Daggy, Joanne K; Moore, George E

    2011-12-01

    To compare the bone temperature and final hole dimensions associated with sequential overdrilling (SO) and single 6.2-mm drill bit (S6.2DB) methods used to create transcortical holes in the third metacarpal bones (MCIIIs) of horse cadavers. 60 MCIIIs from 30 horse cadavers. In phase 1, hole diameter, tap insertion torque, peak bone temperature, and postdrilling bit temperature for 6.2-mm-diameter holes drilled in the lateral or medial cortical region of 12 MCIIIs via each of three 2-bit SO methods with a single pilot hole (diameter, 3.2, 4.5, or 5.5 mm) and the S6.2DB method were compared. In phase 2, 6.2-mm-diameter transcortical holes were drilled via a 2-bit SO method (selected from phase 1), a 4-bit SO method, or a S6.2DB method at 1 of 3 locations in 48 MCIIIs; peak bone temperature during drilling, drill bit temperature immediately following drilling, and total drilling time were recorded for comparison. Hole diameter or tap insertion torque did not differ among phase 1 groups. Mean ± SD maximum bone temperature increases at the cis and trans cortices were significantly less for the 4-bit SO method (3.64 ± 2.01°C and 8.58 ± 3.82°C, respectively), compared with the S6.2DB method (12.00 ± 7.07°C and 13.19 ± 7.41°C, respectively). Mean drilling time was significantly longer (142.9 ± 37.8 seconds) for the 4-bit SO method, compared with the S6.2DB method (49.7 ± 24.3 seconds). Compared with a S6.2DB method, use of a 4-bit SO method to drill transcortical holes in cadaveric equine MCIIIs resulted in smaller bone temperature increases without affecting hole accuracy.

  3. Intubation biomechanics: laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation in cadavers-effect of severe distractive-flexion injury on C3-4 motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley J; Fontes, Ricardo B; From, Robert P; Traynelis, Vincent C; Todd, Michael M; Puttlitz, Christian M; Santoni, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE With application of the forces of intubation, injured (unstable) cervical segments may move more than they normally do, which can result in spinal cord injury. The authors tested whether, during endotracheal intubation, intervertebral motion of an injured C3-4 cervical segment 1) is greater than that in the intact (stable) state and 2) differs when a high- or low-force laryngoscope is used. METHODS Fourteen cadavers underwent 3 intubations using force-sensing laryngoscopes while simultaneous cervical spine motion was recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. The first intubation was performed with an intact cervical spine and a conventional high-force line-of-sight Macintosh laryngoscope. After creation of a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury, 2 additional intubations were performed, one with the Macintosh laryngoscope and the other with a low-force indirect video laryngoscope (Airtraq), used in random order. RESULTS During Macintosh intubations, between the intact and the injured conditions, C3-4 extension (0.3° ± 3.0° vs 0.4° ± 2.7°, respectively; p = 0.9515) and anterior-posterior subluxation (-0.1 ± 0.4 mm vs -0.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.2754) did not differ. During Macintosh and Airtraq intubations with an injured C3-4 segment, despite a large difference in applied force between the 2 laryngoscopes, segmental extension (0.4° ± 2.7° vs 0.3° ± 3.3°, respectively; p = 0.8077) and anterior-posterior subluxation (0.3 ± 0.6 mm vs 0.0 ± 0.7 mm, respectively; p = 0.3203) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS The authors' hypotheses regarding the relationship between laryngoscope force and the motion of an injured cervical segment were not confirmed. Motion-force relationships (biomechanics) of injured cervical intervertebral segments during endotracheal intubation in cadavers are not predicted by the in vitro biomechanical behavior of isolated cervical segments. With the limitations inherent to cadaveric studies, the results of this study suggest

  4. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  5. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomechanical cadaver testing of a fixed-angle plate in comparison to tension wiring and screw fixation in transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Simon; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Jopen, Eva; Eichler, Christian; Koebke, Jürgen; Schönau, Eckhard; Hakimi, Mohssen; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Operative treatment of patella fractures is frequently associated with implant failure and secondary dislocation which can be attributed to the employed hardware. Therefore, a 2.7 mm fixed-angle plate designed for the treatment of patella fractures was tested biomechanically against the currently preferred methods of fixation. It was hypothesized that under simulated cyclic loading fixed-angle plating would be superior to modified anterior tension wiring or cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring. Eighteen human cadaver knees, matched by bone mineral density and age, were divided into three groups of six. After setting a transverse patella fracture each group received one of the osteosyntheses mentioned above. Repetitive testing over 100 cycles was performed at non-destructive loads by simulating knee motion from 90° flexion to full extension. Anterior tension wiring as well as lag screws with tension wiring showed significant fracture displacement after the initial cycle already. Both constructs, lag screws plus wiring (3.7 ± 2.7 mm) as well as tension wiring alone (7.1 ± 2.2 mm) displayed fracture displacement of >2 mm which is clinically regarded as failure. Those patellae stabilized with fixed-angle plates showed no significant fracture gap widening after completion of 100 cycles (0.7 ± 0.5 mm). The differences between the fixed-angle plate group and the other two groups were statistically significant (ppatella fractures securely and sustainably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new concept of transforaminal ventral facetectomy including simultaneous decompression of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis: Technical considerations in a fresh cadaver model and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Higashino, Kosaku; Yamashita, Kazuta; Hayashi, Fumio; Wada, Keizo; Sakai, Toshinori; Takata, Yoichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Terai, Tomoya; Chikawa, Takashi; Yonezu, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic surgery for the lumbar spine, which was established in the last decade, requires only an 8-mm skin incision and causes minimal damage to the paravertebral muscles; thus, it is considered to be a minimally invasive technique for spinal surgery. It has been used to perform percutaneous endoscopic discectomy via two main approaches: the TF approach is a posterolateral one through the intervertebral foramen and can be done under local anesthesia; the IL approach is a more traditional one through the interlaminar space and is difficult to perform under local anesthesia. Recently, these techniques have been applied for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), the TF method for foraminal stenosis under local anesthesia, and the IL method for central and lateral recess stenosis under general anesthesia. In this study, using a fresh human cadaver model, we performed simultaneous decompression of the lateral recess and foraminal stenosis at L4-5 using the TF approach. Computed tomography confirmed enlargement of the lateral recess and intervertebral foramen. This technique, which can be performed under local anesthesia, should benefit elderly patients with LSS and poor general condition due to multiple comorbidities. Finally, we introduce the concept of percutaneous transforaminal ventral facetectomy using a spinal percutaneous endoscope. J. Med. Invest. 64: 1-6, February, 2017.

  8. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Hyoun Choi, Sang; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  9. Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck's Disease: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalezli, Nazım; Uz, Aysun; Esmer, Ali Fırat; Demirtaş, Mehmet; Taşcı, Arzu Gül; Kütahya, Harun; Ulusoy, Gürhan

    2013-01-01

    Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck's disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck's disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones. PMID:23606814

  10. Biomechanic analysis of trapeziectomy, ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition, and tie-in trapezium implant arthroplasty for thumb carpometacarpal arthritis: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Waitayawinyu, Thanapong; Nemechek, Nicholas; Huber, Philippe; Tencer, Allan F; Trumble, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis has been commonly treated with some combination of resection of the trapezium and interposition of a spacer using either a biologic or artificial material plus tenodesis to reconstruct the volar oblique ligament. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanic stability of the classic ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition (LRTI) or without tendon interposition compared with a newly developed 1-piece silicone trapezium implant. Twelve cadaver arm specimens had the following procedures: resection of the trapezium, tendon interposition, ligament reconstruction, LRTI, and the silicone implant. Biomechanic testing of joint stability was performed with a physiologic loading protocol before and after each procedure. The implant significantly corrected the axial displacement after trapeziectomy and resulted in less radial displacement than LRTI. It significantly reduced angulation of the thumb metacarpal base but resulted in more rotation of the thumb during simulated pinch. There was no significant difference in stability measures between trapeziectomy and LRTI or ligament reconstruction without tendon interposition. We found several biomechanic advantages to the implant compared with LRTI. Advantages include reduction in axial and radial displacement and maintenance of the trapezial space. We attribute these advantages to the effect of the implant as a spacer. The significant rotation with the implant, however, raises questions concerning implant design and fixation. We found no biomechanic advantage to LRTI or ligament reconstruction without tendon interposition over trapeziectomy alone.

  11. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon: correlation between MR imaging and histology in eight cadavers and clinical MR imaging studies

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    Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Koo [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gou Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We set out to investigate the cause of persistently increased signal intensity (SI) in the posterior portion of the proximal patellar tendon (pPT) on T1-weighted images (T1WI). MR imaging was performed in eight cadavers, followed by gross histological examination. In addition, 84 patients without trauma history or anterior knee pain were included to compare the SI of the PTs. The patients were divided according to their age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. The length and thickness of the increased SI portion in the pPT and whole PT (wPT) on T1WI were recorded. Histological specimens demonstrated that the adipose tissue, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue invaginated into the posterior portion of the pPT. This histological anatomy corresponded to the pPT signal change on MR imaging. There was linear and interdigitating increased SI of the pPT in all of the 84 patients (100 %). There were no differences in the lengths and thicknesses of the increased SI portion of pPTs and wPTs according to age, sex, and KL grade (all p > 0.05). The increased SI of the pPT on T1WI and fluid-sensitive MR images results from invaginating fat, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue. It is not pathological, but a normal and common finding. (orig.)

  12. [Transplant coordination and logistics of intra and extra-hospital cadaver donor tissue. "The Pamplona Model". Sequence of tasks performed from 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraví-Poma, E; Martín, A; Maraví-Aznar, A; Iturralde, O; Compains, E; Alvarez, J; Cabal, S; Maraví-Aznar, E; Teijeira, R; Unzué, Jj; González, R

    2006-01-01

    Tissue and organ donations are the only option for many patients. Cerebral death (CD) facilitates this approach. However, hospitals that do not provide CD donors have to adapt in order to obtain donors, referred to as tissue donors (TD), who have died from cardiac arrest. Is this paper it descripte the model for coordination and donation of intra and extra-hospital TD in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. It creats a program for detection, donation and extractions called the Pamplona Model, from 1992-2006. In 1990, a transplant team was created by an Intensive Medicine Physician of HVC, INML and SOS-Navarra. In 1996, VCH Transplant Coordination is defined as a reference centre for the Tissue Transplant Programme in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. Consensus protocols for "intra and extra-hospital detection" of persons having died from cardiac arrest are developed: - Alerts from NHS-O hospitals, SOS-Navarra; judges and INML forensic pathologists. - Criteria for selection, search and contacts with relatives. - Alert serology, extraction and transport teams. - Logistics and distribution of tissue. - Agreed incentives: Economic, administrative and relevant regulations. The Pamplona Model, with the Virgen Del Camino hospital has made important contributions and is unique in the world. Intra and extra-hospital coordination of cadaver donor from a referred hospital, it is a scientific and organizational advance to have in it counts for the creation of extraction and transplant tissues teams.

  13. A comparison of sonography and radiography student scores in a cadaver anatomy class before and after the implementation of synchronous distance education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Jennifer Elaine; Randall, K; Anderson, M P

    2015-02-01

    Distance education is a solution to expand medical imaging education to students who might not otherwise be able to obtain the education. It can be a mechanism to reduce the health care worker shortage in underserved areas. In some cases, distance education may be a disruptive technology, and might lower student performance. This study compares student scores in a cadaver anatomy course in the four cohorts preceding the implementation of distance education to the first three cohorts that took the course using a multiple campus design. The means and medians of the lecture exam average, the laboratory component score, and the final course score of the nondistance education cohorts were compared with those of the distance education cohorts using nonparametric statistical analysis. Scores in an anatomy course were compared by campus placement among the distance education cohorts, and the independent effect of distance education on the laboratory component, lecture examination average, and final course scores, while controlling for cumulative grade point average and site (originating/distant), was assessed. Students receiving the course in a nondistance education environment scored higher in the anatomy course than the students who took the course in a distance education environment. Students on the distant campus scored lower than students on the originating site. Distance education technology creates new opportunities for learning, but can be a disruptive technology. Programs seeking to implement distance education into their curriculum should do so with knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Angle of insertion and confirmation of angles measured after in vitro implantation during laminar vertebral stabilization in vertebral columns obtained from canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Sebastian C; Kircher, Patrick; Dennler, Matthias; Montavon, Pierre M; Voss, Katja; Hurter, Karin

    2011-12-01

    To determine angles of insertion for laminar vertebral fixation of L1 and L2 by use of a locking plate in dogs and to confirm screw placement by use of computed tomography (CT). Vertebral specimens harvested from 8 canine cadavers. The point of insertion and minimum and maximum insertion angles for laminar and facet screws for laminar vertebral stabilization were determined by use of CT. A precontoured locking plate was then placed by use of 1 locking screw in the lamina of each lumbar vertebra and 1 nonlocking screw in the facet joint. The position and angle of the screws were examined by use of CT, and penetration into the vertebral canal was recorded. Mean ± SD insertion angles for L1 and L2 were 18 ± 4° and 21 ± 5° toward the vertebral canal and 11 ± 4.4° and 10 ± 3° in a dorsal direction, respectively. Insertion angles for the facet joint were between 24 ± 4° ventrally and 12 ± 2° dorsally. Insertion of the screw did not penetrate the vertebral canal for 23 of 24 (96%) screws. For 23 of 24 inserted screws, the previously determined angle was maintained and purchase of bone and cortices was satisfactory. Placement of laminar and facet screws in canine vertebrae was possible and can be performed safely if angles of insertion determined pre-operatively via CT are maintained.

  15. Tunical Outer Layer Plays an Essential Role in Penile Veno-occlusive Mechanism Evidenced from Electrocautery Effects to the Corpora Cavernosa in Defrosted Human Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Huang, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Chen, Heng-Shen; Huang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact anatomical structure for establishing penile veno-occlusive function, we sought to conduct a hemodynamic study on defrosted human cadavers. Thirteen penises were used for this experiment, and 11 intact penises were allocated into the electrocautery group (EG, n = 6) and the ligation group (LG, n = 5). A circumcision was made on the penis to access the veins. Two #19 scalp needles were fixed in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions in the distal penis for colloid infusion and intracavernous pressure (ICP) monitoring, respectively. For the EG, the deep dorsal vein and cavernosal vein trunks were freed for 3-5 cm where at least 3 emissary veins were identified via opening Buck's fascia; these veins underwent electrocautery at 45 watts, while the ICP was maintained at 0, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mmHg, respectively. For control, venous ligation was made but at the ICP of 150 mmHg. A tissue block including the emissary vein was then obtained for histological analysis. Except all in the EG and those whose ICP exceed 125 mmHg in the EG, the sinusoids of the corpora cavernosa sustained varied fulgurated fibrosis in every specimen and the severity appeared reversely commensurate with the ICP regarding sinusoidal clumping and darkish bands (P erection. The outer tunica plays an essential role in fulfilling the veno-occlusive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estudo anatomotopográfico do canal arterial em fetos natimortos dirigido para sua abordagem por videotoracoscopia Anatomotopographic study of ductus arteriosus in newborn cadavers directed for its videotoracoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Viana de Castro Neto

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva realizar um estudo anatomotopográfico do Canal Arterial em fetos natimortos enfatizando o seu comprimento e seu diâmetro de acordo com o tamanho de cada feto. Além de que, descrevemos as distâncias entre este e pontos de reparo importantes para sua abordagem por videotoracoscopia. Estudamos dezesseis fetos natimortos, sendo que oito eram do sexo masculino. O tamanho do feto e os perímetros torácico e cefálico variaram de 42-57, 26-35 e 29-35,5 cm, respectivamente. A média de comprimento e diâmetro foram 11,06 e 5,56 cm. Distâncias entre o Canal e as seguintes estruturas: clavícula-22,13mm, segunda costela-20,75mm, esterno-33,88mm e a.subclávia esquerda-5,30mm. Acreditamos que as medidas apresentadas podem facilitar a abordagem do canal por videotoracoscopia.The purpose of this work is to realize an anatomic and topographic study of the ductus arteriosus in newborn cadavers emphasizing its lenght and diameter according to each size of the newborn cadaver. We also describe distances between the ductus and important structures for thoracoscopic approach. We study sixteen newborn cadavers. Eight were male. Size of the cadavers, thoracic and cephalic perimeters ranged from 42-47,26-35 and 29-35,5 cm, respectively. Median lenght and diameter were 11,06 and 5,56 mm. Distances between ductus arteriosus and follow structures were: collarbone-22,13mm, second rib-20,75mm, sternum-33,88mm and left subclavian artery-5,30mm. We belived that these distances described can facilitate thoracoscopic surgical approach to the ductus arteriosus.

  17. Biomecánica de la fijación distal en fracturas extrarticulares de radio: tornillos versus pernos Estudio en modelos cadavéricos. [Biomechanics of distal fixation in distal radius fracture: screws versus smooth pegs. Study in cadaveric models.

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Muratore; Gustavo Luis Gómez Rodríguez; Javier Dal Lago; Nicolás Robador; Gabriel Nazur; Gabriel Clembosky

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo Comparar biomecánicamente en modelos cadavéricos tornillos bloqueados versus pernos bloqueados en fracturas extraarticulares de radio distal estabilizadas con placas bloqueadas volares. Materiales...

  18. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  19. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of FBP, ASiR, and MBIR reconstruction during CT angiography in the evaluation of a vessel phantom with calcified stenosis in a distal superficial femoral artery in a cadaver extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Jitsuro; Yamada, Minoru; Yamada, Yoshitake; Yamazaki, Shun; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Tamura, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) or model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) improves the diagnostic performance of computed tomography angiography (CTA) for small-vessel calcified lesions relative to filtered back projection (FBP) using cadaver extremities and a calcified stenosis phantom. A cadaver was used in accordance with our institutional regulations, and a calcified stenosis phantom simulating 4 grades of stenosis was prepared. The phantom was inserted within the distal superficial femoral artery of the cadaver leg. Ten CT images per reconstruction type and stenosis grade were acquired using a 64-slice multidetector-row CTA.As an objective measurement, the first and second derivatives of the CT value function profiles were calculated. As a subjective measurement, 2 blinded reviewers measured the stenosis ratio using a quantitative scale. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to evaluate the data. Objective measurements of both 25% and 50% stenosis differed significantly (P ASiR and FBP.Reviewer 2's subjective measurements of 25% stenosis differed significantly (P ASiR (40.89 ± 3.14%), and the measurements of 50% stenosis differed significantly (P ASiR and FBP. MBIR improves the diagnostic performance of CTA for small-vessel calcified lesions relative to FBP.

  20. A Comparison of Computed Tomographic, Radiographic, Gross and Histological, Dental, and Alveolar Findings in 30 Abnormal Cheek Teeth from Equine Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Liuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEquine cheek teeth disorders, especially pulpar/apical infections, can have very serious consequences due to the frequent extension of infection to the supporting bones and/or adjacent paranasal sinuses. Limited studies have assessed the accuracy of computed tomographic (CT imaging in the diagnosis of these disorders, and no study has directly compared imaging and pathological findings of the alveoli of diseased equine cheek teeth.ObjectiveTo validate the accuracy of CT and radiographic imaging of cheek teeth disorders by comparing CT and radiographic imaging, gross and histological findings in abnormal cheek teeth and their alveoli extracted from equine cadaver heads.Study designEx vivo original study.MethodsFifty-four cadaver heads from horses with unknown histories that had died or been euthanized on humane grounds obtained from a rendering plant had radiography, CT imaging, and gross pathological examinations performed. Based on imaging and gross examination findings, 30 abnormal cheek teeth (26 maxillary and 4 mandibular identified in 26 heads were extracted along with their dental alveoli where possible, and further CT imaging, gross, and histological examinations were performed. Eight maxillary cheek teeth (including four with attached alveolar bone from these heads, that were normal on gross and CT examinations, were used as controls.ResultsGross pathological and histological examinations indicated that 28/30 teeth, including two supernumerary teeth, had pulpar/apical infection, including pulpar and apical changes. A further supernumerary and a dysplastic tooth were also identified. Abnormal calcified tissue architecture was present in all three supernumerary and in the dysplastic tooth. CT imaging strongly indicated the presence of pulpar/apical infection in 27 of the 28 (96.4% pulpar/apically infected teeth, including the presence of intrapulpar gas (N = 19/28, apical clubbing (N = 20, periapical halo (N = 4, root

  1. Estudo anatômico do ligamento patelofemoral lateral em joelho de cadáveres Anatomical study of the lateral patellofemoral ligament in cadaver knees

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    Marcelo Schmidt Navarro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o ligamento patelofemoral lateral (LPFL por meio de dissecação anatômica de joelhos de cadáveres frescos. Na literatura existe particular interesse pelo LPFL. Essa especial atenção é dada pela sua importância anatômica, biomecânica e pela necessidade da sua reconstrução nos casos de instabilidade medial da patela. MÉTODOS: O LPFL foi estudado em 20 joelhos de 20 cadáveres frescos por meio de dissecações anatômicas. As dissecações foram padronizadas e os dados anotados enviados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O LPFL apresentou em média 16,05mm de largura (desvio-padrão: 2,48, 42,10mm de comprimento (desvio-padrão: 8,84. Sua inserção femoral mostrou-se no epicôndilo femoral lateral e com expansão em forma de leque das suas fibras, predominantemente na região posterior e proximal ao epicôndilo lateral. Na patela a inserção encontrada foi na região súpero-lateral (na metade do terço superior no plano coronal, também com expansão das fibras, mas com menor intensidade. No plano sagital, o ligamento situava-se na metade posterior da borda da patela. O LPFL foi isolado na segunda camada retinacular lateral, o retináculo transverso profundo. CONCLUSÃO: O LPFL situa-se na camada retinacular transversa profunda, com a presença de uma expansão das suas fibras em forma de leque, tanto na inserção femoral quanto na patelar. No epicôndilo femoral a inserção encontra-se mais posterior e proximalmente e na patela está na metade posterior da borda patelar (plano sagital e no aspecto súpero-lateral.OBJECTIVES: To describe the lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL after anatomical dissection of fresh cadaver knees. The literature shows a particular interest for the LPFL. Such special attention is due to its anatomical and biomechanical importance, and also due to the need to reconstruct the ligament in the cases of medial patellar instability. METHODS: The LPFL was studied in 20 knees of 20

  2. Performance of cone-beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography in diagnostic imaging of the midface: A comparative study on Phantom and cadaver head scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Hanken, H; Precht, C; Henes, F O; Schön, G; Nagel, H D; Schumacher, U; Heiland, M; Adam, G; Regier, M

    2017-02-01

    To compare multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) regarding radiation, resolution, image noise, and image quality. CBCT and 256-MDCT were compared based on three scan protocols: Standard-dose (≈24 mGy), reduced-dose (≈9 mGy), and low-dose (≈4 mGy). MDCT images were acquired in standard- and high-resolution mode (HR-MDCT) and reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Spatial resolution in linepairs (lp) and objective image noise (OIN) were assessed using dedicated phantoms. Image quality was assessed in scans of 25 cadaver heads using a Likert scale. OIN was markedly higher in FBP-MDCT when compared to CBCT. IR lowered the OIN to comparable values in standard-mode MDCT only. CBCT provided a resolution of 13 lp/cm at standard-dose and 11 lp/cm at reduced-dose vs. 11 lp/cm and 10 lp/cm in HR-MDCT. Resolution of 10 lp/cm was observed for both devices using low-dose settings. Quality scores of MDCT and CBCT did not differ at standard-dose (CBCT, 3.4; MDCT, 3.3-3.5; p > 0.05). Using reduced- and low-dose protocols, CBCT was superior (reduced-dose, 3.2 vs. 2.8; low dose, 3.0 vs. 2.3; p comparable using higher exposure settings. • CBCT showed superior spatial resolution in standard-dose and reduced-dose settings. • Modern noise-reducing tools are used in CBCT devices currently. • MDCT should be preferred for assessment of soft-tissue injuries and oncologic imaging.

  3. Pathology of 219 human cadaver eyes with 1-piece or 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses: capsular bag opacification and sites of square-edged barrier breach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Peter J; Werner, Liliana; Maddula, Surekha; Davis, Don; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Burrow, Michael; Yeh, Oliver

    2011-05-01

    To assess capsular bag opacification and sites of initial posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in human cadaver eyes with square-edged 1-piece or 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Eyes were immersed in 10% formalin after enucleation and had anterior segment scanning with very-high-frequency ultrasound (Artemis). After the eyes were sectioned at the equator, gross examination of the anterior segment was performed from the posterior aspect to assess capsular bag opacification, anterior capsule coverage of the IOL edge, and IOL fixation. Selected eyes had histopathologic examination. One hundred nineteen eyes with 1-piece IOLs and 100 with 3-piece IOLs were included in the analyses of capsular bag opacification. There was no difference in central (P=.29) or peripheral (P=.76) PCO. In 63 of 84 eyes with a 1-piece IOL and peripheral PCO, the optic-haptic junction was the site of initiation. In eyes with a 3-piece IOL, initial peripheral PCO was observed at nearly the same rate whether there was full 360-degree anterior capsulorhexis overlap of the optic or no overlap (P=.13). In the latter, the site of PCO initiation was in areas lacking capsulorhexis coverage in 46% of eyes. There was no difference in central or peripheral PCO between 1-piece and 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs. With 1-piece IOLs, PCO tended to start at the optic-haptic junctions. With 3-piece IOLs, full anterior capsule coverage did not produce a statistically significant benefit with respect to PCO prevention. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of Minimally-Invasive, Image-guided Cochlear Implantation Using Advanced Bionics, Cochlear, and Medel Electrodes in a Cadaver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRackan, Theodore R; Balachandran, Ramya; Blachon, Grégoire S; Mitchell, Jason E; Noble, Jack H; Wright, Charles G; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Validation of a novel minimally-invasive, image-guided approach to implant electrodes from three FDA-approved manufacturers—Medel, Cochlear, and Advanced Bionics—in the cochlea via a linear tunnel from the lateral cranium through the facial recess to the cochlea. Methods Custom microstereotactic frames that mount on bone-implanted fiducial markers and constrain the drill along the desired path were utilized on seven cadaver specimens. A linear tunnel was drilled from the lateral skull to the cochlea followed by a marginal, round-window cochleostomy and insertion of the electrode array into the cochlea through the drilled tunnel. Post-insertion CT scan and histological analysis were used to analyze the results. Results All specimens (N=7) were successfully implanted without visible injury to the facial nerve. The Medel electrodes (N=3) had minimal intracochlear trauma with 8, 8, and 10 (out of 12) electrodes intracochlear. The Cochlear lateral wall electrodes (straight research arrays) (N=2) had minimal trauma with 20 and 21 of 22 electrodes intracochlear. The Advanced Bionics electrodes (N=2) were inserted using their insertion tool; one had minimal insertion trauma and 14 of 16 electrodes intracochlear while the other had violation of the basilar membrane just deep to the cochleostomy following which it remained in scala vestibuli with 13 of 16 electrodes intracochlear. Conclusions Minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation is possible using electrodes from the three FDA-approved manufacturers. Lateral wall electrodes were associated with less intracochlear trauma suggesting that they may be better suited for this surgical technique. PMID:23633113

  5. Modelo pélvico sintético como uma ferramenta didática efetiva comparada à pelve cadavérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Sérgio Pinto Portugal

    Full Text Available A anatomia é considerada matéria essencial à educação médica. Aulas práticas com uso de componentes anatômicos manipuláveis são fundamentais ao ensino e à aprendizagem. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o Modelo Sintético de Pelve (Masp como ferramenta didática, comparada à pelve cadavérica (PC tradicionalmente utilizada, bem como a satisfação dos estudantes em relação a ambos os métodos. Sessenta e sete estudantes receberam aula teórica após teste teórico preliminar (TTP. Foram randomizados em três grupos: G1 teve aula prática tradicional (APT; G2, aula prática com Masp (APM; e G3 não teve aula prática. Um teste final (TTF foi aplicado a todos os grupos. G1 e G2 submeteram-se à avaliação do método (AM. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se Anova (Análise de Variância e teste não paramétrico Mann-Whitney. No TTF, G3 apresentou escores mais baixos do que G1 (p = 0,041 e G2 (p = 0,000. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significante entre G1 e G2 (p >0,05. G2 apresentou maior satisfação com o método (p = 0,001. Concluiu-se que PC e Masp provaram ser ferramentas didáticas efetivas e que G2 mostrou maior satisfação.

  6. Arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery in human fetal cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüner, G; Sulak, O

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the arterial supply to the thyroid gland and the relationship between the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in fetal cadavers using anatomical dissection. The anterior necks of 200 fetuses were dissected. The origins of the superior thyroid artery (STA) and the ITA and location of the ITA in relation to the entrance of the thyroid lobe were examined. The relationship between the ITA and the RLN was determined. The origins of the STA were classified as: external carotid artery, common carotid artery (CCA), and the thyrolingual trunk. The origins of the ITA were the thyrocervical trunk and the CCA. The ITA was absent on the left side in two cases. The relationship of the RLN to the ITA fell into seven different types. Type 1: the RLN lay posterior to the artery; right (42.5%), left (65%). Type 2: the RLN lay anterior to the artery; right (40.5%), left (22.5%). Type 3: the RLN lay parallel to the artery; right (11.5%), left (7%). Type 4: the RLN lay between the two branches of the artery; right (1%), left (3.5%). Type 5: The extralaryngeal branch of the RLN was detected before it crossed the ITA; right (4.5%), left (0%). Type 6: the ITA lay between the two branches of the RLN; right (0%), left (0.5%). Type 7: the branches of the RLN lay among the branches of the ITA; right (0%), left (0.5%). The results from this study would be useful in future thyroid surgeries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Which region of the median palate is a suitable location of temporary orthodontic anchorage devices? A histomorphometric study on human cadavers aged 15-20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Philipp; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Srour, Safwan; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Fenner, Matthias; Felszeghy, Endre

    2009-03-01

    Endosseus implants can provide a reliable anchorage during orthodontic treatment. The midpalatal structures around the sutura palatina mediana (SPM) are of special interest due to increasing placement of orthodontic implants in this area. Knowledge about the osseous conditions at this site is necessary to predict the expected degree of implant osseointegration. The upper jaws of 10 human cadavers, aged 15-20 years, were decalcified, and cross-sectional specimens were obtained from four anterior-to-posterior palatal regions for histomorphometric analysis. The analyses focused on the amount of bone and the width of the SPM to determine the anatomical requirements for reliable insertion of palatal implants. Bone density [bone-volume (BV)/ tissue-volume (TV)] in all measured areas was 40-60%. The maximum density was measured at the level of the first premolars (54.9+/-5.9%) and the least values (44.2+/-9.6%) were measured at the level of the interconnecting line of the canines. The mean width of the SPM varies from 1.2 to 0.3 mm in different sections of the palate. In the median sagittal plane, the mean values of bone height to nasal cavity reached >5 mm as far as the level distal of the second premolars. Bone height 2 mm paramedian to the SPM decreased consistently from anterior (4.3+/-0.9 mm) to posterior (2.5+/-0.8 mm). Our results indicate that the amount and quality of bone along the anterior palatal midline in 15-to-20-year olds is sufficient for orthodontic implantation. Even implantation posterior to the recommended first premolar level, at which orthodontic implants are most often placed, may be suitable. There are some limitations, however, due to small number of samples and variations of anatomical structures.

  8. Performance of cone-beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography in diagnostic imaging of the midface: A comparative study on Phantom and cadaver head scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Schoellchen, Maximilian; Hanken, H.; Precht, C.; Heiland, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Oral- and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Henes, F.O.; Adam, G.; Regier, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, G. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Science and Technology for Radiology, Buchholz (Germany); Schumacher, U. [University Medical Center Hamburg, Institute of Anatomy, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To compare multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) regarding radiation, resolution, image noise, and image quality. CBCT and 256-MDCT were compared based on three scan protocols: Standard-dose (∼24 mGy), reduced-dose (∼9 mGy), and low-dose (∼4 mGy). MDCT images were acquired in standard- and high-resolution mode (HR-MDCT) and reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). Spatial resolution in linepairs (lp) and objective image noise (OIN) were assessed using dedicated phantoms. Image quality was assessed in scans of 25 cadaver heads using a Likert scale. OIN was markedly higher in FBP-MDCT when compared to CBCT. IR lowered the OIN to comparable values in standard-mode MDCT only. CBCT provided a resolution of 13 lp/cm at standard-dose and 11 lp/cm at reduced-dose vs. 11 lp/cm and 10 lp/cm in HR-MDCT. Resolution of 10 lp/cm was observed for both devices using low-dose settings. Quality scores of MDCT and CBCT did not differ at standard-dose (CBCT, 3.4; MDCT, 3.3-3.5; p > 0.05). Using reduced- and low-dose protocols, CBCT was superior (reduced-dose, 3.2 vs. 2.8; low dose, 3.0 vs. 2.3; p < 0.001). Using the low-dose protocol, the assessed CBCT provided better objective and subjective image quality and equality in resolution. Similar image quality, but better resolution using CBCT was observed at higher exposure settings. (orig.)

  9. The effect of suture caliber and number of core suture strands on zone II flexor tendon repair: a study in human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Daniel A; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Calfee, Ryan P; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Boyer, Martin I; Potter, Ryan; Gelberman, Richard H

    2014-02-01

    To compare the tensile properties of a 3-0, 4-strand flexor tendon repair with a 4-0, 4-strand repair and a 4-0, 8-strand repair. Following evaluation of the intrinsic material properties of the 2 core suture calibers most commonly used in tendon repair (3-0 and 4-0), we tested the mechanical properties of 40 cadaver flexor digitorum profundus tendons after zone II repair with 1 of 3 techniques: a 3-0, 4-strand core repair, a 4-0, 8-strand repair, or a 4-0, 4-strand repair. We compared results across suture caliber for the 2 sutures and across tendon repair methods. Maximum load to failure of 3-0 polyfilament caprolactam suture was 49% greater than that of 4-0 polyfilament caprolactam suture. The cross-sectional area of 3-0 polyfilament caprolactam was 42% greater than that of 4-0 polyfilament caprolactam. The 4-0, 8-strand repair produced greater maximum load to failure when compared with the 2 4-strand techniques. Load at 2-mm gap, stiffness, and work to yield were significantly greater in the 4-0, 8-strand repair than in the 3-0, 4-strand repair. In an ex vivo model, an 8-strand repair using 4-0 suture was 43% stronger than a 4-strand repair using 3-0 suture, despite the finding that 3-0 polyfilament caprolactam was 49% stronger than 4-0 polyfilament caprolactam. These results suggest that, although larger-caliber suture has superior tensile properties, the number of core suture strands across a repair site has an important effect on time zero, ex vivo flexor tendon repair strength. Surgeons should consider using techniques that prioritize multistrand core suture repair over an increase in suture caliber. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Suture Caliber and Number of Core Suture Strands on Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair; A Study in Human Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Daniel A.; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Calfee, Ryan P.; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Boyer, Martin I.; Potter, Ryan; Gelberman, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the tensile properties of a 3-0, 4-strand flexor tendon repair to a 4-0, 4 strand repair and a 4-0, 8-strand repair. Methods Following evaluation of the intrinsic material properties of the 2 core suture calibers most commonly used in tendon repair (3-0 and 4-0), we tested the mechanical properties of 40 cadaver flexor digitorum profundus tendons after zone II repair with one of 3 techniques: a 3-0, 4-strand core repair, a 4-0, 8-strand repair, or a 4-0, 4-strand repair. We compared results across suture caliber for the 2 sutures and across tendon repair methods. Results Maximum load to failure of 3-0 polyfilament caprolactam suture was 49% greater than that of 4-0 polyfilament caprolactam suture. The cross sectional area of 3-0 Supramid was 42% greater than that of 4-0 Supramid. The 4-0, 8 strand, repair produced greater maximum load to failure when compared to the 2 4-strand techniques. Load at 2 mm gap, stiffness, and work to yield were significantly greater in the 4-0, 8-strand repair when compared to the 3-0, 4-strand repair. Discussion In an ex vivo model, an 8-strand repair using 4-0 suture was 43% stronger than a 4-strand repair using 3-0 suture, despite the finding that 3-0 polyfilament caprolactam was 49% stronger than was 4-0 polyfilament caprolactam. These results suggest that, although larger caliber suture has superior tensile properties, the number of core suture strands across a repair site has an important effect on time zero, ex vivo flexor tendon repair strength. Clinical Relevance Surgeons should consider using techniques that prioritize multi-strand core suture repair over an increase in suture caliber. PMID:24342261

  11. Evaluación de técnicas de procesamiento y almacenamiento de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Calvo-Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se reproducen y analizan algunas de las técnicas más comunes a nivel internacional para el manejo de piel cadavérica para bancos de tejidos. Para ello, se llevó a cabo la ablación, el procesamiento, la desinfección y el almacenamiento de piel utilizando un modelo animal (cerdo, Sus scrofa domesticus. Para verificar la calidad microbiológica del tejido se compararon dos diferentes métodos de desinfección (antibióticos y desinfección química con cloro. Además, se evaluó el efecto de dos tratamientos para el almacenamiento y conservación de la piel: inmersión en glicerol a bajas temperaturas (4 °C y criopreservación (-70 °C. Finalmente, se analizó un método de esterilización utilizando irradiación con haz de electrones (25 kGy. La estructura general del tejido se analizó mediante tinciones histológicas. Los resultados demostraron la esterilización completa de las muestras, tanto de los tejidos irradiados como en la piel glicerolada desinfectada químicamente (solución de Dakins. Por otro lado, la comparación histológica de las muestras reveló que el tejido glicerolado fue el que mostró la mejor calidad en términos estructurales.

  12. The application of amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) for monitoring the dynamics of soil microbial communities associated with cadaver decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lilliana I; Mills, DeEtta; Fetscher, Jill; John-Williams, Krista; Meadows-Jantz, Lee; McCord, Bruce

    2011-03-01

    The placement of cadavers in shallow, clandestine graves may alter the microbial and geochemical composition of the underlying and adjacent soils. Using amplicon length heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) the microbial community changes in these soils can be assessed. In this investigation, nine different grave sites were examined over a period of 16weeks. The results indicated that measurable changes occurred in the soil bacterial community during the decomposition process. In this study, amplicons corresponding to anaerobic bacteria, not indigenous to the soil, were shown to produce differences between grave sites and control soils. Among the bacteria linked to these amplicons are those that are most often part of the commensal flora of the intestines, mouth and skin. In addition, over the 16week sampling interval, the level of indicator organisms (i.e., nitrogen fixing bacteria) dropped as the body decomposed and after four weeks of environmental exposure they began to increase again; thus differences in the abundance of nitrogen fixing bacteria were also found to contribute to the variation between controls and grave soils. These results were verified using primers that specifically targeted the nifH gene coding for nitrogenase reductase. LH-PCR provides a fast, robust and reproducible method to measure microbial changes in soil and could be used to determine potential cadaveric contact in a given area. The results obtained with this method could ultimately provide leads to investigators in criminal or missing person scenarios and allow for further analysis using human specific DNA assays to establish the identity of the buried body. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the formation and branching pattern of brachial plexus and its variations in adult human cadavers of north Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal V Pattanshetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The brachial plexus is highly variable, in its formation and branching pattern thus, knowledge of its anatomical patterns, may be insufficient for the surgeon operating on or around these nerves or for the regional anesthesiologist working in this area. Therefore, the present study was an attempt to study further about variations of brachial plexus encountered during routine dissection classes. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive study was carried out by dissection of 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers, in the age group of 18 to 85 years, obtained during a study period of 2 years from the Department of Anatomy. The plexus was studied in its entire course commencing from the formation in cervical region, course through root of the neck and axilla, up to the main terminal branches of the upper extremity. During the dissection, variations of brachial plexus pertaining to its formation from the roots, trunks, divisions and cords and the branching pattern were observed and data was collected. Results: Out of the 60 cadaveric upper limbs studied for the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus, 2 limbs (3.33% were pre-fixed plexuses. Fusion of adjacent trunks was detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. Variations in branches of lateral cord were detected in 8 limbs (13.33%. Among Posterior cord variations 2-thoracodorsal nerves were detected in 2 limbs (3.33%. All the other branches from brachial plexus had been found to have no anatomical variations. Conclusion: In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the possible variations of the brachial plexus. Though the variations mentioned may not alter the normal functioning of the limb of the individual, but knowledge of the variations is of prime importance to be kept in mind, during anaesthetic and surgical procedures.

  14. Single-site laparoscopic (SSL) cholecystectomy in human cadavers using a novel percutaneous instrument platform and a magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS): reestablishing the "critical view".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rohan A; Salas, Nilson A; Donovan, Michael A; Reardon, Patrick R; Bass, Barbara L; Dunkin, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    SSL introduces ergonomic challenges while establishing the critical view during dissection of the Triangle of Calot (TOC). This study investigates the use of a novel percutaneous instrument platform and MAGS in performing SSL cholecystectomy with a technique that closely mimics four-port cholecystectomy. SSL cholecystectomy was performed on four female cadavers via a 15-18-mm incision made at the umbilicus for introduction of these devices and the working port. MAGS comprises an internal effector with a retractable monopolar cautery hook coupled across the abdominal wall to an external magnet held by the surgeon. The novel grasper was introduced percutaneously in the RUQ and comprises a 3-mm transabdominal shaft mated to a 5-mm end effector intracorporeally. Retraction was accomplished using the percutaneous grasper to manipulate the fundus and a standard 5-mm grasper at the umbilicus for the infundibulum. Dissection was performed by using a combination of the MAGS and a standard Maryland dissector. Total procedure time, time from procedure start to obtain a critical view of the TOC and clipping and dividing the cystic duct/artery, time for dissection of the gallbladder from the liver bed, and thickness of the abdominal wall at the umbilicus were measured. The critical view was obtained in each case, and all four procedures were completed successfully. Mean procedure time was 40 (range, 33-51) min; time from procedure start to obtaining the critical view and clipping and dividing the cystic duct/artery was 33 (range, 28-38) min, and time for dissection of the gallbladder from the liver bed was 6.7 (range, 3-13) min. The mean abdominal wall thickness was 1.9 (range, 1.5-2) cm. The use of a novel graspers and MAGS overcomes the limitations of SSL cholecystectomy and improves surgeon dexterity. Making SSL feel more like traditional laparoscopy will enable a wider adoption of this procedure in the community.

  15. The Development of a Novel Perfused Cadaver Model With Dynamic Vital Sign Regulation and Real-World Scenarios to Teach Surgical Skills and Error Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneti, Michael; Baker, Craig J; Sullivan, Maura E

    2017-10-13

    The landscape of graduate medical education has changed dramatically over the past decade and the traditional apprenticeship model has undergone scrutiny and modifications. The mandate of the 80-hour work-week, the introduction of integrated residency programs, increased global awareness about patient safety along with financial constraints have spurred changes in graduate educational practices. In addition, new technologies, more complex procedures, and a host of external constraints have changed where and how we teach technical and procedural skills. Simulation-based training has been embraced by the surgical community and has quickly become an essential component of most residency programs as a method to add efficacy to the traditional learning model. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe the development of a perfused cadaver model with dynamic vital sign regulation, and (2) to assess the impact of a curriculum using this model and real world scenarios to teach surgical skills and error management. By providing a realistic training environment our aim is to enhance the acquisition of surgical skills and provide a more thorough assessment of resident performance. Twenty-six learners participated in the scenarios. Qualitative data showed that participants felt that the simulation model was realistic, and that participating in the scenarios helped them gain new knowledge, learn new surgical techniques and increase their confidence performing the skill in a clinical setting. Identifying the importance of both technical and nontechnical skills in surgical education has hastened the need for more realistic simulators and environments in which they are placed. Team members should be able to interact in ways that allow for a global display of their skills thus helping to provide a more comprehensive assessment by faculty and learners. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanical comparison of a 3.5-mm conical coupling plating system and a 3.5-mm locking compression plate applied as plate-rod constructs to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Giovanni; Lewis, Daniel D; Paragnani, Ken Luka; Conrad, Bryan P; Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs. PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure. RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of the impact of various facet joint lesions on the primary stability of anterior plate fixation in cervical dislocation injuries: a cadaver study: Laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkircher, Ludwig; Born, Sebastian; Struewer, Johannes; Bliemel, Christopher; Buecking, Benjamin; Wack, Christina; Bergmann, Martin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Krüger, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Injuries of the subaxial cervical spine including facet joints and posterior ligaments are common. Potential surgical treatments consist of anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior fixation. Because each approach has its advantages and disadvantages, the best treatment is debated. This biomechanical cadaver study compared the effect of different facet joint injuries on primary stability following anterior plate fixation. Fractures and plate fixation were performed on 15 fresh-frozen intact cervical spines (C3-T1). To simulate a translation-rotation injury in all groups, complete ligament rupture and facet dislocation were simulated by dissecting the entire posterior and anterior ligament complex between C-4 and C-5. In the first group, the facet joints were left intact. In the second group, one facet joint between C-4 and C-5 was removed and the other side was left intact. In the third group, both facet joints between C-4 and C-5 were removed. The authors next performed single-level anterior discectomy and interbody grafting using bone material from the respective thoracic vertebral bodies. An anterior cervical locking plate was used for fixation. Continuous loading was performed using a servohydraulic test bench at 2 N/sec. The mean load failure was measured when the implant failed. In the group in which both facet joints were intact, the mean load failure was 174.6 ± 46.93 N. The mean load failure in the second group where only one facet joint was removed was 127.8 ± 22.83 N. In the group in which both facet joints were removed, the mean load failure was 73.42 ± 32.51 N. There was a significant difference between the first group (both facet joints intact) and the third group (both facet joints removed) (p injuries of the subaxial cervical spine was dependent on the presence of the facet joints. If the bone in one or both facet joints is damaged in the clinical setting, anterior plate fixation in combination with bone grafting might not provide sufficient

  18. Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikh Alsook, Mohamad Khir; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Waroux, Olivier; Tonus, Céline; Connan, Delphine; Baise, Etienne; Antoine, Nadine

    2015-12-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from cadaveric tissues represent a promising approach for regenerative medicine. To date, no study has investigated whether viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from tendon or ligament up to 72 hours of post-mortem. The purpose of the present work was to find out if viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from adult equine ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem, and to assess their ability (i) to remain in an undifferentiated state and (ii) to divide and proliferate in the absence of any specific stimulus. MSCs were isolated from equine cadaver (EC) suspensory ligaments within 48-72 hours of post-mortem. They were evaluated for viability, proliferation, capacity for tri-lineage differentiation, expression of cell surface markers (CD90, CD105, CD73, CD45), pluripotent transcription factor (OCT-4), stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TUJ-1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). As well, they were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). EC-MSCs were successfully isolated and maintained for 20 passages with high cell viability and proliferation. Phase contrast microscopy revealed that cells with fibroblast-like appearance were predominant in the culture. Differentiation assays proved that EC-MSCs are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages (osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic). Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that EC-MSCs expressed CD90, CD105, and CD73, while being negative for the leukocyte common antigen CD45. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a high percentage of positive cells for OCT-4 and SSEA-1. Surprisingly, in absence of any stimuli, some adherent cells closely resembling neuronal and glial morphology were also observed. Interestingly, our results revealed that approximately 15 % of the cell populations were TUJ-1 positive, whereas GFAP expression was detected in only a few cells. Furthermore, TEM analysis

  19. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina First record of cadaverous arthropod fauna in human and animal substrates in San Juan, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando H. Aballay; Albérico F. MURÚA; Acosta, Juan C.; Néstor Centeno

    2008-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. ...

  20. Peripheral focal low signal intensity areas in the degenerated annulus fibrosus on T2-weighted fast spin echo MR images: correlation with macroscopic and microscopic findings in elderly cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.M.; Muhle, C.; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Kang, H.S. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haghighi, P. [Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To correlate the peripheral focal low signal intensity areas in the degenerated annulus fibrosus on T2-weighted fast spin echo MR images with the macroscopic and microscopic findings in cadavers derived from elderly subjects. Design. Twenty-eight intervertebral disks (16 lumbar and 12 cervical) derived from four nonembalmed cadavers were examined with T1-weighted spin echo and proton density-weighted and T2-weighted fast spin echo MR imaging. The signal intensities of the annulus fibrosus were evaluated on sagittal MR images and correlated with the findings on corresponding sagittal anatomic sections. The MR imaging-histologic correlation was then studied. Results. Peripheral focal low signal intensity areas and adjacent regions of high signal intensity were found in five lumbar intervertebral disks. Peripheral focal low signal intensity regions consisted of disorganized compact annular fibers, tiny fissures, and dense fibrosis. The high signal intensity regions, adjacent to the areas of low signal intensity, consisted of mucoid degeneration, tiny fissures, and chondroid metaplasia. Conclusions. Awareness of the histologic findings in regions that reveal peripheral focal low signal intensity with adjacent regions of high signal intensity in the degenerated annulus fibrosus on T2-weighted images may facilitate effective interpretation of clinical MR images of the spine. (orig.) With 2 figs., 21 refs.

  1. The use of time-of-flight camera for navigating robots in computer-aided surgery: monitoring the soft tissue envelope of minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, David; Klug, Sebastian; Moctezuma, Jose Luis; Nogler, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras can guide surgical robots or provide soft tissue information for augmented reality in the medical field. In this study, a method to automatically track the soft tissue envelope of a minimally invasive hip approach in a cadaver study is described. An algorithm for the TOF camera was developed and 30 measurements on 8 surgical situs (direct anterior approach) were carried out. The results were compared to a manual measurement of the soft tissue envelope. The TOF camera showed an overall recognition rate of the soft tissue envelope of 75%. On comparing the results from the algorithm with the manual measurements, a significant difference was found (P > .005). In this preliminary study, we have presented a method for automatically recognizing the soft tissue envelope of the surgical field in a real-time application. Further improvements could result in a robotic navigation device for minimally invasive hip surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Sistema de distribución de órganos en chile: propuestas para una modificación de la distribución de riñones de donantes cadavéricos para trasplante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Javier Domínguez, Dr.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de distribución de órganos en Chile está determinado por un reglamento del Ministerio de Salud. En gran medida privilegia una buena compatibilidad HLA como una forma de asegurar los mejores resultados. En el presente trabajo se analiza el sistema chileno, se establecen los principios éticos en los que pudiera basarse una distribución centrada en la equidad y eficiencia, se analizan los factores que debieran considerarse en la distribución de los riñones cadavéricos para trasplante (compatibilidad, tiempo en diálisis, edad del receptor, grado de sensibilización, etc. y se propone un nuevo sistema que logre un mejor balance entre estos factores, ajustándose al impacto que tienen ellos en la sobrevida del injerto y del receptor.

  3. An Anatomical study for localisation of Zygomatic branch of Facial nerve and Masseteric nerve - An aid to nerve coaptation for facial reanimation surgery: A cadaver based study in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Ratnadeep; Bhattacharya, Alipta; Sinha, Iman; Ghosal, Asis Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In cases of chronic facial palsy, where direct neurotisation is possible, ipsilateral masseteric nerve is a very suitable motor donor. We have tried to specifically locate the masseteric nerve for this purpose. Describing an approach of localisation and exposure of both the zygomatic branch of Facial nerve and the nerve to masseter, with respect to a soft tissue reference point over face. Observational cross sectional study, conducted on 12 fresh cadavers. A curved incision was given, passing about 0.5cms in front of the tragal cartilage. A reference point "R" was pointed out. The zygomatic branch of facial nerve and masseteric nerve were dissected out and their specific locations were recorded from fixed reference points with help of copper wire and slide callipers. Central Tendency measurements and Unpaired "t" test. Zygomatic branch of the Facial nerve was located within a small circular area of radius 1 cm, the centre of which lies at a distance of 1.1 cms (±0.4cm) in males and 0.2cm (±0.1cm) in females from the point, 'R', in a vertical (coronal) plane. The nerve to masseter was noted to lie within a circular area of 1 cm radius, the centre of which was at a distance of 2.5cms (±0.4cm) and 1.7cms (±0.2cm) from R, in male and female cadavers, respectively. Finally, Masseteric nerve's depth, from the masseteric surface was found to be 1cm (±0.1cm; male) and 0.8cm (±0.1cm; female). This novel approach can reduce the post operative cosmetic morbidity and per-operative complications of facial reanimation surgery.

  4. An anatomical study for localisation of zygomatic branch of facial nerve and masseteric nerve – an aid to nerve coaptation for facial reanimation surgery: A cadaver based study in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnadeep Poddar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In cases of chronic facial palsy, where direct neurotisation is possible, ipsilateral masseteric nerve is a very suitable motor donor. We have tried to specifically locate the masseteric nerve for this purpose. Aims: Describing an approach of localisation and exposure of both the zygomatic branch of Facial nerve and the nerve to masseter, with respect to a soft tissue reference point over face. Settings and Design: Observational cross sectional study, conducted on 12 fresh cadavers. Subjects and Methods: A curved incision was given, passing about 0.5cms in front of the tragal cartilage. A reference point “R” was pointed out. The zygomatic branch of facial nerve and masseteric nerve were dissected out and their specific locations were recorded from fixed reference points with help of copper wire and slide callipers. Statistical Analysis Used: Central Tendency measurements and Unpaired “t” test. Results: Zygomatic branch of the Facial nerve was located within a small circular area of radius 1 cm, the centre of which lies at a distance of 1.1 cms (±0.4cm in males and 0.2cm (±0.1cm in females from the point, 'R', in a vertical (coronal plane. The nerve to masseter was noted to lie within a circular area of 1 cm radius, the centre of which was at a distance of 2.5cms (±0.4cm and 1.7cms (±0.2cm from R, in male and female cadavers, respectively. Finally, Masseteric nerve's depth, from the masseteric surface was found to be 1cm (±0.1cm; male and 0.8cm (±0.1cm; female. Conclusions: This novel approach can reduce the post operative cosmetic morbidity and per-operative complications of facial reanimation surgery.

  5. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina First record of cadaverous arthropod fauna in human and animal substrates in San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. Aballay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.In order to determine the specific composition of cadaverous arthropod fauna associated to different decomposing vertebrate substrates, we studied the carrion arthropods that feed on outdoor carcasses in San Juan province, Argentina. Arthropods were collected on animal and human remains in the field and on carcasses of domestic pig placed outdoors under controlled conditions. Forty species of carrion arthropods belonging to four orders and 15 families were recorded for the first time in this province. We present the first record of forensic fauna in Argentina of the necrophagous species Megelenophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and three

  6. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B.; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the working area obtained by endoscope and microscope in pterional and orbitozigomatic approach to the basilar artery bifurcation using computed tomography based frameless stereotaxy: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipce, Venko; Ammirati, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Basilar aneurisms are one of the most complex and challenging pathologies for neurosurgeons to treat. Endoscopy is a recently rediscovered neurosurgical technique that could lend itself well to overcome some of the vascular visualization challenges associated with this pathology. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the basilar artery (BA) bifurcation (tip of the basilar) working area afforded by the microscope and the endoscope using different approaches and image guidance. We performed a total of 9 dissections, including pterional (PT) and orbitozygomatic (OZ) approaches bilaterally in five whole, fresh cadaver heads. We used computed tomography based image guidance for intraoperative navigation as well as for quantitative measurements. We estimated the working area of the tip of the basilar, using both a rigid endoscope and an operating microscope. Operability was qualitatively assessed by the senior authors. In microscopic exposure, the OZ approach provided greater working area (160 ± 34.3 mm(2)) compared to the PT approach (129.8 ± 37.6 mm(2)) (P > 0.05). The working area in both PT and OZ approaches using 0° and 30° endoscopes was larger than the one available using the microscope alone (P approach, both 0° and 30° endoscopes provided a working area greater than a microscopic OZ approach (P approach (P > 0.05). Integration of endoscope and microscope in both PT and OZ approaches can provide significantly greater surgical exposure of the BA bifurcation compared to that afforded by the conventional approaches alone.

  8. Mapping traction strength of the anterior rectus sheath in cadaver Mapeamento da força de tração da lâmina anterior do músculo reto do abdome em cadáver

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    Romar Ângelo Barbato Silveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The tension at the aponeurotic edges of abdominal wall defects is an important factor of dehiscence and incisional hernia formation. The purpose of this study is to map and compare the traction force necessary for medial mobilization in various levels of the anterior rectus sheath in cadavers. METHODS: Twenty four adult male cadavers, raging from 22 to 59 years old, with the abdominal wall intact and without prior preservation techniques, were dissected. A complete excision of the linea alba was performed. Traction loops of 10 mm in diameter were made in the anterior rectus sheath and were placed: 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm below the lower edge of the umbilicus and 3, 6 and 9 cm above the upper edge of the umbilicus. Each loop was mobilized 10 mm in the medial direction, using an analog dynamometer. The values obtained in each level were compared using Friedman's analysis of Variance for p OBJETIVO: A tensão na margem da aponeurose de um defeito da parede abdominal é um importante fator de deiscência e formação da hérnia incisional. O objetivo deste estudo é mapear e comparar a força de tração necessária à mobilização medial em vários níveis da lâmina anterior do músculo reto do abdome em cadáveres. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro cadáveres adultos masculinos, com idade entre 22 e 59 anos, com a parede abdominal intacta e sem técnicas prévias de conservação, foram dissecados. Uma excisão completa da linha alba foi realizada. Alças de tração de 10 mm de diâmetro foram realizadas na lamina anterior do músculo reto do abdome e estavam localizadas: 2,4,6 e 8 cm abaixo da margem inferior do umbigo e 3,6 e 9 cm da margem superior do umbigo. Cada alça foi mobilizada 10 mm em direção medial, usando um dinamômetro analógico. Os valores obtidos em cada nível foram comparados usando a analise de variância de Friedman com p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os valores de tração obtidos nos vários níveis foram comparados e n

  9. Assessment of Morphological Variations and its Specific Location on the Surface of Adult Human Liver in Ethiopian Cadavers University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Mehare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver is the second largest organ next to skin and located in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and may extend to left hypochondrium in upper abdominal cavity. It accounts 2% to 3% of total body weight of individual. Land marking for interpreting different diagnostic image and localizing lesions in the liver is commonly done by major fissures. Sound knowledge about different morphological variations which are found on the surface of liver is mandatory to have safe surgical outcome. Segments of liver were extensively researched but there are only few studies dealt with the surface variation of the liver. Therefore, this study aims to assess morphological variations and its specific location on the surface of adult human liver in Ethiopian cadaver. Methodology: Institutional based cross sectional descriptive study design was conducted in 33 formalin fixed Ethiopian cadaveric livers in the Anatomy department of University of Gondar, Bahir Dar University, Addis Ababa University, St. Paulos Medical School and Hawassa University. Results: 45.45% of the liver was normal but 54.55% showed one or more variations. Additional fissures and very small left lobe with deep costal impressions were seen 27.27% and 21.21% cases respectively. Pons hepatis connecting left lobe with quadrate lobe and very deep renal impression with corset constriction were noted in 9.09% cases each. Additional lobes and absence of quadrate lobes were found in 6.06% cases each. Conclusion and Recommendation: Morphological variations on the liver surface were accessory fissure, very small left lobe with deep costal impressions, pons hepatis, shape variation and absence of quadrate lobe. The most common one among the variations was accessory fissure on the visceral and diaphragmatic surface.

  10. Three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of bilateral sagittal split osteotomy lingual fracture line and le fort I pterygomaxillary separation in orthognathic surgery using cadaver heads: ultrasonic osteotome versus conventional saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammous, Sophie; Dupont, Quentin; Gilles, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the quality of the fracture line on the lingual side of the mandible after sagittal split osteotomy and the quality of pterygomaxillary separation after Le Fort I osteotomy using the BoneScalpel ultrasonic osteotome. Bimaxillary procedures, according to the standard protocol, were performed using 10 fresh cadaver heads. The ultrasonic osteotome was used in the study group, and a reciprocating saw was used in the control group. Three-dimensional reconstructions of postoperative computed tomographic scans were obtained. The lingual ramus fracture pattern and the pterygomaxillary separation pattern were observed, classified, and compared. Postoperative dissections of the skulls were performed to assess the integrity of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery. No significant differences were found in the cutting time of bone between the BoneScalpel and the sagittal saw. Of the sagittal split osteotomies in the study group, 90% showed a good pattern (vertical pattern of fracture line extending to the inferior border of the mandible running behind the mandibular canal) compared with 50% of the sagittal split osteotomies in the control group. Ideal separation of the pterygoid plates without fractures was observed in 80% of the Le Fort I osteotomies in the study group compared with 50% of the osteotomies in the control group. High-level fractures occurred in 30% of cases in the control group compared with none in the study group. The integrities of the infra-alveolar nerve and the descending palatine artery were preserved in all cases. Use of the ultrasonic BoneScalpel did not require more time than the conventional method. An improved pattern of lingual fracture lines in mandibular sagittal split osteotomy procedures and the pattern of pterygomaxillary separation in Le Fort I osteotomy procedures were observed. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  11. Cadaver Transplantation in Balkans: Mission Possible?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chadikovski, Vladimir; Dimov, Aco; Petrovski, Mile; Simeonov, Risto; Petrovska, Branka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Donation of organs is on a very low level and due to its specific nature is a very sensitive topic, especially in the post - conflict and multinational country like Republic of Macedonia.Aim...

  12. Ponto de entrada para as hastes intramedulares anterógradas do fêmur: estudo em cadáver Entry point for the anterograde femur intramedullary nail: a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Labronici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a saída natural do fio-guia no trocânter maior pela via retrógrada do fêmur, em espécimes de cadáver. Métodos: 100 fêmures foram perfurados entre os côndilos femorais, a 1,2cm da região intercondilar. Um fio-guia reto de 3mm foi introduzido, de forma retrógrada, até alcançar a extremidade proximal do fêmur. Foram avaliados em relação à região posterossuperior e anterossuperior do trocânter maior, fossa piriforme e linha mediana superior entre a cabeça-colo e trocânter maior. RESULTADOS: Em 62% o fio-guia reto saiu na face anterior do trocânter maior. Na fossa piriforme, a distância mediana observada foi de 1,0cm e a amplitude interquartílica, de 0,5cm, expressando inicialmente, em relação à fossa piriforme, melhor precisão. CONCLUSÃO: O eixo central do canal medular, na incidência coronal, projetou melhor precisão na região da fossa piriforme.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the natural exit of the wire guides in major trochanter through retrograde femoral approach, in cadaver specimens. Material and Method: 100 femurs had been perforated between the femoral condyles, at 1.2 cm of the intercondylar region. A 3-mm straight wire guide was introduced, through retrograde approach, until the proximal extremity of femur was reached. Femurs were assessed for posterosuperior and anterosuperior portions of major trochanter, pear-shaped cavity, and upper median line between the head-neck and the major trochanter. RESULTS: in 62%, the straight wire guides exited at the anterior surface of major trochanter. In the pear-shaped cavity, the median distance found was 1.0 cm and the interquartile range was 0.5 cm, initially expressing, in relation to pear-shaped cavity, better accuracy. CONCLUSION: the central axis of the medullar canal, at coronal plane, projected better accuracy in the region of the pear-shaped cavity.

  13. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inserido um dreno de aço de 7,5 cm com 24 F de diâmetro no segundo espaço intercostal, na linha médio-clavicular, bilateralmente, e foi medida a distância do dreno com as seguintes estruturas: brônquios principais, brônquios dos lobos superiores, vasos subclávios, artérias pulmonares, artérias pulmonares do lobo superior, veia pulmonar superior, veia ázigos e aorta. Foram realizadas medições de peso, altura, diâmetro laterolateral do tórax, diâmetro posteroanterior do tórax e espessura da parede torácica de cada cadáver. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 cadáveres dissecados, 20 e 10 eram do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. A média da extremidade distal do dreno com os brônquios principais direito e esquerdo foi de 7,2 cm. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização de um dreno torácico de tamanho fixo na posição preconizada é factível e segura, independentemente das características antropométricas do paciente.OBJECTIVE: A cadaver-based study was carried out in order to describe the pulmonary drainage surgical technique, to determine whether the site for the insertion of the chest tube is appropriate and safe, and to determine the anatomical relationship of the chest tube with the chest wall, lungs, large blood vessels, and mediastinum. METHODS: Between May and November of 2011, 30 cadavers of both genders were dissected. The cadavers were provided by the Santa Casa de São Paulo Central Hospital Mortuary, located in the city of São Paulo

  14. STUDY OF PERONEUS DIGITI MINIMI QUINTI IN INDIAN POPULATION: A CADAVERIC STUDY. Estudio del peroneo dígiti minimi quinti en la población india: Un estudio cadavérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha D Jadhav

    2016-03-01

    fifth digit. The prevalence of it is not precisely known. There is much confusion in the literature, as there are multiple overlapping classif-ications and a vast array of descriptive terminology regarding the accessory peroneal muscles. Peroneus Digiti Minimi Quinti was observed by some researchers in literature but Macalister (1872 and Testut (1921 described this muscle with its variations in detail. Material and methods: We studied 100 lower limbs of adult cadavers of unknown sex. Lateral compartment of each leg was carefully dissected to determine the incidence of peroneus digiti minimi quinti. Its origin, insertion was noted and diameter was taken. Results: We observed this muscle in 51% of case with left side dominance. Bilaterally it was present only in 5% lower limb. Its diameter varied from0.7 mmto3 mm. We reported higher incidence of this muscle with variation in its distal attachments. Knowledge of this variant muscle is important not for anatomist but also for surgeons to diagnose lateral ankle and foot complaints. This muscle can also be used in grafting and reconstruction in foot and ankle surgery. Further studies should be performed to determine its incidence in different population with the help of cadaveric study and new techniques.

  15. Anatomical parameters in the lateral ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction: a cadaver study Parâmetros anatômicos na reconstrução do ligamento colateral lateral ulnar do cotovelo: estudo em cadáveres

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    Willian Nandi Stipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to indentify the ulnar insertion of the LUCL using the olecranon tip and the radial head as parameters to guide the ligament reconstruction surgery. METHODS: Thirteen elbows of eight fresh cadavers were dissected for the study of the LUCL. The distances between the proximal and distal insertion of the LUCL (footprint, between the radial head and the footprint and between the olecranon tip and the footprint were measure with a digital pachimeter. RESULTS: The average distance from the radial head to the proximal and distal ulnar insertion of the LUCL was 13.6 and 22.99 mm, respectively. The average distance between the olecranon tip and the proximal and distal ulnar insertion of the LUCL was 38.25 and 47.6 respectively. The mean length of the LUCL footprint was 9.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The LUCL insertion has a wide footprint with average 9.3 mm (7.5-11 mm. Ulnar insertion half point be located at 18.2 mm of the radial head and at 42.9 mm of olecranon tip. OBJETIVO: Identificar a inserção ulnar do ligamento colateral lateral ulnar (LCLU com o uso da ponta do olécrano e da cabeça do rádio como parâmetros fixos para orientar a cirurgia de reconstrução ligamentar. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 13 cotovelos de cadáveres adultos frescos para estudo do LCLU. Com paquímetro digital mediram-se as distâncias entre as inserções proximal e distal do LCLU na ulna (footprint, entre a cabeça do rádio e a zona do footprint e entre o olécrano e a zona do footprint. RESULTADOS: A distância média da cabeça do rádio ao ponto de inserção proximal e distal do LCLU foi de 13,6 e 22,99 mm, respectivamente, da ponta do olécrano à inserção proximal e distal do LCLU foi 38,25 e 47,6 mm, respectivamente, e o comprimento médio do footprint do LCLU foi de 9,35 mm. CONCLUSÕES: A inserção do LCLU tem um footprint amplo com média de 9,3 mm (7,5-11 mm. O ponto médio de inserção ulnar situa-se a 18,2 mm da

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF ANATOMY PRACTICE, USING CADAVERS AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN UNDERGRADUATE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE AND NURSING COURSES. La importancia de la práctica anatomía, el uso del cadáver y nuevas tecnologías en los cursos de biologia y de enfemería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa C. Souza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to address the importance of human anatomy practice, the use of cadavers and new technologies according to student opinions. This is a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Data were collected from questionnaires applied in the year 2015 to 173 students enrolled in undergraduate Biological Science and Nursing courses for both levels of the Human Anatomy discipline at the Biological Sciences Center of the State University of Northern Paraná (UENP. The data confirms the relevance of anatomical practices with human parts and corpses for the practical and emotional preparation of future professionals. We conclude that there is an acceptance toward new technologies, although as a complement to using human cadavers. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo abordar la importancia de la práctica de la anatomía humana, el uso de cadáveres y las nuevas tecnologías de acuerdo a las opiniones de los estudiantes. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de cuestionarios aplicados en el año 2015 a 173 estudiantes matriculados en cursos de pregrado Ciencias Biológicas y de enfermería para ambos niveles de la disciplina anatomía humana en el centro de Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Estatal del Norte de Paraná (UENP. Los datos confirman la relevancia de las prácticas anatómicas con partes del cuerpo humano y de cadáveres para la preparación práctica y emocional de los futuros profesionales. Llegamos a la conclusión de que hay una aceptación hacia las nuevas tecnologías, aunque como un complemento al uso de cadáveres humanos.

  17. DOUBLE MIDDLE COLIC ARTERIES IN A FEMALE CADAVER OF ASIAN ORIGIN - A CASE REPORT. Doble arteria cólica media en un cadáver femenino de origen asiático – Presentación de un caso

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    Chitra Ramasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tener conocimiento de las variantes en el suministro vascular del tracto gastrointestinal es esencial, sobre todo en procesos quirúrgicos de mínimamente invasivos. Se describe la rara variante de la arteria cólica media doble – arteria principal cólica media derecha de la arteria mesentérica superior y arteria accesoria cólica media izquierda del tronco celíaco en un cadáver femenino durante la disección ante estudiantes universitarios. Una arteriografía selectiva preoperatoria es importante para determinar tales anomalías antes de realizar resecciones pancreáticas electivas. Knowledge of variant vascular supply of the gastrointestinal tract is essential, especially in  minimal access surgical procedures. We describe the rare variation of double middle colic arteries, the main right middle colic artery from the superior mesenteric artery and the accessory left middle colic artery from the celiac trunk in a female cadaver during dissection for undergraduate students. A pre-operative selective arteriogram is important to determine such anomalies prior to performing elective pancreatic resections

  18. HUMAN BODIES TO TEACH ANATOMY: IMPORTANCE AND PROCUREMENT: EXPERIENCE WITH CADAVER DONATION. Cuerpos humanos para la enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y procuración: Experiencia con la donación de cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este Debate fue propuesto para aportar diferentes puntos de vista y conocer la diversidad de circunstancias involucradas en la procuración y uso de cadáveres para la enseñanza de la Anatomía, a estudiantes de pre y post-grado, en el mundo. Un grupo reducido pero representativo de profesores de Anatomía de todos los continentes fueron invitados a participar. Se distribuyeron algunos lineamientos para que los escritos tuvieran similar orientación, aunque los autores podían incluir cualquier concepto que consideraran de interés para los lectores. Además de los profesores de diversos países, el Prof. Bernard Moxham (Presidente de IFAA aportó al Debate la posición oficial de la Federación Internacional de Asociaciones de Anatomistas. Los panelistas acordaron en la importancia de utilizar material cadavérico para la enseñanza de la Anatomía, sin embargo, la provisión, las fuentes y los procedimientos utilizados para adquirirlos fueron algo diferentes de un país y/o universidad a otro. La experiencia de los países europeos, las limitaciones culturales en los asiáticos y africanos, y el retraso y los problemas estructurales en Sudamérica, son algunas de las particularidades que se señalan. Después de esta publicación se recibirán las preguntas y comentarios no solo de los participantes sino también de los lectores en general, las cuales serán respondidas y ambas, preguntas y respuestas, publicadas en el próximo número. Entonces, el Debate alcanzará su punto máximo al permitir a todas las personas involucradas en el tema, en cualquier lugar  del mundo, participar y aportar información adicional.  This Debate was proposed to provide different points of view and to know the diversity of circumstances involved in the procurement and use of cadavers to teach Anatomy, to pre and post-graduate students, all over the world. A reduced but representative group of professors of Anatomy of all continents were invited to

  19. Biomecánica de la fijación distal en fracturas extrarticulares de radio: tornillos versus pernos Estudio en modelos cadavéricos. [Biomechanics of distal fixation in distal radius fracture: screws versus smooth pegs. Study in cadaveric models.

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    Alvaro Muratore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar biomecánicamente en modelos cadavéricos tornillos bloqueados versus pernos bloqueados en fracturas extraarticulares de radio distal estabilizadas con placas bloqueadas volares. Materiales y Métodos Se reprodujeron fracturas extraarticulares conminutas (AO-A3 en 12 radios de 6 cadáveres. Se dividieron dos grupos según el empleo de tornillos bloqueados o pernos en la fijación distal. Se realizaron ensayos biomecánicos evaluando cambios en la rigidez del montaje después de realizar una carga axial. Finalmente, se llevó el sistema al fallo. Se efectuaron controles radiológicos en todas las etapas. Resultados Al llevarlos al fallo, el sistema con tornillos presentó una mayor disminución en la altura y ángulo de la osteotomía, con respecto al sistema fijado con pernos, variando en mayor grado hacia dorsal la carilla articular en el perfil. Se observó una separación de la placa en relación al hueso en las placas montadas con pernos. La carga máxima tolerada con tornillos bloqueados fue de 1659N y, en los pernos, de 1905N. Conclusiones Encontramos una transmisión de cargas en dos tiempos en los modelos fijados con pernos. Una primera instancia en el cual la fuerza pasa de la epífisis a la diáfisis a través del material de osteosíntesis (hueso-placa-hueso, puenteando la fractura. En un segundo tiempo, la placa se separa del sistema debido al deslizamiento de los pernos, posibilitando una transmisión directamente del fragmento distal al proximal (hueso-hueso que produce en todos los casos la fractura incompleta y longitudinal de la cortical volar.

  20. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas do ligamento cruzado posterior e do ligamento patelar de cadáveres de seres humanos após utilização de radiofreqüência Study of the mechanical properties of the posterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon on fresh human cadavers after radiofrequency shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fazzolari Dota

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou estudar os efeitos da radiofreqüência sobre os ligamentos patelares (LP e ligamentos cruzados posteriores (LCP de cadáveres, levando em conta as características de rigidez e deformação máxima. Foram utilizados 11 LCP e 14 LP, sendo feitas as aferições com o aparelho Kratos® K5002 . Foi realizada a termoabrasão das estruturas, com encurtamento obtido entre 15 e 20% do comprimento inicial. Observou-se que essas deformações (encurtamento não se mantiveram no ensaio pós RF. Conclusão: A radiofreqüência permite o encurtamento do LP e LCP. O encurtamento obtido não se mantém completamente quando os ligamentos são submetidos a cargas tensionais padronizadas neste ensaio biomecânico. O uso de radiofrequência causa redução da rigidez do tecido (LP e LCP.This study intended to examine the effects of radiofrequency shrinkage (RF on patellar ligament (PL and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL of fresh human cadavers, measuring stiffness and maximum deformation. Eleven PCLs and 14 PLs were studied with traction tests being performed with the aid of a Kratos® K5002 machine. The structures were reduced by 15-20%, after the shrinkage. However, this reduction was partially lost after the traction test. Conclusion: RF was successful in reducing the length of the structures studied, in spite of the statistically significant stiffness loss. Then, RF was not fully successful in maintaining the reduction of ligament length under the traction forces of the test.

  1. An atypical lateral hernia and concomitant inguinal and umbilical hernias in a patient with polycystic kidney disease and an intracranial aneurysm - a combined approach of clinical and radiological investigation, endoscopic hernia repair, and anatomical cadaver model documentation and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veréb-Amolini, László; Betschart, Thomas; Kiss, Emilia; Ullrich, Oliver; Wildi, Stefan; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hernias are difficult to diagnose due to their rarity and often unspecific symptoms. In the literature there exist hints to peri-inguinal hernias, i.e. direct lateral hernia, but most of them are forms of Spigelian hernias. Since the majority were described during the first half of the past century or even earlier, only very few cases have been documented using modern diagnostic techniques. We report a unique case of a 51 year old patient presenting with an atypical inguinal hernia with concomitant inguinal and umbilical hernias in combination with cystic kidney disease and intracranial aneurysm. The atypical position of the hernia was assumed from clinical inspection, ultrasound and CT scan and verified during pre-peritoneoscopy. Using an anatomical cadaver dissection approach, we followed the unusual position of the hernia through the abdominal wall below the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle. After a thorough literature search, we assume that the present hernia containing a hernial sac has not been documented before, especially not in such a multidisciplinary approach comprising radiological, surgical and anatomical localisation and endoscopic treatment in a patient with a clinical situation being aggravated by large cystic kidneys leading to dialysis-dependency. Rare hernias have been described as being often associated with concomitant inguinal or other hernias, a predisposition for the male gender and a pathogenic mechanism related to other soft tissue defects such as cystic kidney disease or cranial aneurysm. Thus, we consider this a unique case that has not been documented in this constellation previously, which may increase the awareness for these rare hernias.

  2. What My Cadaver Dog Taught Me about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty eager to transform their teaching often have a difficult time understanding the learning literature and then integrating it into their teaching, in part because neuroeducation concepts such as constructivism, transfer, misconceptions, and metacognition are not part of their existing knowledge. Examples of these concepts in the literature…

  3. [Protection of cadaver tissues exposed to high gamma radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-Jiménez, J; Flores-Fletes, J R; Carrillo, A

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is the most widely used tissue for the treatment of various conditions. As a result of this, allografts are used at an increasing frequency and processes for their harvest, preservation and sterilization have improved. The sterilization method that grants the greatest sterilization is high-dose gamma radiation, which destroys prions and any microorganism thus assuring that patients will not experience any infection. But given that radiation use has proven to deteriorate bone and tendon tissue, efforts have been made to protect the latter. One way to do this is a commercially available substance called Clearant. Studies conducted elsewhere have found that it does protect bone and tendon tissue. This study was therefore conducted with allograft samples exposed to high-dose radiation. Its purpose was to assess, with photon microscopy using various dyes and electron microscopy, the presence of color changes as well as the destruction of the anatomical structure. The same tissue was followed-up throughout the process until it was placed in the patient. The review found no structural changes in bone and tendon tissues exposed to high radiation doses (60 kilograys) when the Clearant process was used, and concluded that the former may be used safely in orthopedic or traumatologic diseases.

  4. Death and cadavers: knowledge, skills and attitudes will have to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    will need an insight into students' skills at explaining autopsies to relatives. Excellent communication skills in this regard will be essential. Thirdly we will need an assessment of students' and doctors' motivation to change their practice. Without motivation, change will simply not happen. Fourthly even with insight.

  5. Public Perception of Cadaver Organ Donation in Hunan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A J; Xie, W Z; Luo, J J; Ouyang, W

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to (1) survey public' perception and attitudes toward organ donation and (2) analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to donate. We developed a questionnaire, and conducted the survey with stratified random sampling. Overall, 600 residents, aged ≥18 who resided in Hunan, and 600 undergraduates from 3 universities in Hunan were surveyed randomly. For this study, 1085 valid questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 90.4%. Of the 1085 participants, 581 (53.5%) were students, 504 (46.5%) were residents, and 519 (47.8%) were male and 566 (52.2%) female. The mean accuracy rate was 71.96%, and the students' mean accuracy rate was slightly higher than that of the resident population (73.06% vs 70.68%, respectively). The results showed that 82.2% of public support organ donation, and 53.5% were willing to donate their organs after death. Students scored higher than the residents (88% vs 75.6% and 55.6% vs 51.2%). Nearly 1.8% felt that organ donation was against their religion, 14.9% thought it was important to ensure the integrity of the body, 71.7% agreed that organ donation allowed a positive outcome after a person's death, and 61.5% agreed that organ donation represented a continuation of life, to help families cope with grief. Age and gender were related to attitudes. Public knowledge of organ donation and their attitudes were correlated positively (r = 0.666). Public knowledge of organ donation is poor, biased, and incomplete, and based on television, movies, and communication networks. Positive attitudes toward donation displayed in the surveys were not matched by actual organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Demographic factors influencing consent for cadaver organ donation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organ donation. In 35% of these referrals the families were not approached for consent. The reasons for this included the potential donor being unsuitable for organ donation or not meeting all the criteria for brain death. The effects of the age, sex, race and the cause of death of the potential donor on whether the family gave ...

  7. Transplantation of Cadaver Tissues and Organs. Part 15. Chapter 338

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-09

    who provides cadaveric tissues and organs to transplantation surgeons. During the agonal days of a patient’s course, the family and neurosurgeon...Amendments of 1976. METHODS OF STERILIZATION OF TISSUES 45 Donald J. Prolo, M.D. Tissues for implantation must rigorously be free of contaminating bacteria

  8. PART II - HUMAN BODIES TO TEACH ANATOMY: IMPORTANCE AND PROCUREMENT – EXPERIENCE WITH CADAVER DONATION. Parte II - Cuerpos humanos para la enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y procuración – Experiencia con la donación de cadáveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana N Biasutto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La publicación del Debate sobre “Cuerpos Humanos para la Enseñanza de la Anatomía: Importancia y Procuración – Experiencia con la Donación de Cadáveres” en el último número llamó la atención de la comunidad anatómica internacional por la amplitud del enfoque y la diversidad de las situaciones mencionadas. Aunque es posible encontrar muchos otros artículos sobre el tema, generalmente se enfocan a una experiencia particular, un país o, eventualmente, a un continente. Este Debate dio una breve visión sobre diferentes continentes y provesó un rápido punto de vista sobre los acuerdos y diversidad de problemas que afrontan los profesores de Anatomía en una amplia variedad de culturas. Tal como se especificó en la primera parte, los comentarios, consultas y respuestas de los participantes iniciales y los lectores en general serían considerados para una segunda parte del Debate. Todas las contribuciones  significativas han sido organizadas e incluidas en esta instancia. Los lectores podrán encontrar información importante relativa a Australia, República Checa, Rusia, Turquía y Venezuela y comentarios adicionales a los conceptos previamente publicados sobre India, Malasia, Sudáfrica y Estados Unidos. Publication of the Debate on “Human Bodies to Teach Anatomy: Importance and Procurement – Experience with Cadaver Donation” in the immediate past issue called the attention of the international anatomic community because of the broad approach and the diversity of the mentioned situations. Instead it is possible to find many other articles on this topic they are usually focused on a particular experience, country or, eventually, a continent. This Debate gave a brief mapping on different continents and provided a quick point of view on agreements and diversity of problems afforded by the professors of Anatomy under a wide variety of cultures.  As it was specified in the first part, comments, queries and answers from the

  9. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  10. Effects of two different deep digital flexor tenotomy techniques on distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs Efeito de duas técnicas de tenotomia do flexor digital profundo sobre os ângulos articulares distais dos membros anteriores de equinos: estudo post-mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cezar de Oliveira Dearo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deep digital flexor (DDF tenotomy is a technique employed for years to treat selected disorders of the musculoskeletal system in horses. Although two different surgical approaches (i.e. mid-metacarpal and pastern have been described for performing the procedure, in vitro quantitative data regarding the modifications induced by either technique on the distal articular angles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the viability of a proposed biomechanical system of induced-traction used to compare the two DDF tenotomy techniques by measuring the distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs. Ten pairs of forelimbs were collected and mounted to a biomechanical system developed to apply traction at the toe level. Dorsal articular angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP, proximal interphalangeal (PIP and distal interphalangeal (DIP joints were determined by geometric lines on radiographs taken before and after performing each technique. Comparisons between each tenotomy group and its own control, for each joint, and between the two tenotomy groups using as variable the difference between the tenotomy and control groups were tested. Despite the lack of statistical significance, the DDF tenotomy technique at the pastern level produced extension, to a lesser and greater extent, of the PIP and DIP joints, respectively when compared to the mid-metacarpal level. No remarkable differences could be observed for the MP joint. The developed traction-induced biomechanical construct seemed to be effective in producing valuable quantitative estimations of the distal articular angles of equine cadaver forelimbs subjected to different DDF tenotomy techniques.A tenotomia do flexor digital profundo (FDP é uma das técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas para o tratamento de algumas anormalidades osteomusculares, como as deformidades flexurais e a laminite em equinos. Embora diferentes acessos cirúrgicos (i.e. terço médio do

  11. The origin of the inferior phrenic artery: a study in 32 South Indian cadavers with a review of the literature Origem da artéria frênica inferior: estudo em 32 cadáveres da Índia do Sul com revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejodhar Pulakunta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considering the paucity of information presently available concerning inferior phrenic arteries, a more definitive study seemed appropriate and necessary, both for its potential clinical applications and to provide additional data to contemporary anatomical literature. OBJECTIVE: Most anatomical textbooks of gross anatomy offer very little information concerning the anatomy and distribution of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA. For that reason, the origin of the IPA has been studied and the available literature has been reviewed. METHODS: Thirty-two human adult cadavers preserved in formalin obtained from the departments of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal and Mangalore were dissected and the origin of the IPA was studied. RESULTS: The IPA had its usual origin from the abdominal aorta in 28 cases but in the remaining four cases, two were arising from the celiac trunk, one from the left gastric artery and one from the right renal artery. CONCLUSION: The IPA usually originates from the aorta or celiac artery, and less frequently from the renal, hepatic or left gastric arteries. The IPA is a major source of collateral or parasitized arterial supply to hepatocellular carcinoma, second only to the hepatic artery. Literature on the IPA origin and clinical implications of variation in its origin have been reviewed in this article.CONTEXTO: Considerando a escassez de informações atualmente disponíveis sobre artérias frênicas inferiores, umestudo mais definitivo nos pareceu apropriado e necessário, tanto por suas potenciais aplicações clínicas quanto para fornecer dados adicionais à literatura anatômica contemporânea. OBJETIVO: A maioria dos livros-texto de anatomia oferece muito poucas informações referentes à anatomia e distribuição da artéria frênica inferior (AFI. Por este motivo, a origem da AFI foi investigada e a literatura disponível foi revisada. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois cadáveres humanos adultos

  12. Variações do sistema arterial hepático e sua aplicabilidade na bipartição do fígado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Hepatic artery system variations correlated to split-liver surgery: anatomic study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz BERTEVELLO

    2002-04-01

    .Background - The liver donor shortage and the higher demand on liver transplantation led to advanced liver surgery techniques in order to better utilization of the cadaveric liver donors. That is why the split-liver technique had been applicated in liver transplantation where the liver after been divided into two lobes would be implanted in two recipients. Aims - This paper has the goal of study both the extra-hepatic arterial distribuition and anatomie of the liver with application on the split-liver transplantation separating the liver in right and left hepatic lobe. Patients and Methods - The authors studied 60 livers from fresh cadaver looking at hepatic artery and its main anatomic variations correlating with split-liver surgery. The liver was split into two portions, right and left lobe. Results - The total liver weight was 1536 ± 361,8 g, right hepatic lobe 890,3 ± 230,9 g and left hepatic lobe 649,3 ± 172,6 g. Common hepatic trunk was found in one (1,6% case and came from superior mesenteric artery and in another one (1,6%, both left hepatic artery and left gastric artery came from the abdominal aorta. The right hepatic artery raised from celiac trunk in 44 (73,3% cases, and in 15 (25% from superior mesenteric artery it was acessory in 11 (18,3% cases and dominant in 4 (6,6%. The left hepatic artery was acessory of left gastric artery in 2 (3,3% cases. Hepatic artery trifurcation was found in 9 (15% cases out of this 6 (10% to segment IV, 2 (3,3% to segment III and 1 (1,6% to segment II. Also we found 2 (3,3% medium hepatic artery to segment IV. Conclusion - Hepatic artery variations allowed liver section into right and left hepatic lobe.

  13. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fevereiro de 2006. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos - acometidos e não-acometidos de carcinoma hepatocelular - e analisados em relação à sobrevida em 3 meses e em 1 ano. Também foram comparados em relação ao sexo e à idade do doador e do receptor, a causa da cirrose, a classificação de Child-Pugh e o escore do MELD no momento do transplante, o tempo de isquemia morna e isquemia fria, o número de unidades de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas durante o transplante, o tempo de permanência na UTI e o tempo de internação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 146 casos de transplante hepático: 75 foram excluídos devido a dados incompletos no prontuário e 71 foram incluídos no estudo. A sobrevida geral em 3 meses e 1 ano foi de 77,4% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os acometidos por carcinoma hepatocelular (n = 12 apresentaram sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de 100%, significantemente maior que os não-acometidos (n = 59; 72,8% e 69,49%, respectivamente. O índice médio do MELD, da classificação de Child-Pugh e o número médio de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas foram significantemente maiores nos pacientes não-acometidos. Também foi observada maior percentagem de pacientes classificados como Child-Pugh B e C e de pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose por outras causas nos pacientes não acometidos pela neoplasia. Nos doentes com carcinoma hepatocelular foi observada maior percentagem de indivíduos classificados como Child

  14. Vertebral pedicle anatomy in relation to pedicle screw fixation: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaynes, P; Sol, J C; Vaysse, P; Bécue, J; Lagarrigue, J

    2001-01-01

    New techniques to stabilize and correct the thoracic and lumbar spine have been developed in recent years. In view of the wide variety and complexity of fixation devices, the optimum configuration of spinal instrumentation systems needs to be defined. Linear and angular measurements of both vertebral pedicles were made in ten complete thoracic and lumbar cadaveric spines using callipers and a goniometer. The vertical interpedicular distance gradually increased along the spine up to L5. The transverse interpedicular distance was larger at both ends of the spine. Pedicular height gradually increased from T1 to L5, plateauing between T3 and T9, being widest at the thoracolumbar junction. Pedicular width was greatest at the three junctional regions of the spine. The sagittal pedicular angle decreased along the length of the spine to zero at L5. The transverse pedicular angle decreased from T1 to T12 and then increased to L5. Of the pedicular measurements only width limits the diameter of fixation screws. The vertical interpedicular distance determines the distance between the holes of plates, while the length of the transfixator is related to the transverse interpedicular distance. The pedicular angles enable triangulation of screws and determine the stability of the fixation.

  15. Deformation of the Zurich cementless acetabular cup caused by implantation in a canine cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjeton, Geoffrey D; Kim, Stanley E; Chang, Kelvin; Palm, Lindsey S; Ifju, Peter G

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the change in geometry of the Zurich total hip arthroplasty (THA) acetabular component after implantation. Hemipelves from adult mix-breed dogs weighing between 20 and 25 kg. Digital image correlation imaging was performed prior to, immediately after, and 24 hours after impaction of Zurich THA acetabular component, and after removal of the cup from the specimen. Patterns of deformation were qualitatively described, and maximal deformations were compared between time points. All cups deformed after implantation into the hemipelves by "pinching" in a cranial-caudal direction and dorsoventral expansion, resulting in an ellipsoid configuration to the peripheral rim. The mean ± SD maximum deformation at the rim immediately post-impaction was 0.202 ± 0.052 mm, or approximately 0.4 mm of diametrical deformation. Deformation did not change after the 24-hour saline bath. Impaction and subsequent extraction had a marginal effect on the original cup geometry, as maximum deformation at the rim after cup extraction was 0.074 ± 0.032 mm, relative to prior to impaction. The original Zurich cup geometry is distorted as a consequence of the press-fit mechanism. Further studies are required to determine whether deformation induced by impaction has any association with polyethylene wear rates or other prosthesis-related complications. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Clinical evaluation of lumbar CT assisted discography in comparison with human cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko

    1988-04-01

    In order to estimate the clinical value of lumbar CT assisted discography (CTD), results obtained by this method were compared with histological findings of the cross section of the spine in fresh human cadavera. Based on these findings, preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation was investigated. In the discs of human cadavera, the contrast medium mainly invaded the fissures of nucleus pulposus and the ruptures of annulus fibrosus and then diffused to the surrounding tissues. These ruptures were classified into two categories: radial and circumferential. This indentification was possible only in CTD and was obscure in the usual discogram. Not all the ruptures could be dyed in a severe degenerative disc, and a rupture which was not communicated with nucleus pulposus was not dyed in a mild degenerative disc. In the preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation, the posterior radial ruptures representing the route of herniated nuclei were characteristic and the circumferential ruptures were found complicated.

  17. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on the second cervical vertebra measured using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess correlations between measurements of the second cervical vertebra (C2) and stature using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images, and to develop regression equations for estimating stature in a Japanese population. Measurements were performed on 216 Japanese subjects (116 males and 100 females) who underwent postmortem CT between May 2011 and November 2013. Sagittal images through the center of the C2 were used for assessment. The length from the top of the dens to the anteroinferior point of the vertebral body (DA), the length from the anteroinferior point of the vertebral body to the posterior point of the spinous process (AS), and the length from the top of the dens to the posterior point of the spinous process (DS) were measured. The correlation between stature and each parameter (DA, AS, and DS) was assessed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and regression analysis was performed for stature estimation. All measurements of the C2 were positively correlated with stature regardless of sex. The highest correlation was observed for the DA in all cases, and the lowest correlation was observed for AS in all cases. However, the standard errors of estimate were large. Thus, our study concludes that the size of the C2 as measured with MDCT images may be useful for stature estimation only when better predictors, such as long bones, are unavailable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189846992; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  19. Osteosynthesis of the clavicle after osteotomy in brachial plexus surgery: A biomechanical cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Kontautas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The superior plating of obliquely osteotomized clavicles with the titanium 7-hole 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate had a significantly greater biomechanical stability at fixed loads of 183 N and 203 N than the anteroinferior plating in the inferior directed cantilever bending. The superior plating osteosynthesis exhibited a significantly greater stiffness from 151 N to maximal bending failure loads as well.

  20. Glenohumeral joint motion after subscapularis tendon repair: an analysis of cadaver shoulder models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Teiichi; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Tomoki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-23

    As for the surgical treatment of the rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis tendon tears have recently received much attention for the mini-open or arthroscopic repair. The results of surgical repair for the subscapularis tendon tear are satisfactory, but the range of external rotation is reported to be restricted after the repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the range of glenohumeral joint motion after repairs of various sizes of subscapularis tendon tears. Using eight fresh frozen human cadaveric shoulders (mean age at death, 81.5 years), three sizes of subscapularis tendon tear (small, medium, and large) were made and then repaired. With the scapula fixed to the wooden jig, the end-range of glenohumeral motion was measured with passive movement applied through 1.0-Nm torque in the directions of scapular elevation, flexion, abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and horizontal adduction. The passive end-ranges of external and internal rotation in various positions with rotational torque of 1.0 Nm were also measured. Differences in the ranges among the three type tears were analyzed. As tear size increased, range of glenohumeral motion in horizontal abduction after repair decreased gradually and was significantly decreased with the large size tear (P size in every glenohumeral position. The prominent decrease in external rotation (around 40° reduction from intact shoulders) was observed in shoulders after repair of large size tear at 30° to 60° of scapular elevation and abduction. As the size of the subscapularis tendon tear increased, the passive ranges of horizontal abduction and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint after repair decreased significantly. In shoulders with a subscapularis tendon tear, it is necessary to consider the reduction of external rotation depending on tear size.

  1. Torsion biomechanics of the spine following lumbar laminectomy: a human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Arno; van Dieën, Jaap H; Kingma, Idsart; van der Veen, Albert J; Jiya, Timothy U; Mullender, Margriet G; Paul, Cornelis P L; de Kleuver, Marinus; van Royen, Barend J

    2013-08-01

    Lumbar laminectomy affects spinal stability in shear loading. However, the effects of laminectomy on torsion biomechanics are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laminectomy on torsion stiffness and torsion strength of lumbar spinal segments following laminectomy and whether these biomechanical parameters are affected by disc degeneration and bone mineral density (BMD). Ten human cadaveric lumbar spines were obtained (age 75.5, range 59-88). Disc degeneration (MRI) and BMD (DXA) were assessed. Disc degeneration was classified according to Pfirrmann and dichotomized in mild or severe. BMD was defined as high BMD (≥median BMD) or low BMD (biomechanical effects of a lumbar laminectomy.

  2. Histomorphological study of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Ara, Z G; Chowdhury, A I; Ara, A; Mukta, T B

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to find out the number of germinal centre in human vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people to magnify the knowledge regarding the diverse number of germinal centre of human vermiform appendix in our population in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Bangladesh from July 2006 to June 2007. Total 40 appendices were collected for histological study of different age and sex during postmortem examination in the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College. This cross sectional study was done by convenient sampling technique. For convenience of differentiating the changes in number of germinal centre of vermiform appendix in relation to age and sex, findings were classified in four groups, Group A up to 20 years, Group B 21-35 years, Group C 36-55 years and Group D 56-70 years. In the present study the number of germinal centre was highest in Group B (52.38%) but in Group D it was nil. Here mean number of germinal centre in male (1.05) were more than in female (0.8).

  3. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  4. Unilateral Absence of Plantaris muscle in Ethiopian Cadavers – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafte Assefa Beyene; Birhane Alem Berihu; Yared godefa; Gebrekidan Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Plantaris is the largest muscle in mammals other than primates. It runs alongside the gastrosoleus complex, and continues along the medial aspect of the Achilles tendon (AT) before inserting onto the greater tuberosity of the calcaneus. The plantaris muscle is vestigial in human beings and has much clinical importance. It is known to present several anatomical variations in terms of its occurrence, origin, course, relation with surrounding neurovascular structures and insertion. It may be abs...

  5. ANALYSIS OF FIBULARIS TERTIUS IN TERMS OF FREQUENCY, MORPHOLOGY, MORPHOMETRYAND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN NORTH INDIAN CADAVERS

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Verma; Seema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fibularis tertius muscle has always enjoyed the distinction of being an exclusively human structure and as such it has helped to separate man from the lower animals. Myocutaneous flaps have been progressively used in surgical reconstruction in the lower limb injuries requiring the use of muscles which result in less functional damage as flaps. Aim: Our study is aimed to evaluate frequency, morphology, morphometry and use of the fibularis tertius muscle as flaps in lower ...

  6. Inside-out method to develop volar arthroscopic portals of the wrist in cadaver specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroura, I; Zemirline, A; Taleb, C; Lebailly, F; Facca, S; Hidalgo Díaz, J J; Collon, S; Liverneaux, P

    2016-06-01

    Three direct volar portals for wrist arthroscopy have been described previously: two radiocarpal and one midcarpal. The aim of this study was to systematically describe four volar arthroscopic portals through minimally invasive incisions using an inside-out approach from known dorsal portals. Four volar arthroscopic wrist portals were studied on six hand specimens using an inside-out technique: a radial radiocarpal approach (RRCA), an ulnar radiocarpal approach (URCA), a radial midcarpal approach (RMCA) and an ulnar midcarpal approach (UMCA). Each volar approach corresponded to a dorsal approach: the 3/4 portal for RRCA, 4/5 portal for URCA, dorsal radial midcarpal approach for RMCA, and dorsal ulnar midcarpal approach for UMCA. The average range of motion of the scope through the RRCA was 65° in radial deviation and 72° in ulnar deviation; through the URCA it was 62° in radial deviation and 64° in ulnar deviation; through the RMCA it was 62° in radial deviation and 60° in ulnar deviation, and through the UMCA it was 59° in radial deviation and 68° in radial deviation. No iatrogenic injuries to important anatomical structures were noted. Based on these results, it is possible to perform these four volar portals through an inside-out technique with incisions mirroring the dorsal portals. They were easy to perform, safe and should be useful in ligament or bony intracarpal repair indications. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Segmental Morphometric Properties of the Horse Cervical Spinal Cord: A Study of Cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Sadullah; Bolat, Durmus; Selcuk, Muhammet Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    Although the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of the horse has particular importance in diseases of CNS, there is very little information about its segmental morphometry. The objective of the present study was to determine the morphometric features of the CSC segments in the horse and possible relationships among the morphometric features. The segmented CSC from five mature animals was used. Length, weight, diameter, and volume measurements of the segments were performed macroscopically. Lengths and diameters of segments were measured histologically, and area and volume measurements were performed using stereological methods. The length, weight, and volume of the CSC were 61.6 ± 3.2 cm, 107.2 ± 10.4 g, and 95.5 ± 8.3 cm3, respectively. The length of the segments was increased from C 1 to C 3, while it decreased from C 3 to C 8. The gross section (GS), white matter (WM), grey matter (GM), dorsal horn (DH), and ventral horn (VH) had the largest cross-section areas at C 8. The highest volume was found for the total segment and WM at C 4, GM, DH, and VH at C 7, and the central canal (CC) at C 3. The data obtained not only contribute to the knowledge of the normal anatomy of the CSC but may also provide reference data for veterinary pathologists and clinicians. PMID:23476145

  8. The Dimensions of the Orbital Cavity Based on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Human Cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Bloch, Sune Land; Buchwald, Christian von

    2016-01-01

    with the degree of enophthalmos. However, a large degree of biological variation between individuals may preclude such absolute values from being successful indicators for surgery.Stereological methods have been used to estimate orbital cavity volume in a few studies, but to date these have not been used...

  9. Cultural patterns of trauma among 19th-century-born males in cadaver collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cova, Carlina

    2010-01-01

    Comprehending violence among bioarchaeological and historical groups is a topic of recent interest among biological anthropologists. This research examines trauma among African American and Euro-American males of low socioeconomic status born between 1825 and 1877. A total of 651 male skeletons from the Cobb, Terry, and Hamann-Todd anatomical collections were macroscopically evaluated for skeletal trauma, based on the presence of fractures and weapon-related wounds, and statistically analyzed according to ancestry, birth (Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction), combined ancestry - birth, and collection cohorts. Results indicated that African Americans and Euro-Americans expressed ethnic differences in regard to interpersonal violence. To interpret these disparities, documentary data were used to reconstruct the socioeconomic and cultural environment of these individuals. This research emphasizes the importance of evaluating skeletal data within the context of class, culture, and environment so that behavioral patterns observed in the skeleton can be better understood.

  10. The Influence of Environmental Exposure to Formaldehyde in Nasal Mucosa of Medical Students during Cadaver Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Hisamitsu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Temporary abnormalities in the olfaction test and increased nasal mucosal hypersensitivity to histamine were observed in a few students with preexisting allergic rhinitis after environmental exposure of high concentrations of formaldehyde. These effects appeared to be transient.

  11. Autopsy Tissue Program. [Plutonium determination in selected tissues of human cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, T.; Tietjen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed.

  12. Evaluation of the anatomical position of the vermiform appendix in Iranian cadavers in 2013: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Meamarian

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Majority of appendices examined in the present study were positioned at the posterior (Retrocecal of pelvis. According to different positions of appendices in different populations and different races, the knowledge of appendix position in various populations is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment and fewer complications for related disease.

  13. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Deenen, J.C.W.; Huisman, H.J.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by

  14. Sources of cadaver used for dissection at the Ibadan medical school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two (78.6%) were suspected bandits who died during gun duel with law enforcement agents while six (21.4%) were bodies that were accident victims and unclaimed bodies. Four of the unclaimed bodies were males (66.7%) while females were two (33.3%). The majority of bodies that were those of suspected ...

  15. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  16. Thermometry during coblation and radiofrequency ablation of vertebral metastases: a cadaver study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groetz, Simon F; Birnbaum, Klaus; Meyer, Carsten; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans H; Wilhelm, Kai E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate safety of coblation of simulated lytic metastases in human cadaveric vertebral bodies by measuring heat distribution during thermal tissue ablation and comparing it to radiofrequency ablation (RFA...

  17. Forces applied with a hoof tester to cadaver feet vary widely between users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J L; Pfau, T; Day, P; Pardoe, C; Bolt, D M; Weller, R

    2013-02-16

    Hoof testers are commonly used in equine practice. In this study, we determined the intraoperator and interoperator reliability of force application with hoof testers for different groups: experienced veterinarians, novices and farriers. For this purpose, we have developed and validated an instrumented hoof tester. Forces varied significantly between the different regions of the foot for experienced operators applying the highest forces to the heels, then the frog, then the toe, and the lowest forces to the quarters. Novices applied significantly more force to the toe versus the frog. Intraoperator reliability varied significantly between regions and operators. Novices had the narrowest width of limits of agreement for the frog and heel, but the widest for the toe and the quarters, whereas farriers had the narrowest width of agreement for the toe and quarter. Force application differed significantly between groups for the frog and heel regions, but not the toe and quarters. Veterinarians applied higher forces to the frog compared with farriers and novices, and higher forces to the heel compared with novices. This study showed that hoof tester forces vary widely within and between operators, and standardisation of hoof tester use is needed to make this diagnostic test more reliable.

  18. A new guidance device facilitates percutaneous puncture of the foramen ovale in human cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinteregger, Martin; Zschiegner, Fritz; Lirk, Philipp; Ladner, Eugen; Goeschl, Albert; Gaber, Othmar; Moser, Patrizia; Lorenz, Ingo; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common neurological cause for facial pain. Contemporary interventional treatment relies on surgical microvascular decompression or, alternatively, percutaneous interventions targeting the semilunar ganglion via the foramen ovale. For the latter approach, only

  19. An unusual MR signal reduction artefact in an incompletely thawed cadaver spine specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmis, Andrew P. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); School of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.kurmis@flinders.edu.au; Slavotinek, John P. [Department of Medical Imaging, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia (Australia); Barber, Christine; Smith, Lachlan [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Fazzalari, Nicola L. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: Within the contemporary constraints associated with in vivo use for research purposes, preservation of macroscopic human tissue specimens is of critical importance. Simple sub-zero freezing remains the method-of-choice for medium-term storage of such material. Despite widespread use, few papers have described the effects of this preservation method on resultant images, or the impact of inadequate tissue thawing. Materials and methods: A series of post-mortem-harvested human lumbar spine specimens were undergoing conventional MR imaging as part of a larger project exploring non-invasive hydration status assessment of the intervertebral disc. Results: A complex central signal reduction artefact was noted during scanning of one specimen, resembling an isotherm distribution. Subtle inadequacies in core specimen thawing lead to an initially confusing pattern of central signal dampening. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the impact of sub-optimal specimen preparation on image signal characteristics and highlight the importance of appropriate thawing methods of frozen tissue specimens prior to imaging.

  20. Comparison of three different pelvic circumferential compression devices: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, S.P.; Schep, N.W.; Spoor, C.W.; Riel, M.P. van; Spanjersberg, W.R.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Lieshout, E.M. van; Patka, P.; Schipper, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pelvic circumferential compression devices are designed to stabilize the pelvic ring and reduce the volume of the pelvis following trauma. It is uncertain whether pelvic circumferential compression devices can be safely applied for all types of pelvic fractures because the effects of the

  1. Comparison of three different pelvic circumferential compression devices: A biomechanical cadaver study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Knops (Simon); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); C.W. Spoor (Cornelis); M.P.J.M. Riel (Marcel); W.R. Spanjersberg (Willem); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter); I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pelvic circumferential compression devices are designed to stabilize the pelvic ring and reduce the volume of the pelvis following trauma. It is uncertain whether pelvic circumferential compression devices can be safely applied for all types of pelvic fractures because the

  2. Comparison of three different pelvic circumferential compression devices: a biomechanical cadaver study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, S. P.; Schep, N. W. L.; Spoor, C. W.; van Riel, M. P. J. M.; Spanjersberg, W. R.; Kleinrensink, G. J.; van Lieshout, E. M. M.; Patka, P.; Schipper, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic circumferential compression devices are designed to stabilize the pelvic ring and reduce the volume of the pelvis following trauma. It is uncertain whether pelvic circumferential compression devices can be safely applied for all types of pelvic fractures because the effects of the devices on

  3. Comparison of radiographic and anatomic distal metatarsal articular angle in cadaver feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James R; Coughlin, Michael J; Schutt, Shane; Hirose, Christopher; Kennedy, Michael; Grebing, Brett; Smith, Bertil; Cooper, Truitt; Golano, Pau; Viladot, Ramon; Doty, Jesse F

    2014-04-01

    A few studies report correlations between radiographic and anatomic measurements of the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). However, little is known about how the DMAA correlates with the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and with anatomic and clinical radiographic measurements. We dissected, measured, and radiographed 39 cadaveric feet for evidence of hallux valgus and the DMAA. We then correlated these values with paired clinical radiographic measurements made by physician evaluators. Physician measurement of DMAA and anatomic measurement of DMAA were significantly correlated with a mean r = 0.64 (evaluator range, 0.44-0.66). Pairwise correlation between physician evaluators ranged from r = 0.63 to 0.84. Sixty-six percent of physician-measured DMAAs were within 5 degrees of anatomic DMAA. The percentage of radiographic DMAAs that were within 5 degrees of anatomic DMAAs was only 66%. Additionally, the DMAA was increased in the specimens with moderate and severe hallux valgus compared with those with normal or mild hallux valgus angles. The DMAA is an important consideration in patients with hallux valgus. While it is less reliable than other radiographic measures, it was correlated to deformity severity in specimen with hallux valgus.

  4. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  5. Multiple Large Perineural (Tarlov) Cysts in the Sacrum of a Cadaver: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Topale, Nitsa; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-12

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled sacs found between the perineurium and epineurium of the nerve roots. It is still unsure whether the origin of these cysts is intradural or extradural. They can either be asymptomatic or create a variety of negative impacts on comfort and quality of life. In this case report, we describe the presentation of multiple Tarlov cysts including one large cyst discovered during a routine cadaveric spinal dissection and the relevant and related literature. To our knowledge, this is the only cadaveric case report of Tarlov cysts and offers an interesting window into their anatomy.

  6. [On the transition of the cadaver from the "opposite" to the "helper" of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, L; Terribile Wiel Marin, V

    1998-04-01

    Death and corpse were incompatible with god's and family doctor's presence in the Greek-Roman world. This incompatibility between life and the death was surmounted by the admittance of Saints' bodies in the Churches and believers' burial "ad Sanctos". From this, to body's utilization as discloser of the "causae morborum" the way was relatively short, culminating in the stage marked by Morgagni's name.

  7. Avaliação da relação entre parâmetros antropométricos (peso e altura e a topografia da raiz de L4 no espaço intertransversário L4-L5 através do acesso paramediano à coluna vertebral- Um estudo anatômico em vinte e um cadáveres Assessment of the correlation between anthropometric parameters (weight and height and the L4 root topography at the L4-L5 intertransverse space through paramedian access to the spine: an anatomic research on twenty one cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Poderoso de Araújo

    2008-01-01

    minimum L4 root mobilization. Our objective is to assess the potential correlation between anthropometric parameters and the L4 root topography. Twenty-one cadavers (42 sides were dissected and some parameters were measured: cadavers’ weight and height, width of the L5 transverse process, distance between L5 transverse process base and the point where the L4 root crosses it. The analysis of data allows us to conclude that no statistically significant correlation exists among the involved variables.

  8. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    .... In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine...

  9. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  10. Age and gender as determinants of the bone quality of the greater tuberosity: A HR-pQCT cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhoff Chlodwig

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent trabecular changes of the humeral head might weaken the fixation of suture anchors used for rotator cuff (RC repair. This might lead to suture anchor loosening and thus compromise the integrity of the repair. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the trabecular microstructure within the RC footprint is influenced by age, gender or handedness. Methods Axial HR-pQCT scans (Scanco Medical of 64 freshly frozen cadaveric human humeral head specimens (age 72.3 ± 17.4 years were analyzed to determine the bone volume-to-total volume ratio (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Trab Th, trabecular number (Trab N and connectivity density (Conn Dens. Within the RC footprint, 2 volumes of interest (VOI, posteromedial (PM and anterolateral (AL and one control VOI in the subarticular bone (SC were set. Results The highest BV/TV was found in SC: 0.22 ± 0.06% vs. PM: 0.04 ± 0.05% vs. AL: 0.02 ± 0.04%; p  Conclusions The presented microarchitectural data allow for future subtle biomechanical testing comprising knowledge on age- and sex-related changes of the tuberosities of the humeral head. Furthermore, the insights on the trabecular structure of the humeral head of the elderly may lead to the development of new fixation materials in bone with inferior bone quality.

  11. The effects of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound ablation on human cadaver breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckel, Laura G; Deckers, Roel; Baron, Paul; Bleys, Ronald L A W; van Diest, Paul J; Moonen, Chrit T W; Mali, Willem P Th M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2013-10-05

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for non-invasive breast tumor ablation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HIFU ablation and thermal exposure on ex vivo human breast tissue. HIFU ablations were performed in three unembalmed cadaveric breast specimens using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Sonications were performed in fibroglandular and adipose tissue. During HIFU ablation, time-resolved anatomical MR images were acquired to monitor macroscopic tissue changes. Furthermore, the breast tissue temperature was measured using a thermocouple to investigate heating and cooling under HIFU exposure. After HIFU ablation, breast tissue samples were excised and prepared for histopathological analysis. In addition, thermal exposure experiments were performed to distinguish between different levels of thermal damage using immunohistochemical staining. Irreversible macroscopic deformations up to 3.7 mm were observed upon HIFU ablation both in fibroglandular and in adipose tissue. No relationship was found between the sonication power or the maximum tissue temperature and the size of the deformations. Temperature measurements after HIFU ablation showed a slow decline in breast tissue temperature. Histopathological analysis of sonicated regions demonstrated ablated tissue and morphologically complete cell death. After thermal exposure, samples exposed to three different temperatures could readily be distinguished. In conclusion, the irreversible macroscopic tissue deformations in ex vivo human breast tissue observed during HIFU ablation suggest that it might be relevant to monitor tissue deformations during MR-HIFU treatments. Furthermore, the slow decrease in breast tissue temperature after HIFU ablation increases the risk of heat accumulation between successive sonications. Since cell death was inflicted after already 5 minutes at 75°C, MR-HIFU may find a place in non-invasive treatment of breast tumors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stature estimation based on measurements of the sternal medullary cavity using multidetector computed tomography images of Japanese cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2014-09-01

    Stature estimation using a skeleton is important for the medicolegal investigation of unidentified human remains. The aims of this study were to identify a correlation between stature and measurements of the sternal medullary cavity using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and derive regression equations for stature estimation in the Japanese population. Measurements were conducted on 215 Japanese subjects (107 males, 108 females) who underwent postmortem computed tomography with subsequent forensic autopsy between May 2012 and January 2014. For assessment, MDCT cross-sections through the mid-point of the first costal facets were chosen. The length of a rising diagonal stroke from the bottom left to the top right of the sternal medullary cavity (RS) and the length of a falling diagonal stroke from top left to bottom right of the sternal medullary cavity (FS) were measured. Statistical analyses indicated that both RS and FS were positively correlated with stature regardless of sex. The correlations were stronger for males than for females. The correlation coefficients for RS were higher than those for FS, and standard errors of estimation calculated by regression analysis using RS were lower than those using FS regardless of sex. Measurement of the sternal medullary cavity using MDCT images may be a potentially useful tool for stature estimation, particularly in cases where better predictors such as long bones are not available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of potential infectivity of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease proteins in recipients of cadaver-derived human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Abrams, Joseph Y; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Leschek, Ellen Werber; Mills, James L; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q

    2013-04-01

    Growing evidence of cell-to-cell transmission of neurodegenerative disease (ND)-associated proteins (NDAPs) (ie, tau, Aβ, and α-synuclein) suggests possible similarities to the infectious prion protein (PrPsc) in spongiform encephalopathies. There are limited data on the potential human-to-human transmission of NDAPs associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other non-PrPsc ND. To examine evidence for human-to-human transmission of AD, Parkinson disease (PD), and related NDAPs in cadaveric human growth hormone (c-hGH) recipients. We conducted a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of pathological NDAPs other than PrPsc in human pituitary glands. We also searched for ND in recipients of pituitary-derived c-hGH by reviewing the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP) cohort database and medical literature. University-based academic center and agencies of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Thirty-four routine autopsy subjects (10 non-ND controls and 24 patients with ND) and a US cohort of c-hGH recipients in the NHPP. Detectable NDAPs in human pituitary sections and death certificate reports of non-PrPsc ND in the NHPP database. We found mild amounts of pathological tau, Aβ, and α-synuclein deposits in the adeno/neurohypophysis of patients with ND and control patients. No cases of AD or PD were identified, and 3 deaths attributed to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were found among US NHPP c-hGH recipients, including 2 of the 796 decedents in the originally confirmed NHPP c-hGH cohort database. Despite the likely frequent exposure of c-hGH recipients to NDAPs, and their markedly elevated risk of PrPsc-related disease, this population of NHPP c-hGH recipients does not appear to be at increased risk of AD or PD. We discovered 3 ALS cases of unclear significance among US c-hGH recipients despite the absence of pathological deposits of ALS-associated proteins (TDP-43, FUS, and ubiquilin) in human pituitary glands. In this unique in vivo model of human-to-human transmission, we found no evidence to support concerns that NDAPs underlying AD and PD transmit disease in humans despite evidence of their cell-to-cell transmission in model systems of these disorders. Further monitoring is required to confirm these conclusions.

  15. Unilateral Complete Agenesis of Mesonephric Duct Derivatives in an 82-year-Old Male Cadaver: Embryology, Anatomy and Clinical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Darcy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of urogenital anatomy in the human fetus is the result of a complex interplay between multiple different tissues. The time course of development is well documented and the morphologic outcomes of insults at various time points during development are predictable. We present a cadaveric case of unilateral agenesis of the left kidney, ureter, bladder hemitrigone, ureteric opening, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and epididymis. Failure of development of the mesonephric duct early during embryogenesis, likely between the third and fifth week, caused ipsilateral urogenital organ agenesis.

  16. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Miller; Hang Ho; Vivienne Ng; Melissa Tran; Douglas Rappaport; Rappaport, William J.A.; Stewart J. Dandorf; James Dunleavy; Rebecca Viscusi; Richard Amini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To a...

  17. Predictability in orbital reconstruction. A human cadaver study, part III: Implant-oriented navigation for optimized reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, L.; Essig, H.; Schreurs, R.; Jansen, J; Maal, T.J.J.; Gooris, P.J.; Becking, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Navigation-assisted orbital reconstruction remains a challenge, because the surgeon focuses on a two-dimensional multiplanar view in relation to the preoperative planning. This study explored the addition of navigation markers in the implant design for three-dimensional (3D) orientation of the

  18. A cadaver study into the number of fasciotomies required to decompress the anterior compartment in forearm compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamran, Lionel; Masquelet, Alain Charles

    2017-11-27

    There is no typical approach for decompression of forearm compartment syndrome, due to contradictory considerations regarding the characteristics of forearm anterior compartment deep fascia. The main purpose of this study was to determine how many fasciae should be opened to fully decompress the forearm anterior compartment. Further, the compliance of the deep anterior compartment was also investigated, to strengthen our results. An experimental study of a laboratory model of acute forearm compartment syndrome was performed. A deep forearm injection of egg white was undertaken to create an acute forearm compartment syndrome in sixteen non-embalmed human forearms from six male and two female donors. The pressure in the superficial and deep anterior compartments was recorded four times, both before and after each fasciotomy and the compliance of the deep anterior compartment was calculated for each step. The first incision of the superficial lamina of the deep fascia was not sufficient to decrease the elevated compartment pressure in the superficial and deep anterior compartments. Whereas the pressures decreased to near-baseline levels, following the fasciotomy of the intermuscular septum observed posterior to the flexor carpi radialis. The last incision of the deep lamina of the deep anterior fascia had no noticeable impact. These observations supported the hypothesis of high compliance of the deep anterior compartment. Two successive incisions were necessary to decompress the anterior compartment: the incision of the superficial lamina of the deep fascia and the incision of the intermuscular septum.

  19. Biomechanical Comparison of Standard and Linked Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs in a Human Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Adam F; Henninger, Heath B; Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time zero cyclic and failure loading properties of a linked single-row rotator cuff repair compared with a standard simple suture single-row repair using triple-loaded suture anchors. Eighteen human cadaveric shoulders from 9 matched pairs were dissected, and full-thickness supraspinatus tears were created. The tendon cross-sectional area was recorded. In each pair, one side was repaired with a linked single-row construct and the other with a simple suture single-row construct, both using 2 triple-loaded suture anchors. After preloading, specimens were cycled to 1 MPa of effective stress at 1 Hz for 500 cycles, and gap formation was recorded with a digital video system. Samples were then loaded to failure, and modes of failure were recorded. There was no statistical difference in peak gap formation between the control and linked constructs (3.6 ± 0.9 mm and 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, respectively; P = .697). Both constructs averaged below a 5-mm cyclic failure threshold. There was no statistical difference in ultimate load to failure between the control and linked repair (511.1 ± 139.0 N and 561.2 ± 131.8 N, respectively; P = .164), and both groups reached failure at loads similar to previous studies. Constructs failed predominantly via tissue tearing parallel to the medial suture line. The linked repair performed similarly to the simple single-row repair. Both constructs demonstrated high ultimate load to failure and good resistance to gap formation with cyclic loading, validating the time zero strength of both constructs in a human cadaveric model. The linked repair provided equivalent resistance to gap formation and failure loads compared with simple suture single-row repairs with triple-loaded suture anchors. This suggests that the linked repair is a simplified rip-stop configuration using the existing suture that may perform similarly to current rotator cuff repair techniques. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reversibilidad mandibular de la rigidez cadavérica por medios químicos en un modelo de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alfonso Tovar-Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular reversibility of the cadaverous stiffness by chemical means in a rat model. The main problem that a dentist faces when collectingpostmortem evidence is the buccal opening, which is limited by the cadaverous stiffness phenomenon that begins 3 hours after death. Thisphenomenon persists until it is destroyed by the late autolytic processes of decomposition, after 36 hours postmortem. Objective. To analyzethe feasibility of accelerating the reversion of the mandibular cadaverous stiffness by means of chemical substances to facilitate the buccalopening. Materials and methods. We assessed substances capable of altering the pH, chelating intramuscular calcium or inducing proteolysisof the actin-myosin complex of the masticatory muscles with cadaverous stiffness in Wistar rats. Results. We found that mandibularcadaverous stiffness in Wistar rats appears after 2.5 hours of death. After 3.5 hours, once the rigidity was established, we carried outinfiltrations with EDTA (20 mM, NaHCO3 (50 μM, Na2CO3 (50 μM and papain (10 μM. NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 solutions significantlyincreased (p<0.05 the reversion speed (mm/h from hour 5, in 108% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of this assay, we doubledthe concentration of NaHCO3 and assessed a 1:1 mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 without finding significant differences with theNaHCO3 and Na2CO3 prior assays. Conclusion. NaHCO3 solution (50 μM allows a reversal of buccal opening enough to collect evidencebetween 5 and 5.5 hours.

  1. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff members, and workers in the Alexandria Faculty of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The research highlighted the irritating action of formalin on medical students, and chronic toxic effects on staff members. This necessitates re-evaluation of the concentration of formalin, proper ventilation and assessment of working practices in the dissecting rooms at the Anatomy department.

  2. Digital Cadavers: Online 2D Learning Resources Enhance Student Learning in Practical Head and Neck Anatomy within Dental Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Bakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck anatomy provides core concepts within preclinical dental curricula. Increased student numbers, reduced curricula time, and restricted access to laboratory-based human resources have increased technology enhanced learning approaches to support student learning. Potential advantages include cost-effectiveness, off-campus access, and self-directed review or mastery opportunities for students. This study investigated successful student learning within a first-year head and neck anatomy course at the School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia, taught by the same teaching team, between 2010 and 2015. Student learning success was compared, for cohorts before and after implementation of a supplementary, purpose-designed online digital library and quiz bank. Success of these online resources was confirmed using overall students’ performance within the course assessment tasks and Student Evaluation of Course surveys and online access data. Engagement with these supplementary 2D online resources, targeted at improving laboratory study, was positively evaluated by students (mean 85% and significantly increased their laboratory grades (mean difference 6%, P<0.027, despite being assessed using cadaveric resources. Written assessments in final exams were not significantly improved. Expanded use of supplementary online resources is planned to support student learning and success in head and neck anatomy, given the success of this intervention.

  3. Sucesión de entomofauna cadavérica utilizando como biomodelo Cerdo Blanco, Sus scrofa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Pérez, Leonardo Roberto

    2012-01-01

    La entomología forense es la disciplina que estudia a los insectos y otros artrópodos que acuden a los cadáveres y que aportan información útil en investigaciones policiales y judiciales, siendo la contribución más importante la estimación del intervalo postmortem, el cual se basa en la tasa de desarrollo de determinada especie de insecto (sobre todo díptero) y en los patrones de sucesión de insectos sarcosaprófagos en un cuerpo en descomposición. Al existir objeciones éti...

  4. Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708): 17th century evolution in neuroanatomy and selective cerebrovascular injections for cadaver dissection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Chittiboina, Prashant; Khan, Imad Saeed; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nanda, Anil

    2012-01-01

    .... In 1688, he was incorporated as an M.D. at Cambridge. Ridley authored the first original treatise in English language on neuroanatomy, The Anatomy of the Brain Containing its Mechanisms and Physiology...

  5. [Effect of cw laser YAG: Nd laser beam on the wall of the urinary bladder taken from cadavers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzaka, B; Mindak, M; Pykało, R

    The results of irradiation of the urinary bladder wall with cw YAG:Nd laser beam are presented. The use of irradiation times ranging from 02, and 0.8 second destroyed irradiated tissues up to a half of the muscular laser.

  6. An institutional study of awareness of brain-death declaration among resident doctors for cadaver organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Mohod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Brain death is defined as irreversible and complete cessation of all brain function including that of the brainstem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness about brain-death declaration among resident doctors. Methods: This was an observational questionnaire-based study conducted in single institute in which 112 junior residents and 46 senior resident doctors in various medical specialities were included by universal sampling method. A prevalidated questionnaire consisting of questions related to knowledge, attitude and performance of brain-death declaration were distributed among residents as per the inclusion criteria to fill in the time limit of 30 min. Statistical tools used were mean and standard deviation, proportion and Chi-square test. Results: A total 87 resident doctors consisting of 71.26% males and 28.73% females responded to the questionnaire. About 91.95% correctly defined it as complete cessation of brain activity including brainstem reflexes. Most of the resident doctors (80.45% knew about the documentation of absence of brainstem reflexes at 6 h intervals and 64.36% were aware about positive apnoea test. When asked about whether there is legal sanction for disconnecting life support in India, 56.32% said no, and 43.67% said yes. Only 12.64% of resident doctors were aware about a panel of 4 physicians are mandatory to declare brain death in India. Conclusion: Awareness and attitude towards the identification of brain death and possible deceased donor organ transplantation were lacking amongst resident doctors.

  7. Brain-dead patients are not cadavers: the need to revise the definition of death in Muslim communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2013-03-01

    The utilitarian construct of two alternative criteria of human death increases the supply of transplantable organs at the end of life. Neither the neurological criterion (heart-beating donation) nor the circulatory criterion (non-heart-beating donation) is grounded in scientific evidence but based on philosophical reasoning. A utilitarian death definition can have unintended consequences for dying Muslim patients: (1) the expedited process of determining death for retrieval of transplantable organs can lead to diagnostic errors, (2) the equivalence of brain death with human death may be incorrect, and (3) end-of-life religious values and traditional rituals may be sacrificed. Therefore, it is imperative to reevaluate the two different types and criteria of death introduced by the Resolution (Fatwa) of the Council of Islamic Jurisprudence on Resuscitation Apparatus in 1986. Although we recognize that this Fatwa was based on best scientific evidence available at that time, more recent evidence shows that it rests on outdated knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of human death. We recommend redefining death in Islam to reaffirm the singularity of this biological phenomenon as revealed in the Quran 14 centuries ago.

  8. [Realization of an adaptive method of simulating the process of temperature change of a cadaver on a microcomputer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, E F; Novikov, P I; Vlasov, A Iu

    1989-01-01

    Programme based on mathematical model of the process of dead body temperature changing was developed for estimation of postmortem interval. Automatic retrieval of problem solution was performed on programmable microcalculators of "Electronica MK-61" type using adaptive approach. Diagnostical accuracy in case of dead body being preserved in permanent cooling conditions is +/- 3%.

  9. Comparison of two angles of approach for trigger point dry needling of the lumbar multifidus in human donors (cadavers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Mary C; Cope, Janet; Palermo, Alec; Smith, Walker; Wacker, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Descriptive comparison study. To assess the accuracy of two needle angle approaches for dry needling of the lumbar multifidus. Low back pain is a leading cause of disability around the world; the lumbar multifidus plays a vital role in low back health. Manual therapy such as dry needling can improve pain mediation and motor control activation of the lumbar multifidus. Clinicians practicing dry needling at the lumbar multifidus typically use an inferomedial approach considered non-controversial. Clinicians practicing electromyography and nerve conduction studies commonly sample the lumbar multifidus in a directly posteroanterior approach that may provide another option for dry needling technique. Four human donors were used for a total of eight needle placements-four with an inferomedial orientation and four with a posteroanterior orientation. Each needle was placed from 1 to 1.5 cm lateral to the spinous process of L4 to the depth of the lumbar lamina. Each lower lumbar spine was then dissected to determine the structures that the needle traversed and the needle's final resting place. All four inferomedial approach needles ended at the lamina of the vertebrae below. All four posterior-anterior approach needles ended in the lamina of the same level. All eight needles traversed the lumbar multifidus and ended in the lumbar lamina with little possibility of the needle entering the subarachnoid space. Thus both the inferomedial and the posteroanterior angles of approach are efficacious for clinicians to use in dry needling of the lumbar mulifidus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV Seropositivity among Cadavers Referred to Autopsy Hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Gharehdaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of dead bodies are referred to forensic autopsy halls for medicolegal examination. They can be a source of transmission of infectious diseases through direct contact or autopsy tools. The main aim of this study was to estimate the virus infection rates in the dead bodies. One thousand consecutive dead bodies that had been referred to autopsy hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran, during 2016, were included. The blood samples were analyzed in the laboratory for detection of HBs Ag, HBs Ab, HIV Ab, and HCV Ab, after providing informed consent from legal next of kin of the dead bodies. The general characteristics of the dead bodies were also collected by a checklist. Forty-seven cases of HIV seropositivity, 80 cases of HBs Ag seropositivity, and 97 cases for HCV Ab seropositivity were found. Among them, 27 cases of HIV, 40 cases of anti-HBC positive, and 94 cases of RIBA testing positive for HCV were proved through confirmatory tests. In other words, 2.6% of the dead bodies were infected with HIV, 3.8% with HBV, and 9% with HCV. The total infection rate was 15.5%. This is a worrying risk for pathologist and autopsy technicians.

  11. Substantial CT radiation dose reduction does not affect the preference for CT over direct digital radiography to diagnose isolated zygomatic fractures: a study in human cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Duim; Dr. Martijn de Groot; W.P. Krijnen; B. van Minnen; A. Meijer; R. Hartman; R. Rozema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zygomatic fractures can be diagnosed with either computed tomography (CT) or direct digital radiography (DR). The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of CT dose reduction on the preference for facial CT versus DR for accurate diagnosis of isolated zygomatic

  12. Reliability of high- and low-field magnetic resonance imaging systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions in the equine cadaver fetlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Dyson, S J; Murray, R C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the reliability of 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for detection of cartilage and bone lesions of the equine fetlock. To test the hypotheses that lesions in cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone of the equine fetlock verified using histopathology can be detected on high- and low-field MR images with a low incidence of false positive or negative results; that low-field images are less reliable than high-field images for detection of cartilage lesions; and that combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences increases detection of cartilage lesions. High- and low-field MRI was performed on 19 limbs from horses identified with fetlock lameness prior to euthanasia. Grading systems were used to score cartilage, subchondral and trabecular bone on MR images and histopathology. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for images. High-field T2*-weighted gradient echo (T2*W-GRE) and low-field T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2W-FSE) images had high sensitivity but low specificity for detection of cartilage lesions. All pulse sequences had high sensitivity and low-moderate specificity for detection of subchondral bone lesions and moderate sensitivity and moderate-high specificity for detection of trabecular bone lesions (histopathology as gold standard). For detection of lesions of trabecular bone low-field T2*W-GRE images had higher sensitivity and specificity than T2W-FSE images. There is high likelihood of false positive results using high- or low-field MRI for detection of cartilage lesions and moderate-high likelihood of false positive results for detection of subchondral bone lesions compared with histopathology. Combining results of interpretation from different pulse sequences did not increase detection of cartilage lesions. MRI interpretation of trabecular bone was more reliable than cartilage or subchondral bone in both MR systems. Independent interpretation of a variety of pulse sequences may maximise detection of cartilage and bone lesions in the fetlock. Clinicians should be aware of potential false positive and negative results. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Development of a computational framework to adjust the pre-impact spine posture of a whole-body model based on cadaver tests data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-02-26

    A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Constructs for Metacarpal Spiral Fracture Fixation in a Cadaver Model: 2 Large Screws Versus 3 Small Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eu-Jin Cheah, Andre; Behn, Anthony W; Comer, Garet; Yao, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Surgeons confronted with a long spiral metacarpal fracture may choose to fix it solely with lagged screws. A biomechanical analysis of a metacarpal spiral fracture model was performed to determine whether 3 1.5-mm screws or 2 2.0-mm screws provided more stability during bending and torsional loading. Second and third metacarpals were harvested from 12 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric hands and spiral fractures were created. One specimen from each matched pair was fixed with 2 2.0-mm lagged screws whereas the other was fixed with 3 1.5-mm lagged screws. Nine pairs underwent combined cyclic cantilever bending and axial compressive loading followed by loading to failure. Nine additional pairs were subjected to cyclic external rotation while under a constant axial compressive load and were subsequently externally rotated to failure under a constant axial compressive load. Paired t tests were used to compare cyclic creep, stiffness, displacement, rotation, and peak load levels. Average failure torque for all specimens was 7.2 ± 1.7 Nm. In cyclic torsional testing, the group with 2 screws exhibited significantly less rotational creep than the one with 3 screws. A single specimen in the group with 2 screws failed before cyclic bending tests were completed. No other significant differences were found between test groups during torsional or bending tests. Both constructs were biomechanically similar except that the construct with 2 screws displayed significantly less loosening during torsional cyclic loading, although the difference was small and may not be clinically meaningful. Because we found no obvious biomechanical advantage to using 3 1.5-mm lagged screws to fix long spiral metacarpal fractures, the time efficiency and decreased implant costs of using 2-2.0 mm lagged screws may be preferred. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of inter-prosthetic distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density in the development of inter-prosthetic fractures of the femur: a biomechanical cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, L; Korecki, M A; Sellenschloh, K; Fensky, F; Püschel, K; Morlock, M M; Rueger, J M; Lehmann, W

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming increasingly common for a patient to have ipsilateral hip and knee replacements. The inter-prosthetic (IP) distance, the distance between the tips of hip and knee prostheses, has been thought to be associated with an increased risk of IP fracture. Small gap distances are generally assumed to act as stress risers, although there is no real biomechanical evidence to support this. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of IP distance, cortical thickness and bone mineral density on the likelihood of an IP femoral fracture. A total of 18 human femur specimens were randomised into three groups by bone density and cortical thickness. For each group, a defined IP distance of 35 mm, 80 mm or 160 mm was created by choosing the appropriate lengths of component. The maximum fracture strength was determined using a four-point bending test. The fracture force of all three groups was similar (p = 0.498). There was a highly significant correlation between the cortical area and the fracture strength (r = 0.804, p < 0.001), whereas bone density showed no influence. This study suggests that the IP distance has little influence on fracture strength in IP femoral fractures: the thickness of the cortex seems to be the decisive factor. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. A biomechanical comparison of the FasT-Fix meniscal repair suture system and the RapidLoc device in cadaver meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, Yavuz; Chang, Haw Chong; Brand, Jeff C; Nawab, Akbar; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M

    2006-04-01

    This biomechanical study compared the fixation characteristics of horizontally or vertically implanted FasT-Fix devices (Smith & Nephew, Endoscopy Division, Andover, MA) consisting of two 5-mm PLLA suture T-bar anchors with a pretied self-sliding knot (No. 0 nonabsorbable, USP, braided polyester suture material) and the RapidLoc device (Mitek Surgical Products, Westwood, MA) consisting of a PLLA T-bar anchor or "backstop," a connecting suture (No. 2 nonbiodegradable Ethibond; Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and a PLLA grommet, for repairing posterior third lesions in human menisci. Controlled laboratory biomechanical study. After repair of a vertical longitudinal meniscus lesion with either vertically or horizontally implanted FasT-Fix devices or RapidLoc devices, 3 groups of 6 specimens underwent cyclic loading (5 mm/minute, cycling between 5 and 50 N at 1 Hz for 500 cycles) before load to failure testing on a servo hydraulic device. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to evaluate group differences (P biomechanical characteristics for meniscal fixation during cyclic and load to failure testing compared with horizontal FasT-Fix or RapidLoc devices. Although the RapidLoc devices provided fixation characteristics comparable to horizontally implanted FasT-Fix devices, vertically implanted FasT-Fix devices may provide superior all-inside fixation.

  17. A modified straight leg raise test to differentiate between sural nerve pathology and Achilles tendinopathy. A cross-sectional cadaver study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppieters, M.W.J.; Crooke, J.L.; Lawrenson, P.R.; Khoo, S.J.; Skulstad, T.; Bet-Or, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A modified straight leg raise test for the sural nerve (SLRSURAL) has been proposed to assist in the differential diagnosis of sural nerve pathology in people with posterior calf or ankle pain, or lateral foot pain. The biomechanical rationale is that strain in the

  18. Biomechanical analysis of the percutaneous compression plate and sliding hip screw in intracapsular hip fractures: experimental assessment using synthetic and cadaver bones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, E.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Kampen, A. van

    2006-01-01

    We compared the mechanical behaviour of osteosynthesis with the percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) compared with the standard osteosynthesis sliding hip screw (SHS) in intracapsular hip fractures. We created 10 stable and 10 unstable intracapsular hip fractures in 20 synthetic femurs. Each

  19. BILATERAL DOUBLING OF RENAL ARTERIES IN AN ETHIOPIAN MALE CADAVER: A CASE REPORT. Doble arteria renal bilateral en un cadáver masculino etíope: reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kollukkad; Dereje Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Con los recientes avances en transplantes renales, y con los crecientes avances en reconstrucciones reno-vasculares a través del conocimiento profundo de la anatomía normal y que sus variantes en la vascularización renal son muy importante. En relación a esto dado el interés académico para anatomistas, así como para los médicos. Se presenta un caso de duplicación bilateral de los vasos renales. Hemos observado la presencia de la duplicación bilateral de vasos renales. En el lado derecho de la...

  20. Evaluation of the triangular fibrocartilage and the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments in cadavers with low-field-strength extremity-only magnet. Comparison of available imaging sequences and macroscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J M; Brown, R R; Kwak, S M; Kang, H S; Muhle, C; Botte, M J; Trudell, D; Haghighi, P; Resnick, D

    1998-07-01

    The authors assessed the ability of a low-field-strength extremity-only magnet to provide visualization of the triangular fibrocartilage and the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. Twelve human wrists were examined with a 0.2 T extremity-only magnet. T1-weighted spin echo, proton density-weighted, and T2-weighted turbo spin echo, short-tau inversion recovery, and three-dimensional gradient recalled echo images were acquired, and sections of the specimens were then made that corresponded to the magnetic resonance images. Masked imaging analyses were correlated with macroscopic and limited histopathologic findings. Low-field-strength extremity-only magnet allowed consistent visualization of the triangular fibrocartilage and accurate assessment of a small number of complete tears of the triangular fibrocartilage. The scapholunate ligaments in all cases were identified using a combination of imaging sequences. Consistent visualization of the lunotriquetral ligament with a low-field-strength extremity magnet was difficult. Magnetic resonance imaging with a low-field-strength extremity-only magnet can be used to visualize the triangular fibrocartilage and the scapholunate ligament, but not the lunotriquetral ligament.

  1. Accessory belly of the first lumbrical – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibatti M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 20 cadavers allotted for first MBBS students dissection we focused our study on the intrinsic muscles of the hand. All the intrinsic muscles in the hands of the female cadavers were as usual. However, we observed an additional slip of origin of the first lumbrical in one hand out of the 36 hands from male cadavers examined.

  2. Cultural Acceptability and Personal Willingness of Iranian Students toward Cadaveric Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Asl, Jamal; Nikzad, Hossein; Taherian, Aliakbar; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Homayoun; Mousavi, Gholamabbas; Kashani, Milad Motalebi; Omidi, Abdollah

    2017-01-01

    Cadaver dissection stands as a crucial component in medical curricula around the world, although computer-based multimedia programs have been introduced in order to replace the need for cadaver donations. Due to a decrease in the number of unclaimed bodies and rather few donations, there is an insufficient number of cadavers for anatomical studies…

  3. Perception to dissection among undergraduate students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Majority of the students strongly disagree with the notion of the cadaver as frightening but also deemed the cadaver a stressor. Majority of the respondents (65.7%) agreed that the preservative used on the cadaver causes eye irritation.

  4. An Ethical Solution to the Challenges in Teaching Anatomy with Dissection in the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation…

  5. Fatal attraction: Male spider mites prefer females killed by the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Westrum, Karin; Knudsen, Geir Kjølberg; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2015-06-01

    Exploring prospective mates can be risky. Males of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae approach and guard immobile (quiescent) female nymphs to increase their chances of fathering offspring, this being a first-male sperm priority species. We investigated the behaviour of male T. urticae towards females killed by the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana, letting them choose between a fungal killed and a healthy quiescent female. The dead female (called cadaver) was in one of three stages: (1) non-sporulating; (2) sporulating with primary conidia (non-infective); (3) surrounded/partly covered by secondary capilliconidia (infective). When the cadaver was in stage 1 or 2, males were significantly more often observed near the cadaver than near the healthy female. When the cadaver was in stage 3 (infective capilliconidia), males preferred the vicinity of healthy females. The frequency of two male behaviours, touching and guarding, was also recorded. Touching the cadaver tended to decrease as cadaver developed, whereas touching the healthy females increased. Guarding of non-sporulating cadavers and healthy females was equally common, while guarding of sporulating cadavers was only observed once (stage 2) or not at all (stage 3). To differentiate between the effect of fungal infection and sex, we also let males choose between a non-sporulating cadaver of each sex. Males then preferred to approach the female cadaver. Touching behaviour followed the same pattern, and guarding of male cadavers was not observed. Our results indicate that T. urticae males are more attracted to non-infective female cadavers than to healthy females, only detecting their mistake when very close. Moreover, males approach and explore cadavers surrounded by infective conidia. Whether the results of host manipulation by the pathogen or just sensory constraints in the host, this inability to detect unsuitable and indeed infective mates promotes transmission of the pathogen. Copyright © 2015 The

  6. Human Bodies Bequest Program: A Wake-Up Call to Tanzanian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick J. Mazyala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studying anatomy through dissection of human cadavers requires a regular supply of human bodies. Tanzanian medical schools depend entirely on collecting unclaimed bodies in hospital mortuaries. This method is no longer reliable. This study aimed at evaluating sources and profile of cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools and addressing challenges and suggests appropriate lasting solutions. Methods. Seven spreadsheets were sent electronically to seven medical schools in Tanzania to capture data related to sources and profiles of cadavers received. Only 2 out of 7 responded timely. Results. 100% of all cadavers in Tanzanian medical schools are unclaimed bodies of black population. Female cadavers accounted for 0–20%. About 9 days elapse before embalmment of cadavers. Conclusion. It is the time to jump onto body bequest wagon.

  7. EVALUATION OF ACROMIAL GEOMETRY IN RELATION TO THE CUFF TEARS ON THIEL-EMBALMED CADAVERS USING 3D MICROSCRIBE DIGITIZER. Evaluación de la geometría acromial en relación a la ruptura del manguito rotador en cadáveres embalsamados según la técnica de Thiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Alobaidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El propósito del presente estudio es evaluar la geometría del acromion en relación con las ruptura del manguito de los rotadores. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 30 pares de escápulas, 20 del sexo femenino y 10 del sexo masculino, con una edad promedio de 82 años (con intervalo de 62 a 101 años. Las escápulas fueron escaneadas y las mediciones se realizaron con un digitalizador Microscribe 3D y el software de rinoceronte. Principales Resultados: La media encontrada para el ángulo de inclinación acromial y la vertiente fueron 38,70 ± 5,91° y 48,87 ± 9,94° respectivamente. La media de los ángulos acromial lateral y acromio-glenoideo fueron 81,13 ± 8,72° y 182,80 ± 12,09°, respectivamente. Las distancias entre el acromial (la extremidad anterior y posterior y el glenoideo fueron 28,7 ± 3,77 mm y 20,75 ± 4,45 mm, respectivamente. Los ángulos entre el acromion y la glena son más grandes en el lado izquierdo en comparación con el lado derecho, 186.49° y 179,16° (P <0.05. La distancia entre el acromial posterior y el glenoideo mostró una diferencia significativa (P <0,05 entre los sexos (23,13 mm para el sexo femenino  y 26,37 mm para el sexo masculino. Conclusión: No hubo diferencias significativas en relación a las roturas del manguito de los rotadores. La comprensión de la geometría del acromion es importante para mejorar las técnicas quirúrgicas en la cirugía del hombro. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate acromion geometry in relation to rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Thirty pairs of scapulae from 20 females and 10 males, average age 82 years (range 62 to 101 years, were scanned and measurements taken using a 3D microscribe digitizer and Rhino software. Main Results: The mean angles of acromion tilt and slope were 38.70± 5.91° and 48.87± 9.94° respectively, while those for lateral acromial and acromial to glenoid were 81.13± 8.72° and 182.80± 12.09°, respectively. The acromial (anterior and posterior tip to glenoid distances were 28.7 ± 3.77 mm and 20.75 ± 4.45 mm, respectively. Left shoulders also were showed higher angles (P<0.05 of the acromion to glenoid than right, 186.49° and 179.16°. Posterior acromial to glenoid distance showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between females and males, 23.13 mm and 26.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion: There were no significant differences in relation to rotator cuff tears. Understanding the geometry of the acromion will improve surgical intervention in shoulder surgery

  8. Estudio de la función del rodete acetabular en la biomecánica de la cadera: estudio cadavérico de la repercusión de la lesión y la reparación del rodete acetabular en la cinética articular de la cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Pons, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo experimental en espécimen de cadera para valorar la repercusión de la lesión labral, parcial o completa, en la distribución de cargas de la superficie acetabular, así como el papel de la reconstrucción labral por reanclaje al reborde acetabular en la misma. Este trabajo implica el diseño y desarrollo previo de una bancada de prueba, el uso de tecnología de sensores piezoeléctricos para medir la presión intraarticular y la medición dinámica de las mismas en cinco especímenes anatómicos...

  9. Learning from Human Cadaveric Prosections: Examining Anxiety in Speech Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Álvarez, Juan Jose; González González, Jaime; Romo Barrientos, Carmen; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Albertos-Marco, Juan Carlos; Martinez-Marcos, Alino; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Human anatomy education often utilizes the essential practices of cadaver dissection and examination of prosected specimens. However, these exposures to human cadavers and confronting death can be stressful and anxiety-inducing for students. This study aims to understand the attitudes, reactions, fears, and states of anxiety that speech therapy…

  10. Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and anatomic assessment of femoral trochlea morphology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Westrup, Ulrik; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective-To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs. Sample-24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers. Procedures...

  11. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    and fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two final infection stages from the material sampled in the field: (1) when the cadavers were fixed...

  12. Anatomical variability in the trajectory of the inside-out transobturator vaginal tape technique (TVT-O)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinoul, Piet; Vanormelingen, Linda; Roovers, Jan-Paul; de Jonge, Eric; Smajda, Stéfan

    2007-01-01

    An experimental surgical study on human cadavers was undertaken to assess variability in the trajectory followed by the needle during application of the inside-out transobturator tape suspension (TVT-O) technique. The TVT-O surgical procedures were performed on six fresh female cadavers according to

  13. Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present investigation has been designed to study the incidence of the rectus stern muscle in German human cadavers dissected in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, trying to find a postulation for the development of such muscle when present. Design: Gross dissection of 130 cadavers, of both sexes, was ...

  14. Time-lapse resistivity surveys over simulated clandestine graves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, John R; Pringle, Jamie K; Tuckwell, George W

    2009-11-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of how electrical resistivity surveys can be used to locate clandestine graves. Resistivity surveys were conducted regularly over three simulated clandestine graves containing a pig cadaver, no cadaver and a pig cadaver wrapped in tarpaulin, respectively. Additionally, soil and groundwater samples were collected from two more simulated graves outside the survey area. The grave containing a pig cadaver was detectable from a low resistivity anomaly in the survey data. Groundwater data suggest that the resistivity anomaly associated with the surveyed pig grave was caused by a localised increase in groundwater conductivity. Wrapping a cadaver was found to initially change the resistivity response of a grave to a high resistivity anomaly. Resistivity surveys did not detect the disturbed soil in the grave that did not contain a cadaver. Although soil samples showed grave soil to be more porous than undisturbed soil, the lack of response from the grave that did not contain a cadaver suggests that disturbed soil was not responsible for the resistivity anomalies observed in this study. Resistivity surveys successfully detected all graves containing cadavers throughout the study, whilst also showing the potential to eliminate the need for mass excavation in a genuine search.

  15. Physical and emotional impact of dissection: findings from a pioneer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We sought to determine the physical and emotional impact of cadaver dissection among medical students in a pioneer class. We administered two questionnaires: one on the first day of dissection, and the second six weeks later. Each examined the symptoms of cadaver exposure, and the emotional impact using the ...

  16. Supracondylar and infratubercular processes observed in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... processes in the humeri of Nigerian cadavers. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 20 cadavers dissected by the medical students of Igbinedion. University Okada between 2004 and 2005 were buried and exca- vated after a period of one year. After excavation, the recovered bones were processed and dried for ...

  17. Comparative anatomical dimensions of the complete human and porcine spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Iris; Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.

    New spinal implants and surgical procedures are often tested pre-clinically on human cadaver spines. However, the availability of fresh frozen human cadaver material is very limited and alternative animal spines are more easily available in all desired age groups, and have more uniform geometrical

  18. Indigenous fungal entomopathogens associated with the oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cadavers were aseptically cultured in the laboratory on Potato Dextrose Agar and fungi isolated and identified. A total of 17 fungal species were isolated from cadavers of the leaf miner. These include Aspergillus sp, Metarhizium sp, Paecilomyces sp, Penicillium sp, Pestalotia sp, Rhizoctonia sp, and three unidentified ...

  19. The Vesalius Project: Interactive Computers in Anatomical Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy that students will use to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. This system can be used to reinforce cadaver study or to serve as a substitute for institutions where it is not practical to use cadavers. (KR)

  20. Willingness toward Organ and Body Donation among Anatomy Professors and Students in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Zarate-Garza, Pablo Patricio; Esparza-Hernández, Claudia Nallely; Gutierrez-de la O, Jorge; de la Fuente-Villarreal, David; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2017-01-01

    Most anatomists agree that cadaver dissection serves as a superior teaching tool in human anatomy education. However, attitudes toward body donation vary widely between different individuals. A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes toward body and organ donation among those who learn the most from cadavers: medical students,…

  1. Should We Be “Nudging” for Cadaveric Organ Donations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2012-01-01

    Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...

  2. A new beating-heart off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; De Maat, Gijs E.; Koene, Bart M.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A.

    OBJECTIVES: Training models are essential in mastering the skills required for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We describe a new, high-fidelity, effective and reproducible beating-heart OPCAB training model in human cadavers. METHODS: Human cadavers were embalmed according to the

  3. Intubation biomechanics: validation of a finite element model of cervical spine motion during endotracheal intubation in intact and injured conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; Shetye, Snehal S; Hindman, Bradley J; Dexter, Franklin; Santoni, Brandon G; Todd, Michael M; Traynelis, Vincent C; From, Robert P; Fontes, Ricardo B; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2017-10-20

    OBJECTIVE Because of limitations inherent to cadaver models of endotracheal intubation, the authors' group developed a finite element (FE) model of the human cervical spine and spinal cord. Their aims were to 1) compare FE model predictions of intervertebral motion during intubation with intervertebral motion measured in patients with intact cervical spines and in cadavers with spine injuries at C-2 and C3-4 and 2) estimate spinal cord strains during intubation under these conditions. METHODS The FE model was designed to replicate the properties of an intact (stable) spine in patients, C-2 injury (Type II odontoid fracture), and a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury from prior cadaver studies. The authors recorded the laryngoscope force values from 2 different laryngoscopes (Macintosh, high intubation force; Airtraq, low intubation force) used during the patient and cadaver intubation studies. FE-modeled motion was compared with experimentally measured motion, and corresponding cord strain values were calculated. RESULTS FE model predictions of intact intervertebral motions were comparable to motions measured in patients and in cadavers at occiput-C2. In intact subaxial segments, the FE model more closely predicted patient intervertebral motions than did cadavers. With C-2 injury, FE-predicted motions did not differ from cadaver measurements. With C3-4 injury, however, the FE model predicted greater motions than were measured in cadavers. FE model cord strains during intubation were greater for the Macintosh laryngoscope than the Airtraq laryngoscope but were comparable among the 3 conditions (intact, C-2 injury, and C3-4 injury). CONCLUSIONS The FE model is comparable to patients and cadaver models in estimating occiput-C2 motion during intubation in both intact and injured conditions. The FE model may be superior to cadavers in predicting motions of subaxial segments in intact and injured conditions.

  4. The mixture of liquid foam soap, ethanol and citric acid as a new fixative-preservative solution in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Erkut; Gules, Ozay; Kilimci, Figen Sevil; Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Dilek, Omer Gurkan; Sabanci, Seyyid Said; Tatar, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of liquid foam soap, ethanol, citric acid and benzalkonium chloride as a fixative-preservative solution (a soap-and ethanol-based fixing solution, or SEFS). In this study, ethanol serves as the fixative and preservative, liquid foam soap as the modifying agent, citric acid as the antioxidant and benzalkonium chloride as the disinfectant. The goat cadavers perfused with SEFS (n=8) were evaluated over a period of one year with respect to hardness, colour and odour using objective methods. Colour and hardness were compared between one fresh cadaver and the SEFS-embalmed cadavers. Histological and microbiological examinations were also performed in tissue samples. Additionally, the cadavers were subjectively evaluated after dissection and palpation. The SEFS provided the effectiveness expected over a 1-year embalming period for the animal cadavers. No bacteria or fungi were isolated except for some non-pathogenic Bacillus species. Visible mould was not present on either cadavers or in the surrounding environment. The cadavers maintained an appearance close to their original anatomical appearance, with muscles having good hardness and elasticity for dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermo-stability, dose effects and shelf-life of antifungal compounds produced by the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenorhabdus spp bacteria are associated with Steinernematid nematodes and produce antifungal metabolites that protect nematode-infected cadavers from fungal colonization. Previous work demonstrated concentrated or cell-free metabolites of X. szentirmaii were toxic to fungal phytopathogens. We prepar...

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of flexor tendon mobilization: Effect of different protocols on tendon excursion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); J. Soeters (Johannes); A.R. Schreuders (Ton); P.C. Amadio (Peter ); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of

  7. The cubital tunnel: a radiologic and histotopographic study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macchi, Veronica; Tiengo, Cesare; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Sarasin, Gloria; Tubbs, Shane; Maffulli, Nicola; De Caro, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    .... The present study evaluates the anatomy of the cubital tunnel. Eighteen upper limbs were analysed in unembalmed cadavers using ultrasound examination in all cases, dissection in nine cases, and microscopic study in nine cases...

  8. Impact of electromagnetic field on the pathogenicity of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhipicephalus decoloratus) to variable intensities of electromagnetic field for different periods of time was examined on their pathogenicity on tick. Some bacterial isolates from the macerate of tick cadavers were used in the infection of healthy engorged ...

  9. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  10. Identification of unknown corpses through odontological examination – two case reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarzyna Wochna; Anna K. Smędra; Jarosław Berent; Szymon Szustowski

    2017-01-01

    The presented paper illustrates the significance of dental documentation which played a key role in the process of identification of two unknown male cadavers by means of dental features examination...

  11. Students Opinions on Autopsy and Death | De Villiers | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Students' emotional reactions are an important, but unfortunately neglected, aspect of medical training. Student teaching needs to deal effectively with expected reactions through the understanding and management of these emotional responses towards cadaver dissection and other medical procedures.

  12. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences - Vol 22, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical Students' Attitudinal Changes towards Cadaver Dissection: A Longitudinal Study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Mulu, D Tegabu, 51-58 ...

  13. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double bundle versus single bundle: experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberto F. Mota e Albuquerque; Sandra Umeda Sasaki; Marco Martins Amatuzzi; Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test an intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in 10 human cadavers by replacing 2 anterior cruciate ligament bundles, with the purpose of producing...

  15. Differential Gene Expression in Explanted Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 24-Hours Post-Exposure to 532 nm, 3.0 ns Pulsed Laser Light and 1064 nm, 170 ps Pulsed Laser Light 12-Hours Post-Exposure: Results Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed the sublethal insult to human retinal pigment epithelial cells using a cadaver organ donor explant system for genes differentially expressed 12 and 24 hours post- exposure using gene...

  16. Dissektionsundervisning er fortsat vigtig ved indlæring af anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britt Mejer; Søe, Niels Henrik; Vendel Jensen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Dissection and prosection require a donation programme of cadavers for education and research. The importance of maintaining the donation programme and the significance of dissection as a teaching method when learning anatomic structures and obtaining surgical skills are evaluated....

  17. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific

  18. Ultrasonography of the Collateral Ligaments of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint in Horses: Technique and Reference Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evrard, Laurence; Bolen, GeRaldine; Maquet, Nathalie; Busoni, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    ...), and evaluates the portion of the CLs assessable by US in a series of normal forelimbs. Transverse and longitudinal US images were obtained on five healthy horses and on 25 equine cadaver forelimbs...

  19. An Anatomical Study of Maxillary-Zygomatic Complex Using Three-Dimensional Computerized Tomography-Based Zygomatic Implantation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To obtain anatomical data of maxillary-zygomatic complex based on simulating the zygomatic implantation using cadaver heads and three-dimensional computerized tomography (3D-CT). Methods...

  20. Achilles tendon assessed with sonoelastography: histologic agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klauser, Andrea S; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Tamegger, Mario; Faschingbauer, Ralph; Moriggl, Bernhard; Klima, Guenther; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Kastlunger, Martin; Jaschke, Werner R

    2013-01-01

    ...) and sonoelastography of the Achilles tendon with findings at histologic assessment. This study was conducted with the approval of the institutional review boards, and all cadavers were in legal custody of the study institution...

  1. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Rebolledo

    Full Text Available Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incide