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Sample records for cadaver

  1. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost comple...

  2. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  3. Transformation of a Cadaver Population: Analysis of a South African Cadaver Program, 1921-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Hutchinson, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy has served as a cornerstone in the training of various allied and clinical disciplines and has traditionally been based on dissection of the human body. Thus, to pursue this method of teaching and learning, access to cadavers is of continuing importance. Over a significant period of time unclaimed cadavers have performed an essential role…

  4. Human Cadaver Material in Preclinical Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, H. Dexter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of Michigan dental school curriculum for oral surgery that uses human cadaver heads is described. Selection, preparation, and laboratory use of the materials are outlined. Faculty and students have received the sequence well and found it prepared them for clinical rotation. (MSE)

  5. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations. PMID:26748499

  6. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood

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    Sachil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y=22.71−0.93 Insulin level (X

  7. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

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    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  8. Posterior cervical foraminotomy: anatomic study in cadavers

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    Luizio Augusto Arantes Júnior

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to use different segments of the cervical spine in cadavers to determine how much lateral mass should be resected for adequate foraminal decompression. METHODS: Six cadavers were used. The region of the cervical spine from C1 to the C7-T1 transition was dissected and exposed. The lateral mass of each vertebra was measured bilaterally before the foraminotomy in the following segments: C2-C3, C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6 and C6-C7. The procedure was performed with a high-speed drill and through surgical microscopy. Three foraminotomies were performed (F1, F2, F3 in each level. Lateral masses were measured after foraminotomy procedures and compared to the initial measurement, creating a percentage of lateral mass needed for decompression.. The value of the entire surface was defined as 100%. RESULTS: There was a statistical difference between the amounts of the resected lateral mass through each foraminotomy (F1, F2, F3 at the same level. However, there was no statistical significant difference among the different levels. The average percentage of resection of the lateral masses in F2 were 27.7% at C2-C3, 24.8% at C3-C4, 24.4% at C4-C5 and 23.8% and 31.2% at C5-C6 and C6-C7, respectively. In F3, the level that needed greater resection of the lateral masses was C6-C7 level, where the average resection ranged between 41.2% and 47.9%. CONCLUSION: In all segments studied, the removal of approximately 24 to 32% of the facet joint allowed adequate exposure of the foraminal segment, with visualization of the dural sac and the exit of the cervical root.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Natekar; F. M. Desouza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find...

  10. Estimation of postmortem interval using the data of insulin level in the cadaver׳s blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K

    2016-06-01

    An assessment of levels of Insulin in cadaveric fluids, to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) was carried out. To profile postmortem changes of Insulin, it was extracted at different intervals i.e. (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h), from the heart of 22 human cadavers. The cases included were the subjects of accidental deaths without any prior history of disease and their exact time of death was known. Immunoanalyzer Cobas e-411 instrument was used to detect the relationship between the amount of Insulin and PMI. Level of Insulin was measured in cardiac blood. Statically, significant correlations between levels of Insulin and PMI were studied and correlation coefficients were calculated. SPSS (version 12.0) was used for statistical analysis. Insulin levels in cadaver blood are correlated significantly with PMI with a p value of <0.001. When insulin level increases by 1 unit the duration decreases by 0.93 units. The least square regression line is: [Duration(Y)=22.71-0.93 Insulin level (X)]. PMID:26977436

  11. Anatomic study of celiac ganglia using CT in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify the celiac ganglia in cadavers by using current CT techniques, and to facilitate its identification in vivo by CT. Methods: Fifty cadavers were dissected, moving peritoneal organs such as liver and stomach to expose the celiac ganglia. The location, morphology, and dimensions of celiac ganglia, and their relationship to abutting structures, were noted. The celiac ganglia in 6 of the 50 cadavers without peripancreatic diseases and with clear anatomy were isolated and marked with yellow dye and Iohexol injection. In these 6 cadavers, the moved organs were relocated, the abdomen was closed, and CT was performed. CT derived measurements of celiac ganglia were compared with those from cadavers study. Results: The celiac ganglia of 47 of 50 cadavers (94%) were located between T12-L1, and those of 3 cadavers (6%) were located between T11-12. The superior-inferior diameter of the right ganglia was (25.01 ±6.09) mm, long (left-right) diameter was (13.18 ± 3.62) mm, and short (thickness) diameter was (1.40 ± 0.55) mm. In the left ganglia, these three diameters were (22.74 ± 5.70) mm, (15.07 ± 4.35) mm, and (2.00 ± 0.71 ) mm, respectively. On the CT images of 6 cadavers, the right and left ganglia were all identified and were hyperdense relative to viscus, such as liver and spleen. The long and short diameters on CT images were (15.20 ± 1.64) mm and (1.53 ± 0.52) mm for the right ganglia and (16.25 ± 1.73 ) mm and (2.20 ± 0.73) mm for the left ganglia. There was no significant difference between the diameters of the ganglia measured on CT images and by dissection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Current CT techniques can demonstrate accurately the celiac ganglia in cadavers. This can be a reference for identifying the celiac plexus in vivo. (authors)

  12. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

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    Rawal J.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  13. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE DISSECTION OF CADAVERS IN ANCIENT INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zysk, Kenneth G.

    1983-01-01

    Medical knowledge of anatomy is found in Susruta Samhita, the classical Indian medical literature on surgery, The fifth chapter of the third book devoted to anatomy in its concluding part teaches the method by which a cadaver is to be dissected. Translation of the relevant passage and an explanation is attempted here.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: A New Embalming Fluid for Preserving Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Natekar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissection laboratory is the only place where the three dimensional structure of the human body is reinforced by visual, auditory and tactile pathways. Cadavers are main teaching tools in Anatomy and are handled by the staff and students routinely. Very often the cadavers enbalmed by various chemicals are not effective in inhibiting growth of fungi, bacteria, maggots etc. To date limited studies have been carried out to overcome this problem hence this study was undertaken to find out safe and effective enbalming fluid. Aims and Objectives: The main object of the present study is to provide a composition of body-preservation fluid which is effective in preventing decomposition of cadavers, maintaining a desired life-like appearance of the body which is non hazardous for dissection and environmentally safe. It was observed that chemical composition of the embalming fluid was very effective in prevention of growth of bacteria, fungus and also decay and discoloration. Results: This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Goa Medical College, Bambolim Goa (India from the year 2006 to 2011. Total 100 cadavers were embalmed with the following composition of the embalming fluid. It was observed that the solution in tanks where intact bodies were preserved was clear without any fungus form a period of 5 years whereas the dissected cadavers were kept separately also containing 10 percent formalin showed minimal growth of fungus after 12 months and the solution was replaced after 12 months. Conclusions: In our present study the tank containing undissected cadavers has not shown any growth of fungus for a period of 5 years. Routine dissected parts showed fungal growth only after 12 months, whereupon the scum was removed and the tank solution replaced. The arterial fluid was red in colour and could be differentiated from cavity fluid. The cadavers were free from growth of fungus and maggots during their entire first MBBS course. Not

  15. Free manual of cadaver dissection modifiable by other anatomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    Even in the rapidly changing field of cadaver dissection, published guide books still play an important role in the anatomy lab. However, commercial manuals with lengthy volumes and inflexible copyrights have several limitations which can be complemented by open-source manuals. Recently, the authors have manufactured and distributed a free electronic dissection manual (anatomy.co.kr), where descriptions are written concisely and images are drawn schematically. Moreover, simplified signs are employed to represent the cadaver viewing angles and manner of dissection. Based on the original files of this manual, other anatomists can revise and utilize the descriptions and figures. We expect many updated versions of our manual to be shared between students all over the world. PMID:25577205

  16. Sonographic detection of tracheal or esophageal intubation: A cadaver study

    OpenAIRE

    C A Tejesh; Manjunath, A. C.; Shivakumar, S.; P S Vinayak; Yatish, B; C R Geetha

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correct position of the endotracheal tube is confirmed by various modalities, most of which are not entirely reliable. Ultrasound is now increasingly available to anesthesiologists in the operating theater and is an attractive alternative. To investigate the usefulness of sonography in identifying the correct tracheal tube position in human cadavers. Materials and Methods: Endotracheal tubes placed randomly into trachea or esophagus was identified with a linear ultrasound ...

  17. EVALUATION OF TECHNIQUES FOR CLEANING EMBALMED CADAVER BONES

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    Bhawani Shankar Modi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to find new technique for development of bone specimens from cadavers. Material and methods: Long bones, skull and other bones from embalmed cadaver were taken and cleansed by various methods. Four methods were employed for preparing specimens. In 1st method bones were boiled in tap water for 7-8 hours on gas stove. In 2nd method bones were immersed in water with addition of detergent at constant temperature. In 3rd method bones were kept at constant temperature in water without addition of detergent. In 4th method bones were buried for one month under superficial surface of soil during rainy season after boiling the bones for 7-8 hours Observations: Use of detergent in warm water (65o C was good for cleaning long bones while best result for long bones as well as skull was seen with boiling followed by burial of embalmed specimens. Results were found as expected. Time consumed in the present study was less than old classical methods. Bones specimens formed were of high quality. Conclusions: Preparation of bone specimen by embalmed cadaver can be of immense value and time saver for many research institutes to get their self-prepared specimens. There are many more ways which has to be modified or rediscovered in this area of research, which has been neglected so far.

  18. Detection of bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers using selective agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Tashiro, Noriko; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2009-04-01

    We measured bacterioplankton in blood from cadavers retrieved from the sea (n=12), near estuaries (n=4), rivers (fresh water, n=8) and from bathtubs (n=4) as well as from non-drowned victims (n=10) discovered near aquatic environments. Blood from 11 victims drowned in seawater developed bioluminescent and/or blue colonies (oxidase test positive) on selective media containing 2-4% NaCl. Homology analyses of the 16S rRNA gene showed that all of them were marine bacteria (genera: Photobacterium, Vibrio, Shewanella, Psychrobacter). Blood from all victims drowned in rivers generated blue colonies on plates containing 3%, but not 4% NaCl. Homology analyses showed that the blue colonies were generated from bacteria that inhabit fresh water (Aeromonas). None of the blood samples from victims that drowned in bathtubs generated bioluminescent and blue colonies. However, all cadavers contained bacteria that produced unstained colonies (Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, etc.). Among non-drowned victims, blood from two gave rise to blue colonies on plates containing Aeromonas; unstained colonies, Citrobacter, Vagococcus, Proteus, Enterobacter). These results suggested that the presence of numerous bacterioplankton in immersed cadavers could support a conclusion of death by drowning. PMID:19261520

  19. Moisture can be the dominant environmental parameter governing cadaver decomposition in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David O; Yellowlees, David; Tibbett, Mark

    2010-07-15

    Forensic taphonomy involves the use of decomposition to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) or locate clandestine graves. Yet, cadaver decomposition remains poorly understood, particularly following burial in soil. Presently, we do not know how most edaphic and environmental parameters, including soil moisture, influence the breakdown of cadavers following burial and alter the processes that are used to estimate PMI and locate clandestine graves. To address this, we buried juvenile rat (Rattus rattus) cadavers (approximately 18 g wet weight) in three contrasting soils from tropical savanna ecosystems located in Pallarenda (sand), Wambiana (medium clay), or Yabulu (loamy sand), Queensland, Australia. These soils were sieved (2mm), weighed (500 g dry weight), calibrated to a matric potential of -0.01 megapascals (MPa), -0.05 MPa, or -0.3 MPa (wettest to driest) and incubated at 22 degrees C. Measurements of cadaver decomposition included cadaver mass loss, carbon dioxide-carbon (CO(2)-C) evolution, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), protease activity, phosphodiesterase activity, ninhydrin-reactive nitrogen (NRN) and soil pH. Cadaver burial resulted in a significant increase in CO(2)-C evolution, MBC, enzyme activities, NRN and soil pH. Cadaver decomposition in loamy sand and sandy soil was greater at lower matric potentials (wetter soil). However, optimal matric potential for cadaver decomposition in medium clay was exceeded, which resulted in a slower rate of cadaver decomposition in the wettest soil. Slower cadaver decomposition was also observed at high matric potential (-0.3 MPa). Furthermore, wet sandy soil was associated with greater cadaver decomposition than wet fine-textured soil. We conclude that gravesoil moisture content can modify the relationship between temperature and cadaver decomposition and that soil microorganisms can play a significant role in cadaver breakdown. We also conclude that soil NRN is a more reliable indicator of gravesoil than soil p

  20. ATTITUDE OF FIRST YEAR INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS CADAVER DISSECTION

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    Vinay Kumar V

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cadaveric dissection is routinely practiced for teaching anatomy for medical students. Anatomy is one of the most important subjects offered during the first year MBBS course. Dissection is very important in learning anatomy, so the first year students will encounter, most likely for the first time, a dead human body. This experience, even though emotionally stressful, provides essential knowledge and skills for their future studies. Methods: A total of 150 newly admitted first-year medical students emotional and physical reactions to cadaveric dissection were assessed by using a questionnaire. The questionnaires were given just before, after a week and 2 months after the initiation of dissection classes. Results: Most of the students experienced negative physical symptoms, such as eye irritation (63.33%, headache (10%, decrease in appetite (12%, nausea (3.3%, sweating (35.33% giddiness (2.66%, shivering (4.66% and desire to leave dissection hall (9.33% in the first encounter with a cadaver in the dissection hall. They also experienced adverse emotional responses such as fear (61.33%, depression (14.66%. However, most of these reactions decreased significantly 2 months later, except for eye irritation and their interest has increased on subsequent visit to dissection classes. A majority (95.5% considered the cadaver dissection to be the most helpful tool in learning anatomy and it increased their skills. Conclusion: The initial encounters with a cadaver caused emotional and physical stress to students, but most students adapted gradually to the stressful learning environment. The amount of stress can be greatly reduced if they are properly counselled before the dissection classes. Majority of students preferred dissection as the most useful tool to learn anatomy than any other method.

  1. Tibial intramedullary implant in a cadaver- A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Rajlakshmi; Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Daimei, Thonthon; Datta, Snehasish

    2015-01-01

          A rare case of in-situ intramedullary nail was observed in a cadaver during the routine dissection in the Anatomy Department of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur. The case is reported for its utility in teaching not only clinical anatomy but also a good tool in learning instrumentation by trainees in orthopaedic surgery. Intramedullary nail of tibia is an implant placed in the medullary canal of tibia for the treatment of fracture of shaft of tibia.   In the presen...

  2. Lengths and Positions of the Vermiform Appendix among Sudanese Cadavers

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    Ehab I. El-Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: The anatomy of vermiform appendix displays great variations in length and position between different populations. The reports relating these variations to a specific etiological factor are few. This study aims to describe the positions and lengths of vermiform appendix among Sudanese cadavers. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Omdurman Teaching Hospital Morgue and Omdurman Islamic University-Sudan. Sixty Sudanese cadavers (30 male and 30 female, were dissected in the period from June 2013 to June 2014. The positions and the lengths of vermiform appendix were measured in millimeters. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: The cadavers’ age ranged between 20 to 80 years according to their medico-legal reports. Retrocaecal position was mainly observed in 60%, pelvic in 35%, post-ileal in 3.3%, and pre-ileal in 1.7%. The lengths of the appendix was found < 69 mm in 23.3%, 70-110 mm in 60%, and > 110 mm in 16.7%, also the study showed insignificant difference between the lengths and ages (p < 0.08, and between males and females (p = 0.23. Age was the influencing factor for the positions of vermiform appendixes (p = 0.04. Conclusion: The study showed that the commonest lengths of the appendix were 70-110 mm while the common position was retrocaecal regardless to age or gender. This data should be considered in surgical removal of the inflamed appendix.

  3. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  4. A Proposal for a Policy on the Ethical Care and Use of Cadavers and Their Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champney, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent events have occurred that indicate the need for policies on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues in the United States. At present, there are policies that address the procurement, handling and disposition of cadavers, but there are no national or society sponsored policies that clearly state the ethically appropriate use…

  5. Medical Students' Reactions to Anatomic Dissection and the Phenomenon of Cadaver Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Austin D.; Greenwald, Emily E.; Soricelli, Rhonda L.; DePace, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of gross anatomy has, for centuries, relied on the dissection of human cadavers, and this formative experience is known to evoke strong emotional responses. The authors hypothesized that the phenomenon of cadaver naming is a coping mechanism used by medical students and that it correlates with other attitudes about dissection and body…

  6. Veterinary science student preferences for the source of dog cadavers used in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, Catherine; Lloyd, Shan; Morton, John

    2011-10-01

    Live animals and cadavers are integral to veterinary education. In the year of this survey (2008), and in at least the five preceding years, cadavers obtained by euthanasia of healthy pound dogs and ex-racing greyhounds were dissected by students, during their veterinary anatomy classes at the University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science. Students may have ethical concerns about this. An alternative approach was to use donated dog cadavers. These are owned pet dogs that have died of natural causes or have been euthanised for medical reasons, and have been donated by their owners for the purposes of veterinary education. Veterinary students at the School were surveyed in 2008, in order to determine their preferences for cadaver source. Data from 406 questionnaires were analysed. Third-year and fifth-year veterinary students were more likely than first-year students to prefer pound-dog/greyhound cadavers over donated cadavers for anatomy dissection (p ≤ 0.002). Between 32% and 45% of the students had no preference for either source of cadaver. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that veterinary students become more accepting of the euthanasia of unwanted healthy animals for education as they progress through the veterinary programme, in contexts such as the current study. This could occur due to increased acceptance of the euthanasia of healthy animals generally, a decline in moral development, desensitisation, and/or the belief that healthy animal cadavers offer a superior learning experience. PMID:22103939

  7. Levels of formaldehyde vapor released from embalmed cadavers in each dissection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugata, Yota; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Odaka, Yoko; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu

    2016-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an aldehyde used in antiseptics and adhesives. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other institutes have linked FA to sick building syndrome and allergic diseases. Recent studies have reported that cadavers embalmed using formalin and ethanol-based preservative solutions release FA vapor during dissection and that FA vapor may adversely affect students and lecturers in gross anatomy laboratories. However, few details have been reported correlating dissection stage with increased FA vapor release. In this study, we evaluated the vapor level of FA released in each dissection stage. Six cadavers for which consent was given for use in anatomy research and education were examined in this study. Using an active sampling method, FA vapor was collected above the thoracoabdominal region of each dissected cadaver. FA was eluted from each sampler using acetonitrile and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our data show that FA levels significantly increase after skin incision and that the vapor level of FA released differs between male and female cadavers. We also found that subcutaneous adipose tissues of the thoracoabdominal-region release FA vapor and that female cadavers release significantly higher levels of FA per kilogram of subcutaneous adipose tissue than do male cadavers. Based on these data, we propose the methods be developed to prevent exposure to FA vapors released from cadavers. PMID:27151243

  8. Dynamic biaxial tissue properties of the human cadaver aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chirag S; Hardy, Warren N; Mason, Matthew J; Yang, King H; Van Ee, Chris A; Morgan, Richard; Digges, Kennerly

    2006-11-01

    This study focuses on the biaxial mechanical properties of planar aorta tissue at strain rates likely to be experienced during automotive crashes. It also examines the structural response of the whole aorta to longitudinal tension. Twenty-six tissue-level tests were conducted using twelve thoracic aortas harvested from human cadavers. Cruciate samples were excised from the ascending, peri-isthmic, and descending regions. The samples were subjected to equibiaxial stretch at two nominal speed levels using a new biaxial tissue-testing device. Inertia-compensated loads were measured to facilitate calculation of true stress. High-speed videography and regional correlation analysis were used to track ink dots marked on the center of each sample to obtain strain. In a series of component-level tests, the response of the intact thoracic aorta to longitudinal stretch was obtained using seven aorta specimens. The aorta fails within the peri-isthmic region. The aorta fails in the transverse direction, and the intima fails before the media or adventitia. The aorta tissue exhibits nonlinear behavior. The aorta as complete structure can transect completely from 92 N axial load and 0.221 axial strain. Complete transection can be accompanied by intimal tears. These results have application to finite element modeling and the better understanding of traumatic rupture of the aorta. PMID:17311166

  9. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  10. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, A.C.; Zheng, W.; Haacke, E.M.; Webb, S.; Nichol, H.; /SLAC

    2012-07-17

    To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  11. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Suri; Tara Sankar Roy; Sanjeev Lalwani; Rama Chandra Deo; Manjul Tripathi; Renu Dhingra; Daya Nand Bhardwaj; Bhawani Shankar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident dut...

  12. "Detached concern" of medical students in a cadaver dissection course: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes-specifically characterized as "detached concern"-in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was performed with semi-structured, focus group interviews among 12 third-year medical students from a Taiwanese medical school to reveal their perceptions and learning experiences regarding human cadaver dissection. Based on these interviews, four relevant categories of perspectives were delineated: (1) initial emotional impact, (2) human referents, (3) coping strategies, and (4) ways of perceiving cadavers. Students were divided into two groups based on these categories. Students in Group 1 developed mechanisms described as "detachment" to cope with their initial emotional reactions to cadaveric dissection, which was noted to have disruptive effects on their learning. They considered human referents to be learning obstacles and avoided contact with or thinking about the human referents while performing dissections. Some of them faced a conflict between perceiving the cadaver as a learning tool versus as a human being. This impasse could be resolved if they latently adopted a "perspective switch" between the concept of a learning tool (rational aspect) and a human being (sensitive aspect). The students in Group 2 had no obvious initial emotional reaction. For them, the human referents functioned as learning supports, and the cadavers were consistently perceived as humans. These students held the notion that "cadaver dissection is an act of love"; therefore, they did not experience any need to detach themselves from their feelings during dissection. This alternative attitude revealed that detached concern alone is not sufficient to describe the entire range of medical students' attitudes toward cadaver dissection. Anat Sci

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERS

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    Brijesh R. Aghera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial circumflex femoral artery is an important branch of Profunda femoris artery. It is an important artery in supplying blood to the head and neck of the femur, the adductor muscles and form anastomosis around head of femur. So study of variation of medial circumflex femoral artery great value for surgeon and orthopaedic surgeries. Materials and Methods: The present study includes 102 lower limbs of adult formalin fixed human cadavers used for the routine dissection procedure for under graduate and post graduate students in the department of Anatomy, M.R. Medical College, KBN Medical college and H K E Homeopathic College, Gulbarga (India during 2011-2014.The study was done by dissection method as per Cunningham’s manual of practical Anatomy. Result: In present study, we found that 25 extremities (25.49% medial circumflex femoral artery was originated directly from femoral artery. In 10 extremities (9.80% a common trunk was observed form medial circumflex femoral with femoral artery. Normal study was observed in 66 extremities (64.70%. Conclusion: In present study and other past studies we conclude that knowledge of variation in this artery is very important to preventing injury to vessels during surgical procedures around hip joint and also has important value in plastic surgery operations as the vascular pedicle of grafts such as the transverse upper gracilis (TUG flap, medial thigh flap and medial circumflex femoral (gracilis perforator free flap. During case of selective arteriography in ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head to know the arterial supply of the femoral head it is used.

  14. Laparoscopic training model using fresh human cadavers without the establishment of penumoperitoneum

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    Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.

  15. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Suri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  16. Friendly Skulls, Mechanical Bodies: Encounters with Cadavers in a Medical School in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and cadavers trigger fear and produce contradictory responses. In these circumstances, allegedly Western models of learning and the exposure to death have to be appropriated to become viable. Furthermore, references to the religious and cultural backgrounds of students shape their responses. According to students, death is an event when the deceased acquires supernatural powers; thus, they take shield in religion to ward off potential dangers caused by spirits. The exposure to the interior of the body also produces heightened feelings of religiosity and perceiving the body as a miracle. Befriending skulls and body parts and giving them names are strategies to humanize dead bodies and render them familiar. However, in order to legitimize working with cadavers and the dissection of bodies, students tend to dehumanize cadavers and observe them as mechanical objects. PMID:26222437

  17. Single-port unilateral transaxillary totally endoscopic thyroidectomy: A survival animal and cadaver feasibility study

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    Henrique Neubarth Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-port unilateral axillary thyroidectomy has great potential to become a valid alternative technique for thyroid surgery. We tested the technique in a study on live animals and cadavers to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the procedure. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board (IRB approval was obtained in our university by the Council of Ethics for the study in surviving animals and cadavers. Subtotal thyroidectomy using unilateral axillary single port was performed in five dogs and five cadavers. Performing incision in the axillary fossa, a disposable single port was inserted. The dissection progressed for creating a subcutaneous tunnel to the subplatysmal region; after opening the platysma muscle and separation of the strap muscles, the thyroid gland was identified. After key anatomical landmarks were identified, the dissection was started at the upper pole towards the bottom, and to the isthmus. Specimens were extracted intact through the tunnel. Clinical and laboratorial observations of the experimental study in a 15-day follow-up and intraoperative data were documented. Results: All surgeries were performed in five animals which survived 15 days without postoperative complications. In the surgeries successfully performed in five cadavers, anatomical landmarks were recognised and intraoperative dissection of recurrent nerves and parathyroid glands was performed. Mean operative time was 64 min (46-85 min in animals and 123 min (110-140 min in cadavers, with a good cosmetic outcome since the incision was situated in the axillary fold. Conclusion: The technique of single-port axillary unilateral thyroidectomy was feasible and reproducible in the cadavers and animal survival study, suggesting the procedure as an alternative to minimally invasive surgery of the neck.

  18. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  19. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  20. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  1. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO System: A Cadaver Study.

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    Guoxin Fan

    Full Text Available Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence.This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO system in puncture reduction of PTED.Cadaver study.Comparative groups.HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A. Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B. On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C.At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P0.05. There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05.Small-sample preclinical study.HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127.

  2. Analysis of rugae in burn victims and cadavers to simulate rugae identification in cases of incineration and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusubramanian, M; Limson, K S; Julian, R

    2005-06-01

    The most challenging situations in Forensic Odonto-Stomatology are mass disasters, where the forensic dentist is usually confronted with charred human remains or heavily decomposed or fragmented bodies. This article determines the extent of preservation of palatal rugae for use as an alternative identification tool in such situations, using a study group comprising burn victims and cadavers simulating forensic cases of incineration and decomposition. The thermal effects and the decomposition changes on the palatal rugae of burn victims with panfacial third degree burns and human cadavers in storage were respectively assessed and graded on a new scale. Ninety three percent of burn victims and 77% of human cadavers had Grade 0 changes (normal). When changes were noted, they were less pronounced than the generalized body involvement of burns in burn victims and the generalized body decomposition of human cadavers. PMID:16223023

  3. Arthrographic study of the Wiberg's CE angle in cadavers of children under 3 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty hip arthrographies in cadavers of children under 3 years of age are presented. The articular relationships of the hip through the definition of the morphology of the proximal femoral epyphysis are evaluated. The location of point 'C' and the evaluation of 'CE' angle in this age group are related. The results of the arthrographic 'CE' osseous angle are compared with Salvati's method and with Massie and Howorth's method. (M.A.C.)

  4. Accuracy of Needle Placement in Cadavers: Non-Guided Versus Ultrasound-Guided

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Jae Sung; Chung, Min Jae; Kim, Hae Rim; So, Jae In; Park, Jung Eun; Oh, Hyun Mi; Lee, Jong In

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy rates of non-guided vs. ultrasound-guided needle placement in four lower limb muscles (tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, and short and long heads of the biceps femoris). Methods Two electromyographers examined the four muscles in each of eight lower limbs from four fresh frozen cadavers. Each electromyographer injected an assigned dye into each targeted muscle in a lower limb twice (once without guidance, another under ultrasound guidance). Therefore, four...

  5. Anomalous azygos venous system in a south Indian cadaver: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Lydia S; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Guru, Anitha; Pulakunta, Thejodhar; Ray, Biswabina; D'Silva, Suhani Sumalatha; Sequeira, Sylvia; Thomas, Huban

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The posterior thoracic wall, an area drained by the azygos venous system, is a common site for surgical intervention. Since the venous part of the cardiovascular system is subject to most common variation, abnormalities in the azygos venous system are often reported. Case presentation During routine dissection classes for undergraduate medical students, we encountered a variation in the azygos venous system in a 65 years old south Indian male cadaver. We observed that there was n...

  6. Variation and Clinical Significance of Extensor Pollicis Brevis: A Study in South Indian Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Potu, Bhagath K; Prima D’Souza; Latha V Prabhu; Dil Islam Mansur; Ashwin Krishnamurthy; Muktyaz Hussein; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Ganesh K. Chettiar

    2009-01-01

    Background: de Quervain’s disease is a condition in which there is pain in the radial styloidprocess caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicislongus (APL) or/and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tendons in the firstextensor compartment of the wrist. In this study we studied variations in thetendons of the EPB in the first extensor compartment and its site of insertion.Methods: One hundred fifty six upper limbs from adult cadavers of south Indian originwere dissected to observe ...

  7. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Cunha Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB. METHODS: The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. RESULTS: Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion ( p< 0.01. However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. CONCLUSION: Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied.

  8. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

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    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  9. Self-Reported Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Attitudes Towards a Procedural Cadaver Laboratory Curriculum

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    Hoffman, Lance

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Residency applicants consider a variety of factors when ranking emergency medicine (EM programs for their NRMP match list. A human cadaver emergency procedure lab curriculum is uncommon. We hypothesized that the presence this curriculum would positively impact the ranking of an EM residency program.METHODS: The EM residency at Nebraska Medical Center is an urban, university-based program with a PGY I-III format. Residency applicants during the interview for a position in the PGY I class of 2006 were surveyed by three weekly electronic mailings. The survey was distributed in March 2006 after the final NRMP match results were released. The survey explored learner preferences and methodological commonality of models of emergency procedural training, as well as the impact of a procedural cadaver lab curriculum on residency ranking. ANOVA of ranks was used to compare responses to ranking questions.RESULTS: Of the 73 potential subjects, 54 (74% completed the survey. Respondents ranked methods of procedural instruction from 1 (most preferred or most common technique to 4 (least preferred or least common technique. Response averages and 95% confidence intervals for the preferred means of learning a new procedure are as follows: textbook (3.69; 3.51-3.87, mannequin (2.83; 2.64-3.02, human cadaver (1.93; 1.72-2.14, and living patient (1.56; 1.33-1.79. Response averages for the commonality of means used to teach a new procedure are as follows: human cadaver (3.63; 3.46-3.80, mannequin (2.70; 2.50-2.90, living patient (2.09; 1.85-2.33, and textbook (1.57; 1.32-1.82. When asked if the University of Nebraska Medical Center residency ranked higher in the individual's match list because of its procedural cadaver lab, 14.8% strongly disagreed, 14.8% disagreed, 40.7% were neutral, 14.8% agreed, and 14.8% strongly agreed.CONCLUSION: We conclude that, although cadaveric procedural training is viewed by senior medical student learners as a desirable means

  10. Ultrasound-guided procedures in medical education: a fresh look at cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Riley; Means, Russel; Robertson, Jeffrey; Rappaport, Douglas; Schmier, Charles; Jones, Travis; Stolz, Lori Ann; Kaplan, Stephen Jerome; Adamas-Rappaport, William Joaquin; Amini, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Demand for bedside ultrasound in medicine has created a need for earlier exposure to ultrasound education during the clinical years of undergraduate medical education. Although bedside ultrasound is often used for invasive medical procedures, there is no standardized educational model for procedural skills that can provide the learner a real-life simulated experience. The objective of our study was to describe a unique fresh cadaver preparation model, and to determine the impact of a procedure-focused ultrasound training session. This study was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. A sixteen-item questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the session. Fifty-five third year medical students participated in this 1-day event during their surgical clerkship. Students were trained to perform the following ultrasound-guided procedures: internal jugular vein cannulation, femoral vein cannulation femoral artery cannulation and pericardiocentesis. Preparation of the fresh cadaver is easily replicated and requires minor manipulation of cadaver vessels and pericardial space. Fifty-five medical students in their third year participated in this study. All of the medical students agreed that US could help increase their confidence in performing procedures in the future. Eighty percent (95 % CI 70-91 %) of students felt that there was a benefit of learning ultrasound-based anatomy in addition to traditional methods. Student confidence was self-rated on a five-point Likert scale. Student confidence increased with statistical significance in all of the skills taught. The most dramatic increase was noted in central venous line placement, which improved from 1.95 (SD = 0.11) to 4.2 (SD = 0.09) (p education is a realistic method that improves the confidence of third year medical students in performing complex but critical procedures. PMID:26276229

  11. Saponificación cadavérica parcial Partial cadaverous saponification

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    A. Sibón Olano

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de descomposición cadavérica dificultan, de forma muy importante, la labor del Médico Forense en el esclarecimiento de la causa de la muerte. Podemos decir, que esta dificultad es directamente proporcional al tiempo transcurrido entre la muerte y el hallazgo del cuerpo o de la práctica de la autopsia. En ocasiones, sin embargo, aparecen los fenómenos conservadores del cadáver que, de forma natural, retrasan o impiden el desarrollo de la putrefacación y corificación. En el caso que presentamos se presentó denuncia en el Juzgado transcurridos diez meses de la muerte, procediéndose entonces a la exhumación y posterior autopsia. El cuerpo se encontraba saponificadcción favoreciendo la investigación Forense. Los procesos naturales conservadores del cadáver son la momificación, saponifio parcialmente lo que ayudó en la investigación forense.The processes of cadaverous decomposition hinder, in a very important way, the work of the forensic pathologist in the clarification of the cause of the death. We can state that this difficulty is directly proportional at the time lapsed between the death and the finding of the corpse or the autopsy practice. Sometimes, however, the conservative phenomenae of the cadaver appear and may, in a natural way, retard or impede the development of the decomposition, allowing the forensic investigation. The natural processes conservatives of the cadaver are the mummification, saponification and leathery. In the case presented, the accusation alleged in the Tribunal lapsed ten months from the death, being then performed the exhumation and later forensic autopsy. The corpse suffered a partial saponification that helped the forensic investigation.

  12. Formaldehyde Concentration in the Air and in Cadavers at the Gross Anatomy Laboratory in Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    Kurose, Tomoyuki; Kodera, Haruto; Aoyama, Hirohiko; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    The formaldehyde concentration in the air and in various tissues of 35 human cadavers were measured during a gross anatomy course held at the Faculty of Medicine of Hiroshima University in the 2003 educational year. Atmospheric formaldehyde levels were 0.25-0.55 ppm and thus less than the upper limit of the guideline for formaldehyde exposure (0.5 ppm) set by the Japan Society for Occupational Health (1988) except for one out of 10 measurements. The formaldehyde concentrations in tissues were...

  13. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists. PMID:25874666

  14. Femtosecond laser subsurface scleral treatment in cadaver human sclera and evaluation using two-photon and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Yan, Ying; Lian, Fuqiang; Kurtz, Ron; Juhasz, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of blindness worldwide and is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Partial-thickness drainage channels can be created with femtosecond laser in the translucent sclera for the potential treatment of glaucoma. We demonstrate the creation of partial-thickness subsurface drainage channels with the femtosecond laser in the cadaver human eyeballs and describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. A femtosecond laser operating at a wavelength of 1700 nm was scanned along a rectangular raster pattern to create the partial thickness subsurface drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes. Analysis of the dimensions and location of these channels is important in understanding their effects. We describe the application of two-photon microscopy and confocal microscopy for noninvasive imaging of the femtosecond laser created partial-thickness scleral channels in cadaver human eyes. High-resolution images, hundreds of microns deep in the sclera, were obtained to allow determination of the shape and dimension of such partial thickness subsurface scleral channels. Our studies suggest that the confocal and two-photon microscopy can be used to investigate femtosecond-laser created partial-thickness drainage channels in the sclera of cadaver human eyes.

  15. A radiological evaluation of allografts (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and autografts in anterior cervical fusion.

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    Parthiban J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial roentgenograms of 40 patients who had 70 cervical intervertebral spaces grafted with ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone and 28 patients who received 44 iliac crest auto grafts for anterior cervical spine fusion, were studied. The radiological evaluation was made on the basis of settlement of intervertebral spaces, fusion rate, delayed union, non-union, graft collapse and extrusion of the graft. Indigenous methodologies were designed for the assessment of settlement of grafted intervertebral spaces in percentage. Disc space settlement was more common in autografts (93% cases than in allografts (80% cases. The average percentage of settlement of intervertebral disc space (S% was 22 in autografts and 28 in allografts during the first four months. By the end of eight months, allograft disc spaces settle more. No significant difference was noted in fusion rate at the end of one year viz. allografts (90% cases and autografts (93% cases. Autograft and allograft (ethylene oxide sterilized cadaver bone are equally useful in anterior cervical spine fusions.

  16. Acoustic monitoring (RFM of total hip arthroplasty results of a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger AC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non-invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. Methods In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. Results The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%, regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  17. Comparison of reliability of five patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in pelvic limbs obtained from cadavers of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James E; Nielsen, Dorte H; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2012-01-01

    To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.......To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use....

  18. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  19. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery using the CO2 laser: experimental studies in human cadaver eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud I.; Barequet, Irina S.; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Non-penetrating trabeculectomy (NPT) is a potential replacement to conventional trabeculectomy, as it eliminates the necessity of penetrating the eye which is the cause of most of the complications entailed by the latter operation. NPT however, requires considerable surgical skill, is time consuming and entails complications of its own. We have shown that it can be easily performed by using the CO2 laser to ablate the sclera and corneoscleral tissues to the required depth. The use of the CO2 laser eliminates the danger of inadvertent perforation, a common complication of NPT as the tissue ablation ceases when the end-point of the operation, the aqueous humor percolation, is reached. Our experiments, performed on animal and human cadaver eyes showed that CO2 laser NPT rapid is easily mastered and performed rapid and eliminates almost completely the risk of complications.

  20. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945). PMID:26512538

  1. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection:experimental studies on human cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Peiyi; Tang Zhiping; Ding Zihai; Chu Guoliang; Yao Huosheng; Pan Tao; Wang Huaqiao

    2014-01-01

    Background With the development of natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery,studies on transoral video-assisted thymidectomy in preclinical experiments (e.g.,human anatomy and animal trials) were progressing gradually.From 2009 to 2011,embalmed human cadavers were dissected to define the anatomical location,surgical planes,and related neural and vascular structures to create a safe transoral access to the front cervical spaces.Recently,experimental transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy was performed to verify the feasibility of this approach on 15 fresh specimens.Methods Fifteen specimens were placed in the supine position with slight neck extension.Endoscopic incision was made on the midline between the Wharton's duct papillae and two other incisions were made on mandibular first premolar buccal mucosa.Sublingual combined bilateral vestibular tunnels were created from oral cavity to the cervical region.The neck subplatysmal working space was insufflated with CO2 at 6-8 mmHg.The bilateral thyroid lobes and central lymph nodes were dissected under craniocaudal view.Results Three incisions were made in the oral cavity without any incisions on the body surfaces.The distance from the oral cavity to front neck region was the shortest.Bilateral thyroid lobes and central neck region were fully resected via transoral approach.This approach provided a craniocaudal view,in which retrosternal thyroid gland and lymph nodes were easily accessible.The recurrent laryngeal nerve could be identified safely on the inferior cornu of the thyroid cartilage.The only structure at risk was the mental nerve.Camera motion was somewhat limited by the maxillary dentition.The volume of harvested thyroid nodule through sublingual tunnel in the fifteen human cadavers was (40±15) cm3.Conclusion The transoral procedure is progressive and innovative which not only gives the best cosmetic result and minimal access trauma but also provides a craniocaudal view.

  2. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (PHELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). There was no difference in location time between Group A and Group B or Group A and Group C either at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0.05). Limitations Small-sample preclinical study. Conclusion HELLO system was effective in reducing puncture times, fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure, as well as the difficulty of learning PTED. (2015-RES-127) PMID:26674640

  3. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Hoermann Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex

  4. In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da; Padole, Atul; Li, Xinhua; Singh, Sarabjeet; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Lira, Diego; Shi, Jim Q.; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Liu, Tianyu; Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner. Methods: Multiple point dose measurements were obtained with high-accuracy Thimble ionization chambers placed inside the stomach, liver, paravertebral gutter, ascending colon, left kidney, and urinary bladder of a human cadaver (183 cm in height and 67.5 kg in weight) whose abdomen/pelvis region was scanned repeatedly with a multidetector row CT. The flat energy response and precision of the dosimeters were verified, and the slight differences in each dosimeter's response were evaluated and corrected to attain high accuracy. In addition, skin doses were measured for radiosensitive organs outside the scanned region with OSL dosimeters: the right eye, thyroid, both nipples, and the right testicle. Three scan protocols were used, which shared most scan parameters but had different kVp and mA settings: 120-kVp automA, 120-kVp 300 mA, and 100-kVp 300 mA. For each protocol three repeated scans were performed. Results: The tube starting angle (TSA) was found to randomly vary around two major conditions, which caused large fluctuations in the repeated point dose measurements: for the 120-kVp 300 mA protocol this angle changed from approximately 110° to 290°, and caused 8% − 25% difference in the point dose measured at the stomach, liver, colon, and urinary bladder. When the fluctuations of the TSA were small (within 5°), the maximum coefficient of variance was approximately 3.3%. The soft tissue absorbed doses averaged from four locations near the center of the scanned region were 27.2 ± 3.3 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mGy for the 120 and 100-kVp fixed-mA scans, respectively. These values were consistent with the corresponding size specific dose estimates within 4%. The comparison of the per-100-mAs tissue doses from the three protocols revealed that: (1) dose levels at nonsuperficial locations in the TCM scans could not be accurately deduced by simply scaling

  5. Variations of Thickness of Splenic Capsule of Different Age and Sex in Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumi, M S; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Sultana, R

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is the most frequently injured organ in the abdomen. Splenic rupture is usually precipitated by a crushing injury or severe blow. If ruptured the spleen will bleed profusely because its capsule is thin and its parenchyma is soft and pulpy. Such "spontaneous ruptures" never occur in truly normal spleen but rather than from some minor physical insult to a spleen that has been rendered fragile by an underlying condition. The most common predisposing conditions are infectious mononucleosis, malaria, typhoid fever and lymphoid neoplasms. These diverse entities can all cause rapid splenic enlargement, producing a thin, tense splenic capsule that is susceptible to rupture. Understanding of splenic capsular structure may help explain mechanical properties of the normal and diseased spleen. Histological changes are evident in advancing age along with functional capability of the human spleen. This cross sectional descriptive study was done to measure the thickness of splenic capsule to establish the difference between sexes of different age groups in Bangladeshi cadaver. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from June 2013 to July 2014. A total 30 human spleen were collected by purposive sampling technique from October 2013 to April 2014, among them 14 were male and 16 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. For convenience of differentiating the thickness of splenic capsule in relation to age and sex, the collected specimens were divided into three groups like Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) & Group C (41 to 60 years). Each group was again divided into male & female groups. In this study 10 slides from each age group were chosen for measuring the thickness of splenic capsule and examined under low power objective. In present

  6. An anatomical comparison of two minimally invasive pelvic reconstructive surgeries using fresh female cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenyan; Zhu Lan; Wei Bing; Lang Jinghe

    2014-01-01

    Background During the past decade,graft materials have been widespread used in the vagina in order to correct pelvic organ prolapse.The aim of this study was to describe and compare the exact anatomical position of the puncture devices and their relations to the relevant anatomical structures in the ProliftTM and a modified pelvic reconstructive surgery with mesh.Methods Twelve fresh cadavers were allocated randomly to either the ProliftTM or the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery group.Each group had six fresh cadavers.Relevant distances between the puncture devices and anatomical structures were recorded in both minimally invasive puncture surgeries.Results The mean distances from the posterior puncture points of the obturator membrane to the posterior branch of obturator arteries were shorter ((0.60±0.36) cm and (0.78±0.10) cm) when compared with the distances to the anterior branch of obturator arteries ((1.53±0.46) cm and (1.86±0.51) cm) for the reconstruction of the anterior compartment in both surgeries (all P <0.05).The distance from the puncture points of the pelvic floor through the ischiorectal fossa to the coccygeal and inferior gluteal arteries in the ProliftTM technique ((0.88±0.10) cm) and ((1.59±0.36) cm)) were much shorter than that in the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery ((2.95±0.09) cm) and ((3.40±0.36) cm)) for the reconstruction of the middle and posterior compartments (all P <0.05).Conclusions Compared with the ProliftTM technique,the modified pelvic reconstructive surgery with mesh would be safer not to cause great damage to the inferior gluteal arteries and the coccygeal arteries.The posterior branch of obturator arteries would be easier to be injured than the anterior branch of obturator arteries during anterior compartment reconstruction in both surgeries.

  7. The Lymphatic Anatomy of the Breast and its Implications for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A Human Cadaver Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suami, Hiroo; Pan, Wei-Ren; Mann, G. Bruce; Taylor, G. Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the lymphatic system of the breast is derived mainly from the work of the anatomist Sappey in the 1850s, with many observations made during the development and introduction of breast lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy contributing to our knowledge. Methods Twenty four breasts in 14 fresh human cadavers (5 male, 9 female) were studied. Lymph vessels were identified with hydrogen peroxide and injected with a lead oxide mixture and radiographed. The sp...

  8. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  9. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  10. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

  11. BILATERAL PRESENTATION OF TENSOR FASCIA SURALIS MUSCLE IN A MALE CADAVER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Rajendra Gandhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tensor fascia suralis muscle is an anomalous muscle located in popliteal fossa. The muscle may arise from any of the hamstring muscles and is inserted into the crural fascia or tendoclacaneus. We found tensor fascia suralis muscle in a male cadaver taking origin from medial side of tendon of biceps femoris muscle. The tendinous origin was then transformed into a well defined fusiform belly in the roof of popliteal fossa. After traversing downwards and medially the muscle again became tendinous to get inserted into deep fascia of leg. Bilateral presentation of the anomalous muscle is not yet documented in literature. The anatomical relation of the muscle explains its great clinical importance. The tendinous origin was anteriorly related to sciatic nerve and the muscle belly to the tibial nerve. Sural nerve and short saphenous vein were in lateral relation to the muscle. Contraction of muscle in the roof of popliteal fossa may lead to sciatic, tibial or sural nerve neuropathy. The muscle can confuse the physician of a soft tissue mass or an aberrant vessel. Hence, the bilateral presence of tensor fascia suralis muscle is documented for further references. Clinical Significance: The precise knowledge of anatomy of popliteal region is mandatory for the surgeons to perform safe and uncomplicated surgery in and around popliteal fossa and also for radiologist for correct radiographic interpretations.

  12. An anatomically shaped lower body model for CT scanning of cadaver femurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanck, Esther; Deenen, J C W; Verdonschot, Nico [Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, Henk Jan [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kooloos, Jan G [Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huizenga, Henk [Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.tanck@orthop.umcn.nl

    2010-01-21

    Bone specific, CT-based finite element (FE) analyses have great potential to accurately predict the fracture risk of deteriorated bones. However, it has been shown that differences exist between FE-models of femora scanned in a water basin or scanned in situ within the human body, as caused by differences in measured bone mineral densities (BMD). In this study we hypothesized that these differences can be reduced by re-creating the patient CT-conditions by using an anatomically shaped physical model of the lower body. BMD distributions were obtained from four different femora that were scanned under three conditions: (1) in situ within the cadaver body, (2) in a water basin and (3) in the body model. The BMD of the three scanning protocols were compared at two locations: proximally, in the trabecular bone of the femoral head, and in the cortical bone of the femoral shaft. Proximally, no significant differences in BMD were found between the in situ scans and the scans in the body model, whereas the densities from the water basin scans were on average 10.8% lower than in situ. In the femoral shaft the differences between the three scanning protocols were insignificant. In conclusion, the body model better approached the in situ situation than a water basin. Future studies can use this body model to mimic patient situations and to develop protocols to improve the performance of the FE-models in actual patients. (note)

  13. Sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver for understanding the deep circumflex iliac artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Chung, Min Suk; Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap from sectioned images and stereoscopic anatomic models using Visible Korean, for the benefit of medical education and clinical training in the field of oromandibular reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the pelvic area were obtained from a cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. The PDF (portable document format) file (size, 30 MB) of the constructed models is available for free download on the Web site of the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine (http://anatomy.co.kr). In the PDF file, the relevant structures of the DCIA flap can be seen in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures associated with the DCIA flap are displayed in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees better understand the anatomy associated with DCIA flap. PMID:24621709

  14. Unilateral Absence of Plantaris muscle in Ethiopian Cadavers – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafte Assefa Beyene

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantaris is the largest muscle in mammals other than primates. It runs alongside the gastrosoleus complex, and continues along the medial aspect of the Achilles tendon (AT before inserting onto the greater tuberosity of the calcaneus. The plantaris muscle is vestigial in human beings and has much clinical importance. It is known to present several anatomical variations in terms of its occurrence, origin, course, relation with surrounding neurovascular structures and insertion. It may be absent unilaterally or bilaterally. The plantaris muscle is absent in 7–10% of the human population. Two such variations were observed unilaterally in the present report in which absence of the right plantaris muscle were seen in the right lower limb of the two cadavers. Despite its vestigial nature, injury to plantaris muscle can present a diagnostic challenge among clinicians and radiologists. Surgical importance of the muscle lies in successful use of its tendon for reconstructive surgery. Therefore, Knowledge of anatomical variations of the plantaris muscle is important for physiotherapists, plastic surgeons performing tendon transfer operations, clinicians diagnosing muscle tears and radiologists interpreting MRI scans.

  15. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  16. Ultrasound-guided surgical treatment for ulnar nerve entrapment: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujade, T; Hanouz, N; Lecoq, B; Hulet, C; Collon, S

    2014-09-01

    Several open and endoscopic techniques for the surgical treatment of ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (cubital tunnel syndrome) have been described that provide decompression with or without anterior transposition. Based on our experience with US-guided decompression for carpal tunnel syndrome in our department, we developed a similar surgical technique for the decompression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Using sixteen cadaver upper limbs, we performed decompression of all the structures possibly responsible for ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. The structures involved were Struthers' arcade, the cubital tunnel retinaculum, Osborne's fascia and Amadio-Beckenbaugh's arcade. The procedure was followed by anatomical dissection to confirm complete sectioning of the compressive structures, absence of iatrogenic vascular or nervous injuries and absence of nerve dislocation or instability. There were no remaining compressive structures after the release procedure. There was no iatrogenic damage to the nerves and no nerve dislocation was observed during elbow flexion or extension. In 3.4% cases, a thin superficial layer of one or more of the identified structures remained but these did not appear to compress the nerve based on US imaging. Using ultrasonographic visualization of the nerve and compressive structures is easy. Each procedure can be tailored according to the nerve compression sites. Our cadaveric study shows the feasibility of an US-guided percutaneous surgical release for ulnar nerve entrapment. PMID:24981578

  17. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  18. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  19. Marker detection evaluation by phantom and cadaver experiments for C-arm pose estimation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Teena; Hoßbach, Martin; Wesarg, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    C-arm fluoroscopy is used for guidance during several clinical exams, e.g. in bronchoscopy to locate the bronchoscope inside the airways. Unfortunately, these images provide only 2D information. However, if the C-arm pose is known, it can be used to overlay the intrainterventional fluoroscopy images with 3D visualizations of airways, acquired from preinterventional CT images. Thus, the physician's view is enhanced and localization of the instrument at the correct position inside the bronchial tree is facilitated. We present a novel method for C-arm pose estimation introducing a marker-based pattern, which is placed on the patient table. The steel markers form a pattern, allowing to deduce the C-arm pose by use of the projective invariant cross-ratio. Simulations show that the C-arm pose estimation is reliable and accurate for translations inside an imaging area of 30 cm x 50 cm and rotations up to 30°. Mean error values are 0.33 mm in 3D space and 0.48 px in the 2D imaging plane. First tests on C-arm images resulted in similarly compelling accuracy values and high reliability in an imaging area of 30 cm x 42.5 cm. Even in the presence of interfering structures, tested both with anatomy phantoms and a turkey cadaver, high success rates over 90% and fully satisfying execution times below 4 sec for 1024 px × 1024 px images could be achieved.

  20. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study

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    Luiz Carlos Buarque de Gusmão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. CONCLUSIONS: The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency.

  1. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging–anatomic correlation in cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Florian M; Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A. C.; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Material and methods Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the c...

  2. Soil fungal community shift evaluation as a potential cadaver decomposition indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimutsa, Monica; Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim J U; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    Fungi metabolise organic matter in situ and so alter both the bio-/physico-chemical properties and microbial community structure of the ecosystem. In particular, they are responsible reportedly for specific stages of decomposition. Therefore, this study aimed to extend previous bacteria-based forensic ecogenomics research by investigating soil fungal community and cadaver decomposition interactions in microcosms with garden soil (20 kg, fresh weight) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcass (5 kg, leg). Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm on days 3, 28 and 77 in the absence (control -Pg) and presence (experimental +Pg) of Sus scrofa domesticus and used for total DNA extraction and nested polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiling of the 18S rRNA gene. The Shannon-Wiener (H') community diversity indices were 1.25±0.21 and 1.49±0.30 for the control and experimental microcosms, respectively, while comparable Simpson species dominance (S) values were 0.65±0.109 and 0.75±0.015. Generally, and in contrast to parallel studies of the bacterial 16S rRNA and 16S rDNA profiles, statistical analysis (t-test) of the 18S dynamics showed no mathematically significant shifts in fungal community diversity (H'; p=0.142) and dominance (S; p=0.392) during carcass decomposition, necessitating further investigations. PMID:26322496

  3. Some anatomical variation of paranasal sinuses using sinus endoscopic approach on "cadaver" in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the anatomical variations of the paranasal sinuses and its great importance in sinus surgery, as this area is in very close proximity to vital structures including the optic nerve, carotid artery, and skull base, anatomical knowledge of this area is of high importance. The purpose of this study is defining a full and clear impression of paranasal sinus anatomy and its variations as a model for the human population of the country. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 cadavers in Isfahan forensic Medicine center during 2010 to 2011. Nasal and paranasal sinuses endoscopic dissection was done with (zero and 30 o lenses (Olympus. The methods of performed dissection were via the Stamberger technique. Results: This study showed that 88.9% (40 cases of middle turbinates were in a typical form, while 6.7% (3 cases were in medial and only 4.4% (2 cases were in the lateral form. We also observed 88.9% (40 cases with Agger nasi cells, 37.8% (17 cases with Onodi cells, 28.9% cases with accessory Ostia of maxillary sinus (13 cases, and 15.6% of the cases (7 cases with concha bullosa. The position of the maxillary sinus ostium was as follows. The inferior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 38 (84.5%, superior 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 4 (4.4%, middle 1/3 of hiatus semilunaris in 5 (11.1%. The sphenoid ostia in 53.3% (24 cases were slit shape, 28.9% (13 cases oval, and 17.8% (18 cases were round shape. Conclusion : Our survey showed that the distance between anterior nasal spine and anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus was within 7.6 ± 0.2 cm SD.

  4. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence of anatomical variations of cystic artery in South Indian cadavers

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    Tejaswi HL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knowledge of variations in the origin and course of cystic artery is important for the surgeons as uncontrolled bleeding from the cystic artery and its branches can be fatal during cholecystectomy. Intra operative bleeding can result in an increase in the risk of intra operative injury to vital vascular and biliary structures. Keeping in view the clinical significance and applied importance of the cystic artery anatomy and to add some more knowledge to the existing ones, the present study was undertaken, to know in detail the level of origin, length, and variations in the course and relation of the cystic artery. Methods: The present study was performed on 100 human liver specimens with intact gallbladder and extrahepatic duct system, obtained after dissection from the cadavers in the Department of Anatomy and from post-mortem cases from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, over a period of 18 months. Results: Most common source of origin of the cystic artery was the right hepatic artery in 92 cases (92% followed by aberrant right hepatic artery in 4 cases (4% and the least common sources observed were the left hepatic artery in 1 case (1% and the gastroduodenal artery in 1 case (1%.Mean length of the cystic artery was 17.6 mm and ranged between 3.7 mm to 42 mm. Out of the 100 dissected specimens, in 65 (65% the cystic artery was found inside the Calot’s triangle and in 35 (35% outside the triangle. Conclusion: This study provides details of the normal as well as the variant anatomy of the cystic artery, knowledge of which is very essential for the surgeons to minimize the risk of injury to the blood vessels and the biliary apparatus during cholecystectomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 424-428

  6. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  7. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Uson, Jacqueline; Möller, Ingrid; Bong, David; Bruyn, George A W; D Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Filippucci, Emilio; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Terslev, Lene; González, Jorge Murillo; Mérida, José Ramón; Carreño, Luis

    2016-06-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordance between the US findings and the surgically induced lesions in the cadaver model. RA-like tendon damage was surgically induced in the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) and tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) of ten ankle/foot fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Of the 20 tendons examined, six were randomly assigned a surgically induced partial tear; six a complete tear; and eight left undamaged. Three rheumatologists, experts in musculoskeletal US, assessed from 1 to 5 the quality of US imaging of the cadaveric models on a Likert scale. Tendons were then categorized as having either no damage, (0); partial tear, (1); or complete tear (2). All 20 tendons were blindly and independently evaluated twice, over two rounds, by each of the three observers. Overall, technical performance was satisfactory for all items in the two rounds (all values over 2.9 in a Likert scale 1-5). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for US grading of tendon damage was good (mean κ values 0.62 and 0.71, respectively), with greater reliability found in the TAT than the TPT. Concordance between US findings and experimental tendon lesions was acceptable (70-100 %), again greater for the TAT than for the TPT. A cadaver model with surgically created tendon damage can be useful in evaluating US metric properties of RA tendon lesions. PMID:26995000

  8. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by means of tibial tunnel: anatomical study on cadavers for tunnel positioning☆☆☆

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Altenor Bessa de Queiroz; César Janovsky; Carlos Eduardo da Silveira Franciozi; Leonardo Addêo Ramos; Geraldo Sérgio Mello Granata Junior; Marcos Vinicius Malheiros Luzo; Moises Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the reference points for the exit of the tibial guidewire in relation to the posterior cortical bone of the tibia.Methods:Sixteen knees from fresh cadavers were used for this study. Using a viewing device and a guide marked out in millimeters, three guidewires were passed through the tibia at 0, 10 and 15 mm distally in relation to the posterior crest of the tibia. Dissections were performed and the region of the center of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ...

  9. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    Schotsmans, E. M.; Denton, J.; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, T.; Leentjes, S.; Janaway, R. C.; A. S. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6months of burial. Observations from th...

  10. Simulation of the temperature increase in human cadaver retina during direct illumination by 150-kHz femtosecond laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hui; Hosszufalusi, Nora; Mikula, Eric R.; Juhasz, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional computer model to predict the temperature increase of the retina during femtosecond corneal laser flap cutting. Simulating a typical clinical setting for 150-kHz iFS advanced femtosecond laser (0.8- to 1-μJ laser pulse energy and 15-s procedure time at a laser wavelength of 1053 nm), the temperature increase is 0.2°C. Calculated temperature profiles show good agreement with data obtained from ex vivo experiments using human cadaver retina. Simulation result...

  11. Acute Q fever infection in Thuringia, Germany, after burial of roe deer fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Schleenvoigt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with acute Q fever infection after burying two fawn cadavers (Capreolus capreolus. Recent outbreaks of Q fever in Europe have been traced back to intensive goat breeding units, sheep flocks in the proximity of highly populated urban areas or to farmed deer. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing Q fever infection in a human linked to roe deer as a source of infection.

  12. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  13. Inversion injury biomechanics in functional ankle instability: a cadaver study of simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsen, Lars; Voigt, Michael

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test pathogenetic models for the "unprovoked" ankle inversion injuries seen in functional ankle unstable subjects. The consequence of spatial mal-alignment of the ankle/foot complex on the risk of producing an ankle inversion torque at heel-strike and during swing-phase follow through was analyzed in cadaver simulations. Heel-strike was simulated using a 5 degrees of freedom rig in a material testing machine. A set-up capable of accelerating lower limb specimens towards a support surface simulated swing-phase follow through. Joint excursions were monitored with flexible wire goniometers. The unloaded ankle/foot complex was placed in increasing positions of talar and subtalar joint excursions. The consequences of these settings on the behavior of the ankle/foot complex at heel-strike and when the lateral part of the foot "caught" the ground during swing-phase follow through were monitored. An inversion torque at heel-strike was first seen when the unloaded foot was set in positions exceeding 30 degrees of inversion combined with full plantar flexion and 10 degrees of internal tibial rotation. A collision between the lateral border of a 20 degrees inverted, but otherwise neutral ankle/foot complex and the ground surface during swing-phase follow through forced the foot into the full limit of inversion, plantar flexion and internal tibial rotation measurable in this set-up. Clinical consequence: The study showed that the foot/ankle complex exhibits a high degree of intrinsic stability at heel-strike. The foot will thus stabilize itself and move into normal eversion at the beginning of the stance-phase even though it is set to the ground in a substantial degree of mal-alignment. In contrast, the swing-phase collision model provides a link that can connect the small deficits in inversion angle awareness measured in chronic functional ankle unstable subjects with an increased risk in this group of sustaining ankle inversion injuries. PMID

  14. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  15. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, William H; Diederich, Chris J; Shu, Richard [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-06-21

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90 deg. spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 deg. C, or T > 70 deg. C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t{sub 43}) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to

  16. Feasibility of using interstitial ultrasound for intradiscal thermal therapy: a study in human cadaver lumbar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Shu, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Application of heat in the spine using resistive wire heating devices is currently being used clinically for minimally invasive treatment of discogenic low back pain. In this study, interstitial ultrasound was evaluated for the potential to heat intradiscal tissue more precisely by directing energy towards the posterior annular wall while avoiding vertebral bodies. Two single-element directional applicator design configurations were tested: a 1.5 mm OD direct-coupled (DC) applicator which can be implanted directly within the disc, and a catheter-cooled (CC) applicator which is inserted in a 2.4 mm OD catheter with integrated water cooling and implanted within the disc. The transducers were sectored to produce 90° spatial heating patterns for directional control. Both applicator configurations were evaluated in four human cadaver lumbar disc motion segments. Two heating protocols were employed in this study in which the temperature measured 5 mm away from the applicator was controlled to either T = 52 °C, or T > 70 °C for the treatment period. These temperatures (thermal doses) are representative of those required for thermal necrosis of in-growing nociceptor nerve fibres and disc cellularity alone, or with coagulation and restructuring of annular collagen in the high-temperature case. Steady-state temperature maps, and thermal doses (t43) were used to assess the thermal treatments. Results from these studies demonstrated the capability of controlling temperature distributions within selected regions of the disc and annular wall using interstitial ultrasound, with minimal vertebral end-plate heating. While directional heating was demonstrated with both applicator designs, the CC configuration had greater directional heating capabilities and offered better temperature control than the DC configuration, particularly during the high-temperature protocol. Further, ultrasound energy was capable of penetrating within the highly attenuating disc tissue to produce more

  17. A STUDY OF ANGLES BETWEEN MAJOR HEPATIC VEINS IN HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: “A good knowledge of the anatomy is a prerequisite for modern surgery of the liver.”(1 Liver resections were first described centuries ago, but until the latter half of the 20th century, the majority of such resections were performed for management of either injuries or infections. (2 Today, these procedures are performed not only for treatment of acute emergencies (e.g., traumatic injuries or abscesses but also as potentially curative therapy for a variety of benign and malignant hepatic lesions. As a result, the number of hepatic transplant centers, have increased dramatically. In spite of the remarkable standardization of the technique involved in this procedure, the operation remains a formidable technical challenge. (3 An attempt has been undertaken to study the relations of major hepatic veins, so that accurate mapping of major veins could be done, which is essential in graft retrieval. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 60 specimens of liver from well embalmed cadavers in the department of Anatomy of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab and of Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, Punjab. Study was conducted by using Barium sulfate as contrast. X-rays were taken followed by dissection. RESULTS: The present study showed that in majority of cases, the angles were acute. Only in one liver the angle, between right and middle hepatic veins was 130 degrees. The measurement was not possible in one liver, as the alignment of the veins was such that they were overlapped. DISCUSSION: Preoperative mapping of hepatic vasculature is of paramount importance in dealing with life-saving surgeries like transplantations, tumours and trauma related hepatic injuries. The minimization of blood loss is the main objective during hepatic resection to minimize perioperative mortality and morbidity. (4Therefore, in depth knowledge of liver anatomy is required. This knowledge is then built on

  18. Feasibility study of pre-clinical Thiel embalmed human cadaver for MR-guided focused ultrasound of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsios, Ioannis; Mihcin, Senay; Saliev, Timur; Melzer, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive treatment option based on high acoustic absorption and minimal thermal conductivity of the bone to destroy nerves and reduce pain. There is lack of a preclinical validation tool with correct human anatomy. This work introduces usage of an ex-vivo Thiel embalmed human tissue model for preclinical verification of MRgFUS on intervertebral discs or bone metastases within the spinal body. Material and methods Thiel embalmed human cadaver was subjected to FUS sonication of the vertebra (with energies 250J, 420J, 600J) and the intervertebral disc (with energies 310J, 610J, 950J) of the lumbar spine for 20s of sonication under MR guidance. Results For the vertebra, maximum temperatures were recorded as 38 °C, 58.3 °C, 69 °C. The intervertebral disc reached maximum temperatures of 23.7 °C, 54 °C, 83 °C. The temperature measurements showed that the spinal canal and adjacent organs were not heated > 0.1 °C. Conclusions A heating pattern that can induce thermal ablation was achieved in the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. Adjacent structures and nerves were not heated in lethal levels. Thus, the Thiel embalmed human cadaver can be a safe and efficient model for preclinical study of application of MRgFUS on the upper lumbar spine. PMID:26923220

  19. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embriette R Hyde

    Full Text Available Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition.

  20. Stress examination of flexor tendon pulley rupture in the crimp grip position: a 1.5-Tesla MRI cadaver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were the evaluation of flexor tendon pulley rupture of the fingers in the crimp grip position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the comparison of the results with MRI in the neutral position in a cadaver study. MRI in the crimp grip position and in the neutral position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (combined pulley rupture, n = 14; single pulley rupture, n = 7). Measurement of the distance between the tendon and bone was performed. Images were evaluated by two readers, first independently and in cases of discrepancy in consensus. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley ruptures were calculated. Tendon bone distances were significantly higher in the crimp grip position than in the neutral position. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting combined pulley rupture were 92.86 % and 100 % respectively in the crimp grip position and 78.57 % and 85.71 % respectively in the neutral position. Kappa values for interobserver reliability were 0.87 in the crimp grip position and 0.59 in the neutral position. MRI examination in the crimp grip position results in higher tendon bone distances by subjecting the pulleys to a higher strain, which facilitates image evaluation with higher interobserver reliability, higher sensitivity, and higher specificity for combined pulley rupture compared with examination in the neutral position. (orig.)

  1. The living dead: bacterial community structure of a cadaver at the onset and end of the bloat stage of decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Human decomposition is a mosaic system with an intimate association between biotic and abiotic factors. Despite the integral role of bacteria in the decomposition process, few studies have catalogued bacterial biodiversity for terrestrial scenarios. To explore the microbiome of decomposition, two cadavers were placed at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. The bloat stage of decomposition, a stage easily identified in taphonomy and readily attributed to microbial physiology, was targeted. Each cadaver was sampled at two time points, at the onset and end of the bloat stage, from various body sites including internal locations. Bacterial samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our data show a shift from aerobic bacteria to anaerobic bacteria in all body sites sampled and demonstrate variation in community structure between bodies, between sample sites within a body, and between initial and end points of the bloat stage within a sample site. These data are best not viewed as points of comparison but rather additive data sets. While some species recovered are the same as those observed in culture-based studies, many are novel. Our results are preliminary and add to a larger emerging data set; a more comprehensive study is needed to further dissect the role of bacteria in human decomposition. PMID:24204941

  2. Evaluation of finger A3 pulley rupture in the crimp grip position - a magnetic resonance imaging cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Adler, Werner [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schweizer, Andreas [Balgrist, University of Zurich, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoeffl, Isabelle [Klinikum Bamberg, Department of Pediatrics, Bamberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The correct diagnosis of an A3 pulley rupture is challenging for musculoskeletal radiologists. An A3 pulley rupture should in theory influence the shape of the proximal interphalangeal joint volar plate (VP) and the amount of bowstringing at level of the VP during finger flexion. The purpose of this study was to perform MRI with metric analysis of the VP configuration and VP bowstringing in cadaver fingers in the crimp grip position and to determine cut points for A3 pulley rupture. MRI in the crimp grip position was performed in 21 cadaver fingers with artificially created flexor tendon pulley tears (fingers with A3 pulley rupture n = 16, fingers without A3 pulley rupture n = 5). The distances of the translation of the VP relative to the middle phalanx base, the distances between the flexor tendons and the VP body, and the distances between the flexor tendon and bone (TB) were measured. Statistical analysis showed significantly lower VP translation distances and significantly higher VP tendon distances if the A3 pulley was ruptured. A2 TB and A4 TB distances did not differ significantly in specimens with and without A3 pulley rupture. The optimal cut points for A3 pulley rupture were a VP translation distance <2.8 mm and a VP tendon distance >1.4 mm. Reduction of the VP translation distance and augmentation of the VP tendon distance are suitable indirect signs of A3 pulley rupture. (orig.)

  3. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments. PMID:25241279

  4. The association between healed skeletal fractures indicative of interpersonal violence and alcoholic liver disease in a cadaver cohort from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Elsje-Márie; Burger, Elsie H; Alblas, Amanda; Greyling, Linda M; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) and heavy alcohol consumption are major problems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Cranio-maxillofacial fractures, particularly nasal and zygomatic bone fractures, as well as isolated radial fractures (Colles fractures) and ulnar shaft fractures (parry fractures), are indicative of IPV, while alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the consequence of chronic alcohol abuse. We therefore aim to investigate whether a significant association exists between the prevalence of cranio-maxillofacial fractures and parry fractures and ALD in a Western Cape population. Embalmed cadavers (n = 124) used for medical students' anatomy training at the Division of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University were studied. The cadavers were dissected according to departmental protocol. The liver of each cadaver was investigated for macroscopic pathology lesions. Tissue samples were removed, processed to wax, and sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). All soft tissue was removed from the skulls, radii, and ulnae, which were then investigated for healed skeletal trauma. The results showed 37/124 (29.8%) cadavers had healed cranio-maxillofacial fractures and 24/124 (19.4%) cadavers had morphologic features of ALD. A total of 12/124 (9.7%) cadavers showed signs of both ALD and healed cranio-maxillofacial trauma. More males were affected than females, and left-sided facial fractures were statistically more common compared to the right side. This study illustrated a significant trend between alcohol abuse and cranio-maxillofacial fractures in individuals from communities with a low socio-economic status (SES) where IPV is a major problem. PMID:27139236

  5. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  6. Changes in elongation of falx cerebri during craniosacral therapy techniques applied on the skull of an embalmed cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, D C; Keramidas, G

    1992-01-01

    Craniosacral therapy supports that light forces applied to the skull may be transmitted to the dura membrane having a therapeutic effect to the cranial system. This study examines the changes in elongation of falx cerebri during the application of some of the craniosacral therapy techniques to the skull of an embalmed cadaver. The study demonstrates that the relative elongation of the falx cerebri changes as follows: for the frontal lift, 1.44 mm; for the parietal lift, 1.08 mm; for the sphenobasilar compression, -0.33 mm; for the sphenobasilar decompression, 0.28 mm; and for the ear pull, inconclusive results. The present study offers validation for the scientific basis of craniosacral therapy and the contention for cranial suture mobility. PMID:1302656

  7. A method for ultrasonographic visualization and injection of the superior laryngeal nerve: volunteer study and cadaver simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvindar; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew; Krebs, Claudia; Vaghadia, Himat

    2012-11-01

    Superior laryngeal nerve block is a valuable technique for provision of upper airway anesthesia. In bilateral scans of 20 volunteers, we developed a technique for ultrasonographic visualization of the superior laryngeal nerve and key anatomical structures using a hockey stick-shaped 8 to 15 MHz transducer (HST15 to 8/20 linear probe, Ultrasonix, Richmond, BC, Canada). Subsequently, we simulated superior laryngeal nerve scanning and injection in bilateral injections in 2 cadavers. Ultrasound-guided in-plane advancement of a needle toward the superior laryngeal nerve and injection of 1 mL of green dye was achieved in all 4 attempts and confirmed by a postprocedural dissection performed by an anatomist. We conclude that ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block in humans may be feasible. PMID:22822197

  8. Simulation of the temperature increase in human cadaver retina during direct illumination by 150-kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Hosszufalusi, Nora; Mikula, Eric R; Juhasz, Tibor

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional computer model to predict the temperature increase of the retina during femtosecond corneal laser flap cutting. Simulating a typical clinical setting for 150-kHz iFS advanced femtosecond laser (0.8- to 1-μJ laser pulse energy and 15-s procedure time at a laser wavelength of 1053 nm), the temperature increase is 0.2°C. Calculated temperature profiles show good agreement with data obtained from ex vivo experiments using human cadaver retina. Simulation results obtained for different commercial femtosecond lasers indicate that during the laser in situ keratomileusis procedure the temperature increase of the retina is insufficient to induce damage. PMID:22029369

  9. Occipital artery anatomy in 15 cadavers%15具人尸枕动脉解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永刚; 高亦深; 孙明阳; 佟小光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the anatomical features of occipital arteries in 15 cadavers, and to discuss how to obtain the occipital artery effectively in the posterior circulation vascular bypass operation by using occipital artery as the bridge vessel .Methods Using craniotomy to dissect 30 occipital arteries in 15 cadaveric heads in the far lateral ap-proach, and we observed the origin , course branches and adjacent structures .The diameter of the occipital artery segments and vertebral artery , and the distance from the adjacent structures were measured .Results The occipital artery at the two abdominal ventral posterior inferior originated from external carotid artery wall or the outer wall , and accompanied by greater occipital nerve , continued to uplink to the scalp in the superficial fascia , and separated one or two terminal or distal bran-ches distributing on the scalp .The diameter of starting point of the occipital artery was (2.3 ±0.3) mm, the length of the occipital artery which paralleled to the superior border of transverse process and crossed the superior nuchal line was (93.2 ±2.6) mm, and the outer diameter of vertebral artery which paralleled to the superior border of transverse process was (1.9 ±0.4) mm, the outer diameter of vertebral artery which crossed the superior nuchal was (1.8 ±0.3) mm.The mid-point diameter of V3 segment of vertebral artery was (3.2 ±1.4) mm, the distance from occipital artery to the external oc-cipital protuberance was (21.4 ±0.9) mm, and the maximal distance from OA to SNL is (23.7 ±1.2) mm.Conclusion In the intra-extra posterior circulation bypass surgery , the occipital artery could be safely and accurately obtained by u-sing lateral 25 mm from the external occipital protuberance , within 30 mm bellow SNL , the mastoid process and transverse process of the atlas as the markers .%目的:观察15具人尸的枕动脉解剖特点,探讨以枕动脉作为颅内—颅外后循环搭桥术的桥血管时,如何

  10. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization

  11. Heating produced by therapeutic ultrasound in the presence of a metal plate in the femur of canine cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Andrades

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the heat generated by a therapeutic ultrasound (TUS in a metal bone plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers. Ten pairs of hind limbs were used, and they were equally distributed between groups that were subjected to 1- and 3-MHz frequencies, with each frequency testing 1- and 2-W/cm² intensities. The right hind limb was defined as the control group (absence of the metal plate, and the left hind limb was the test group (presence of the metal plate. Therefore, the control groups (CG were denominated CGI, using TUS with 1-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; CGII, using 1-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity; CGIII, using 3-MHz frequency and 1-W/cm² intensity; and CGIV, using 3-MHz frequency and 2-W/cm² intensity. For each control group, its respective test group (TG was denominated TGI, TGII, TGIII and TGIV. The TUS was applied to the lateral aspect of the thigh using the continuous mode and a 3.5-cm² transducer in a 6.25-cm² area for 2 minutes. Sensors were coupled to digital thermometers that measured the temperature in different sites before (t0 and after (t1 of the TUS application. The temperatures in t1 were higher in all tested groups. The intramuscular temperature was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the groups used to test the 3-MHz frequency in the presence of the metal plate. The therapeutic ultrasound in the continuous mode using frequencies of 1 and 3 MHz and intensities of 1 and 2 W/cm2 for 2 minutes caused heating of the metal plate and adjacent structures after fixation to the femur of canine cadavers.

  12. Relationship between morphological characteristics of hyoid bone and mandible in Japanese cadavers using three-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Yoshifumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Mahito; Marushita, Yoichi; Sato, Toshio; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Shogo; Itoh, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tsuneo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain a quantitative anatomical description of the hyoid bone and mandible using three-dimensional computed tomography. Hyoid bones were obtained from a total of 101 cadavers varying in age from 67 to 102 years. The percentage of symmetrical U-type and asymmetrical-type hyoid bones was low compared with symmetrical V type (14.9, 15.8, and 69.3 %, respectively), and no significant sex difference was observed. We found bilateral nonfusion in cadavers of advanced age at a rate of 22.7 % and bilateral complete fusion at a rate of 51.5 %. There were significant differences in metric variables (length and width) between males and females, but no significant differences in width among the different fusion types. There was no significant interaction effect of sex and degree of fusion. Strong significant associations were observed between size (length and width) of the hyoid bone and mandible in the nonfusion group, while the complete fusion group revealed a moderate correlation. We also investigated the hypothesis that the junction between the hyoid body and greater horn plays an important role in the movement of bones that have not yet ossified. However, no statistical difference was observed in the width between the two greater horns. The degree of fusion of the greater horn with the hyoid body may also affect relations of interdependencies between the hyoid bone and mandible, an important component to consider when assessing risk factors in the development of masticatory and swallowing function. PMID:26543038

  13. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob, E-mail: bliu7@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  14. Histological, magnetic resonance imaging, and discographic findings on cervical disc degeneration in cadaver spines. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 210 cervical intervertebral discs were taken at autopsy from 36 cadavers, and underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discography to compare their diagnostic efficacies for investigating degenerative changes in the cervical spine. The age of the subjects had ranged from 43 to 92 years with an average of 68.1 years. Following the autopsy, MRI and discography were performed on the excised cervical spinal column, and the specimen was then prepared for histological examination. The findings were compared with those of the lumbar spine that had previously been reported by Yasuma et al. on 1238 lumbar discs from 197 cadavers ranging in age from 11 to 92 years. The results were as follows: Low intensity in the T2-weighted MRI was well correlated with histological degeneration in the cervical disc. The rate of appearance of the posterior protrusion of the cervical disc on the MRI was in accordance with the degree of histological disc degeneration, but it did not always correspond with histological posterior protrusion. There was a remarkably high incidence for false-positive posterior protrusion on the MRI, which should be kept in mind on reading the MRI. In the comparison of the MRI with the discography, a certain positive correlation was found as for disc degeneration, but not in complete accordance. There was a considerable difference in the patterns of degeneration and in posterior protrusion of the discs between the cervical spine and the lumbar spine. The posterior protrusion in the cervical disc was more likely related to horizontal fissure and hyalinization of the posterior annulus, while posterior protrusion in the lumbar disc was often related to reversed orientation of the bundles and myxomatous degeneration of the posterior annulus. This difference was attributed to the difference in the mechanical properties of the cervical and lumbar spines. (author)

  15. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Heikenfeld, Roderich; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field. Material and Method Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm. Results The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5). A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation) shows that the accuracy of

  16. A New Electromagnetic Navigation System for Pedicle Screws Placement: A Human Cadaver Study at the Lumbar Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    Full Text Available Technical developments for improving the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement play an increasingly important role in spine surgery. In addition to the standard techniques of free-hand placement and fluoroscopic navigation, the rate of complications is reduced by 3D fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, intraoperative CT/MRI, and various other navigation techniques. Another important aspect that should be emphasized is the reduction of intraoperative radiation exposure for personnel and patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of a new navigation system for the spine based on an electromagnetic field.Twenty pedicle screws were placed in the lumbar spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation. Navigation was based on data from a preoperative thin-slice CT scan. The cadavers were positioned on a special field generator and the system was matched using a patient tracker on the spinous process. Navigation was conducted using especially developed instruments that can be tracked in the electromagnetic field. Another thin-slice CT scan was made postoperatively to assess the result. The evaluation included the position of the screws in the direction of trajectory and any injury to the surrounding cortical bone. The results were classified in 5 groups: grade 1: ideal screw position in the center of the pedicle with no cortical bone injury; grade 2: acceptable screw position, cortical bone injury with cortical penetration ≤ 2 mm; grade 3: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 2,1-4 mm, grad 4: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration 4,1-6 mm, grade 5: cortical bone injury with cortical penetration >6 mm.The initial evaluation of the system showed good accuracy for the lumbar spine (65% grade 1, 20% grade 2, 15% grade 3, 0% grade 4, 0% grade 5. A comparison of the initial results with other navigation techniques in literature (CT navigation, 2D fluoroscopic navigation shows that the accuracy of this system is

  17. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only, and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was learned from the partner-prosected cadavers. Performance for each student on the exams was then assessed as a function of the regions those students actually dissected. While the results indicated a small performance advantage for MIs answering questions on material they had dissected on the NBME Subject Exam questions relevant to dissection (78-88% of total exam, the results were not statistically significant. However, a similar, small performance advantage on the course practical exams was highly significant.

  18. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  19. Automatic radiographic quantification of hand osteoarthritis; accuracy and sensitivity to change in joint space width in a phantom and cadaver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate a newly developed quantification method that automatically detects and quantifies the joint space width (JSW) in hand radiographs. Repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity to changes in JSW were determined. The influence of joint location and joint shape on the measurements was tested. A mechanical micrometer set-up was developed to define and adjust the true JSW in an acrylic phantom joint and in human cadaver-derived phalangeal joints. Radiographic measurements of the JSW were compared to the true JSW. Repeatability, systematic error (accuracy) and sensitivity (defined as the smallest detectable difference (SDD)) were determined. The influence of joint position on the JSW measurement was assessed by varying the location of the acrylic phantom on the X-ray detector with respect to the X-ray beam and the influence of joint shape was determined by using morphologically different human cadaver joints. The mean systematic error was 0.052 mm in the phantom joint and 0.210 mm in the cadaver experiment. In the phantom experiments, the repeatability was high (SDD=0.028 mm), but differed slightly between joint locations (p=0.046), and a change in JSW of 0.037 mm could be detected. Dependent of the joint shape in the cadaver hand, a change in JSW between 0.018 and 0.047 mm could be detected. The automatic quantification method is sensitive to small changes in JSW. Considering the published data of JSW decline in the normal and osteoarthritic population, the first signs of OA progression with this method can be detected within 1 or 2 years. (orig.)

  20. Comparison by using torsional forces of different fixation techniques in the supracondylar fracture of humerus (An anatomic and biomechanical study in the cadaver model)

    OpenAIRE

    Olcay, Ercan; Gulmez, Turgut; Kara, Ayhan Nedim; Aksoy, Bulent; Ozturk, Adnan; Vehit, Suphi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we performed supracondylar fractures of humerus using adult human cadaver and measured distal fragment resistance to torsional forces by applying five different fixation techniques. These fixation configurations respectively medial and lateral crossed kirschner wires, two lateral parallel in addition third crossed medial kirschner wires, two lateral parallel kirschner wires, three lateral kirschner (two of them parallel), two lateral crossed kirschner wires designed. There afte...

  1. Automatic radiographic quantification of hand osteoarthritis; accuracy and sensitivity to change in joint space width in a phantom and cadaver study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetink, Kasper; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Klooster, Ronald van' t; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Stoel, Berend C. [Leiden University Medical Center, Division of Image Processing, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kaptein, Bart L.; Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    To validate a newly developed quantification method that automatically detects and quantifies the joint space width (JSW) in hand radiographs. Repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity to changes in JSW were determined. The influence of joint location and joint shape on the measurements was tested. A mechanical micrometer set-up was developed to define and adjust the true JSW in an acrylic phantom joint and in human cadaver-derived phalangeal joints. Radiographic measurements of the JSW were compared to the true JSW. Repeatability, systematic error (accuracy) and sensitivity (defined as the smallest detectable difference (SDD)) were determined. The influence of joint position on the JSW measurement was assessed by varying the location of the acrylic phantom on the X-ray detector with respect to the X-ray beam and the influence of joint shape was determined by using morphologically different human cadaver joints. The mean systematic error was 0.052 mm in the phantom joint and 0.210 mm in the cadaver experiment. In the phantom experiments, the repeatability was high (SDD=0.028 mm), but differed slightly between joint locations (p=0.046), and a change in JSW of 0.037 mm could be detected. Dependent of the joint shape in the cadaver hand, a change in JSW between 0.018 and 0.047 mm could be detected. The automatic quantification method is sensitive to small changes in JSW. Considering the published data of JSW decline in the normal and osteoarthritic population, the first signs of OA progression with this method can be detected within 1 or 2 years. (orig.)

  2. Efficacy of radial styloid targeting screws in volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radial fractures: a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita Toshihiko; Kamiya Tomoaki; Wada Takuro; Ozasa Yasuhiro; Iba Kousuke; Aoki Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The locking screws target the radial styloid, theoretically provide greater stability against radial styloid fragment. However, it is unknown whether the radial styloid locking screws increased the stability of the volar plating system fixation along the entire distal radius or not. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the volar plating system fixation with or without the radial styloid screws using a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model. Methods Six mat...

  3. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jesse; El-Jawahri, Raed; Chai, Li; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2003-10-01

    Human thoracic dynamic responses and injuries associated with frontal impact, side impact, and belt loading were investigated and predicted using a complete human body finite element model for an average adult male. The human body model was developed to study the impact biomechanics of a vehicular occupant. Its geometry was based on the Visible Human Project (National Library of Medicine) and the topographies from human body anatomical texts. The data was then scaled to an average adult male according to available biomechanical data from the literature. The model includes details of the head, neck, ribcage, abdomen, thoracic and lumbar spine, internal organs of the chest and abdomen, pelvis, and the upper and lower extremities. The present study is focused on the dynamic response and injuries of the thorax. The model was validated at various impact speeds by comparing predicted responses with available experimental cadaver data in frontal and side pendulum impacts, as well as belt loading. Model responses were compared with similar individual cadaver tests instead of using cadaver corridors because the large differences between the upper and lower bounds of the corridors may confound the model validation. The validated model was then used to study thorax dynamic responses and injuries in various simulated impact conditions. Parameters that could induce injuries such as force, deflection, and stress were computed from model simulations and were compared with previously proposed thoracic injury criteria to assess injury potential for the thorax. It has been shown that the model exhibited speed sensitive impact characteristics, and the compressibility of the internal organs significantly influenced the overall impact response in the simulated impact conditions. This study demonstrates that the development of a validated FE human body model could be useful for injury assessment in various cadaveric impacts reported in the literature. Internal organ injuries, which are

  4. Device-length changes and implant function following surgical implantation of the KineSpring in cadaver knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNicholas MJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael J McNicholas,1 Stefan M Gabriel,2 Anton G Clifford,2 Evelyne M Hasler2 1Aintree University Hospital, Teaching Hospital, Major Trauma Centre, NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK; 2Moximed, Hayward, CA, USA Introduction: The KineSpring implant system has been shown to provide load reductions at the medial compartment of the knee, and has demonstrated clinical success in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis. These results depend on the ability of the KineSpring to rotate, lengthen, and shorten to accommodate knee motions, and in response to knee position and loading. Purpose: The present study was undertaken to determine length changes of the implanted KineSpring in response to a range of knee positions, external knee loads, and placements by different orthopedic surgeons. Materials and methods: KineSpring system components were implanted in ten cadaver leg specimens by ten orthopedic surgeons, and absorber-length changes were measured under combined loading and in different positions of the knee. Results and conclusion: Spring compression consistent with knee-load reduction, and device lengthening and shortening to accommodate knee loads and motions were seen. These confirm the functionality of the KineSpring when implanted medially to the knee. Keywords: KineSpring, knee, function, preservation, offloading, osteoarthritis

  5. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Patrick; Oezdemir, Semih; Komp, Martin; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Kasch, Richard; Merk, Harry; Liermann, Dieter; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator's mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system. PMID:25759814

  6. Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%] were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.

  7. Effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of buried human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Ivaneanu, Tatiana; Leentjes, Sarah; Janaway, Rob C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2012-04-10

    Recent casework in Belgium involving the search for human remains buried with lime, demonstrated the need for more detailed understanding of the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. Six pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as body analogues in field experiments. They were buried without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) and with quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 6 months of burial. Observations from these field recoveries informed additional laboratory experiments that were undertaken at the University of Bradford, UK. The combined results of these studies demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, hydrated lime and quicklime both delay the decay of the carcass during the first 6 months. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials and for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes also has bearing on practices involving burial of animal carcasses and potentially the management of mass graves and mass disasters by humanitarian organisations and DVI teams. PMID:22030481

  8. Stretching positions for the coracohumeral ligament: Strain measurement during passive motion using fresh/frozen cadaver shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contracture of the coracohumeral ligament is reported to restrict external rotation of the shoulder with arm at the side and restrict posterior-inferior shift of the humeral head. The contracture is supposed to restrict range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. Methods To obtain stretching position of the coracohumeral ligament, strain on the ligament was measured at the superficial fibers of the ligament using 9 fresh/frozen cadaver shoulders. By sequential measurement using a strain gauge, the ligament strain was measured from reference length (L0. Shoulder positions were determined using a 3 Space Tracker System. Through a combination of previously reported coracohumeral stretching positions and those observed in preliminary measurement, ligament strain were measured by passive external rotation from 10° internal rotation, by adding each 10° external rotation, to maximal external rotation. Results Stretching positions in which significantly larger strain were obtained compared to the L0 values were 0° elevation in scapula plane with 40°, 50° and maximum external rotation (5.68%, 7.2%, 7.87%, 30° extension with 50°, maximum external rotation (4.20%, 4.79%, and 30° extension + adduction with 30°, 40°, 50° and maximum external rotation (4.09%, 4.67%, 4.78%, 5.05%(P Conclusions Significant strain of the coracohumeral ligament will be achieved by passive external rotation at lower shoulder elevations, extension, and extension with adduction.

  9. Comparison of catheter tip migration using flexible and stimulating catheters inserted into the adductor canal in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher A J; Kim, T Edward; Funck, Natasha; Howard, Steven K; Harrison, T Kyle; Ganaway, Toni; Keng, Heidi; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-06-01

    Use of adductor canal blocks and catheters for perioperative pain management following total knee arthroplasty is becoming increasingly common. However, the optimal equipment, timing of catheter insertion, and catheter dislodgement rate remain unknown. A previous study has suggested, but not proven, that non-tunneled stimulating catheters may be at increased risk for catheter migration and dislodgement after knee manipulation. We designed this follow-up study to directly compare tip migration of two catheter types after knee range of motion exercises. In a male unembalmed human cadaver, 30 catheter insertion trials were randomly assigned to one of two catheter types: flexible or stimulating. All catheters were inserted using an ultrasound-guided short-axis in-plane technique. Intraoperative knee manipulation similar to that performed during surgery was simulated by five sequential range of motion exercises. A blinded regional anesthesiologist performed caliper measurements on the ultrasound images before and after exercise. Changes in catheter tip to nerve distance (p = 0.547) and catheter length within the adductor canal (p = 0.498) were not different between groups. Therefore, catheter type may not affect the risk of catheter tip migration when placed prior to knee arthroplasty. PMID:25510467

  10. Terrestrial laser scanning and a degenerated cylinder model to determine gross morphological change of cadavers under conditions of natural decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Glennie, Craig L; Bucheli, Sibyl R; Lindgren, Natalie K; Lynne, Aaron M

    2014-08-01

    Decomposition can be a highly variable process with stages that are difficult to quantify. Using high accuracy terrestrial laser scanning a repeated three-dimensional (3D) documentation of volumetric changes of a human body during early decomposition is recorded. To determine temporal volumetric variations as well as 3D distribution of the changed locations in the body over time, this paper introduces the use of multiple degenerated cylinder models to provide a reasonable approximation of body parts against which 3D change can be measured and visualized. An iterative closest point algorithm is used for 3D registration, and a method for determining volumetric change is presented. Comparison of the laser scanning estimates of volumetric change shows good agreement with repeated in-situ measurements of abdomen and limb circumference that were taken diurnally. The 3D visualizations of volumetric changes demonstrate that bloat is a process with a beginning, middle, and end rather than a state of presence or absence. Additionally, the 3D visualizations show conclusively that cadaver bloat is not isolated to the abdominal cavity, but also occurs in the limbs. Detailed quantification of the bloat stage of decay has the potential to alter how the beginning and end of bloat are determined by researchers and can provide further insight into the effects of the ecosystem on decomposition. PMID:24866865

  11. Study of the Artroscopic Anatomy of the Knee in Canine Cadavers Using 2.4 Mm Diameter Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oswaldo Alonso Cuéllar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mainly by a limited access to new techniques and technologies, veterinary medicine in developing countries, has been far behind from the human medicine. One of the causes is the limited access to technology and specific techniques. Moreover, it is clear that many new technologies have proven their benefits in the two disciplines, making necessary and almost mandatory their massive implementation in humans and animals. The possibility to use human elements for veterinary techniques would improve the technology access and veterinarians training, at lower costs. The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility to perform a knee arthroscopy in dogs with small human joints arthroscopic lenses. Under protocols established in veterinary 12 knee arthroscopies were performed in canine cadaver, using a wrist and ankle arthroscope human of 2.4 mm in diameter and 30° of angulation. All the structures reported in the literature were possible to visualize using a 2.4 mm arthroscope. In this sense, it is possible to develop training activities and subsequent implementation of endoscopic techniques in canine femorotibiopatellar joint, using a lens of small joints of human medicine.

  12. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR “DIE PUNCH” DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. Methods: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. Results: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. Conclusion: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. PMID:27027079

  13. Hoffa's recess: incidence, morphology and differential diagnosis of the globular-shaped cleft in the infrapatellar fat pad of the knee on MRI and cadaver dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We frequently observed a fluid-like indentation at the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad of the knee and sought to establish the incidence and differential diagnostic criteria of this cleft. In total, 133 MRI studies and 35 cadaver specimens were analyzed for the location, size, and shape of clefts at the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad. The incidence of a fluid-like ovoid cleft on MR images was 13.5% and in cadavers 14.3%. The cleft was located just below the insertion of the infrapatellar synovial fold (plica synovialis infrapatellaris, ligamentum mucosum). More linear-shaped indentations at the posterior margin were visible in all patients and cadavers due to the horizontal course of the alar folds. A fluid-filled indentation within the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad has to be expected in more than 10% of knee studies and should not be confused with tumors like ganglion cysts. We term this cleft the infrahoffatic recess. One hypothesis of its origin concerns the embryological regression process of the infrapatellar membrane into the infrapatellar synovial fold. It should not be confused with linear clefts due to the alar folds. (orig.)

  14. 浅谈遗体、器官捐献理论的建立%Theory Establishment of Cadaver and Organ Donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银勇

    2011-01-01

    Autopsy is the basis of medical sciences, and organ transplantation is an important way to save lives or restore patient's labor capacity. In China, the imperfect cadaver and organ donation system and poor awareness of public donations lead to the shortage of cadaver and organ source, and restricts the development of related disciplines for a long time. Therefore, it is an important and urgent issue to strengthen the work of cadaver and organ donation. Cadaver and organ donation theory focuses on ideological and theoretical problems about this issue, tries to establish a set of theoretical system to gradually change the traditional concept on cadaver donation suited for Chinese national conditions via summarizing the experiences from past and present , at home and abroad. The theory is composed of establishing a scientific view of life and death, life value by carrying out death education, and strengthening the education of selfless dedication and benevolence spirit.%尸体解剖是医学科学研究发展的基础,器官移植是拯救生命、恢复健康的重要方法.在我国,因相关体制不健全和民众捐献意识淡薄,遗体和器官来源匮乏,长期制约着相关学科的发展.如何加强遗体、器官捐献工作成为亟待解决的重要问题.遗体、器官捐献理论系统科学地阐述民众在该项工作中的思想理论、意识形态所存在的问题,通过对古今、中外相关理论的总结研究,建立一套适合国情、深入浅出的理论体系,利用科学理论逐步改变传统观念对人们思想的束缚.该理论主要包括开展死亡教育,建立科学生死现、生命价值观.

  15. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  16. Procedures to recover DNA from pre-molar and molar teeth of decomposed cadavers with different post-mortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimann, Paulo E; Picanço, Juliane B; Silva, Deborah S B S; Albuquerque, Trícia C K; Paludo, Francis Jackson O; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-01

    A task-force to resolve 26 pending forensic caseworks was carried out. We tested four different protocols to extract DNA from molar and pre-molar teeth from 26 cadavers with post-mortem intervals from 2 months to 12 years. We compared the amount of DNA and DNA profiles with the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. Molar or pre-molar teeth were removed from the corpses, cleaned, and DNA was extracted using 2 or 12h of incubation on lysis buffer and filtered using concentration column or precipitated with isopropanol. DNA profiles were obtained using PowerPlex16™ System PCR Amplification Kit, AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler™ and/or mtDNA sequencing. Complete DNA profiles comparison and statistical evaluation allowed unambiguous identification of the 26 victims. No significant differences were observed in the amount of DNA obtained with the distinct incubation times. The use of concentration column resulted in an increased amount of DNA when compared to isopropanol. However, the lower concentration of DNA obtained with isopropanol seemed to have been compensated by the higher purity. No significant differences in the number of amplified loci were found. A non-significant tendency was found between the amount of total DNA recovered and the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. The increase of post-mortem time did not interfere in the analysed autosomal loci. In conclusion, molar and pre-molar teeth were shown to be good candidates to obtain satisfactory DNA profiles, suggesting the high potential of tooth samples as source for DNA typing independently of the decomposed corpse's time or laboratory procedures. PMID:23040740

  17. Harmonic scalpel versus flexible CO2 laser for tongue resection: A histopathological analysis of thermal damage in human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tamir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monopolar cautery is the most commonly used surgical cutting and hemostatic tool for head and neck surgery. There are newer technologies that are being utilized with the goal of precise cutting, decreasing blood loss, reducing thermal damage, and allowing faster wound healing. Our study compares thermal damage caused by Harmonic scalpel and CO2 laser to cadaveric tongue. Methods Two fresh human cadaver heads were enrolled for the study. Oral tongue was exposed and incisions were made in the tongue akin to a tongue tumor resection using the harmonic scalpel and flexible C02 laser fiber at various settings recommended for surgery. The margins of resection were sampled, labeled, and sent for pathological analysis to assess depth of thermal damage calculated in millimeters. The pathologist was blinded to the surgical tool used. Control tongue tissue was also sent for comparison as a baseline for comparison. Results Three tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by harmonic scalpel. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.69 (range, 0.51 - 0.82. Five tongue samples were studied to assess depth of thermal damage by CO2 laser. The mean depth of thermal damage was 0.3 (range, 0.22 to 0.43. As expected, control samples showed 0 mm of thermal damage. There was a statistically significant difference between the depth of thermal injury to tongue resection margins by harmonic scalpel as compared to CO2 laser, (p = 0.003. Conclusion In a cadaveric model, flexible CO2 laser fiber causes less depth of thermal damage when compared with harmonic scalpel at settings utilized in our study. However, the relevance of this information in terms of wound healing, hemostasis, safety, cost-effectiveness, and surgical outcomes needs to be further studied in clinical settings.

  18. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  19. Short-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Denton, John; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Contradictions and misconceptions regarding the effect of lime on the decay of human remains have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition. This study follows previous research by the authors who have investigated the effect of lime on the decomposition of human remains in burial environments. A further three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were observed and monitored for 78 days without lime, with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and with quicklime (CaO) in the taphonomy laboratory at the University of Bradford. The results showed that in the early stages of decay, the unlimed and hydrated lime cadavers follow a similar pattern of changes. In contrast, the application of quicklime instigated an initial acceleration of decay. Microbial investigation demonstrated that the presence of lime does not eliminate all aerobic bacteria. The experiment also suggested that lime functions as a sink, buffering the carbon dioxide evolution. This study complements the field observations. It has implications for the investigation of time since death of limed remains. Knowledge of the effects of lime on decomposition processes is of interest to forensic pathologists, archaeologists, humanitarian organisations and those concerned with disposal of animal carcasses or human remains in mass disasters. PMID:24513401

  20. Chiasma crurale: intersection of the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons above the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging-anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Zurich (Switzerland); Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). (orig.)

  1. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  2. The ethics and sensibilities in cadaver donating%无偿捐献遗体中的伦理及情感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿佐发; 汤桂成

    2001-01-01

    In the article we discussed the problem of traditional ethics and civil code influencing cadaver donating.author believed that this condition can be improved by educating the prople.The donors's noble thoughts and sensibilities for the medical education and research were exhibited in this paper%讨论了传统的伦理道德观及法典对无偿捐献遗体的影响,认为这种影响可以通过宣传教育加以改进和提高;文中展现了捐献者群体的崇高道德情操以及他们为医学教育和科学研究甘愿奉献一切的情感。

  3. Methods to learn human anatomy: perceptions of medical students in paraclinical and clinical phases regarding cadaver dissection and other learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitreyee Mutalik

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Perception of knowledge by an individual student is different based on the individual primary mental abilities. Therefore, some individuals may show better learning by particular methods. Hence a blend of different methodologies to teach a subject is helpful for majority of the students. In the teaching of human gross anatomy too, a combination of different methods has been in use. However, in the era of decrease in course duration, high and ldquo;student:cadaver ratio and rdquo;, and easy availability of newer technologies, there is a need to review the priorities and preferences of the methods or to find out different ways to use the existing methods to increase their effectiveness. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2536-2541

  4. Comparison of 2D and 3D navigation techniques for percutaneous screw insertion into the scaphoid: results of an experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Nüchtern, Jakob V; Briem, Daniel; Klink, Thorsten; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Navigation in hand surgery is still in the process of development. Initial studies have demonstrated the feasibility of 2D and 3D navigation for the palmar approach in scaphoid fractures, but a comparison of the possibilities of 2D and 3D navigation for the dorsal approach is still lacking. The aim of the present work was to test navigation for the dorsal approach in the scaphoid using cadaver bones. After development of a special radiolucent resting splint for the dorsal approach, we performed 2D- and 3D-navigated scaphoid osteosynthesis in 12 fresh-frozen cadaver forearms using a headless compression screw (Synthes). The operation time, radiation time, number of trials for screw insertion, and screw positions were analyzed. In six 2D-navigated screw osteosyntheses, we found two false positions with an average radiation time of 5 ± 2 seconds. Using 3D navigation, we detected one false position. A false position indicates divergence from the ideal line of the axis of the scaphoid but without penetration of the cortex. The initial scan clearly increased overall radiation time in the 3D-navigated group, and for both navigation procedures operating time was longer than in our clinical experience without navigation. Nonetheless, 2D and 3D navigation for non-dislocated scaphoid fractures is feasible, and navigation might reduce the risk of choosing an incorrect screw length, thereby possibly avoiding injury to the subtending cortex. The 3D navigation is more difficult to interpret than 2D fluoroscopic navigation but shows greater precision. Overall, navigation is costly, and the moderate advantages it offers for osteosynthesis of scaphoid fractures must be considered critically in comparisons with conventional operating techniques. PMID:21991920

  5. Efficacy of radial styloid targeting screws in volar plate fixation of intra-articular distal radial fractures: a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Toshihiko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locking screws target the radial styloid, theoretically provide greater stability against radial styloid fragment. However, it is unknown whether the radial styloid locking screws increased the stability of the volar plating system fixation along the entire distal radius or not. In this study, we evaluated the stability of the volar plating system fixation with or without the radial styloid screws using a biomechanical study in a cadaver fracture model. Methods Six matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaver wrists complete from the proximal forearm to the metacarpal bones were prepared to simulate standardized 3-part intra-articular and severe comminuted fractures. Specimens were fixed using the volar plating system with or without 2 radial styloid screws. Each specimen was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min to failure. Load data was recorded and, ultimate strength and change in gap between distal and proximal fragments were measured. Data for ultimate strength and screw failure after failure loading were compared between the 2 groups. Results The average ultimate strength at failure of the volar plate fixation with radial styloid screws (913.5 ± 157.1 N was significantly higher than that without them (682.2 ± 118.6 N. After failure loading, the average change in gap between the ulnar and proximal fragment was greater than that between the radial and proximal fragment. The number of bent or broken screws in ulnar fragment was higher than that in radial fragment. The number of specimens with bent or broken screws in cases with radial styloid screws was fewer than that in the fixation without radial styloid screws group. Conclusion The ulnar fragment is more intensively stressed than the radial fragment under axial loading of distal radius at full wrist extension. The radial styloid screws were effective in stable volar plate fixation of distal radial fractures.

  6. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  7. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon: correlation between MR imaging and histology in eight cadavers and clinical MR imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong-Koo [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gou Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We set out to investigate the cause of persistently increased signal intensity (SI) in the posterior portion of the proximal patellar tendon (pPT) on T1-weighted images (T1WI). MR imaging was performed in eight cadavers, followed by gross histological examination. In addition, 84 patients without trauma history or anterior knee pain were included to compare the SI of the PTs. The patients were divided according to their age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. The length and thickness of the increased SI portion in the pPT and whole PT (wPT) on T1WI were recorded. Histological specimens demonstrated that the adipose tissue, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue invaginated into the posterior portion of the pPT. This histological anatomy corresponded to the pPT signal change on MR imaging. There was linear and interdigitating increased SI of the pPT in all of the 84 patients (100 %). There were no differences in the lengths and thicknesses of the increased SI portion of pPTs and wPTs according to age, sex, and KL grade (all p > 0.05). The increased SI of the pPT on T1WI and fluid-sensitive MR images results from invaginating fat, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue. It is not pathological, but a normal and common finding. (orig.)

  8. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  9. Long-term effects of hydrated lime and quicklime on the decay of human remains using pig cadavers as human body analogues: Field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; Fletcher, Jonathan N; Denton, John; Janaway, Robert C; Wilson, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    An increased number of police enquiries involving human remains buried with lime have demonstrated the need for more research into the effect of different types of lime on cadaver decomposition and its micro-environment. This study follows previous studies by the authors who have investigated the effects of lime on the decay of human remains in laboratory conditions and 6 months of field experiments. Six pig carcasses (Sus scrofa), used as human body analogues, were buried without lime with hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) in shallow graves in sandy-loam soil in Belgium and recovered after 17 and 42 months of burial. Analysis of the soil, lime and carcasses included entomology, pH, moisture content, microbial activity, histology and lime carbonation. The results of this study demonstrate that despite conflicting evidence in the literature, the extent of decomposition is slowed down by burial with both hydrated lime and quicklime. The more advanced the decay process, the more similar the degree of liquefaction between the limed and unlimed remains. The end result for each mode of burial will ultimately result in skeletonisation. This study has implications for the investigation of clandestine burials, for a better understanding of archaeological plaster burials and potentially for the interpretation of mass graves and management of mass disasters by humanitarian organisation and DVI teams. PMID:24513400

  10. The use of three types of suture and stainless steel wire tension banding for the fixation of simulated olecranon fractures: a comparison study in cadaver elbows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalliss, S J; Branstetter, J G

    2010-02-01

    Using an osteotomy of the olecranon as a model of a transverse fracture in 22 cadaver elbows we determined the ability of three different types of suture and stainless steel wire to maintain reduction when using a tension-band technique to stabilise the bone. Physiological cyclical loading simulating passive elbow movement (15 N) and using the arms to push up from a chair (450 N) were applied using an Instron materials testing machine whilst monitoring the osteotomy site with a video extensometer. Each osteotomy was repaired by one of four materials, namely, Stainless Steel Wire (7), No 2 Ethibond (3), No 5 Ethibond (5), or No 2 FiberWire (7). There were no failures (movement of > 2 mm) with stainless steel wire or FiberWire and no significant difference in the movements measured across the site of the osteotomy (p = 0.99). The No. 2 Ethibond failed at 450 N and two of the five of No. 5 Ethibond sutures had a separation of > 2 mm at 450 N. FiberWire as the tension band in this model held the reduction as effectively as stainless steel wire and may reduce the incidence of discomfort from the hardware. On the basis of our findings we suggest that a clinical trial should be undertaken. PMID:20130331

  11. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  12. Tendon Interposition and Ligament Reconstruction with ECRL Tendon in the Late Stages of Kienböck’s Disease: A Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Karalezli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal surgical treatment for Kienböck’s disease with stages IIIB and IV remains controversial. A cadaver study was carried out to evaluate the use of coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon for tendon interposition and a strip obtained from the same tendon for ligament reconstruction in the late stages of Kienböck’s disease. Methods. Coiled extensor carpi radialis longus tendon was used to fill the cavity of the excised lunate, and a strip obtained from this tendon was sutured onto itself after passing through the scaphoid and the triquetrum acting as a ligament to preserve proximal row integrity. Biomechanical tests were carried out in order to evaluate this new ligamentous reconstruction. Results. It was biomechanically confirmed that the procedure was effective against axial compression and distributed the upcoming mechanical stress to the distal row. Conclusion. Extensor carpi radialis longus tendon has not been used for tendon interposition and ligament reconstruction in the treatment of this disease before. In view of the biomechanical data, the procedure seems to be effective for the stabilization of scaphoid and carpal bones.

  13. Study on internal structure of zygomatic bone using micro-finite element analysis model. Differences between dentulous and edentulous dentition in Japanese cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the internal structure of zygomatic bone using a micro-finite element analysis model (μFEA) and compare angular orientation of trabeculae against compressive force in edentulous and dentulous jaws. Twenty zygomatic bones from dentulous jaws and 20 zygomatic bones from edentulous jaws harvested from Japanese male cadavers were used. From 2-dimensional slice images, we reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) structure by the volume rendering method using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). To analyze mechanical properties, all voxels were converted to μFEA models. The angle between the strongest direction of trabecular bone and the axial loading direction (angle α) was then determined using the μFEA models. In the 3-D reconstruction images, trabecular density in dentulous jaws was higher than that in edentulous jaws at all loci. Trabeculae in dentulous jaws showed a plate-like structure. The μFEA modeling revealed that the angle of the trabeculae at the Jugale in edentulous jaws was lower than that in dentulous jaws. This suggests that the internal structure of trabeculae is influenced by occlusal force in zygomatic bone from edentulous jaws. (author)

  14. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon: correlation between MR imaging and histology in eight cadavers and clinical MR imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We set out to investigate the cause of persistently increased signal intensity (SI) in the posterior portion of the proximal patellar tendon (pPT) on T1-weighted images (T1WI). MR imaging was performed in eight cadavers, followed by gross histological examination. In addition, 84 patients without trauma history or anterior knee pain were included to compare the SI of the PTs. The patients were divided according to their age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. The length and thickness of the increased SI portion in the pPT and whole PT (wPT) on T1WI were recorded. Histological specimens demonstrated that the adipose tissue, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue invaginated into the posterior portion of the pPT. This histological anatomy corresponded to the pPT signal change on MR imaging. There was linear and interdigitating increased SI of the pPT in all of the 84 patients (100 %). There were no differences in the lengths and thicknesses of the increased SI portion of pPTs and wPTs according to age, sex, and KL grade (all p > 0.05). The increased SI of the pPT on T1WI and fluid-sensitive MR images results from invaginating fat, vessels, and perivascular connective tissue. It is not pathological, but a normal and common finding. (orig.)

  15. Hoffa's recess: incidence, morphology and differential diagnosis of the globular-shaped cleft in the infrapatellar fat pad of the knee on MRI and cadaver dissections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Linneborn, G.; Schild, H.H.; Schmidt, H.-M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet

    2002-01-01

    We frequently observed a fluid-like indentation at the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad of the knee and sought to establish the incidence and differential diagnostic criteria of this cleft. In total, 133 MRI studies and 35 cadaver specimens were analyzed for the location, size, and shape of clefts at the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad. The incidence of a fluid-like ovoid cleft on MR images was 13.5% and in cadavers 14.3%. The cleft was located just below the insertion of the infrapatellar synovial fold (plica synovialis infrapatellaris, ligamentum mucosum). More linear-shaped indentations at the posterior margin were visible in all patients and cadavers due to the horizontal course of the alar folds. A fluid-filled indentation within the inferior posterior margin of Hoffa's fat pad has to be expected in more than 10% of knee studies and should not be confused with tumors like ganglion cysts. We term this cleft the infrahoffatic recess. One hypothesis of its origin concerns the embryological regression process of the infrapatellar membrane into the infrapatellar synovial fold. It should not be confused with linear clefts due to the alar folds. (orig.)

  16. Estudo anatômico do ligamento patelofemoral lateral em joelho de cadáveres Anatomical study of the lateral patellofemoral ligament in cadaver knees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schmidt Navarro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o ligamento patelofemoral lateral (LPFL por meio de dissecação anatômica de joelhos de cadáveres frescos. Na literatura existe particular interesse pelo LPFL. Essa especial atenção é dada pela sua importância anatômica, biomecânica e pela necessidade da sua reconstrução nos casos de instabilidade medial da patela. MÉTODOS: O LPFL foi estudado em 20 joelhos de 20 cadáveres frescos por meio de dissecações anatômicas. As dissecações foram padronizadas e os dados anotados enviados para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O LPFL apresentou em média 16,05mm de largura (desvio-padrão: 2,48, 42,10mm de comprimento (desvio-padrão: 8,84. Sua inserção femoral mostrou-se no epicôndilo femoral lateral e com expansão em forma de leque das suas fibras, predominantemente na região posterior e proximal ao epicôndilo lateral. Na patela a inserção encontrada foi na região súpero-lateral (na metade do terço superior no plano coronal, também com expansão das fibras, mas com menor intensidade. No plano sagital, o ligamento situava-se na metade posterior da borda da patela. O LPFL foi isolado na segunda camada retinacular lateral, o retináculo transverso profundo. CONCLUSÃO: O LPFL situa-se na camada retinacular transversa profunda, com a presença de uma expansão das suas fibras em forma de leque, tanto na inserção femoral quanto na patelar. No epicôndilo femoral a inserção encontra-se mais posterior e proximalmente e na patela está na metade posterior da borda patelar (plano sagital e no aspecto súpero-lateral.OBJECTIVES: To describe the lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL after anatomical dissection of fresh cadaver knees. The literature shows a particular interest for the LPFL. Such special attention is due to its anatomical and biomechanical importance, and also due to the need to reconstruct the ligament in the cases of medial patellar instability. METHODS: The LPFL was studied in 20 knees of 20

  17. Differences between radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist in the study of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments: magnetic resonance imaging and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheno, Ramon; Buck, Florian M.; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [VA San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)

  18. Differences between radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist in the study of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments: magnetic resonance imaging and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate how radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist can affect the visualization of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography and gross anatomic inspection in cadavers. The detectability of the intrinsic intercarpal ligaments of ten fresh human wrists was analyzed in coronal, axial and sagittal images in the neutral position and in radial and ulnar deviation with MR imaging and MR arthrography. The findings were then correlated with gross anatomic inspection. Additionally, quantitative measurements including the radiocarpal distances and capitate angles were performed. Differences were noted in the visual conspicuity of only the intercarpal ligaments of the proximal carpal row with different techniques and wrist positions. The average width of the radiocarpal joint was 0.62 mm, 1.55 mm and 2.0 mm (radial side) and 3.78 mm, 2.25 mm and 1.16 mm (ulnar side) in radial deviation, neutral position, and ulnar deviation of the wrist, respectively. Statistically, these maneuvers produced significant opening in the ulnar side during radial deviation (Student's t-test; P = 0.0005) and in the radial side in ulnar deviation (P = 0.007). Significant differences in the width of the radiocarpal joint were observed during radial and ulnar deviation of the wrist, influencing the visualization of the intrinsic ligaments, mainly the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments. The use of MR arthrography with radial and/or ulnar deviation has the potential to improve diagnosis in clinical cases in which injury to one or both of these ligaments is suggested. (orig.)

  19. Pelvic Floor Support Defect in Apical Anterior Vaginal Prolapse with Cervical Hypertrophy. Review with Case Report in a 20-year-old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Kalpana

    2015-10-01

    Apical anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP) with central defect is uncommon in young non hysterectomized patients causing considerable mortality after the fourth decade of life. Its high propensity to recurrence poses the greatest challenge to pelvic reconstructive surgeons. Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have hypertrophic cervical elongation and the extent of elongation increases with greater degrees of prolapse. Women with prolapse either have inherent hypertrophic elongation of the cervix which predisposes them to prolapse or the downward traction in prolapse leads to cervical elongation. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination includes measurement of the location of the posterior fornix (point D) with the assumption that this measurement is associated with cervical elongation. Multifocal site involvement with apical and perineal descent primarily afflicts elderly, postmenopausal women after the fourth decade while cervical hypertrophic elongation with prolapse is observed in younger women less than 40 years of age. A review of the anatomical implication of the association of cervical hypertrophy in prolapse is carried out in this article. We observed a combination of distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with apical descent and cervical hypertrophy in a 20-year-old cadaver during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences in 2013. Distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with central defect is rarer as most reported cases are of the displacement type, paravaginal defect. Hypertrophic cervical elongation is either the cause or consequence of prolapse and its identification before reconstructive surgery is paramount as uterine suspension in the face of cervical elongation is contraindicated. Inappropriate identification of all support defects and breaking of tissues is the primary cause of failure of laparoscopic pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:26557506

  20. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    OpenAIRE

    P.M. Garamendi; M. López-Alcaraz; A. Mazón; Rodríguez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un cas...

  1. Imaging of the stomach, and localization of the stomach meridian & its acupuncture points in a human cadaver by the use of the indirect "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Imaging Technique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Y; Takeshige, C; Shimotsuura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1988-01-01

    Since 1984, using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (Molecular Identification, Localization and) Imaging Technique" originally developed by Y. Omura, the imaging of the outline of normal and abnormal internal organs has been successfully applied for clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effects, without the use of expensive imaging instrumentation. Not only has it become possible to non-invasively image each internal organ and localize specific malignant tumors of specific internal organs, as well as neurotransmitters, but it has also recently become possible to demonstrate the presence and exact locations of the meridians corresponding to specific internal organs and their acupuncture points along the meridians through the use of either the Direct or Indirect "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (Molecular Identification, Localization and) Imaging Techniques" while holding a microscopic slide of the specific human internal organ tissue. However, very little information was available to demonstrate the presence of the meridians and their acupuncture points in a human cadaver. In this study, we were able to demonstrate by use of the Indirect "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (Molecular Identification, Localization and) Imaging Technique" the presence of meridians corresponding to specific internal organs and acupuncture points on the meridians, all of which were nearly identical to those found in a living human. For example, the authors found that the stomach meridian at both ends of one of the most well-known acupuncture points, Stomach 36, is located within 1 mm of the surface of the skin, and the average diameter of the meridian is less than 1 mm. Stomach 36 in this particular cadaver had a round shape with a diameter of approximately 1.8 cm at the skin surface. The acupuncture point, St. 36, in this cadaver at the skin surface was round in shape and extended to the deepest underlying muscle layer of the tibialis anterior muscle, in three dimensions. In spite of the fact that the

  2. 足月孕妇腹盆部的矢状断层影像解剖学研究%Sectional and imaging sagittal anatomical research in abdominal and pelvic part of a pregnant woman cadaver in third trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡镇; 赵冬梅; 王晓静; 金昌洙; 李振平; 刘树伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide sagittal sectional anatomic data for guidance in B- ultrasound and MRI diagnosis in abdominal and pelvic parts of pregnant women in the third trimester. Method After MR1 scanning in abdominal and pelvic part of a pregnant woman cadaver in third trimester, the abdominal and pelvic parts was sectioned into serial sagittal 10-millimeter thick sections with equal intervals using a dynamoelectric beltsaw. Result The anatomic structures in sagittal sectional imaging and MRI in abdominal and pelvic parts of the cadaver with full term pregnance were well displayed,and the spatial relationship of the location of the placenta and fetal main organs to the materal vertebrae in sagittal sections of the specimen and the MR images was relatively constant. Conclusion The analytic results of the MR and serial sagittal sectional images of the cadaver can provide normal and useful anatomic guidance for B- ultrasound and MRI diagnosis in abdominal and pelvic parts of the pregnant women in the third trimester.%目的 为给围产期孕妇腹、盆部B超、MR诊断提供矢状断面解剖学基础.方法 将1例足月妊娠尸体做腹盆部MR扫描,获取图像数据.用电动带锯按等距法制成与正中矢状面平行的腹、盆部连续矢状断层标本,并获取连续矢状断层标本图像数据.结果 足月孕妇腹盆部矢状断面的解剖结构在标本和MR图像上均得到了很好地显示;胎盘和宫内胎儿主要脏器显示层面与母体椎骨之间的有较为固定的对应关系.结论 足月孕妇连续矢状断层标本、MR图像分析结果能够为围产期孕妇腹、盆部B超、MR诊断提供正常的形态学资料.

  3. Reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior desde el portal anteromedial; evaluación de la fijación femoral en un modelo cadavérico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Claramunt, Raúl; Cáceres i Palou, Enric

    2011-01-01

    Objectiu. Valorar el risc de lesió de les estructures posterolaterals del genoll realitzant una reconstrucció del Lligament Encreuat Anterior (LEA) mitjançant plàstia d'isquiotibials i fixació femoral am sistema Cross-Pin. Material. 10 genolls cadavèrics frescs. Reconstrucció artroscòpica del LEA mitjançant túnel anatòmic des del portal anteromedial. Dissecció anatòmica del genoll mesurant distàncies del Cross-Pin al Lligament Col·lateral Lateral (LCL), tendó popliti, nervi peroneo i tendó ga...

  4. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina First record of cadaverous arthropod fauna in human and animal substrates in San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. Aballay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.In order to determine the specific composition of cadaverous arthropod fauna associated to different decomposing vertebrate substrates, we studied the carrion arthropods that feed on outdoor carcasses in San Juan province, Argentina. Arthropods were collected on animal and human remains in the field and on carcasses of domestic pig placed outdoors under controlled conditions. Forty species of carrion arthropods belonging to four orders and 15 families were recorded for the first time in this province. We present the first record of forensic fauna in Argentina of the necrophagous species Megelenophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and three

  5. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas; Mônica Beatriz Parolin; Lucinei Stadnik; Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

    2007-01-01

    RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fe...

  6. Hoffa's fat pad injuries and their relationship with anterior cruciate ligament tears: new observations based on MR imaging in patients and MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Marcelo R. [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B.; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, VA Health Care System, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    To determine the normal anatomic relationships of Hoffa's fat pad with the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and with the frequency of Hoffa's fat pad abnormalities in ACL-deficient knees. Retrospective clinical study on patients and observational anatomic study on cadavers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MR imaging studies of the knees of 100 patients (21-48 years old) with or without arthroscopically proven tears of the ACL, performed at a single institution, were reviewed by two readers for abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad. Ten cadaveric knee specimens were studied with MR imaging and Faxitron radiographs, and by inspection of sections and histology. Alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on MR imaging were present in 64% (32/50) of patients with torn ACLs, and in 24% (12/50) of patients without a tear of the ACL (P < 0.05). Hoffa's fat pad inserted into the intercondylar notch in 50% (5/10) of cadaveric specimens, four in conjunction with the ligamentum mucosum and in one in an isolated fashion. Histological study demonstrated the composition of the ligamentum mucosum and Hoffa's fat pad and their course and insertion sites in the intercondylar notch. Abnormalities of Hoffa's fat pad, such as focal and diffuse edema, tears, scars and synovial proliferation, are more common in knees with torn ACLs than in knees with intact ACLs. (orig.)

  7. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un caso en el que se evidencia la presencia de lesiones de morfología típica por la acción lesiva postmortal de hormigas, pero con una extensión y localización inhabituales.Post-mortem animal predation can lead to errors when interpreting forensic autopsy findings. Ants are the only insects that can attack human corpses after death and before decomposition process starts. Ants produce post mortal injuries in the skin that have a distinct location and morphology. We present a forensic case in which post mortal injuries produced by ants in a human corpse had a typical morphology; however their location and extension were unusual.

  8. Estudio de la rigidez cadavérica que presenta la Síndone de Turín Study of the cadaveric rigidity presenting in the Shroud of Turin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Villalaín

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio médico forense de la imagen sindónica llama la atención la intensa rigidez que se aprecia en la imagen corporal del Hombre de la Síndone. En este trabajo se estudia este fenómeno cadavérico y los posibles factores condicionantes que han podido modificar su normal evolución. Por otro lado, aprovechando la circunstancia de que esta rigidez se rompió y recuperó en hombros y brazos, se trata de determinar cronológicamente en que momento de la muerte se pudo producir tan sorprendente imagen.In the forensic study of the sindonic image it is necessary to pay attention to the intense rigidity that is observed in the corporal image of the Man of the Shroud. In this paper, this cadaveric phenomenon is analyzed and the possible conditioning factors which could have modified its normal evolution. Furthermore, taking into account the circumstance that this rigidity was broken and then recovered in shoulders and arms, we try to determine chronologically in which moment of the death this surprising image could be produced.

  9. Simultaneous depth-resolved imaging of sub-nanometer scale ossicular vibrations and morphological features of the human-cadaver middle ear with spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Wang, Ruikang K.; Jacques, Steven L.; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2012-02-01

    We describe a novel method for the detection of the tiny motions of the middle ear (ME) ossicles and their morphological features with a spectral-domain phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) and its variations are the most extensively used methods for studding the vibrational modes of the ME. However, most techniques are limited to single point analysis methods, and do not have the ability to provide depth resolved simultaneous imaging of multiple points on the ossicles especially with the intact eardrum. Consequently, the methods have the limited ability to provide relative vibration information at these points. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using PS-OCT for simultaneous depth resolved imaging of both vibration information and morphological features in a cadaver human middle ear with high sensitivity and resolution. This technique has the potential to provide meaningful vibration of ossicles with a vibration sensitivity of ~0.5nm at 1kHz acoustic stimulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of depth-resolved vibration imaging of ossicles with a PS-OCT system at sub-nanometer scale.

  10. Applied anatomy of endoscopic decompression and anterior transposition for cubital tunnel syndrome in cadavers%内窥镜辅助下肘管减压尺神经前置术的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁健; 高伟阳; 郑鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的 在尸体上模拟内窥镜辅助下肘管减压及尺神经前置术,探讨该术式的注意事项.方法 在8具上肢标本上模拟内窥镜辅助下肘管减压及尺神经前置术,再对尸体进行解剖,观察尺神经松解、前置效果及有无前臂内侧皮神经损伤.结果 8侧标本均顺利去除肘部尺神经卡压的因素,前置尺神经充分,固定牢靠,未形成继发卡压.在肘管减压及尺神经松解过程中前臂内侧皮神经后支均未损伤.皮下筋膜与屈肌旋前圆肌肌膜缝合固定法缝扎前臂内侧皮神经后支2例,筋膜瓣法固定未对前臂内侧皮神经造成损伤.结论 在内窥镜辅助下能切除肘部尺神经卡压的常见因素,前置尺神经充分,并能有效降低前臂内侧皮神经后支的损伤,但需注意皮下筋膜与屈肌旋前圆肌肌膜缝合固定法易缝扎前臂内侧皮神经后支,而筋膜瓣法固定相对安全.%Objective To simulate endoscopic decompression and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve for treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome in cadavers and explore the technical details of this approach.Methods Simulation of endoscopic decompression of the cubital tunnel and anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve was carried out in 8 upper limb cadaver specimens.The cubital tunnel was then opened to explore the effectiveness of decompression and transposition and any signs of medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) damage.Results Nerve decompression was sufficient with all the constrictions released.The ulnar nerve was properly anterior transposed and secured.There was no sign of secondary compression to the ulnar nerve.There was no MACN injury during cubital tunnel release and ulnar nerve decompression.MACN posterior branch was caught in 2 specimens when the superficial fascia and pronator teres sarcolemma were sutured together to make transposition tunnel.Creating a fascia tunnel did not cause MACN injury.Conclusion Endoscopic release can

  11. Discectomia lombar transforaminal: estudo quantitativo em cadáveres Discectomía lumbar transforaminal: estudio cuantitativo en cadáveres Transforaminal lumbar discectomy: quantitative study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Neves Vialle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia da discectomia lombar por via transforaminal, de modo quantitativo, em estudo experimental com cadáveres. MÉTODOS: este estudo utilizou cinco cadáveres humanos frescos, submetidos à discectomia pela via de acesso póstero-lateral nos níveis L3-L4 e L4-L5, visando remover a maior quantidade de material discal possível. Uma abordagem anterior complementar, expondo os mesmos discos intervertebrais, permitiu a remoção do material discal remanescente, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: em L3-L4, a remoção transforaminal do disco obteve, em média, 48% do volume total, e em L4-L5, cerca de 38%. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de segura e de fácil realização, a via transforaminal não é tão eficaz quanto à via anterior na remoção do disco intervertebral.OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la discectomía lumbar por vía transforaminal, de modo cuantitativo, en un estudio experimental con cadáveres. MÉTODOS: este estudio utilizó cinco cadáveres humanos frescos, sometidos à discectomía por vía de acceso posterolateral en los niveles L3-L4 y L4-L5, visando remover la mayor cantidad de material discal posible. Un abordaje anterior complementar, exponiendo los mismos discos intervertebrales, permitió la remoción del material discal remanente, para posterior comparación. RESULTADOS: en L3-L4, la remoción transforaminal del disco obtuvo en promedio 48% del volumen total y en L4-L5, cerca del 38%. CONCLUSIÓN: aunque segura y de fácil realización, la vía transforaminal no es tan eficaz como la vía anterior en la remoción del disco intervertebral.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the quantitative efficacy of transforaminal lumbar discectomy, through a cadaver study. METHODS: this study used five fresh human cadavers, that underwent L3-L4 and L4-L5 posterolateral discectomy, aiming to remove as much disc material as possible. After that, the remaining disc material was removed through an anterior approach, for further

  12. [Suspicious circumstances on discovery of the cadaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Stein, Sylvia; Reinhardt, Andreas; Tsokos, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The authors report on three autopsy cases in which the findings at the death scene gave rise to the suspect of non-natural, in two cases even violent causes of death. The medico-legal and criminalistic investigations led to surprising results: Death was due to acute intoxication with narcotics, supposed delirium tremens and a suicide attempt in the presence of bronchopneumonia. External force was ruled out in all three fatalities by cooperative work of police investigators and forensic medicine. PMID:12043435

  13. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inserido um dreno de aço de 7,5 cm com 24 F de diâmetro no segundo espaço intercostal, na linha médio-clavicular, bilateralmente, e foi medida a distância do dreno com as seguintes estruturas: brônquios principais, brônquios dos lobos superiores, vasos subclávios, artérias pulmonares, artérias pulmonares do lobo superior, veia pulmonar superior, veia ázigos e aorta. Foram realizadas medições de peso, altura, diâmetro laterolateral do tórax, diâmetro posteroanterior do tórax e espessura da parede torácica de cada cadáver. RESULTADOS: Dos 30 cadáveres dissecados, 20 e 10 eram do sexo masculino e feminino, respectivamente. A média da extremidade distal do dreno com os brônquios principais direito e esquerdo foi de 7,2 cm. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização de um dreno torácico de tamanho fixo na posição preconizada é factível e segura, independentemente das características antropométricas do paciente.OBJECTIVE: A cadaver-based study was carried out in order to describe the pulmonary drainage surgical technique, to determine whether the site for the insertion of the chest tube is appropriate and safe, and to determine the anatomical relationship of the chest tube with the chest wall, lungs, large blood vessels, and mediastinum. METHODS: Between May and November of 2011, 30 cadavers of both genders were dissected. The cadavers were provided by the Santa Casa de São Paulo Central Hospital Mortuary, located in the city of São Paulo

  14. Insertion of lower cervical spine anterior pedicle screw in 18 cadavers%下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远政; 刘洋; 邓忠良

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入技术的可行性.方法 取18具成人尸体正常颈椎标本,剔除其周围软组织至清楚显露椎体前壁.CT扫描后,用Mimics软件重建三维模型,并测量C3~C7个体化置钉参数,包括进钉点(即椎弓根中轴线在椎体前壁投影点)、置钉方向(螺钉在横断面和矢状面上的倾斜角度)以及螺钉长度.严格按照测量结果,直视下置入椎弓根螺钉.术后作CT扫描,评价置钉效果.结果 进针点:C3、C4位于置钉椎弓根对侧,正中矢状面旁2~3 mm,距上终板6~7 mm;C5~ C7与置钉椎弓根同侧,其中C5位于正中矢状面旁1~2 mm,距上终板7.0~7.5 mm,C6、C7则为4~5 mm和7.5 ~8.5 mm.置钉方向:理想角度在C3、C4为外倾角46°~47°,头倾角-11°~-7°;在C5外倾角约48°,头倾角接近0°;C6、C7为36°~40°和8~13°.螺钉长度:可选择28、30、32 mm,其直径为3.5 mm.本组共置钉144枚.术后CT示,全部螺钉均经椎体前方置入椎弓根内抵达侧块.其中,有16枚胀破椎弓根外侧皮质,3枚穿破外侧皮质(均发生在C3、C4节段).结论 下颈椎前路椎弓根螺钉置入技术是可行的.%Objective To study the feasibility of lower cervical spine anterior pedicle screw ( APS) insertion and provide basis for its clinical application according to the preoperative APS related technological parameters. Methods Normal cervical spine specimens of 18 cadavers were carefully dissected to resect the surrounding tissue and to clearly expose the centrum antetheca. Following the CT scans, three dimensional model was reconstructed by Mimics software. The imaging data to measured key parameters of anterior transpedicular screw fixation were also produced by Mimics software. The individual screw insertion parameters including intersection point (projective point of pedicle central axis on the centrum antetheca) , insertion angle (the inclined angle of screws in cross-sectional and sagittal

  15. 早期移植肾功能异常的相关因素及其预后%Correlation factors for early graft dysfunction and prognosis after cadaver renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季曙明; 尹广; 殷立平; 陈劲松; 沙国柱; 黎磊石

    1999-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation factors for early graft dysfunction after kidney transplantation,and the effects on long-term graft survival.Methods 251 recipients of first cadaver renal graft were divided into 4 groups according to the history of acute rejection(AR)and the concentration of serum creatinine(SCr)in 6 months after transplantation:Groups A and B,having no history of AR with SCr levels at 6th month of<130μmol/L in the former and≥130 μmol/L in the latter,and groups C and D having the history of AR with SCr levels at 6 th month of<130 μmol/L in the former and≥130μmol/L in the latter.All groups had the sanle immunosuppressive protocol.Results SCr level at 10th day after operation in groups A and C maintained normal,while the SCr levels in groups B and D were obviously elevated,which was correlated with acute tubular necrosis(ATN),IgA nephritis,donors' age,postoperative hypotension,AR times and the dosage of cyclosporine A.The one-and three-year survival rate of renal graft in groups D was significantly lower than in groups A,B and C.Conclusion ATN was the commonest cause for early renal graft dysfunction after renal transplantation.The damage to the kidney in the process of renal removal,reperfusion and high dose of cyclospofine A at early stage might affect the recovery of the early renal function.The dysfunction of early renal dysfunction after operation would affect the renal graft long-term survival in the patients having AR in 6 months after operation.%目的 探讨早期移植肾功能异常的相关因素及其对移植肾长期存活的影响.方法 根据术后6个月内有无发生急性排斥反应和6个月时的血肌酐水平(SCr6月n),将251例肾移植患者分为4组:A、B组未发生急性排斥反应,前者SCr6月<130 ìmol/L,后者SCr6月≥130 ìmol/L;C、D组发生急性排斥反应,前者SCr6月<130 ìmol/L,后者SCr6月≥130 ìmol/L.术后各组的免疫抑制方案相同.结果 4个组在冷缺血及热缺

  16. Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas: estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos Comparative analisys of changes in knee strain transfer flow in total and unicompartmental cemented prostheses: a trial in ten human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pécora

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Análise comparativa das alterações nos fluxos de tensão do joelho nas próteses totais e unicompartimentais cimentadas. Estudo experimental em dez cadáveres humanos. Os autores comparam as alterações nos fluxos de tensão do fêmur distal e da tíbia proximal provocadas pelas próteses total e unicompartimental cimentadas do joelho, por meio de extensometria elétrica em 10 cadáveres humanos. Utilizam um dispositivo mecânico para adaptação das peças anatômicas à máquina de ensaios mecânicos Kratos 5002. Concluem: 1 A prótese total do joelho mantém o padrão de distribuição das cargas no terço distal do fêmur; 2 A prótese unicompartimental aumenta as tensões de compressão na cortical medial e as tensões de tração na cortical lateral do terço distal do fêmur; 3 Os componentes tibiais (parcial medial e total aumentam, da mesma forma, as tensões de compressão na cortical póstero-medial da tíbia.Load transfer changes on cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis. Experimental study on ten human cadavers. The authors compare the load transfer changes on the distal femur and proximal tibia due to cemented total and unicompartmental knee prosthesis under compressive load-bearing on ten human cadavers employing strain gauges and a Kratos 5002 stress-testing system. The conclusions were: 1 The Total knee prosthesis does not alter the load transfer on the distal femur; 2 The unicompartmental knee prosthesis increases the compression load on the femoral medial cortex and increases the strain tension loads on the femoral lateral cortex; 3 The tibial components (partial medial and total increase the compression strain tension on the postero-medial cortex of the tibia.

  17. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas do ligamento cruzado posterior e do ligamento patelar de cadáveres de seres humanos após utilização de radiofreqüência Study of the mechanical properties of the posterior cruciate ligament and patellar tendon on fresh human cadavers after radiofrequency shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fazzolari Dota

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou estudar os efeitos da radiofreqüência sobre os ligamentos patelares (LP e ligamentos cruzados posteriores (LCP de cadáveres, levando em conta as características de rigidez e deformação máxima. Foram utilizados 11 LCP e 14 LP, sendo feitas as aferições com o aparelho Kratos® K5002 . Foi realizada a termoabrasão das estruturas, com encurtamento obtido entre 15 e 20% do comprimento inicial. Observou-se que essas deformações (encurtamento não se mantiveram no ensaio pós RF. Conclusão: A radiofreqüência permite o encurtamento do LP e LCP. O encurtamento obtido não se mantém completamente quando os ligamentos são submetidos a cargas tensionais padronizadas neste ensaio biomecânico. O uso de radiofrequência causa redução da rigidez do tecido (LP e LCP.This study intended to examine the effects of radiofrequency shrinkage (RF on patellar ligament (PL and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL of fresh human cadavers, measuring stiffness and maximum deformation. Eleven PCLs and 14 PLs were studied with traction tests being performed with the aid of a Kratos® K5002 machine. The structures were reduced by 15-20%, after the shrinkage. However, this reduction was partially lost after the traction test. Conclusion: RF was successful in reducing the length of the structures studied, in spite of the statistically significant stiffness loss. Then, RF was not fully successful in maintaining the reduction of ligament length under the traction forces of the test.

  18. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  19. What My Cadaver Dog Taught Me about Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty eager to transform their teaching often have a difficult time understanding the learning literature and then integrating it into their teaching, in part because neuroeducation concepts such as constructivism, transfer, misconceptions, and metacognition are not part of their existing knowledge. Examples of these concepts in the literature…

  20. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull. PMID:3323411

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BASILAR ARTERY IN ADULT HUMAN CADAVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish A. Wankhede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The basilar artery is the large median and major artery of the posterior circulation of the brain. Many variations are seen in the basilar artery, majority of them in position, origin and shape of the artery. Many authors have documented various anomalies as well as differences of the anatomy in this area in the Indian population as compared to the Western literature. Context and purpose of study: Many studies are available on the anterior circulation of the brain i.e. on vessels of the circle of Willis but studies on the posterior circulation are very few. And such studies so far had been done mostly in the American and European races and are mostly based on imaging techniques. Studies in the Indian population have been few. Hence the present study is concentrated on the morphological study of the basilar artery of human adult brain, to show the frequency and type of variations in the morphology of the basilar artery. Results: The basilar artery most commonly takes origin from the vertebral artery where left vertebral artery is greater in size than the right vertebral artery (72.5%. Level of formation of the basilar artery is most commonly observed at the ponto-medullary junction (62.5%. Length of the basilar artery varied from minimum 2.4cm to maximum 3.6cm. More commonly artery lies in the range of 2.6-3.0cm (57.5%. Diameter of the basilar artery at origin ranges from 3.2-4.2mm, at mid level from 3-4mm and at termination 3.1-4mm. Level of termination of the basilar artery is more commonly at the mid brain-pons junction (50%. Most of the basilar arteries are of straight type (55% and next common is bent or curved type (37.5%. Fenestration of 4mm is seen in proximal part of the one basilar artery (2.5%. Conclusion: Variations of the basilar artery are common. Neurosurgical importance of this study lies during the exposure of the region for different purposes. Knowledge of the vascular variations will increase the success of the surgical procedures and radiological procedures used in interventional radiology.

  2. [A gas chromatographic method for determining acetaldehyde in cadaver blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, V I; Valladares, Kh A; Gusakov, Iu A; Skachko, Z M

    1990-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic method of acetaldehyde detection in blood of subjects who died of alcoholic intoxication is suggested. Method is simple, does not require additional expenses, can be readily used in medicolegal practice and in difficult cases it may help the expert to make an objective conclusion on the cause of death. PMID:2087747

  3. The apoptotic thanatotranscriptome associated with the liver of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Finley, Sheree J; Soni, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Gene expression investigations are well-established components of ante mortem studies with broad applications ranging from elucidating basic mechanisms responsible for normal physiological processes to discovering therapeutic targets in pathophysiological conditions. However, gene expression studies and their application in the medico-legal field are still in their infancy. Therefore, the present study focuses on RNA using PCR array in the analysis of gene expression associated with tissues taken from actual criminal cases. RNA was extracted from the liver tissues of bodies with PMIs between 6 and 48 h. The results demonstrated that mRNA was stable up to 48 h postmortem. Further, as cell death is an indispensable and necessary part of the biological life cycle, apoptotic gene expression profiles were investigated. The gene expression related to the programmed cell death found in body tissues after death is defined as the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome (thanatos-, Greek for death). On comparison of control and decaying tissues, the results show that with time, pro-apoptotic genes such as caspases are up-regulated and the expression of genes responsible for anti-apoptosis such as BCL2 and BAG3 were down-regulated. Thus, this current work gives a unique perspective of the apoptotic thanatotranscriptome that is affected after death. Up to the present time, gene expression in bodies from criminal cases has not been reported in literature using PCR array techniques. Thus, this thanatotranscriptome study provides insight into postmortem gene activity with potential applications in medico-legal investigations. PMID:26318598

  4. Popes convict dead Pope Twice! The unbelievable Cadaver Synod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-03-01

    In 897, the 9-month-old corpse of the late Pope Formosus stood trial by the reigning pontiff, Stephen VII. Stephen VII convicted Formosus, sentenced the cadaveric Pope to have three fingers of his right hand amputated and then had him buried in a common grave. This posthumous trial raised theological and sacramental debates and created an outrage in Rome that became the cause of Stephen VII's swift downfall. Pope Formosus joins other notable historical figures such as St. Thomas Becket and John Wycliffe who were tried and punished after death. Clin. Anat. 29:140-143, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678952

  5. Coordinación y logística del trasplante de tejidos de donantes de cadáver intra y extra-hospitalarios. "Modelo Pamplona": Cadena de actuación 1992-2006 Transplant coordination and logistics of intra and extra-hospital cadaver donor tissue. "The Pamplona Model": Sequence of tasks performed from 1992-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maraví-Poma

    2006-08-01

    , referred to as tissue donors (TD, who have died from cardiac arrest. Objective. Is this paper it descripte the model for coordination and donation of intra and extra-hospital TD in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. It creats a program for detection, donation and extractions called the Pamplona Model, from 1992-2006. Material and methods. In 1990, a transplant team was created by an Intensive Medicine Physician of HVC, INML and SOS-Navarra. In 1996, VCH Transplant Coordination is defined as a reference centre for the Tissue Transplant Programme in the Autonomous Community of Navarra. Results. Consensus protocols for "intra and extra-hospital detection" of persons having died from cardiac arrest are developed: - Alerts from NHS-O hospitals, SOS-Navarra; judges and INML forensic pathologists. - Criteria for selection, search and contacts with relatives. - Alert serology, extraction and transport teams. - Logistics and distribution of tissue. - Agreed incentives: Economic, administrative and relevant regulations. Conclusions. The Pamplona Model, with the Virgen Del Camino hospital has made important contributions and is unique in the world. Intra and extra-hospital coordination of cadaver donor from a referred hospital, it is a scientific and organizational advance to have in it counts for the creation of extraction and transplant tissues teams.

  6. Carcinoma hepatocelular: impacto do tempo em lista e das formas de tratamento pré-operatório na sobrevida do transplante de fígado cadavérico na era pré-MELD em um centro no Brasil Hepatocellular carcinoma: impact of waiting list and pre-operative treatment strategies on survival of cadaveric liver transplantation in pre-MELD era in one center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Atualmente, o transplante hepático é a principal opção terapêutica para doentes com cirrose hepática associada a carcinoma hepatocelular. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de pacientes com e sem carcinoma hepatocelular submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários dos pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático cadavérico no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná no período entre 5 de janeiro de 2001 e 17 de fevereiro de 2006. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos - acometidos e não-acometidos de carcinoma hepatocelular - e analisados em relação à sobrevida em 3 meses e em 1 ano. Também foram comparados em relação ao sexo e à idade do doador e do receptor, a causa da cirrose, a classificação de Child-Pugh e o escore do MELD no momento do transplante, o tempo de isquemia morna e isquemia fria, o número de unidades de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas durante o transplante, o tempo de permanência na UTI e o tempo de internação. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 146 casos de transplante hepático: 75 foram excluídos devido a dados incompletos no prontuário e 71 foram incluídos no estudo. A sobrevida geral em 3 meses e 1 ano foi de 77,4% e 74,6%, respectivamente. Os acometidos por carcinoma hepatocelular (n = 12 apresentaram sobrevida em 3 meses e 1 ano de 100%, significantemente maior que os não-acometidos (n = 59; 72,8% e 69,49%, respectivamente. O índice médio do MELD, da classificação de Child-Pugh e o número médio de concentrado de hemácias transfundidas foram significantemente maiores nos pacientes não-acometidos. Também foi observada maior percentagem de pacientes classificados como Child-Pugh B e C e de pacientes com diagnóstico de cirrose por outras causas nos pacientes não acometidos pela neoplasia. Nos doentes com carcinoma hepatocelular foi observada maior percentagem de indivíduos classificados como Child

  7. "… the cadaver can be placed at your disposition here." - Legal, administrative basis of the transfer of cadavers in the Third Reich, its traces in archival sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebig, Michael

    2012-06-01

    For more than 15 years, the memorial site "Roter Ochse (Red Ox)" in Halle/Saale, Germany, has studied documents of special and military courts in Mitteldeutschland (central Germany). Hundreds of death sentences have been executed during the last years of the war in the former state prison of Halle. The resulting dead bodies were used in biomedical research and teaching. The number of executions was marginal before 1933 but increased steadily after the Nazis seized power. The judiciary delivered an increasing number of death sentences against political opponents and persons who were to be eradicated from the "Volksgemeinschaft" (national community) according to racist ideology. However, the dead bodies were not distributed evenly to each of the anatomical institutes. The distribution depended on factors such as the distance of the institute to an execution place, the court responsible for the sentence, and whether the state or relatives had the right to dispose of the bodies. At the beginning of the year 1939, the Reichsjustizministerium (department of justice) issued a decree that changed the distribution process of dead bodies. As a rule, after the responsible ministry informed the anatomical institute of a pending execution, the institute confirmed the pick-up day of the body. Details of the actual delivery of bodies can be found in execution protocols, reports by execution overseers, receipts of body deliveries, body registers of the institutes, etc. This paper will review the historical progression of ministerial decisions and demonstrate how administrative documents can be used as a point of departure for current research projects. PMID:22436607

  8. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  9. Assessment of the Breakaway Torque at the Posterior Pelvic Ring in Human Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Johannes Dominik; Bergmann, Mathias; Schwyn, Ronald; Keel, Marius Johann Baptist; Benneker, Lorin Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To enhance the diminished screw purchase in cancellous, osteoporotic bone following the fixation of posterior pelvic ring injuries by iliosacral screws an increased bone-implant contact area using modificated screws, techniques or bone cement may become necessary. The aim of the study was to identify sites within the pathway of iliosacral screws requiring modifications of the local bone or the design of instrumentations placed at this site. MATERIALS AND METHODS The breaka...

  10. Assessment of the Breakaway Torque at the Posterior Pelvic Ring in Human Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Johannes Dominik; Bergmann, Mathias; Schwyn, Ronald; Keel, Marius Johann Baptist; Benneker, Lorin Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To enhance the diminished screw purchase in cancellous, osteoporotic bone following the fixation of posterior pelvic ring injuries by iliosacral screws an increased bone-implant contact area using modificated screws, techniques or bone cement may become necessary. The aim of the study was to identify sites within the pathway of iliosacral screws requiring modifications of the local bone or the design of instrumentations placed at this site. Materials and Methods: The breakaw...

  11. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  12. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  13. Eversion during external rotation of the human cadaver foot produces high ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Post, Joel M; Braman, Jerrod E; Meyer, Eric G; Powell, John W; Haut, Roger C

    2012-09-01

    While high ankle sprains are often clinically ascribed to excessive external foot rotation, no experimental study documents isolated anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) injury under this loading. We hypothesized that external rotation of a highly everted foot would generate ATiFL injury, in contrast to deltoid ligament injury from external rotation of a neutral foot. Twelve (six pairs) male cadaveric lower extremity limbs underwent external foot rotation until gross failure. All limbs were positioned in 20° of dorsiflexion and restrained with elastic athletic tape. Right limbs were in neutral while left limbs were everted 20°. Talus motion relative to the tibia was measured using motion capture. Rotation at failure for everted limbs (46.8 ± 6.1°) was significantly greater than for neutral limbs (37.7 ± 5.4°). Everted limbs showed ATiFL injury only, while neutral limbs mostly demonstrated deltoid ligament failure. This is the first biomechanical study to produce isolated ATiFL injury under external foot rotation. Eversion of the axially loaded foot predisposes the ATiFL to injury, forming a basis for high ankle sprain. The study helps clarify a mechanism of high ankle sprain and may heighten clinical awareness of isolated ATiFL injury in cases of foot eversion prior to external rotation. It may also provide guidance to investigate the effect of prophylactic measures for this injury. PMID:22328337

  14. ElectricCadaver: A Dynamic Book of Human Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Steven Jay; Chase, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The ElectricCadaver™ is an electronic book that cross-references video images of the human body (gross and histological) with text, computer graphics, and sounds. The system includes navigational, bookmarking, and other editorial tools for annotating, reorganizing, and displaying its contents.

  15. Clinical evaluation of lumbar CT assisted discography in comparison with human cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shigehiko

    1988-04-01

    In order to estimate the clinical value of lumbar CT assisted discography (CTD), results obtained by this method were compared with histological findings of the cross section of the spine in fresh human cadavera. Based on these findings, preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation was investigated. In the discs of human cadavera, the contrast medium mainly invaded the fissures of nucleus pulposus and the ruptures of annulus fibrosus and then diffused to the surrounding tissues. These ruptures were classified into two categories: radial and circumferential. This indentification was possible only in CTD and was obscure in the usual discogram. Not all the ruptures could be dyed in a severe degenerative disc, and a rupture which was not communicated with nucleus pulposus was not dyed in a mild degenerative disc. In the preoperative CTD of lumbar disc herniation, the posterior radial ruptures representing the route of herniated nuclei were characteristic and the circumferential ruptures were found complicated.

  16. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinkevich, P; Rahbek, Ole; Møller-Madsen, B;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and...... precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening...... poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. RESULTS: Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. CONCLUSION: RSA is a precise tool for the...

  17. The effect of burning on the following insect colonization of the cadaver

    OpenAIRE

    Klimešová, Vanda

    2014-01-01

    This thesis are focused on forensic entomology and its potential use in the case of thermally altered objects. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of this scientific discipline and to inform about possiblilities of its use on even burnt remains using field experiment. Forensic entomology is the science discipline, that uses knowledge of the laws of development of insects to solve forensic cases. With the help of this knowledge we can determine individuals time of death - the pos...

  18. An unusual MR signal reduction artefact in an incompletely thawed cadaver spine specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmis, Andrew P. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); School of Medicine, Flinders University, South Australia (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.kurmis@flinders.edu.au; Slavotinek, John P. [Department of Medical Imaging, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia (Australia); Barber, Christine; Smith, Lachlan [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Fazzalari, Nicola L. [Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Division of Tissue Pathology, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science and Hanson Institute, South Australia (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: Within the contemporary constraints associated with in vivo use for research purposes, preservation of macroscopic human tissue specimens is of critical importance. Simple sub-zero freezing remains the method-of-choice for medium-term storage of such material. Despite widespread use, few papers have described the effects of this preservation method on resultant images, or the impact of inadequate tissue thawing. Materials and methods: A series of post-mortem-harvested human lumbar spine specimens were undergoing conventional MR imaging as part of a larger project exploring non-invasive hydration status assessment of the intervertebral disc. Results: A complex central signal reduction artefact was noted during scanning of one specimen, resembling an isotherm distribution. Subtle inadequacies in core specimen thawing lead to an initially confusing pattern of central signal dampening. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the impact of sub-optimal specimen preparation on image signal characteristics and highlight the importance of appropriate thawing methods of frozen tissue specimens prior to imaging.

  19. Virtual computed tomography colonoscopy: artifacts, image quality and radiation dose load in a cadaver study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the interdependency of spatial resolution, image reconstruction artifacts, and radiation doses in virtual CT colonoscopy by comparing various CT scanning protocols. A pig's colon with several artificial polypoid lesions was imaged after air insufflation with helical CT scanning using 1-, 3-, and 5-mm collimation, and pitch values varying from 1.0 to 3.0. Virtual endoscopic images and ''fly through'' sequences were calculated on a Sun Sparc 20 workstation (Navigator Software, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.). Several reconstruction artifacts as well as overall image quality were evaluated by three independent reviewers. In addition, radiation doses for the different CT protocols were measured as multiple-scan average dose using a 10-cm ion chamber and a standard Plexiglass body phantom. Generally, image quality and reconstruction artifacts were less affected by pitch values than by beam collimation. Thus, narrow beam collimation at higher pitch values (e. g. 3 mm/2.0) seems to be a reasonable compromise between quality of virtual endoscopic images and radiation dose load. (orig.)

  20. From cadaver to computer: incorporating computers into the topographical anatomy laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Issroff, Kim; Osmond, Mark; O'Higgins, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a multimedia facility in the Topographical Anatomy Laboratory at University College London. The aims of using computers in the laboratory are to encourage self-directed learning, to provide students with a means of independent study which allows instant feedback during their learning, and to allow students to progress according to their individual requirements, while achieving the overall objectives of the curriculum.DOI:10.1080/0968776970050109

  1. Morphological variations of the lungs: a study conducted on Indian cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    Bincy M George; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Marpalli, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of anatomical variations in lungs is essential during segmental or lobar resections of lungs. We studied the variations of fissures, lobes and hilar structures in 65 right and 73 left isolated lungs from the dissection hall. Horizontal fissure was absent in 3.07% and incomplete in 35.38% of right lungs. Four point six one percentage of right lungs had 3 fissures and 4 lobes. Three point zero seven percentage of right lungs had 3 arteries, 67.69% had 2 arteries, and 29.23% had only o...

  2. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the LockDown synthetic implant: a study with cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranu, R; Rushton, P R P; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Holder, L; Wallace, W A; Candal-Couto, J J

    2015-12-01

    Dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint is a relatively common injury and a number of surgical interventions have been described for its treatment. Recently, a synthetic ligament device has become available and been successfully used, however, like other non-native solutions, a compromise must be reached when choosing non-anatomical locations for their placement. This cadaveric study aimed to assess the effect of different clavicular anchorage points for the Lockdown device on the reduction of acromioclavicular joint dislocations, and suggest an optimal location. We also assessed whether further stability is provided using a coracoacromial ligament transfer (a modified Neviaser technique). The acromioclavicular joint was exposed on seven fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders. The joint was reconstructed using the Lockdown implant using four different clavicular anchorage points and reduction was measured. The coracoacromial ligament was then transferred to the lateral end of the clavicle, and the joint re-assessed. If the Lockdown ligament was secured at the level of the conoid tubercle, the acromioclavicular joint could be reduced anatomically in all cases. If placed medial or 2 cm lateral, the joint was irreducible. If the Lockdown was placed 1 cm lateral to the conoid tubercle, the joint could be reduced with difficulty in four cases. Correct placement of the Lockdown device is crucial to allow anatomical joint reduction. Even when the Lockdown was placed over the conoid tubercle, anterior clavicle displacement remained but this could be controlled using a coracoacromial ligament transfer. PMID:26637681

  3. First donation of human skin obtained from corpse; Primera donacion de piel humana obtenida de cadaver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The first donation of human skin coming from a cadaverous donor was obtained in the State of Mexico. The skin was obtained of a 34 year-old multi organic donor, the extraction of the same was carried out in an operating theatre by medical personnel, supported by personal of the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ. The skin was transported to the BTR for it processing. (Author)

  4. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  5. Histopathologic Evaluations of the Lingual Artery in Healthy Tongue of Adult Cadaver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Mi Jin; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Jin-Choon; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Jung, Sung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To clarify the anatomical distribution of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects through histopathologic evaluations. Methods. Eighteen healthy cadaveric tongues were used to produce 8 paraffin-embedded tissue sections each. Length from midline raphe, depth from dorsum of tongue and the whole transverse length tongue were measured. The lateral distance, depth, and proportion of lateral distance of deep lingual artery were determined from tip to base of tongue gradually. Lateral distance is length from median raphe to the center of deep lingual artery lumen. Depth is vertical distance from dorsal surface of tongue to the center of deep lingual artery. Proportion of lateral distance is obtained by dividing lateral distance with transverse length from median raphe to lateral border of tongue. The degree of symmetry between right and left sides and the difference between selected spots were evaluated. Results. Right and left sides of the lingual artery were symmetric. The lingual artery was lateralized as it run posterior. The lingual artery runs gradually deeper from the surface as it goes near the base of tongue. Both length and depth of the lingual artery gradually increased between 0%–75% of the mobile tongue, but 75%–100% zone of the lingual artery showed no significant difference. There was no anastomosis between right and left side of the lingual arteries. The lingual artery was located within 50% of the transverse length of tongue from median raphe. Conclusion. The present study reveals 3-dimensional information on the anatomical distributions of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects. These findings gives us beneficial information about the handling of the lingual artery during oral and base of tongue-related surgery. PMID:27334510

  6. Avaliação da relação entre parâmetros antropométricos (peso e altura e a topografia da raiz de L4 no espaço intertransversário L4-L5 através do acesso paramediano à coluna vertebral- Um estudo anatômico em vinte e um cadáveres Assessment of the correlation between anthropometric parameters (weight and height and the L4 root topography at the L4-L5 intertransverse space through paramedian access to the spine: an anatomic research on twenty one cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Poderoso de Araújo

    2008-01-01

    minimum L4 root mobilization. Our objective is to assess the potential correlation between anthropometric parameters and the L4 root topography. Twenty-one cadavers (42 sides were dissected and some parameters were measured: cadavers’ weight and height, width of the L5 transverse process, distance between L5 transverse process base and the point where the L4 root crosses it. The analysis of data allows us to conclude that no statistically significant correlation exists among the involved variables.

  7. Reversibilidad mandibular de la rigidez cadavérica por medios químicos en un modelo de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alfonso Tovar-Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular reversibility of the cadaverous stiffness by chemical means in a rat model. The main problem that a dentist faces when collectingpostmortem evidence is the buccal opening, which is limited by the cadaverous stiffness phenomenon that begins 3 hours after death. Thisphenomenon persists until it is destroyed by the late autolytic processes of decomposition, after 36 hours postmortem. Objective. To analyzethe feasibility of accelerating the reversion of the mandibular cadaverous stiffness by means of chemical substances to facilitate the buccalopening. Materials and methods. We assessed substances capable of altering the pH, chelating intramuscular calcium or inducing proteolysisof the actin-myosin complex of the masticatory muscles with cadaverous stiffness in Wistar rats. Results. We found that mandibularcadaverous stiffness in Wistar rats appears after 2.5 hours of death. After 3.5 hours, once the rigidity was established, we carried outinfiltrations with EDTA (20 mM, NaHCO3 (50 μM, Na2CO3 (50 μM and papain (10 μM. NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 solutions significantlyincreased (p<0.05 the reversion speed (mm/h from hour 5, in 108% and 100%, respectively. Based on the results of this assay, we doubledthe concentration of NaHCO3 and assessed a 1:1 mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 without finding significant differences with theNaHCO3 and Na2CO3 prior assays. Conclusion. NaHCO3 solution (50 μM allows a reversal of buccal opening enough to collect evidencebetween 5 and 5.5 hours.

  8. Reversibilidad mandibular de la rigidez cadavérica por medios químicos en un modelo de rata

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Alfonso Tovar-Franco; Diana Constanza Aparicio-Castellanos; Luisa Fernanda Henriquez Higuera

    2009-01-01

    Mandibular reversibility of the cadaverous stiffness by chemical means in a rat model. The main problem that a dentist faces when collectingpostmortem evidence is the buccal opening, which is limited by the cadaverous stiffness phenomenon that begins 3 hours after death. Thisphenomenon persists until it is destroyed by the late autolytic processes of decomposition, after 36 hours postmortem. Objective. To analyzethe feasibility of accelerating the reversion of the mandibular cadaverous stiffn...

  9. Comparison of the NYU thoracic and skull phantoms to the observed bone distribution in a cadaver containing Am-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the phantoms constructed at this laboratory for the calibration of in vivo skeletal measurements were designed to simulate the natural distribution in the skeleton, it is important that the assumptions used in the design of these structures be validated wherever possible. We have had the opportunity to validate our phantoms using the data obtained from a human skeleton with an incorporated Am-241 burden which was derived from an accidental inhalation exposure. The exposure case utilized for these comparisons was that of an adult male subject who was believed to be exposed in 1954 and subsequently died in 1979 as a result of causes unrelated to his Am-241 exposure. The body of this subject was willed to the Transuranic Registry and was the first whole body donor made available for detailed examination. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Endoscopically Guided Foraminal and Dorsal Rhizotomy for Chronic Axial Back Pain Based on Cadaver and Endoscopically Visualized Anatomic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Anthony; Gore, Satishchandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional fluoroscopically guided continuous radiofrequency (CRF) and pulsed Radiofrequency (PRF) lesioning of the medial branch, dorsal ramus, a standard technique to treat facet pain, is compared to an endoscopic visually guided technique. The endoscopic technique (Figure 1) is designed to ablate a larger area of the transverse process where the medial branch crosses to innervate the facet. Endoscopically guided visualization provides confirmation of nerve ablation or transect...

  11. Morphology of the human internal vertebral venous plexus : a cadaver study after intravenous Araldite CY 221 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; Groenewegen, H J; van Alphen, H A; Hoogland, P V

    1997-01-01

    Reviewing the literature on the vascular anatomy of the spinal epidural space, it appeared that the knowledge of the internal vertebral venous plexus is limited. Injection studies of the entire internal vertebral venous plexus after application of modern techniques, to the best of our knowledge, hav

  12. Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Waroux, Olivier; Tonus, Céline; Connan, Delphine; Antoine, Nadine; Baise, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) harvested from cadaveric tissues represent a promising approach for regenerative medicine. To date, no study has investigated whether viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from tendon or ligament up to 72 hours of post-mortem. The purpose of the present work was to find out if viable MSCs could survive in cadaveric tissues from adult equine ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem, and to assess their ability (i) to remain in an undifferentiate...

  13. Measurement of the AT and the CCD angle of macerated cadaver femora: a comparative study between CT and MRI measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the real AT (femoral antetorsion) and CCD (caput-scollum-diaphysis) angle by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hip specimen using direct measurements as reference standard, and to show that measurements by MRI can replace CT measurements and ma help avoiding X-ray exposition. Materials and methods: CT and MRI measurements were obtained on 25 in water-arrested macerated human femora. Postprocessing was done by 4 independent readers on a workstation using a dedicated 3D-software. Direct measurements of the real AT and the CCD angle were used as reference standard. The analysis included Student's test for paired values, interobserver variability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), maximum and middle divergence of the angles, and Bland-Altman plots. Results: For determining AT and the CCD angle with CT and MRI, good correlation was found between the 4 readers and with measurements using the reference standard. ICCs were 0.97 and 0.90 for measuring AT and CCD angle with CT, and 0.95 and 0.71 for measurements with MRI, respectively. Mean divergence between CT measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.8 for AT and 0.7 for the CDD-angle. Mean divergence between MRI measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.3 for AT and -0.4 for the CCD-angle. Mean divergences between CT and MRI measurements of AT and CCD-angle were 0.5 . Neither systematic errors nor dependences on the qualitative size of the reference data were evident in the divergences of measurements. (orig.)

  14. "Lupara Bianca" a way to hide cadavers after Mafia homicides. A cemetery of Italian Mafia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Gianpaolo, Di Peri; Monica, Salerno; Maglietta, Francesca; Sessa, Francesco; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    The Gargano, also known as the 'Spur of Italy', is a sub-region of Italy which is located in North of Puglia, in the Province of Foggia. A ravine located in this area was used as a dumping ground in past. During a clearing operation, a team of speleologists discovered human skeletal remains, which led to an official investigation by the local prosecutor's office. The prosecutor called a team of forensic specialist for a scene investigation to recover and identify the human skeletal remains. Four different human skeletal remains located at four different levels of depth underground were found and were in different conditions. A complete forensic investigation was initiated and comprised of radiological imaging with DNA profiling. Three of the four human skeletal remains that were found were identified as those belonging to men who vanished mysteriously in the nineties. The studies conducted have demonstrated that the victims found were murdered and the murders were attributed to the "Mafia of Gargano". The Mafia of Gargano was officially recognized as a criminal organization dating back to 2009 and their criminal activities included the smuggling of firearms and cigarettes, human trafficking, and smuggling of undocumented immigrants. Murders in which corpses are made to disappear is common practice in criminal activities including that of the Italian Mafia. The "Lupara Bianca" is a colloquial term commonly used in Sicily to refer to concealed murders. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported study describing the discovery of one of the locations used extensively by the local Mafia as a "cemetery" for victims of "Lupara Bianca" homicides. Based on evidences collected at the site, an explanation of this homicidal modality will be provided. PMID:25579982

  15. Co-presentation of unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants in one cadaver: A case report with clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Battaglia Patrick J; Scali Frank; Enix Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present a group of anatomical findings that may have clinical significance. Design This study is an anatomical case report of combined lumbo-pelvic peripheral nerve and muscular variants. Setting University anatomy laboratory. Participants One cadaveric specimen. Methods During routine cadaveric dissection for a graduate teaching program, unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants were observed in relation to the iliacus and piriformis muscle, respectively. ...

  16. Age and gender as determinants of the bone quality of the greater tuberosity: A HR-pQCT cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchhoff Chlodwig

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent trabecular changes of the humeral head might weaken the fixation of suture anchors used for rotator cuff (RC repair. This might lead to suture anchor loosening and thus compromise the integrity of the repair. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the trabecular microstructure within the RC footprint is influenced by age, gender or handedness. Methods Axial HR-pQCT scans (Scanco Medical of 64 freshly frozen cadaveric human humeral head specimens (age 72.3 ± 17.4 years were analyzed to determine the bone volume-to-total volume ratio (BV/TV, trabecular thickness (Trab Th, trabecular number (Trab N and connectivity density (Conn Dens. Within the RC footprint, 2 volumes of interest (VOI, posteromedial (PM and anterolateral (AL and one control VOI in the subarticular bone (SC were set. Results The highest BV/TV was found in SC: 0.22 ± 0.06% vs. PM: 0.04 ± 0.05% vs. AL: 0.02 ± 0.04%; p  Conclusions The presented microarchitectural data allow for future subtle biomechanical testing comprising knowledge on age- and sex-related changes of the tuberosities of the humeral head. Furthermore, the insights on the trabecular structure of the humeral head of the elderly may lead to the development of new fixation materials in bone with inferior bone quality.

  17. Co-presentation of unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants in one cadaver: A case report with clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present a group of anatomical findings that may have clinical significance. Design This study is an anatomical case report of combined lumbo-pelvic peripheral nerve and muscular variants. Setting University anatomy laboratory. Participants One cadaveric specimen. Methods During routine cadaveric dissection for a graduate teaching program, unilateral femoral and bilateral sciatic nerve variants were observed in relation to the iliacus and piriformis muscle, respectively. Further dissection of both the femoral nerve and accessory slip of iliacus muscle was performed to fully expose their anatomy. Results Piercing of the femoral nerve by an accessory iliacus muscle combined with wide variations in sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle presentations may have clinical significance. Conclusions Combined femoral and sciatic nerve variants should be considered when treatment for a lumbar disc herniation is refractory to care despite positive orthopedic testing.

  18. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  19. Age and gender as determinants of the bone quality of the greater tuberosity: A HR-pQCT cadaver study

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff Chlodwig; Braunstein Volker; Milz Stefan; Sprecher Christoph M; Kirchhoff Sonja; Graw Mathias; Imhoff Andreas B; Hinterwimmer Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Age-dependent trabecular changes of the humeral head might weaken the fixation of suture anchors used for rotator cuff (RC) repair. This might lead to suture anchor loosening and thus compromise the integrity of the repair. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the trabecular microstructure within the RC footprint is influenced by age, gender or handedness. Methods Axial HR-pQCT scans (Scanco Medical) of 64 freshly frozen cadaveric human humeral head specimens (age ...

  20. High origin of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament: MR arthrography with anatomic and histologic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ruiz, Francisco Alejandro [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California and VA healthcare system, San Diego, CA (United States); Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe, Departamento de Radiologia, Medellin (Colombia); Baranski Kaniak, Beatriz Cristina; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California and VA healthcare system, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California San Diego, VA Healthcare System Dan Diego, Department of Pathology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament has been described to arise from the anteroinferior labrum, but we have observed that in some persons its origin is from the anterior or anterosuperior labrum, creating diagnostic difficulties. Ten fresh unembalmed cadaveric shoulders underwent magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) using a posterior approach with a 1.5 T GE magnet, with the following sequences: T1-weighted fast spin-echo in axial, coronal and sagittal planes, and T1 fat-suppressed spin-echo in the axial plane (TR/TE 600/20, section thickness 2.5 mm, 0.5 mm interslice space, number of signals acquired, two, field of view 12 x 12 cm, and matrix 512 x 256 pixels). Following imaging, the shoulders were frozen and later sectioned using a band saw into 3-mm sections corresponding to the axial imaging plane. Histological analysis was also performed to determine the origin of the anterior band. Four of the ten shoulders had an origin of the anterior band above or at the 3 o'clock position: one at the 1 o'clock position, two at the 2 o'clock position, and one at the 3 o'clock position. In another shoulder, the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament originated from the middle glenohumeral ligament, and in five other shoulders, the anterior band originated from the anteroinferior labrum as has been described in the literature. This finding is of clinical significance as a high origin of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament leads to MR arthrographic finding that can simulate those of labral tears or detachments. (orig.)

  1. The MAVID heart holder: a demonstration device to anchor cadaver hearts for surgical simulation and practical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Constantine; Idriss, Rachid; Klaus, Kristen E

    2015-12-01

    Performing open heart surgery involves learning challenging techniques and a need for realistic training models to achieve and maintain a high level of surgical skills. The MAVID heart holder is an organ holder primarily designed to hold the heart in its anatomic position for the purpose of surgical simulation and education, thereby closing the gap between surgical performance in the laboratory and in the operating room. The device is simple to use, can be adjusted to organ size, and has the necessary instrumentation to be used with any solid organ. The MAVID heart holder also provides a platform for presentation and assists in advancing the research sphere. The advantage over other existing models is that the MAVID heart holder uses real tissue and does not distort the organ at the attachment sites. Further, it offers superior stability as well as the ability to manipulate the organ during presentation and dissection. Training with the MAVID heart holder has the potential to shorten training time to acquire surgical skills and proficiency before performing these techniques in the operating room and in so doing enhance patient safety. PMID:26675615

  2. [Divine cadavers: gender, medical discourse, and anatomical collections in the legend of Pedro González de Velasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alba

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the public image of Pedro Gonzólez de Velasco (1815-1882), famous for his anatomical collections and his Anthropological Museum, founded in 1875 in Madrid, and the popular legend related to the death, embalming and exhumation of his daughter Concepción. The doctor who is committed to the nation becomes a mad scientist, and his official biography is transformed into an urban legend. Beyond the merely anecdotal, I show how the aesthetics associated with female corpses and artificial women organize cultural imaginaries, bringing together medical discourses and literary and artistic representations. PMID:27363245

  3. Avaliação da trajetória dos parafusos bicorticais pela técnica de harms e melcher em relação à artéria carótida interna: estudo experimental em cadáveres Evaluación de la trayectoria de los tornillos bicorticales en la técnica de harms y melcher en relación con la arteria carótida interna: un estudio experimental en cadáveres Evaluation of the trajectory of the bicortical screws in relation to the internal carotid artery, in fixation by the harms and melcher technique: an experimental study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zanini Rocha

    2011-01-01

    estudios similares en la literatura que hacen hincapié en la necesidad de una evaluación cuidadosa de las imágenes y posición anatómica de la arteria carótida interna, antes del uso de tornillos bicorticales de masa lateral de C1 por acceso posterior.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to study the relationship between bicortical screws and the internal carotid artery, in anatomical body parts, in screw fixation by the Harms and Melcher technique. METHODS: Our sample consisted of five cadavers. RESULTS: The results were as follows: the average shortest distance between the outlet of the screw and the medial edge of the right internal carotid artery was 11.55 mm (range 10.05 to 14.23 mm, while on the left side, the average was 7.50 mm (ranging from 2.75 to 12.42 mm. The average shortest distance between the posterior edge of the internal carotid artery and the anterior cortical C1 lateral mass on the right was 4.24 mm (ranging from 2.08 to 7.48 mm, while the left side, the average was 2.98 mm (ranging from 1.83 to 3.83 mm. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with similar studies in the literature that emphasize the need for a careful assessment of images of anatomical position of the internal carotid artery prior to the use of bicortical screws in the C1 lateral mass by posterior access.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint: Correlation of findings with gross anatomy and MR arthrography in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M., E-mail: florian.buck@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Nico, Marcelo A.C., E-mail: nico.marcelo@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Gheno, Ramon, E-mail: ramon.gheno@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Trudell, Debra J., E-mail: debtrudell@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Resnick, Donald, E-mail: dresnick@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr., San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13{sup o}. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13{sup o} sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.

  5. Implant augmentation: adding bone cement to improve the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures: a biomechanical study using human cadaver bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, Dirk; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Richards, R Geoff; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Raschke, Michael J; Windolf, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The increasing problems in the field of osteoporotic fracture fixation results in specialized implants as well as new operation methods, for example, implant augmentation with bone cement. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical impact of augmentation in the treatment of osteoporotic distal femur fractures.Seven pairs of osteoporotic fresh frozen distal femora were randomly assigned to either an augmented or nonaugmented group. In both groups, an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 33 A3 fractures was fixed using the locking compression plate distal femur and cannulated and perforated screws. In the augmented group, additionally, 1 mL of polymethylmethacrylate cement was injected through the screw. Prior to mechanical testing, bone mineral density (BMD) and local bone strength were determined. Mechanical testing was performed by cyclic axial loading (100 N to 750 N + 0.05N/cycle) using a servo-hydraulic testing machine.As a result, the BMD as well as the axial stiffness did not significantly differ between the groups. The number of cycles to failure was significantly higher in the augmented group with the BMD as a significant covariate.In conclusion, cement augmentation can significantly improve implant anchorage in plating of osteoporotic distal femur fractures. PMID:25415673

  6. Cadaver study of the topography of the musculotendinous junction of the finger extensor muscles: applicability to tendon rupture following closed wrist trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, D; Tatu, L; Loisel, F; Vuillier, F; Parratte, B

    2015-09-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon in the wrist is a delayed complication that can occur after wrist injury. Several etiology-related hypotheses have been made to explain these ruptures. The one most commonly accepted is necrosis at the musculotendinous junction of the EPL, which is compressed between the extensor retinaculum and dorsal aspect of the radius. To confirm this hypothesis, we performed an anatomical study to show the close relationship between the extensor retinaculum and the musculotendinous junction of the EPL muscle. We calculated the distance between the musculotendinous junction of the various finger extensor muscles and the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. We were able to show that this junction is located under the extensor retinaculum for the extensor indicis (EI) and EPL muscles, but the latter is in the third extensor compartment, which is a tight, confined space. Any pressure increase in this space following trauma, for example, can bring about compartment syndrome at this musculotendinous junction, which some authors have found to be poorly vascularized. PMID:25577541

  7. Ultrasonographic evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint: Correlation of findings with gross anatomy and MR arthrography in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in the evaluation of degenerative changes in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Methods and materials: Ten cadaveric specimens were obtained. US evaluation of cartilage degeneration and thickness was performed by two independent and blinded readers (R1 and R2). Gross anatomy and MR arthrography evaluated by two readers in consensus served as the reference standard. The joint surface not accessible to US was measured. Results: US interreader agreement was non-existent for cartilage thickness measurements and moderate for cartilage degeneration grading (weighted kappa = 0.41). Comparing US and MR imaging evaluation, there was no correlation between US R1 and MR imaging (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.352) and a moderate correlation between US R2 and MR imaging (PCC = 0.570) concerning cartilage thickness measurements. Concerning cartilage degeneration grading, there was a moderate to strong (R1 Spearman correlation coefficient [SCC] = 0.729)/R2 SCC = 0.767) correlation concerning cartilage degeneration grading. Comparing US and gross anatomic evaluation, there was no correlation for US R1 (PCC = 0.220) and a strong correlation for US R2 (PCC = 0.922) concerning cartilage thickness measurements, and a strong to moderate correlation (R1 SCC = 0.808/R2 SCC = 0.597) concerning cartilage degeneration grading. The mean sector of the articular surface of the ulna head not accessible to US was 13o. Conclusion: In conclusion the DRUJ is accessible to US except in the central 13o sector of the joint surface. US was approved to be sufficient in demonstrating advanced stages of cartilage degeneration. Thus, US of the DRUJ is recommended in patients suffering from ulnar-sided wrist pain.

  8. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm3. However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm3. VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA radiation geometry, the effective dose according to the upcoming ICRP recommendation was somewhat larger than that according to the ICRP-60. This seems due to change of the tissue weighting factor in the upcoming ICRP recommendation. The developed phantoms (VKH-Man and HDRK-Man) are expected to be used to estimate the radiation risk of only Korean in external and internal dosimetry. Dose conversion coefficients calculated in this study are also expected to be used in radiation protection assessment of Korean since those were distinguished from those of the western

  9. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser–assisted access osteotomy for maxillary sinus elevation: a human and animal cadaver study

    OpenAIRE

    Stübinger, S; Nuss, Katja M; Sebesteny, T; Saldamli, B; Sader, R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usability of a variable square pulse (VSP) erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser for a lateral access osteotomy to the maxillary sinus in the course of a sinus elevation procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In six formalin-fixed human heads and six fresh sheep heads, a VSP Er:YAG laser was used to perform a bilateral maxillary access osteotomy. For the osteotomies, the Er:YAG laser was applied with a pulse energy of 1000 mJ, a pulse duration of 300 mu...

  10. Freshwater bacterioplankton cultured from liver, kidney and lungs of a decomposed cadaver retrieved from a sandy seashore: possibility of drowning in a river and then floating out to sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Kozawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Muraoka, Eri; Uchiyama, Taketo; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-01

    A decomposed female body with an open abdomen and pleural cavity washed up on a beach after a powerful typhoon. Autopsy findings could not determine the cause of death because of leaching and putrefaction. Numbers and types of diatoms in organs overall, suggested the aspiration of fresh or brackish water with low salinity. However, this could not be confirmed because of contamination via the open cavities. We simultaneously investigated the presence of bacterioplankton in liver, kidney and lung homogenates using a modification of our reported bacteriological method. The freshwater bacterioplankton Plesiomonas shigelloides was identified in each of these organs, but marine bacterioplankton were undetectable despite the circumstances under which the body was discovered. The presence of freshwater bacterioplankton reinforced the results of the diatom test, and we concluded that this victim had died of drowning in fresh or brackish water with low salinity. PMID:20447853

  11. Evaluación de la fijación femoral en la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior. Estudio experimental en modelo cadavérico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Claramunt, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios de esta tesis analizan la fijación femoral de la plastia de isquiotibiales para la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior. Hasta ahora el concepto de isometría ha sido predominante a la hora de realizar el túnel femoral, de manera en que se intentaba dar la misma tensión a la plastia en todos los grados de flexión de la rodilla. Por esto, el túnel se realizaba alto y profundo en el cóndilo femoral lateral. En los últimos años, la localización de este túnel ha cambiado busc...

  12. 肾移植术后存活影响因素分析%Cadaver renal transplantation and multivariate analysis for graft survival: a clinical review of 2 016 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐隽; 闵志廉; 朱有华; 刘玉杉; 陆健; 王立明; 王亚伟; 任吉忠; 郑军华; 徐丹枫; 周梅生; 姚亚成; 高轶

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review kidney transplantation in the center and analyze the risk factors affecting long-term allograft survival.Methods Thirty-two relative variables were analyzed with SAS statistical software. Using Log-rank method, we investigated influence of these variables on short-and long-term survival of grafts. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-years graft survival rates and half-life. Proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model) was used to assess and rank the relative risk of potential variables.Results The 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-years graft survival rates were 83%, 75%, 66% and 48%. After excluding the patients died with functioning grafts, the 1-,3-,5-,10 years grafts survival rate increased to 89%, 82%, 75% and 69%, respectively. The mean half-life was 8.78±0.14 and 14.09±0.20 years, respectively. By Log-rank analysis, factors affecting short- and long-term graft survival were identified as: renal function, duration of graft function became normal, cold-ischemia time, presence of acute rejection, delayed graft function, immunosuppressive regimen, complication, infection, anti-rejection therapy. Cox model multivariate analysis showed that there were 18 factors affecting graft survival.Conclusions New immunosuppressive agents not only significantly increase short-term graft survival, but also have the better long-term outcome tendency. Making assurance to get high quality donor organ and minimizing the death with graft function may be the most feasible way to prolong graft survival at present.%目的分析影响肾移植存活的因素,以提高肾移植术后长期存活率. 方法采用SAS软件,统计2 016例(2 105次)肾移植受者群体中的33个相关变量.用Kaplan-Meier曲线计算1、3、5、10年移植肾存活率及移植肾半生存期,用Log-rank方法进行单变量分析,采用COX模型多元回归计算相对危险度. 结果移植肾1、3、5、10年存活率分别为83%(1 543/1 859)、75%(1 125/1 500)、66%(800/1 212)、48%(291/607),剔除有移植肾功能死亡的病例后,存活率则为89%(1 655/1 859)、82%(1 230/1 500)、75%(909/1 212)、69%(419/607),两者的移植肾半生存期分别为(8.78±0.14)年和(14.09±0.20)年.与肾移植长期存活关系密切的单变量有:供肾缺血时间,移植次数,免疫抑制药(ISA)种类和组合,排斥,移植肾功能恢复正常时间及术后肌酐水平,急性肾小管坏死(ATN),移植肾功能延迟恢复(DGF),急性排斥的治疗方法,感染并发症等因素. 结论免疫抑制剂的改进提高了肾移植短期存活率,也显示出长期存活的趋势.提高供肾质量,降低带有移植肾功能的患者的死亡率是现阶段提高移植肾长期存活率的一个最有可能实现的途径.

  13. Yüz ve Boynun Önemli Vasküler Anomalileri-Klinik Önemleriyle Birlikte Bir Kadavra Çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    Vollala, Venkata Ramana; BOLLA, Sreenivasa Rao; PAMİDİ, Narendra

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out vascular variations in the face and neck region. Materials and Methods: 75 cadavers of both sexes have been used in the current study. Head and neck dissections of these cadavers were done in the department of anatomy, Kasturba Medical College and Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal. Results: Out of 75 cadavers, we observed five variations in four different cadavers, the findings include; facial vein continuing as external jugular ...

  14. An Ethical Solution to the Challenges in Teaching Anatomy with Dissection in the Chinese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luqing; Wang, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ming; Han, Qunying; Ding, Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Universities and medical schools in China are faced with an ongoing shortage of cadavers for education and research because of insufficient numbers of cadaver donations. This article will examine the main obstacles to cadaver donation in the Chinese culture. These include superstitious traditional views about the body, a lack of legislation…

  15. Reduction of formaldehyde concentrations in the air and cadaveric tissues by ammonium carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamata, Seiichi; Kodera, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of formaldehyde by ammonium carbonate was examined in cadavers and in vitro. Formaldehyde concentrations in the air (10 cm above human cadavers) and in various cadaveric tissues were measured with or without perfusion of ammonium carbonate solution into formaldehyde-fixed cadavers. Air samples were monitored using Kitagawa gas detector tubes. For measurement of formaldehyde in tissues, muscles and organs were cut into small pieces and tissue fluids were separated out by centrifu...

  16. Estudio de la función del rodete acetabular en la biomecánica de la cadera: estudio cadavérico de la repercusión de la lesión y la reparación del rodete acetabular en la cinética articular de la cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Tey Pons, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo experimental en espécimen de cadera para valorar la repercusión de la lesión labral, parcial o completa, en la distribución de cargas de la superficie acetabular, así como el papel de la reconstrucción labral por reanclaje al reborde acetabular en la misma. Este trabajo implica el diseño y desarrollo previo de una bancada de prueba, el uso de tecnología de sensores piezoeléctricos para medir la presión intraarticular y la medición dinámica de las mismas en cinco especímenes anatómi...

  17. Measurement of the AT and the CCD angle of macerated cadaver femora: a comparative study between CT and MRI measurements; Die Bestimmung des AT- und CCD-Winkels am mazerierten Leichenfemur - Eine Vergleichsstudie zwischen CT- und MRT-Messung und Direktmessung am Praeparat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, V.; Herber, S.; Kreitner, K.-F.; Thelen, M. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie; Kuellmer, K. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik fuer Orthopaedie

    2003-10-01

    Purpose: To compare measurements of the real AT (femoral antetorsion) and CCD (caput-scollum-diaphysis) angle by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hip specimen using direct measurements as reference standard, and to show that measurements by MRI can replace CT measurements and ma help avoiding X-ray exposition. Materials and methods: CT and MRI measurements were obtained on 25 in water-arrested macerated human femora. Postprocessing was done by 4 independent readers on a workstation using a dedicated 3D-software. Direct measurements of the real AT and the CCD angle were used as reference standard. The analysis included Student's test for paired values, interobserver variability using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), maximum and middle divergence of the angles, and Bland-Altman plots. Results: For determining AT and the CCD angle with CT and MRI, good correlation was found between the 4 readers and with measurements using the reference standard. ICCs were 0.97 and 0.90 for measuring AT and CCD angle with CT, and 0.95 and 0.71 for measurements with MRI, respectively. Mean divergence between CT measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.8 for AT and 0.7 for the CDD-angle. Mean divergence between MRI measurements and those of the reference standard was 0.3 for AT and -0.4 for the CCD-angle. Mean divergences between CT and MRI measurements of AT and CCD-angle were 0.5 . Neither systematic errors nor dependences on the qualitative size of the reference data were evident in the divergences of measurements. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Messung des reellen Femurantetorsions (AT)- und Caput-Collum-Diaphysenwinkels (CCD-Winkels) im computer (CT)- und magnetresonanz (MR)-tomographischen Bild sowie Direktmessungen am Praeparat im Vergleich. Es soll gezeigt werden, dass die mit einer Strahlenexposition verbundene computertomographische durch die roentgenstrahlenfreie MR-tomographische Messung ersetzt werden kann. Material und Methoden: Die computer- und MR-tomographischen Bilder wurden von 25 im Wasserbad gelagerten mazerierten Leichenfemora angefertigt und anschliessend an einer Workstation ueber ein 3D-Programm von 4 Auswertern unabhaengig voneinander ausgewertet. Des Weiteren erfolgte eine Direktmessung der Winkel am Praeparat, welche als Referenzstandard diente. Ergebnisse: Es ergaben sich gute Uebereinstimmungen der 4 Auswerter bei den computer- und MR-tomographischen Messungen des AT- und CCD-Winkels, ebenso im Vergleich zur Referenzmethode. Als Mass fuer die Interobserverreliabilitaet der CT-Messungen ergab sich ein ICC (Intra-Class-Korrelationskoeffizient) fuer die AT-Winkel von 0,97 und fuer die CCD-Winkel von 0,90, bei den MRT-Messungen fuer den AT-Winkel von 0,95 und fuer die CCD-Winkel von 0,71. Die mittlere Abweichung von den Werten gemessen am Praeparat betrug 0,8 , bei den CCD-Winkeln 0,7 . Die mittlere Abweichung aller MR-tomographisch bestimmten AT-Winkel von den Winkeln gemessen am Praeparat betrug 03 , bei den CCD-Winkeln -0,4 . Die mittlere Abweichung aller in der CT bestimmten AT-Winkel von den Winkeln gemessen in der MR-Tomographie betrug 0,5 , bei den CCD-Winkeln ebenfalls. Die durchgefuehrten Messungen zeigten keinen Anhalt fuer systematische Messfehler und/oder Abhaengigkeiten von der quantitativen Groesse der Referenzwerte. (orig.)

  18. Biomechanical comparison of expansive pedicle screw and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae, a cadaver study%骨质疏松尸体腰椎中膨胀式椎弓根螺钉与骨水泥强化椎弓根螺钉固定稳定性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达; 伍红桦; 郑伟; 龚凯; 蒋凯; 廖冬发; 雷伟; 潘显明

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the biomechanical characteristics of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw(PMMA-PS) in osteoporotic cadaveric lumbar vertebrae. Meth-ods: A total of sixteen vertebrae (L1-L4) was obtained from four fresh-frozen human cadaveric spines with a mean of 63 years(range, 51 to 78 years). There were 3 females and 1 male specimens. Anterior-posterior and lateral radiographs of each vertebra were obtained to exclude vertebral fracture, deformity and osteolysis result-ing from malignancy. One markedly deformed vertebra was excluded from this study. After the measurement of bone mineral density(BMD) of all vertebral bodies, fifteen vertebrae were randomly divided into three groups. After the preparation of pilot hole by using the same method, the conventional pedicle screw(CPS) was inserted in CPS group, the pilot hole was filled with PMMA followed by CPS insertion in PMMA-PS group, and EPS was inserted in EPS group. Twenty four hours later, X-ray and CT scan were performed to exam the posi-tions of screws and distribution of PMMA. Then, all vertebrae were tightly fixed on MTS 858, each screw was pulled at a constant speed of 10mm/min until the failure of the pedicle screw, and the maximum pullout strength(Fmax) and energy absorbed value(EAV) were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in BMD among three groups (P>0.05). According to World Health Organization definition, vertebrae in three groups were osteoporotic with all BMD values less than 0.8g/cm2 and T values was between -3.5 and -2.5. No malposition of screw was detected in all groups and no cement leakage was detected in PMMA-PS group under X-ray and CT examination. In CPS group, screw was surrounded with bone tissue directly. In PMMA-PS group, screw was wrapped up by PMMA and PMMA existed in bone tissue around the CPS which shaped like a spindle-shaped structure in vertebral body. In EPS group, anterior part of EPS presented an obvious expansion in vertebral body and formed a clawlike structure. Fmax in CPS group, PMMA-PS group and EPS group was 751.50±251.37N, 1521.70±513.27N and 1175.20±396.51N, respectively. Fmax in PMMA-PS group and EPS group was significantly higher than that in CPS group (P0.05)。 X 线检查和CT 重建显示各组螺钉位置均良好,PMMA-PS 组中未见PMMA渗漏现象;CPS组螺钉被周围的骨质直接包绕;PMMA-PS组螺钉被PMMA所包裹,PMMA存在于螺钉周围的骨质中,在椎体内形成了“纺锤样”结构;EPS组螺钉的前端在椎体内明显膨胀,形成了“爪状”结构。 CPS组、PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组的Fmax 分别为751.50±251.37N、1521.70±513.27N 和1175.20±396.51N,PMMA-PS组和EPS组均显著高于CPS 组(P<0.001,P=0.026),而PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组之间的差异无统计学意义(P=0.064)。 CPS 组、PMMA-PS 组和EPS 组的EAV 分别为1.47±0.51J、3.09±0.93J 和2.46±0.69J,PMMA-PS 组和EPS组均显著高于CPS组(P<0.001,P=0.005),而PMMA-PS组和EPS组之间的差异无统计学意义(P=0.067)。结论:EPS可显著提高骨质疏松腰椎内椎弓根螺钉的稳定性,达到了与传统PMMA强化椎弓根螺钉接近的固定强度,具有良好的临床应用前景。

  19. Validação técnica da drenagem pulmonar como tratamento do enfisema pulmonar avançado: estudo anatômico em cadáveres Technical validation of pulmonary drainage for the treatment of severe pulmonary emphysema: a cadaver-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio Mott Ancona Lopez; Roberto Saad Jr.; Vicente Dorgan Neto; Marcio Botter; Roberto Gonçalves; Jorge Henrique Rivaben

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica operatória da drenagem pulmonar através do estudo anatômico em cadáveres, determinar se o local definido para a drenagem pulmonar é adequado e seguro, e determinar a relação anatômica do tubo de drenagem com a parede torácica, pulmões, grandes vasos e mediastino. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 30 cadáveres de ambos os sexos, fornecidos pelo Necrotério do Hospital Central da Santa Casa de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP) no período entre maio e novembro de 2011. Foi inseri...

  20. Should We Be “Nudging” for Cadaveric Organ Donations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2012-01-01

    Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...

  1. The Vesalius Project: Interactive Computers in Anatomical Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Thomas O.; Spurgeon, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a high-resolution, interactive 3-D atlas of human/animal anatomy that students will use to learn the structure of the body and to understand their own bodies in health and disease. This system can be used to reinforce cadaver study or to serve as a substitute for institutions where it is not practical to use cadavers. (KR)

  2. Composite bone models in orthopaedic surgery research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfar, John; Menorca, Ron Martin Garcia; Reed, Jeffrey Douglas; Stanbury, Spencer

    2014-02-01

    Composite bone models are increasingly used in orthopaedic biomechanics research and surgical education-applications that traditionally relied on cadavers. Cadaver bones are suboptimal for many reasons, including issues of cost, availability, preservation, and inconsistency between specimens. Further, cadaver samples disproportionately represent the elderly, whose bone quality may not be representative of the greater orthopaedic population. The current fourth-generation composite bone models provide an accurate reproduction of the biomechanical properties of human bone when placed under bending, axial, and torsional loads. The combination of glass fiber and epoxy resin components into a single phase has enabled manufacturing by injection molding. The high level of anatomic fidelity of the cadaver-based molds and negligible shrinkage properties of the epoxy resin results in a process that allows for excellent definition of anatomic detail in the cortical wall and optimized consistency of features between models. Recent biomechanical studies of composites have validated their use as a suitable substitute for cadaver specimens. PMID:24486757

  3. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and lyophilized (freeze dried). The ... the most common uses of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous ...

  4. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about 36 cases, but that did not include five or six hip cadavers, many of which I ... I think that’s good. I think, you know, five to ten, you’re fairly comfortable with a ...

  5. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A;

    2010-01-01

    a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the...

  6. Amyand's hernia: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Dimitrios Dimitroulis; Theodore G Troupis; Maria Allamani; Alexandros Paraschos; Antonios Mazarakis; Nikolaos I Nikiteas; Alkiviadis Kostakis

    2006-01-01

    The presence of vermiform appendix in inguinal hernia is rare and is known as Amyand's hernia. We report an Amyand's hernia, where the appendix was found in a right inguinal hernia in one male cadaver aged ninety two years.

  7. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important because there’s been some literature suggesting otherwise. Well as I explain, Roger, that literature comes from the cadaver, where everything has to be forced and the tissues are not normal. So ...

  8. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abanik, who was one of my mentors in training, you know, really pioneered the free vascularized fibular ... hands is about 36, but that included a training course. Yeah. And multiple cadavers. So I think ...

  9. Single-incision technique for the internal fixation of distal fractures of the tibia and fibula: a combined anatomic and clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Baoqing; Huang, Gan; George, Josiah T.; Li, Wenrui; Pan, Sihua; Zhou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To present a novel single anterior-lateral approach for the treatment of distal tibia and fibula fracture via anatomical study and primary clinical application in order to minimize soft tissue complications. Design Both a gross anatomic cadaver and retrospective studies of the single-incision technique in patients recruited between June 2004 and January 2010. Setting Level I trauma center. Patients/participants Twenty-six legs of 14 adult human cadavers and clinical recruitment of ...

  10. Feasibility of Ultrasound Guided Atlanto-occipital Joint Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Sun Jae; Lee, U-Young; Cho, Sei Un; Rhee, Won Ihl

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of ultrasound guided atlanto-occipital joint injection. Method Six atlanto-occipital joints of three cadavers were examined. Cadavers were placed in prone position with their head slightly rotated towards the contra-lateral side. The atlanto-occipital joint was initially identified with a longitudinal ultrasound scan at the midline between occipital protuberance and mastoid process. Contrast media 0.5cc was injected into the atlanto-occipital joint using ...

  11. Is Dissection a Must for Better Knowledge Among Future Doctors?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Barkat Irfan Deeba; Mohamed Salih Mahfouz; Hasan Tabinda; Mohamed Husain Shaan

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of anatomy education in contemporary medicine remains undisputable, the medium used to deliver anatomy information to medical learners is rapidly changing .The traditional dissection lies in the midst of a downward spiral as modern technological teaching alternatives rapidly substitute the cadaver. In this climate of pedagogical metamorphosis, the long-term cognitive impact of a ‘cadaver less' curriculum in the assimilation of core knowledge among our future physicians an...

  12. Morphology of plantar interdigital neuroma: a comparative cadaveric study of elderly Finnish and Japanese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinichi; Nakao, Tadashi; Yamane, Shigeki; Fukuda, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Masahito; Santti, Risto; Murakami, Gen

    2013-01-01

    To examine morphological differences in Morton's interdigital neuroma between two elderly human populations, we conducted comparative study using 40 Japanese (27 males, 13 females; mean age, 81.2 years) and 21 Finnish (6 males, 15 females; mean age, 80.5 years) cadavers. We defined the neuroma as a thickening of the nerve of at least two-fold relative to the non-pathological proximal part. The incidence of this neuroma was 25% (10/40) in the Japanese and 33.3% (7/21) in the Finnish cadavers. Moderate or severe hallux valgus (with an angle of more than 20 degrees) was seen in half of the 40 Japanese cadavers (7 males, 13 females), but was absent in the Finnish cadavers. Such hallux valgus was present in 7 (5 males, 2 females) of the 10 Japanese cadavers with neuroma. Moreover, in 2 Japanese cadavers, a paper-like, specialized type of neuroma was associated with the deformity. Pathogenesis of Morton's neuroma might be different between human populations with or without hallux valgus. PMID:23883772

  13. Distinctive thanatomicrobiome signatures found in the blood and internal organs of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ismail; Javan, Gulnaz T; Pozhitkov, Alexander E; Noble, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    According to the Human Microbiome Project, 90% of the cells in a healthy adult body are microorganisms. What happens to these cells after human host death, defined here as the thanatomicrobiome (i.e., thanatos-, Greek defn., death), is not clear. To fill the void, we examined the thanatomicrobiome of the spleen, liver, brain, heart and blood of human cadavers. These organs are thought to be devoid of microorganisms in a healthy adult host. We report that the thanatomicrobiome was highly similar among organ tissues from the same cadaver but very different among the cadavers possibly due to differences in the elapsed time since death and/or environmental factors. Isolation of microbial DNA from cadavers is known to be a challenge. We compared the effectiveness of two methods by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes and sequencing the amplicons from four cadavers. Paired comparisons revealed that the conventional DNA extraction method (bead-beating in phenol/chloroform/bead-beating followed by ethanol precipitation) yielded more 16S rRNA amplicons (28 of 30 amplicons) than a second method (repeated cycles of heating/cooling followed by centrifugation to remove cellular debris) (19 of 30 amplicons). Shannon diversity index of the 16S rRNA genes revealed no significant difference by extraction method. The present report provides a proof of principle that the thanatomicrobiome may be an efficient biomarker to study postmortem transformations of cadavers. PMID:25091187

  14. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  15. Control of joint motion simulators for biomechanical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a hierarchical adaptive algorithm for controlling upper extremity human joint motion simulators. A joint motion simulator is a computer-controlled, electromechanical system which permits the application of forces to the tendons of a human cadaver specimen in such a way that the cadaver joint under study achieves a desired motion in a physiologic manner. The proposed control scheme does not require knowledge of the cadaver specimen dynamic model, and solves on-line the indeterminate problem which arises because human joints typically possess more actuators than degrees of freedom. Computer simulation results are given for an elbow/forearm system and wrist/hand system under hierarchical control. The results demonstrate that any desired normal joint motion can be accurately tracked with the proposed algorithm. These simulation results indicate that the controller resolved the indeterminate problem redundancy in a physiologic manner, and show that the control scheme was robust to parameter uncertainty and to sensor noise.

  16. Relevance of postmortem radiology to the diagnosis of fatal cerebral gas embolism from compressed air diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A J; Griffiths, D; Lavender, S; Summers, P; Rich, K

    2006-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that artefact caused by postmortem off‐gassing is at least partly responsible for the presence of gas within the vascular system and tissues of the cadaver following death associated with compressed air diving. Methods Controlled experiment sacrificing sheep after a period of simulated diving in a hyperbaric chamber and carrying out sequential postmortem computed tomography (CT) on the cadavers. Results All the subject sheep developed significant quantities of gas in the vascular system within 24 hours, as demonstrated by CT and necropsy, while the control animals did not. Conclusions The presence of gas in the vascular system of human cadavers following diving associated fatalities is to be expected, and is not necessarily connected with gas embolism following pulmonary barotrauma, as has previously been claimed. PMID:16489175

  17. Temporal bone dissection skill: A necessity for life otologic surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomy of the temporal bone is complex and not easily learned. Hours of study in the temporal bone laboratory are required for a good grasp by the intending otologic surgeon in order to avoid predictable complications. Aim and Objective: This study aims at highlighting the steps involved toward acquiring the necessary skills and understanding this complex anatomy before embarking on life otological surgeries (temporal bones surgeries and cochlear implant in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of cadaver temporal bone dissection conducted over a period of 3 months. A total of 10 dry, formalin-fixed cadavers were used for the dissection. A team of doctors headed by a consultant otolaryngologist carried out the dissections on the cadavers. The landmark of importance for the dissections was the McEwen′s triangle. From this starting point, various otologic surgeries were performed hands-on on the cadavers using the appropriate burs and their sizes. Anatomic features encountered during the dissection were noted and recorded. Results: The 10 cadavers (100% were all adult males. The youngest and oldest cadavers were aged 25 and 45 years, respectively, with an overall mean age of 38.9 years. The interval between death and embalmment varied from 5 to 79 days. The suprameatal crest, dural plate, aditus and antrum were all present in the 20 temporal bones dissected. Cribrifossae and wide marrow mastoid cavity were noted in 17 (85% temporal bones each, highly pneumatized mastoid, herald air cells and incus were seen in 14 (70% each, tympanic remnant was seen in 13 (65% and stapes in 6 (30%. Conclusion: Temporal bone dissection provides an avenue in understanding the anatomic features and the variations that may pose a challenge in cochlear implant and other otologic surgeries and it enhances the dexterity of the otologic surgeon.

  18. Unraveling the intraguild competition between Oscheius spp. nematodes and entomopathogenic nematodes: Implications for their natural distribution in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Půža, Vladimir; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Blanco-Pérez, Rubén; Čepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-11-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are excellent biological control agents to fight soil-dwelling insect pests. In a previous survey of agricultural soils of Switzerland, we found mixtures of free-living nematodes (FLN) in the genus Oscheius, which appeared to be in intense competition with EPN. As this may have important implications for the long-term persistence of EPN, we studied this intraguild competition in detail. We hypothesized that (i) Oscheius spp. isolates act as scavengers rather than entomopathogens, and (ii) cadavers with relatively small numbers of EPN are highly suitable resources for Oscheius spp. reproduction. To study this, we identified Oscheius spp. isolated from Swiss soils, quantified the outcome of EPN/Oscheius competition in laboratory experiments, developed species-specific primers and probe for quantitative real-time PCR, and evaluated their relative occurrence in the field in the context of the soil food web. Molecular analysis (ITS/D2D3) identified MG-67/MG-69 as Oscheius onirici and MG-68 as O. tipulae (Dolichura-group). Oscheius spp. indeed behaved as scavengers, reproducing in ∼64% of frozen-killed cadavers from controlled experiments. Mixed infection in the laboratory by Oscheius spp. with low (3 IJs) or high (20 IJs) initial EPN numbers revealed simultaneous reproduction in double-exposed cadavers which resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of EPN progeny from the cadaver. This effect depended on the number of EPN in the initial inoculum and differed by EPN species; Heterorhabditis megidis was better at overcoming competition. This study reveals Oscheius spp. as facultative kleptoparasites that compete with EPN for insect cadavers. Using real-time qPCR, we were able to accurately quantify this strong competition between FLN and EPN in cadavers that were recovered after soil baiting (∼86% cadavers with >50% FLN production). The severe competition within the host cadavers and the intense management of the soils in

  19. Body donation in India: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant A. Rokade; Bahetee, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one’s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in I...

  20. Variations in abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the Quervain syndrome: a surgical and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Teerawat; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-two wrists of Thai cadavers and the wrists of 66 patients with de Quervain syndrome were studied, and the variation in the number of tendons and the fibro-osseous tunnel in the first extensor compartment were recorded. The abductor pollicis longus had more than one tendon in 73 of the cadavers (89%) and in 32 of the patients (49%) (p de Quervain syndrome (p = 0.01). The results indicate that the number of fibro-osseous tunnels and multiple compartments in the first extensor compartment may be associated with a predisposition to de Quervain syndrome. PMID:17484184

  1. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  2. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  3. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  4. Learning of Musculoskeletal Ligament Stress Testing in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David A.; Youdas, James W.; Hollman, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Human anatomy in physical therapy programs is a basic science course serving as a foundation for subsequent clinical courses. Integration of anatomy with a clinical emphasis throughout a curriculum provides opportunities for reinforcement of previously learned material. Considering the human cadaver laboratory as a fixed cost to our program, we…

  5. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  6. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  7. A precise radiographic method to determine the location of the inferior alveolar canal in the posterior edentulous mandible: implications for dental implants. Part 2: Clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J P; Tharanon, W

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of implant placement in the posterior region of eight edentulous cadaver mandibles was performed. The results demonstrated that the radiographic technique developed can be employed to safely place implants adjacent to the inferior alveolar nerve in the posterior mandible by using radiographic laminography and a specially designed intraoral reference splint. PMID:2391136

  8. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  9. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  10. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to...... definite degenerative pathology in hips will be used by the current authors in future studies....

  11. Computer tomography of the normal larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal computer tomographic anatomy of the larynx and neighbouring structures is illustrated. Special attention is paid to the preepiglottic and para-glottic spaces, which cannot be adequately demonstrated by any other method. The technique is discussed with examinations done on a cadaver and on patients. (orig.)

  12. Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…

  13. The Sublime Corpse in Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's Women's Journal "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello" (1860)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda's choice to include articles depicting the advanced decay of cadavers, which are simultaneously horrible and awesome, in her women's periodical "Album Cubano de lo Bueno y lo Bello". Background on Avellaneda's biography, women's print culture, and theories of the sublime provide a frame for the…

  14. An Integrated Teaching Method of Gross Anatomy and Computed Tomography Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tohru; Tajika, Yuki; Ueno, Hitoshi; Awata, Sachiko; Hirasawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Maki; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Tsushima, Yoshito; Endo, Keigo; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is essential for medical students to learn and comprehend human anatomy in three dimensions (3D). With this in mind, a new system was designed in order to integrate anatomical dissections with diagnostic computed tomography (CT) radiology. Cadavers were scanned by CT scanners, and students then consulted the postmortem CT images during cadaver…

  15. MR imaging and ultrasonographic findings of tensor fasciae suralis muscle: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is a very rare anomalous muscle located in the popliteal region. This anatomic variation has been reported often through cadaver studies. However, there are only a few radiologic reports of this entity. We presented a case of tensor fasciae suralis muscle detected as an incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound

  16. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The con

  17. Sonographic guided insertion of electrodes into the cruciate ligaments of the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D B; Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Magnusson, S P; Dyhre-Pouelsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R

    1999-01-01

    The present cadaver study examined the probability of accurate ultrasound guided insertion of electrodes into the anterior (ACL) and posterior (PCL) cruciate ligament with a fine needle. Visualisation of the structures appeared clearest from the posterior approach. From this approach 24 electrodes...

  18. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  19. Initial insights into bacterial succession during human decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Haarmann, Daniel P; Petrosino, Joseph F; Lynne, Aaron M; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-05-01

    Decomposition is a dynamic ecological process dependent upon many factors such as environment, climate, and bacterial, insect, and vertebrate activity in addition to intrinsic properties inherent to individual cadavers. Although largely attributed to microbial metabolism, very little is known about the bacterial basis of human decomposition. To assess the change in bacterial community structure through time, bacterial samples were collected from several sites across two cadavers placed outdoors to decompose and analyzed through 454 pyrosequencing and analysis of variable regions 3-5 of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. Each cadaver was characterized by a change in bacterial community structure for all sites sampled as time, and decomposition, progressed. Bacteria community structure is variable at placement and before purge for all body sites. At bloat and purge and until tissues began to dehydrate or were removed, bacteria associated with flies, such as Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtimonas, were common. After dehydration and skeletonization, bacteria associated with soil, such as Acinetobacter, were common at most body sites sampled. However, more cadavers sampled through multiple seasons are necessary to assess major trends in bacterial succession. PMID:25431049

  20. MR imaging and ultrasonographic findings of tensor fasciae suralis muscle: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Ho; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The tensor fasciae suralis muscle is a very rare anomalous muscle located in the popliteal region. This anatomic variation has been reported often through cadaver studies. However, there are only a few radiologic reports of this entity. We presented a case of tensor fasciae suralis muscle detected as an incidental finding in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound.

  1. A finite element lower extremity and pelvis model for predicting bone injuries due to knee bolster loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Hoof, J. van; Barbir, A.; Made, R. van der; Slaats, P.M.A.; McCann, M.J.; Ridella, S.A.; Rupp, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Injuries to the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex in frontal motor vehicle crashes are of substantial concern because of their frequency and potential to result in long-term disability. Current frontal impact Anthropometric Test Dummies (ATDs) have been shown to respond differently than human cadavers un

  2. On a Frozen Fellow and Melding Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David

    1996-01-01

    Describes an art project that constructed a realistic model of a frozen prehistoric cadaver including its clothing and tool kit. Originally conceived as a way to introduce students to art materials, ancient history, and different cultures, the project grew to include a traveling exhibit and instructional puppet shows. (MJP)

  3. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: anatomical, radiological and clinical relevance. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, Marc; Vázquez, Teresa; Golanó, Pau; Parkin, Ian; Sañudo, José Ramon

    2002-06-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis manus (EDBM) is a supernumerary muscle in the dorsum of the hand frequently misdiagnosed as a dorsal wrist ganglion, exostosis, tendon sheath cyst or synovitis. Its presence in a living subject, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is presented together with a review of the hitherto reported cases and the results of an anatomical study on 128 adult human cadavers (59 males and 69 females). The EDBM was found in three (2.3%) of the 128 cadavers. It occurred in two (3.4%) of the 59 male cadavers (one bilateral and one unilateral on the right side) and in one (1.5%) of the 69 female cadavers (unilateral on the left side). Consequently, the EDBM was found in four (1.6%) of the 256 upper limbs. It originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger in one case and into that of the middle finger in three cases. In both hands of the living subject, the origin was similar but the insertion was into the index and middle fingers. In all cases, it was innervated by the posterior interosseous nerve and its blood supply was provided by the posterior interosseous artery. PMID:12112357

  4. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    The dose- and time-related effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration was studied using 3 radiolabeled tracer compounds with different physicochemical properties: tritiated water, hydrocortisone and nickel. Human cadaver abdominal skin from caucasian women was used...

  5. The significance of the neurovascular structures passing through the spinoglenoid notch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the detailed anatomy of the neurovascular bundle at the spinoglenoid notch and to report the dimensions of these structures in cadavers. In the present study, the external diameters of suprascapular artery, vein and nerve were measured at the spinoglenoid region in 18 formalin fixed cadavers (36 soulders) by using a caliper. The study was carried out in the dissection laboratory of Anatomy Department of Hacettepe University ,Ankara University, Ankara and Mersin University ,Mersin,Turkey, between2002 and 2003.The average external diameter for suprascapular vein was 2.6 mmand nerve was 2.2 mm. The spinoglenoid notch was roofed by the spinoglenoid ligament and appeared as a fibroosseous foramen in all cadavers. We found that vascular structures (suprascapular artery and vein )occupied 68.5% and the suprascapular nerve occupied 31.5% of this foramen. Although the diameters of the vascular structures at the spinoglenoid notch measured by magnetic resonance imaging have been reported,to our knowledge, external diameters of these structures at the spinoglenoid notch have not been described in cadavers. We believe that detailed anatomy of suprascapular neurovascular bundle at the spinoglenoid notch should be appreciated for better understanding of risk factors possibly causing the sprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome specially for those who are involved in voilent ovehead sports activities such as volleyball and baseball. (author)

  6. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.M. Faber (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radi

  7. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific Regist

  8. Body Parts Removed during Surgery: A Useful Training Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for…

  9. Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…

  10. Dissecting the Dissectors: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Body Bequests by Nigerian Anatomists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.; Obikili, Emmanuel N.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomy education in most African countries is limited by an insufficient number of cadavers for students to undertake dissection. This already significant shortage is exacerbated by an increasing number of medical schools and students. Virtual dissections are impractical in alleviating such a shortfall in African anatomy education, and further…

  11. Greater Omental Pancake Tumour due to Metastasis of Ovarian Cancer – A Cadaveric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhusari, Prashant A.; Khairnar, Karan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of ovary is the one of the common of all gynecological tumors and is the leading cause of death among women. A unique attempt is made to trace masses & its causes found in an abdomen of female cadaver during routine anatomy dissection.

  12. Constructive, Collaborative, Contextual, and Self-Directed Learning in Surface Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M.; Sieben, Judith M.; Smailbegovic, Ida; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially those of the musculoskeletal system, move and…

  13. Privileged Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Norma E.; Romero-O'Connell, Josina M.

    2009-01-01

    Students often attain memorable experiences from cadaver dissections through reflective writing. For many, facing a dissection for the first time elicits a wide range of emotions. These may include thoughts of their own mortality to the sheer admiration of knowing that someone cared enough to help others learn about the body, even in death. Poems…

  14. Two-Dimensional Sectioned Images and Three-Dimensional Surface Models for Learning the Anatomy of the Female Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic…

  15. Building a Low-Cost Gross Anatomy Laboratory: A Big Step for a Small University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates details of the planning, building, and improvement phases of a cost-efficient, full-dissection gross anatomy laboratory on a campus of an historically design-centric university. Special considerations were given throughout the project to the nature of hosting cadavers in a building shared amongst all undergraduate majors.…

  16. Background Music in the Dissection Laboratory: Impact on Stress Associated with the Dissection Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2015-01-01

    Notable challenges, such as mental distress, boredom, negative moods, and attitudes, have been associated with learning in the cadaver dissection laboratory (CDL). The ability of background music (BM) to enhance the cognitive abilities of students is well documented. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of BM in the CDL and on…

  17. Detection of American lineage low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Uria lomvia in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Hartby, Christina Marie; Krog, Jesper Schak; Holm, Elisabeth; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Denmark. Five birds were randomly selected for diagnostic investigation and samples were taken from the cadavers (pooled oropharyngeal swabs, cloacal swabs, lung/trachea/heart tissues and liver/spleen/kidney tissues, and separate preparation of stomach from a single bird). Avian influenza virus (AIV) with...

  18. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a friction bite that if you try to work it around the corner, you can get an early seating, which you want to avoid. So it's very important to get a straight-on shot. What this illustration is showing is the result of a cadaver ...

  19. Idiopathic punctate necrosis of the phalanges of the feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small areas of discrete radiolucency surrounded by well-defined margins of sclerosis are incidental asymptomatic findings in the proximal phalanges of the feet, usually in young males. Histologic examination of similar lesions discovered in the feet of cadavers shows fat necrosis. Although the etiology of these lesions is as yet unproven, musculoskeletal stress is suggested. (orig.)

  20. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  1. Estimation of postmortem interval using the blowfly Phaenicia (Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ado-Baba Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Estimated time between death and discovery of corpse (PMI based on the period of insect activity (PIA may be a better alternative in some situations because it eliminate taking multiple temperature measurements at the crime scene, at the carcass as well in the maggot masses on the cadaver. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3417-3420

  2. Ligation of the external iliac artery for post-transplant nephrectomy bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M.W.; Bradley, J. A.; Hamilton, D. N. H.

    1982-01-01

    Two patients who had transplant nephrectomy performed for rejection of a previously transplanted human cadaver allograft kidney subsequently developed complications due to a false aneurysm of the external iliac artery. Treatment was successfully carried out by ligation of the external iliac artery without any significant ischaemic problems in the corresponding lower limb.

  3. The human anterior lens capsule--an attempted chemical debridement of epithelial cells by ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and trypsin.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphry, R. C.; Davies, E. G.; Jacob, T J; Thompson, G M

    1988-01-01

    The addition of edetic acid (EDTA) or trypsin to the infusion during a simulated extracapsular cataract extraction on cadaver eyes facilitates the removal of lens epithelial cells from the anterior capsule. Modification of the chemical composition of infusions used during extracapsular surgery may maximise lens epithelial cell removal and hence reduce the incidence of opacification of the posterior capsule after cataract extraction.

  4. Reduction of Mental Distress in the Dissection Course by Introducing the Body Donor Experience through Anatomical Demonstrations of Organ Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Baader, Christoph; Fassnacht, Ulrich Kai; Ochsner, Wolfgang; Bockers, Tobias Maria

    2012-01-01

    The practice of dissection teaches students not only the foundations of anatomical knowledge but also encourages the development of professional competencies. Yet, the dissection of cadavers in the gross anatomy course can be a stress factor for medical students. There are a minor proportion of students who demonstrate strong emotional reactions…

  5. An incidence study on thyroglossal duct cysts in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the incidence of the asymptomatic thyroglossal duct anomalies and to review the literature and make comments on the significance of this condition. A total of 80 cadavers were dissected in the present study. This study was carried out during 2005, where the cadavers were randomly included from the criminal laboratories of the Ministry of Justice, Republic of Turkey in Istanbul. None of the cadavers had laryngeal and cervical injuries resulting from a trauma or the cause of their death. The examined cadavers included 59 men and 21 females, and their ages were ranged from 35-80 years old. The larynges were removed and fixed in 10% formalin and then dissected. The sections were examined using surgical SMZ 10 Nikon stereomicroscope. We evaluated the presence, localization and diameter of the cysts with regard to age and sex of the cadavers. We observed a total of 12 different localization of thyroglossal ducts and cysts among the 80 dissected cadavers. Ten of these ducts cysts were found in males with an age range of 35-68 years and 2 female cadavers aged 45-65 years. In 6 cases, the thyroglossal ducts and cysts were located in the left of the midline of the neck, while 3 cases were from the right of the midline, and the remaining was located on the midline of the neck. In all cases, thryoglossal ducts and cysts were complete and restricted to the infrahyoid region: all of them had connection with the hyoid bone, but not with the perichondrium of the cartilage. In addition, the thyroglossal ducts have connection with the left lobe of the thyroid glands in 3 cases, one case in the right lobe, and 2 cases with the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Finally in 5 cases thyroglossal ducts were complete and had well developed cysts. Thyroglossal duct remnants are one of the most often seen congenital asymptomatic masses of the neck region (7%). The presence of these duct remnants may lead to abnormal phonation and epithelial carcinomas. Therefore, correlation of

  6. Evaluation of the Kinematic Responses and Potential Injury Mechanisms of the Jejunum during Seatbelt Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Meghan K; Hardy, Warren N; Agnew, Amanda M; Hallman, Jason J

    2015-11-01

    High-speed biplane x-ray was used to research the kinematics of the small intestine in response to seatbelt loading. Six driver-side 3-point seatbelt simulations were conducted with the lap belt routed superior to the pelvis of six unembalmed human cadavers. Testing was conducted with each cadaver perfused, ventilated, and positioned in a fixed-back configuration with the spine angled 30° from the vertical axis. Four tests were conducted with the cadavers in an inverted position, and two tests were conducted with the cadavers upright. The jejunum was instrumented with radiopaque markers using a minimally-invasive, intraluminal approach without inducing preparation-related damage to the small intestine. Tests were conducted at a target peak lap belt speed of 3 m/s, resulting in peak lap belt loads ranging from 5.4-7.9 kN. Displacement of the radiopaque markers was recorded using high-speed x-ray from two perspectives. Marker trajectories were tracked using motion analysis software and projected into calibrated three-dimensional coordinates to quantify the seatbelt and jejunum kinematics for each test. Five of the six tests resulted in jejunum damage. Based on the autopsy findings and the assessment of the belt and jejunum kinematics, it is likely that direct abdominal interactions with the seatbelt resulting in compression and stretch of the jejunum are components of the mechanisms of crash-induced jejunum injuries. In addition, the presence of fluid or air in the portion of the jejunum in the load path appears to be necessary to create jejunum damage in the cadaver model. Overall, the kinematics and damage data generated in this study may be useful for future restraint system development. PMID:26660746

  7. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  8. Penetration of tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes and liposomes across human skin: a comparative study with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra K; Suresh, Preeti K; Rudrapal, Mithun; Verma, Vinod K

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ethosomal and liposomal formulations containing tamoxifen citrate were prepared and evaluated for their penetration properties in human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cell and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The results clearly revealed that ethosomal vesicles showed a better drug permeation profile than that of liposomal vesicles. In addition, low fluorescence intensity in CLSM was recorded with liposomes as compared to ethosomes, indicating lower cumulative amount of drug permeation from liposomal vesicles. Furthermore, CLSM showed uniform fluorescence intensity across the entire depth of skin in ethosomal treatment, indicating high penetrability of ethosomal vesicles through human cadaver skin. In contrast, low penetrability of conventional liposomal vesicles was recorded as penetration was limited to the 7(th) section (i.e. upper epidermis layer) of skin as evident from visualization of intact liposomal vesicles in CLSM. PMID:24428443

  9. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia. PMID:27440171

  10. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, B;

    2004-01-01

    on the measurements of radiographic indices of hip dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of varying pelvic orientation on radiographic measurements of acetabular dysplasia using a cadaver model. Results from the cadaver study were used to validate the radiographic assessments of...... pelvic radiograph was recorded at each 3 degrees increment. The most widely used radiographic parameters of hip dysplasia were assessed. 2) Critical limits of acceptable rotation and inclination/reclination of pelvises were determined on 4151 standing, standardised pelvic radiographs of the CCHS cohort......BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation...

  11. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death and...... fixing the dead cadaver to the surface, all to increase efficient spore dispersal. To investigate this fascinating pathogen-host interaction, we constructed interaction transcriptome libraries from two final infection stages from the material sampled in the field: (1) when the cadavers were fixed, but...... of an entomophthoralean fungus, we detected expression of many pathogenicity-related genes, including secreted hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to morphological reorganization and nutrition uptake. Differences in expression of genes in these two infection phases were compared and showed a switch...

  12. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance on...... created. Sixteen physicians (7 experienced surgeons and 9 novice physicians) performed an EC on a low-fidelity model and a cadaver. Two blinded raters assessed video recordings of performances using the assessment tool. RESULTS: We found a high interrater reliability, based on a Pearson's r (0.81), and...... good evidence for validity, based on successfully distinguishing the 2 groups, using an independent samples t test (P < .001). We found a good correlation between performance on a low-fidelity model and the cadaver with an R (2) = 0.78. CONCLUSION: The tool for assessing EC competence proved reliable...

  13. A case of a unilateral unusual genicular branch of the common peroneal nerve with bilateral high division of sciatic nerves and unusual bilateral thickness of peroneal communicating nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MH

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On dissection of an adult male Filipino cadaver, an unusual genicular branch from the left common peroneal nerve was found terminating in the capsule of the knee joint. Extra care by the surgeon is required to separate this variant nerve from the small saphenous vein and intraneural ganglion during knee operation. A bilateral higher division of the sciatic nerve was observed below the lower border of piriformis muscle. In the cases of popliteal blockage, the knowledge of the variations in the bifurcation of the sciatic nerve is significant. Bilateral thick communicating peroneal nerves were dissected. The sural nerves were very much reduced in size and communicating peroneal nerves largely replaced the innervations in the lower legs. This finding is important because of its use in nerve transplantation. In this case, the presence of an unusual genicular branch is a rare finding. In combination with the other stated findings in the same cadaver makes it interesting.

  14. MR imaging of the most commonly injured and diseased structures of the elbow and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen elbows and 23 ankles of cadavers, normal volunteers, and patients with various disorders were examined by MR imaging. The cadaver specimens were sectioned for direct image correlation. The exhibit illustrates (1) the ability of MR imaging to identify all of the commonly injured or diseased structures about the elbow and ankle, (2) the optimum imaging plane and positioning for each structure, (3) the value of T1- and T2-weighted images in identifying and specifically localizing the disruption, edema, hemorrhage, or effusion that occurs in pathologic processes such as ankle ligament injury and tendinitis at the elbow, and (4) the ability of serial axial sections to follow the ulnar, median, radial, and tibial nerves and their associated vessels through their common entrapment sites

  15. Optimization of MR imaging of the most commonly injured structures of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR images of the ankles of seven cadavers, nine healthy volunteers, and seven injured patients were correlated with cadaver dissections and cryosections to determine the optimum imaging plane and foot position for demonstrating each ligament's injury parameters. Axial images of the neutral-positioned foot allowed full-length visualization of the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments, while the calcaneofibular ligament was paraxially imaged in 400 of plantar flexion. Coronal images allowed paraaxial visualization of major parts of the deltoid ligament: the tibionavicular ligament in 400 of plantar flexion and the tibospring and posterior tibiotalar ligaments in 150 of plantar flexion. Acute ligament rupture was well delineated on T2-weighted images by the high signal intensity of the overlying subcutaneous edema and hemorrhage and the underlying joint effusion. In chronically unstable ankles, ligament rupture, thinning, and lengthening were best demonstrated by placing that ligament in its stress position

  16. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  17. Pelvic orientation and assessment of hip dysplasia in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Lund, Bjarne;

    2004-01-01

    on the measurements of radiographic indices of hip dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of varying pelvic orientation on radiographic measurements of acetabular dysplasia using a cadaver model. Results from the cadaver study were used to validate the radiographic assessments of acetabular...... radiograph was recorded at each 3 degrees increment. The most widely used radiographic parameters of hip dysplasia were assessed. 2) Critical limits of acceptable rotation and inclination/reclination of pelvises were determined on 4151 standing, standardised pelvic radiographs of the CCHS cohort. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The study was performed to qualify the source material of 4151 pelvic radiographs for the research into the relationship between unrecognised childhood hip disorders and the development of hip osteoarthrosis, and to investigate the effect of varying degrees of pelvic tilt and rotation...

  18. Body donation in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Rokade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one’s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in India. It discusses the donors’ attitude behind body donation and factors preventing people from body donation. It deals with approach of various religions towards body donation. It discusses some important ways to overcome the scarcity of bodies in India and the world. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 173-177

  19. Scanning acoustic microscopy study of human cortical and trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumrerraj, S; Katz, J L

    2001-12-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) has been used in the burst mode to study the properties of human cortical and trabecular bone. An Olympus UH3 SAM (Olympus Co., Tokyo, Japan) was used with a 400 MHz burst mode lens (120 degrees aperture, nominal lateral resolution 2.5 microm). The human cortical bone was from the midshaft of a femur from a 60+ male cadaver; the trabecular bone specimens were obtained from the distal femoral condyles of another 60+ human male cadaver. Elastic moduli for both trabecular and cortical bone were obtained by means of a series of calibration curves correlating SAM gray levels of known materials with their elastic moduli; specimens included: polypropylene, PMMA, Teflon, aluminum, Pyrex glass, titanium, and stainless steel. Values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those obtained by nanoindentation techniques. The three critical findings earlier by Katz and Meunier were observed here as well in both the cortical and trabecular bone samples. PMID:11853252

  20. The innervation of canine hip joint capsule: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C H; Hou, S M; Yeh, L S

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the contributions of the nerves supplying the canine hip joint capsule for clinical application, cadaver study of six healthy mongrel dogs was performed. The pelvises and hindlimbs of cadavers were dissected and fixed in formaldehyde. Innervation of the joint capsule was investigated with the aid of an operative microscope. As a result, the canine hip joint capsule receives multiple innervations from articular branches of four nerves. They are articular nerve fibres of femoral, obturator, cranial gluteal and sciatic nerves from the cranioventral, caudoventral, craniolateral and dorsolateral directions of the joint, respectively. No branch originating from the caudal gluteal nerve was observed innervating the hip joint capsule. Our data provides useful information for research on the canine hip joint, including pain analysis with hip disorders and surgical nerve blockade to relieve pain. PMID:23410229

  1. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors. PMID:17454986

  2. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  3. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  4. Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium spp. in the soil environment of an agroecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt Michael

    Species of the entomopathogenic fungal genus Metarhizium are found worldwide predominantly in the soil environment where they infect a broad spectrum of insects, but also associate with plant roots. To increase performance of Metarhizium as biological control agents against pests, fundamental...... samples with “insect baits” and from the roots of several crop plants using selective media. The resulting isolates were separated into genotypes by applying microsatellite markers and DNA regions of these genotypes were sequenced. The study showed a highly complex Metarhizium community that comprised...... several sympatric species and genotypes. The isolated species and their genotypes were evaluated for ecological traits including UVB tolerance, temperature dependent in vitro growth, virulence and conidia production on infected cadavers, and mycelial growth from insect cadavers into the surrounding soil...

  5. The mechanism of angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model was developed which allows the dilatation of iliac cadaver arteries under normal blood pressure conditions (mean pressure 100 mmHg). Segments of the iliac artery were put under pressure and dilated with balloons under similar conditions as in clinical practice. Purposely oversized balloons were used because most of the arteries did not contain severely stenotic plaques and consequently the commercially available balloons had no effect because of their comparatively small diameter. In spite of the use of oversized balloons, the cadaver arteries could not be significantly dilated. Rupture of the intima and media was almost invariably present. Leakage of distending fluid through the adventitia occurred commonly. The 'therapeutic range' between minimal dilation and partial or total rupture in postmortem studies is small. (orig.)

  6. [Anatomic danger of percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament for the treatment of Morton's neuroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabié, F; Accadbled, F; Tricoire, J-L; Puget, J

    2007-11-01

    Certain authors have proposed percutaneous neurolysis of Morton's neuroma. We conducted a human anatomy study to assess the reliability and the iatrogenic effect of percutaneous section of the ligament. Percutaneous section of the inter-metatarsal ligament was performed on 16 fresh cadaver specimens via a dorsal approach. The plantar dissection demonstrated that the section was not complete, without associated lesion, in only six cases. Analyzing these failures, we determined the necessary procedure for correct section. PMID:18065883

  7. Intriguing variations of the tibial arteries and their clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jelev L; Georgiev GP; Atanasova M

    2011-01-01

    Unusual course and branching pattern of the tibial arteries were discovered during routine anatomical dissection of the right lower extremity of a 61-year-old female cadaver. The arteries of the crural region arose from the popliteal artery, as usual. However, the anterior tibial artery was hypoplastic and supplying the anterior calf muscles ended above the ankle joint. Instead, the posterior tibial artery gave off a large anterior branch, which crossed the lowest portion of the interosseous ...

  8. Radiographic study on the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament☆

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Gali; Paulo Esquerdo; Marco Antonio Pires Almagro; Phelipe Augusto Cintra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the radiographic distances from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial insertions centers to the lateral and medial tibial cortex in the anteroposterior view, and from these centers to the PCL facet most proximal point on the lateral view, in order to guide anatomical tunnels drilling in PCL reconstruction and for tunnel positioning postoperative analysis.STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.METHODS: Twenty cadaver knees were evaluated. The PCL's bundles tibial ...

  9. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Koji; Taniguchi, Shinichiro; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Hisata, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal ...

  10. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira González, Joaquín; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with...

  11. Area and Personal Exposure Levels to Formaldehyde and Its Variation among Undergraduate Students during Gross Anatomy Laboratory Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pensri Watchalayann; Adul Tapyai; Kajorn Lakchayapakorn

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde emitted from the cadavers in Gross Anatomy Laboratory may fluctuate leading to a variation in exposure level of the participants during practice. This study aimed to evaluate the variation of formaldehyde levels and to determine the relationship between area and personal exposure concentration. Formaldehyde levels were measured in six sampling areas repeatedly during three types of study sessions; thoracic, abdominal, and brain and nerve study session. The highest formaldehyde le...

  12. BILATERAL MULTIPLE VARIATIONS IN THE FORMATION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND ITS TERMINAL NERVES: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Flora M Fabian; Hortensia G Nondoli; Gabriel J. Mchonde

    2013-01-01

    Variations in formation of brachial plexus roots, trunks, divisions and cords are not uncommon and maybe of important in regional anaesthesia involving the upper limb. However, in the present case we are reporting a rare bilateral multiple variations observed during routine dissection on a 77-years-old embalmed male cadaver on left and right brachial plexus. Understanding the anatomical variations involving brachial plexus is important and might benefit the physicians, surgeons, anaesthesiolo...

  13. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Su WD; Ohtsuka A; Taguchi T; Murakami T.

    2000-01-01

    The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996), which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides), with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%), the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior...

  14. Aberrant Innervation of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle By the Transverse Cervical Nerve: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Paraskevas, George; Lazaridis, Nikolaos; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Two aberrant rami originating from the right transverse cervical nerve and innervated the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SM) were detected during routine cadaver dissection. Although SM is commonly innervated by the accessory nerve, as well as by cervical nerves, it is likely to be innervated additionally by other nerves such as hypoglossal nerve, ansa cervicalis, facial or external laryngeal nerve. Some considerations as regards the possible composition of the aberrant rami of...

  15. Configuration of Fibrous and Adipose Tissues in the Cavernous Sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Liang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qunyuan; Zhang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54–89...

  16. Femtosecond Laser Micro-structuring Of Transparent Materials And Its Ophthalmologic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully fabricated in vitro femtosecond laser micro-incisions inside cornea and--for the first time--inside sclera mildly pre-cleared by a biocompatible and clinically safe (non-toxic) natural agent (replacive refractive index-matching 40%-glucose solution in water), with the tissues taken as fresh cool cuts of human cadaver eyes, and reported on basic operational conditions of the micro-surgical procedures.

  17. Hyaluronic acid content of deep and subcutaneous bursae of man.

    OpenAIRE

    Canoso, J J; Stack, M T; Brandt, K D

    1983-01-01

    To provide a comparison of the contents of subcutaneous and deep bursae we dissected these structures from unfixed cadavers without apparent joint disease. No free fluid was found within any olecranon or prepatellar bursae (examples of subcutaneous bursae), while viscous fluid was invariably present in the (deep) retrocalcaneal bursae. The hyaluronic acid content of the washings of 5 rectrocalcaneal bursae ranged from 142 to 591 nmol hexosamine (mean = 281 nmol hexosamine). In contrast, the h...

  18. Insertion torque is not a good predictor of pedicle screw loosening after spinal instrumentation: a prospective study in 8 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sandén Bengt; Olerud Claes; Larsson Sune; Robinson Yohan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pedicle screw loosening is a major safety concern in instrumented spinal surgery due to loosening with potential pseudarthrosis and possible loss of correction requiring revision surgery. Several cadaver studies have compared insertion torque of pedicle screws with resistance to pullout or cyclic loading. In most of these studies, a correlation has been found between these variables. Clinical studies have been made, comparing insertion torque to bone mineral density or rad...

  19. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the...

  20. Biomechanical comparison of pedicle screws versus spinous process screws in C2 vertebra A cadaveric study

    OpenAIRE

    Guan-yi Liu; Lu Mao; Rong-ming Xu; Wei-hu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biomechanical studies have shown C2 pedicle screw to be the most robust in insertional torque and pullout strength. However, C2 pedicle screw placement is still technically challenging. Smaller C2 pedicles or medial localization of the vertebral artery may preclude safe C2 pedicle screw placement in some patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the pullout strength of spinous process screws with pedicle screws in the C2. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh human cadav...

  1. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery (SLA) is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers age...

  2. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  3. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Zeichner; Baruch Glattstein

    2002-01-01

    A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  4. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  5. Accuracy of radiographs in assessment of displacement in lateral humeral condyle fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Ashleen; Avoian, Tigran; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Zionts, Lewis E.; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determining the magnitude of displacement in pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the effect of forearm rotation on true fracture displacement using a cadaver model and to (2) determine the accuracy of radiographic measurements of the fracture gap. Methods A non-displaced fracture was created in three human cadaveric arms. The specimens were mounted on a custom apparatus allowing forearm rotation with the humerus fix...

  6. Allograft AlloDerm® tissue for laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal groin hernia repair: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Amirlak, Bardia; Gerdes, Jodi; Puri, Varun; Fitzgibbons, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Synthetic mesh is the prosthetic material used for most inguinal hernioplasties. However, when left in contact with intra-abdominal viscera, it often becomes associated with infection and migration, particularly in irradiated tissues, contaminated fields, immunosuppressed individuals, and patients with intestinal obstruction or fistula. AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) is derived from human cadaver skin and may be associated with fewer v...

  7. Studies in formulation and pharmacotechnical evaluation of controlled release transdermal delivery system of bupropion

    OpenAIRE

    Gondaliya, Deepak; Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to design and evaluate unilaminate transdermal adhesive matrix systems capable of diffusing bupropion base at a constant rate over an extended period of time as an alternative route of administration. Unilaminate transdermal adhesive matrices have been fabricated with different concentrations of Eudragit E as the adhesive and rate-controlling polymer. The in vitro release and epidermal flux through human cadaver skin were studied. The release of drug fro...

  8. Lateral Neck Injury Assessments in Side Impact Using Post Mortem Human Subject Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A.; Wolfla, Christopher E.; Maiman, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These “child-based” scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objec...

  9. Identificación personal mediante el estudio de los senos frontales: A propósito de un caso Personal identification through the study of frontal sinuses: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de los cadáveres se realiza, en ocasiones, recurriendo a técnicas radiológicas cuando no existen otros métodos disponibles como ocurre en situaciones de esqueletización, carbonización o restos cadavéricos. Si existen registros radiológicos ante mortem (AM de la posible víctima, se puede realizar la identificación mediante el estudio comparativo con una radiografía post mortem (PM. Presentamos el caso de la identificación de un cadáver que apareció en un estado de esqueletización total y con pérdida de muchos huesos, mediante la comparación de las radiografías AM y PM del cráneo, donde eran visibles los senos frontales. Las características morfológicas individuales de estas estructuras permitieron la plena identificación del cadáver.Corpse identification is sometimes achieved by x-ray when other possible methods of identification are not applicable, e.g. skeletisation, charred or cadaver remains. If ante mortem (AM x-ray records are available, it is possible to obtain the identification by the comparison with a post mortem (PM x-ray. In this paper we present a personal identification, performed in a cadaver where only the skeleton was preserved and some bones were missing, by comparison of AM and PM x-ray analysis of the skull, where the frontal sinuses were visible. The morphological individualistic characteristics of these structures enabled us to identify the cadaver completely.

  10. Comparative Study of Mechanical Stresses in Human Limb Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Drăgulescu; Lucian Rusu; Vlad Morcovescu; Cris Precup

    2004-01-01

    This research studies the upper and lower limb bones of elderly persons. The measurements of compressive, tensile and bending forces were performed on 147 specimens: 72 in a compression trial, 21 in a tensile trial and 54 in a bending trial. Bones were extracted from 38 cadavers (60–70-years-old at the time of death). Experimental protocols were developed to minimise the possible errors in obtaining the data. All results were statistically processed. There was a significant difference between...

  11. Gender Differences in D-Aspartic Acid Content in Skull Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Torikoshi-Hatano, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Arima, Yousuke; Toubou, Hirokazu; Ezaki, Jiro; Morikawa, Masami; Nagao, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    In forensic medicine, the personal identification of cadavers is one of the most important tasks. One method of estimating age at death relies on the high correlation between racemization rates in teeth and actual age, and this method has been applied successfully in forensic odontology for several years. In this study, we attempt to facilitate the analysis of racemized amino acids and examine the determination of age at death on the basis of the extent of aspartic acid (Asp) racemization in ...

  12. IMPORTANCE OF DISSECTION IN ANATOMY AND ATTUTUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS IT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANUJ JAIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. Dissection in anatomy can be the beginning of a physician's training in how to isolate and restrict their emotional responses to difficult or disturbing clinical situations, or conversely how to deal appropriately with emotions engendered by such exposure.Study of regional anatomy through cadaveric dissection is considered to be a unique feature of medical courses in India. The benefits of meticulous dissection mostly fall into three domains: knowledge acquisition and integration, skills, and attitudes. Anatomical dissection is a time-honoured part of medical education. Bodies donated by patients themselves, for students to learn anatomy by dissection, is the ultimate gift, which needs continued appreciation by educators.Because of current arguments on balancing learning outcomes, problems related to the use of human cadaver, teaching methods and resources, many recent curricula in anatomy have introduced a shift towards greater use of alternative modalities of teaching involving cadaveric plastination, non-cadaveric models and computer-based imaging . Moreover, the use of cadavers for dissection in anatomy learning has been identified by some scholars as expensive, time consuming and potentially hazardous. Although there is no consensus on its effect, working with cadavers, whether through active dissection or by examination of prosected specimens constitute a potential stress. In medical colleges, where cadaveric dissection mainly constitutes preclinical teaching of anatomy, students are exposed to cadavers in the early stages of their training but this exposure induces both positive and unintended negative experiences in these students. The emotional impact of such exposure on students is the main subject of present study.

  13. Surrogate Head Forms for the Evaluation of Head Injury Risk

    OpenAIRE

    MacAlister, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of surrogate head forms in biomechanical research pertaining to head injury and, more specifically, mild traumatic brain injury. Because cadavers are limited and controlled studies of brain injury using live human subjects would be unethical, surrogate head forms are used to study the response of the human head to impact. Different head forms have been developed and optimized for different purposes. The Hybrid III 50th percentile male crash test dummy was develop...

  14. Emerging options in growth hormone therapy: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp SF; Frindik JP

    2011-01-01

    Stephen F Kemp, J Paul FrindikUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: Growth hormone (GH) was first used to treat a patient in 1958. For the next 25 years it was available only from cadaver sources, which was of concern because of safety considerations and short supply. In 1985, GH produced by recombinant DNA techniques became available, expanding its possible uses. Since that time there have been three indications appro...

  15. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector – patient considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler K

    2015-01-01

    Klaus Bühler Centre for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract: Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease w...

  16. The Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System of the Face: A Model Explored

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, M.; Fyfe, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Regional differences in the integument of the body are explained, at least in part, by differences in fascial arrangements. In the face, where the skin is more mobile due to the action of the underlying facial muscles, fascial organisation is important for support and separation of muscle groups. This study used bequeathed cadaver material to investigate a current model of the SMAS proposed by Macchi et al., the original boundaries of which w...

  17. FUSION BETWEEN BODY AND GREATER CORNU: A RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRY HYOID BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavna; Rajan Kumar Singla; Ravi Kant Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The study of fusion of body and greater cornua of hyoid bone is of tremendous clinical and forensic significance as it can be used to estimate the age of living or dead or skeletonized remains. It becomes all the more important as this fusion is relatively immune to some individual factors like life style, health and nutrition etc. Material method: The study comprised of 15 male and 15 female bones all collected from human cadavers with age >60 years. Digitalized radiogr...

  18. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Chad W Stratilo; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in ...

  19. Synergistic iontophoretic drug delivery of risedronate sodium in combination with electroporation and chemical penetration enhancer: In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Swaroop R Lahoti; Shardul Dalal

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation iontophoretic permeation of risedronate sodium (RS) through optimized gel based formulation was evaluated with respect to various electrical parameters like Current density and type of current. The study also involved enhancement the iontophoretic permeation of RS in combination with electroporation and chemical penetration enhancers with its in-vivo Pharmacokinetic evaluation. The permeation studies were carried through the human cadaver skin by using modified Fr...

  20. HIGH BIFURCATION OF THE BRACHIAL ARTERY - A COMMON VARIANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 28 cadavers were dissected for variations in the bifurcation of brachial artery bilaterally {n=56} at the department of anatomy, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada, A.P. from 2010 to 2015 . Found variations during routine dissections for first year MBBS students. The findings have thrown light on the common as well as rare variants in the anatomy of brachial artery bifurcation and the course of radial and ulnar arteries in current study

  1. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat Usha; Kedlaya Prashanth; Gokulnath

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical c...

  2. Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Modi, Pranjal R; Pal, Bipin C; Modi, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the "Human Organs Transplantation Act." Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome. PMID:26941500

  3. Olfactory neuroepithelium in the superior and middle turbinates: which is the optimal biopsy site?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Fabio de Rezende; Ctenas, Bruno; Weber, Raimar; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) biopsy has several therapeutic applications for both disorders of olfaction and neurodegenerative diseases. Successful collection of ON is still anything but routine due to a dearth of studies on the distribution of ON in the superior and middle turbinates. Aim: To determine the location in which ON is most likely to be present in endoscopically removed cadaver superior and middle turbinates as well as the influences of gender, age, and nar...

  4. The Challenges in Autopsy Cases Exposed to Animal Attack

    OpenAIRE

    Tokdemir, Murat Bülent; Çetin, Gürsel; Şam, Bülent; Özer, Erdal; Yıldırım, Ali; Bütün, Celal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Discrimination between antemortem and postmortem lesions inflicted by animals from other traumas, and contribution of these injuries to the cause of death which is often encountered in forensic autopsies may cause some difficulties. Detailed identification, and, evaluation of bite marks which has the depth and shape of the teeth and jaw of the animal interfering to the cadaver, tissue losses, paw and tooth marks nd vital signs must be performed during autopsy. Current autopsy reports...

  5. A case of bilateral superior vena cava with variations in the azygos system and in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortale, J R; Grill, E H

    1994-08-01

    A case of bilateral superior vena cava is described in an adult cadaver of undetermined sex and age. The persistent left superior vena cava had a larger diameter approximately equal to that of the right superior vena cava ending in a wide caliber coronary sinus. Variations in the azygos system were also found. The ventricles show thin walls with trabeculae carneae forming one to five strata in the left ventricle, and from one to three strata in the right ventricle. PMID:8085654

  6. Compared to X-ray, three-dimensional computed tomography measurement is a reproducible radiographic method for normal proximal humerus

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yanxi; QIANG, MINFEI; Zhang, Kun; Li, Haobo; Jiang, Yuchen; Zhang, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate comprehension of the normal humeral morphology is crucial for anatomical reconstruction in shoulder arthroplasty. However, traditional morphological measurements for humerus were mainly based on cadaver and radiography. The purpose of this study was to provide a series of precise and repeatable parameters of the normal proximal humerus for arthroplasty, based on the three-dimensional (3-D) measurements. Methods Radiographic and 3-D computed tomography (CT) measurements of ...

  7. Potential sources of quantification error when retrospectively assessing metacarpal bone loss from historical radiographs by using digital X-ray radiogrammetry : an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kälvesten, Johan; Brismar, Torkel B.; Persson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) has been used to measure metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is often measured in existing cohorts where X-ray images were not acquired in accordance with the DXR imaging protocol (DIP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze how deviations from DIP in historical radiographs may affect the reproducibility of DXR-BMD measurements. Cadaver hand phantoms were used to conduct repeat measurements of deviations from DIP with ...

  8. Femtosecond Laser Micro-structuring Of Transparent Materials And Its Ophthalmologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Kozhushko, Svetlana E.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V.; Zakharov, Stanislav D.; Alekhin, Alexander I.; Kourylyova, Irina M.; Kuz'min, Kirill K.; Likhvantseva, Vera G.; Samoylov, Michail V.

    2010-10-01

    We have successfully fabricated in vitro femtosecond laser micro-incisions inside cornea and—for the first time—inside sclera mildly pre-cleared by a biocompatible and clinically safe (non-toxic) natural agent (replacive refractive index-matching 40%-glucose solution in water), with the tissues taken as fresh cool cuts of human cadaver eyes, and reported on basic operational conditions of the micro-surgical procedures.

  9. The effects of dissection-room experiences and related coping strategies among Hungarian medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Sándor, Imola; Birkás, Emma; Győrffy, Zsuzsa

    2015-01-01

    Background Students get their first experiences of dissecting human cadavers in the practical classes of anatomy and pathology courses, core components of medical education. These experiences form an important part of the process of becoming a doctor, but bring with them a special set of problems. Methods Quantitative, national survey (n = 733) among medical students, measured reactions to dissection experiences and used a new measuring instrument to determine the possible factors of coping. ...

  10. 肩関節石灰沈着性腱板炎の病態に関する研究 ―特に石灰化結晶の微細構造について―

    OpenAIRE

    石川, 正志

    1984-01-01

    Calcified substances from lesions of calcified tendinitis of the shoulder (CTS) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light microscopy. The substances were also analysed by infra-red spectrography. The rotator cuffs of the shoulder in 9 cadavers were observed by light microscopy. In the histological study of the rotator cuffs, various degenerative changes, such as separation and irregular arrangement of the collagen bundles and hyalinization at the attachment of the...

  11. Bilateral variant of sciatic nerve exhibiting intra-pelvic division

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena P Raj, Kunjumon PC, More Anju B

    2014-01-01

    Context (background): In case of high division of the sciatic nerve in the pelvis its, common peroneal component may pierce the Piriformis muscle. This anatomical variant can explain many clinical findings. Aims: Its objective is to report a case of high division of the sciatic nerve in order to contribute towards better anatomical understanding of the gluteal region. Methods and Material: Routine undergraduate dissection of a male cadaver revealed bilateral variation in sciatic nerve. Result...

  12. Variations of the sciatic nerve and its relation with the piriformis muscle in South Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Kotian, Sushma R.; Anuja Sinha; Antony Sylvan D Souza; Suhani Sumalatha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The sciatic nerve, a largest branch of the sacral plexus is prone to variations in its formation, course and branching pattern which may lead to multiple clinical complaints. The aim of the present study was to analyze the incidence of its variations in South Indian population. Methods: 60 gluteal regions were examined in 30 formalin fixed adult cadavers for the variations in the formation, termination of the sciatic nerve and its relationship with the piriformis muscle. Resu...

  13. Strain and stress variations in the human amniotic membrane and fresh corpse autologous sciatic nerve anastomosis in a model of sciatic nerve injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Chuangang; Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Qi; Zhu, QingSan

    2012-01-01

    A 10-mm long sciatic nerve injury model was established in fresh normal Chinese patient cadavers. Amniotic membrane was harvested from healthy maternal placentas and was prepared into multilayered, coiled, tubular specimens. Sciatic nerve injury models were respectively anastomosed using the autologous cadaveric sciatic nerve and human amniotic membrane. Tensile test results showed that maximal loading, maximal displacement, maximal stress, and maximal strain of sciatic nerve injury models an...

  14. Comparison of viscoelasticity between normal human sciatic nerve and amniotic membrane★

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Donghui; ZHAO, CONGHAI; Ma, Huili; Wei, Jun; Li, Dongyuan

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve tissue was obtained from the gluteus maximus muscle segment of normal human cadavers and amniotic membrane tissue was obtained from healthy human puerperant placentas. Both tissues were analyzed for their stress relaxation and creep properties to determine suitability for transplantation applications. Human amniotic membrane and sciatic nerve tissues had similar tendencies for stress relaxation and creep properties. The stress value of the amniotic membrane stress relaxation gro...

  15. The Spatial Relationship and Surface Projection of Canine Sciatic Nerve and Sacrotuberous Ligament: A Perineal Hernia Repair Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri-Chhetri, Nabin; Khatri-Chhetri, Rupak; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chern, Rey-Shyong; Chien, Chi-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Sciatic nerve entrapment can occur as post-operative complication of perineal hernia repair when sacrotuberous ligament is incorporated during hernia deficit closure. This results in sciatic sensory loss and paralysis of the hind leg. This study investigated the spatial relationship of sciatic nerve and sacrotuberous ligament and their surface topographic projection of 68 cadavers (29 Beagles and 39 Taiwanese mongrels) with various heights (25–56 cm). By gross dissection, the sacrotuberous li...

  16. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Merle; Sangwan Virender; Rao Srinivas; Basti Surendra; Sridhar Mittanamalli; Bansal Aashish; Dua Harminder

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This ...

  17. Variant position of the medial plantar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Astik RB; Dave UH; Gajendra KS

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of variation of position of the medial plantar nerve is important for the forefoot surgeon for plantar reconstruction, local injection therapy and an excision of interdigital neuroma. During routine dissection of 50-year-old female cadaver, we found the medial plantar nerve and vessels variably located between plantar aponeurosis and the muscles of the first layer of the sole of the right foot. Due to this variant position, the medial plantar nerve and vessels lose their protection ...

  18. Inguinal Abnormalities in Male Patients with Acetabular Fractures Treated Using an Ilioinguinal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Surgeons performing an ilioinguinal exposure for acetabular fracture surgery need to be aware of aberrant findings such as inguinal hernias and spermatic cord lesions. The purpose of this study is to report these occurrences in a clinical series of adult males undergoing acetabular fracture fixation and a series of adult male cadavers. The secondary aim is to characterize these abnormalities to aid surgeons in detecting these abnormalities preoperatively and coordinating a surgical plan with a general surgeon.Methods: Clinical study- Retrospective review of treated acetabular fractures through an ilioinguinal approach. Incidence of inguinal canal and spermatic cord abnormalities requiring general surgery consultation were identified. Corresponding CT scans were reviewed and radiographic characteristics of the spermatic cord abnormalities and/or hernias were noted.Cadaveric study- 18 male cadavers dissected bilaterally using an ilioinguinal exposure. The inguinal canal and the contents of the spermatic cord were identified and characterized.Results: Clinical Study- 5.7% (5/87 of patients had spermatic cord lesion and/or inguinal hernia requiring general surgical intervention. Preoperative pelvic CT scan review identified abnormalities noted intraoperatively in four of the five patients. Cord lipomas visualized as enlargements of the spermatic cord with homogeneous density. Hernias visualized as enlarged spermatic cords with heterogeneous density. Cadaver Study- 31% (11/36 of cadavers studied had spermatic cord and/or inguinal canal abnormalities. Average cord diameter in those with abnormalities was 24.9 mm (15-28 compared to 16 mm (11-22 in normal cords, which was statistically significant.Conclusion: The clinical and cadaveric findings emphasize the importance of understanding inguinal abnormalities and the value of detecting them preoperatively. The preoperative pelvic CT scans were highly sensitive in detecting inguinal abnormalities.

  19. Basic Plastic Surgery Skills Training Program on Inanimate Bench Models during Medical Graduation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Denadai; Andréia Padilha Toledo; Luis Ricardo Martinhão Souto

    2012-01-01

    Due to ethical and medical-legal drawbacks, high costs, and difficulties of accessibility that are inherent to the practice of basic surgical skills on living patients, fresh human cadaver, and live animals, the search for alternative forms of training is needed. In this study, the teaching and learning process of basic surgical skills pertinent to plastic surgery during medical education on different inanimate bench models as a form of alternative and complementary training to the teaching p...

  20. Transdermal delivery of ethosomes as a novel vesicular carrier for paroxetine hydrochloride: In vitro evaluation and In vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    PATHAN, Inayat Bashir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop, characterisation of stable ethosomal formulation as a carrier for transdermal delivery of paroxetine hydrochloride. To prepare this ethosome different concentration of soya lecithin and ethanol was taken. Vesicular size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment effiency was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and ultracentrifugation techniques. The in vitro permeation study across human cadaver skin was done. Stability study was do...

  1. Anatomical description and clinical significance of unilateral triheaded sternocleidomastoid muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Goswami; Yogesh Yadav; Chakradhar V

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this report is to observe and report unusual pattern of origin of sternal and clavicular heads of Sternocleidomastoid (SCM). An embryological insight into the possible causes for present anomaly is elucidated. The neck region of an adult male cadaver during gross anatomy teaching program. An abnormal Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) was observed while dissecting the neck region of an adult. Additional clavicular head of SCM muscle were found on the right side. The accessory clavicular h...

  2. Lateral Mass Fixation in Subaxial Cervical Spine: Anatomic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-elw

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical...

  3. Split-liver transplantation – an alternative to increase the number of liver transplantation recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Split-liver transplantation (SLT is a procedure in which one cadaver donor liver is divided to provide grafts for two recipients. SLT has been performed for over a decade after the initial reports from Europe and USA. Despite the potential for increased organ supply, the practice proves that SLT is seldom performed, accounting for less than 2% of total liver transplant procedures. Difficulties to widespread application of SLT include technical and logistical issues pertaining to both donors and recipients.

  4. Split-liver transplantation – an alternative to increase the number of liver transplantation recipients

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lupaşcu; Lerut, J.

    2013-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation (SLT) is a procedure in which one cadaver donor liver is divided to provide grafts for two recipients. SLT has been performed for over a decade after the initial reports from Europe and USA. Despite the potential for increased organ supply, the practice proves that SLT is seldom performed, accounting for less than 2% of total liver transplant procedures. Difficulties to widespread application of SLT include technical and logistical issues pertaining to both donors ...

  5. Biomechanical studies of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT): quantifying the movements of vertebral bodies during SMT

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Julianna; Herzog, Walter; Kawchuk, Gregory; Conway, Phillip; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    1994-01-01

    The relative movements between vertebral bodies T10 and T11, and T11 and T12 were measured during clinical-type SMTs to T11 in unembalmed post-rigor human cadavers, using embedded stainless steel bone pins and high speed cinematography. Significant relative movements between target and adjacent vertebrae occurred primarily in sagittal and axial rotation during the thrust phases of the SMTs. The relative positions of the vertebral bodies were compared at similar force levels, before and after ...

  6. A comparison of two headless compression screws for operative treatment of scaphoid fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Jim; Ferreira Louis; Sauder David; Assini Joseph; Grewal Ruby; Faber Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the interfragmentary compression force across a simulated scaphoid fracture by two commonly used compression screw systems; the Acutrak 2 Standard and the 3.0 mm Synthes headless compression screw. Methods Sixteen (8 pairs; 6 female, 2 male) cadaver scaphoids were randomly assigned to receive either the Acutrak 2 or Synthes screw with the contralateral scaphoid designated to receive the opposite. Guide wires were inserted under fluoros...

  7. Study of the tendinous vascularization for the compound radial forearm flap plus flexor carpi radialis tendon

    OpenAIRE

    Raspanti, Andrea; Delcroix, Luca; Ghezzi, Serena; Innocenti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the tendinous vascularization of flexor carpi radialis (FCR) and investigate the anatomical basis for harvesting the compound radial forearm flap (free or pedicled) with the vascularized tendon for the reconstruction of cutaneotendinous defects. Methods The area of the radial forearm flap was studied in seventeen forearms of fresh cadavers injected with red latex. A lozenge-shaped flap about 9 cm long and 4 cm wide was raised along ...

  8. Biomechanical Evaluation of Ligamentous Stabilizers of the Scaphoid and Lunate

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Walter H.; Werner, Frederick W.; Green, Jason K.; Masaoka, Shunji

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sectioning the scapholunate interosseous ligament, radioscaphocapitate ligament, and scaphotrapezial ligament on the kinematics of the scaphoid and lunate. Eight cadaver upper extremities were placed in a wrist joint simulator and moved in continuous cycles of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation. Positional data of the scaphoid and lunate were obtained in the intact state, after the scapholunate ligament was cut; after the scapholunate and scaphotr...

  9. The Response of the Rabbit Subsynovial Connective Tissue to a Stress-Relaxation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Morizaki, Yutaka; Vanhees, Matthias; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Larson, Dirk; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    The subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel may play a role in the etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), yet the material properties of the SSCT remain unclear. Thus, we investigated the mechanical response of the SSCT in a rabbit model. Twenty-four rabbit cadaver paws were used for mechanical testing; two paws were used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. After testing normal tendon excursion, the divided third digit flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tend...

  10. MRI-Based Modeling for Radiocarpal Joint Mechanics: Validation Criteria and Results for Four Specimen-Specific Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Kenneth J.; Johnson, Joshua E.; Waller, Alexander J.; McIff, Terence E; Bruce Toby, E.; Bilgen, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the MRI-based joint contact modeling methodology in the radiocarpal joints by comparison of model results with invasive specimen-specific radiocarpal contact measurements from four cadaver experiments. We used a single validation criterion for multiple outcome measures to characterize the utility and overall validity of the modeling approach. For each experiment, a Pressurex film and a Tekscan sensor were sequentially placed into the radiocarpal joi...

  11. The cleidosternohyoid: a fifth infrahyoid muscle?

    OpenAIRE

    Wu B; Bluth BE; Stark ME; Wisco JJ

    2010-01-01

    We describe a cleidosternohyoid muscle found bilaterally during routine dissection of a cadaver (92 year-old male of Irish descent). On the right side, the muscle originated from the clavicle with a cleidohyoid muscle. On the left side, the muscle originated from the clavicle and accompanied the inferior belly of an omohyoid muscle. On both sides the muscle inserted into the sternohyoid muscle. Since the muscle variant courses with a cleidohyoid on the right and the inferior belly of an omohy...

  12. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing, Peter A.; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. Methods For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its ...

  13. [The conflict between obturator nerve and ovary: a cadaveric and radioanatomic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejewski, F; Peltier, J; Havet, E; Page, C; Foulon, P; Gondry, J; Le Gars, D

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical relationships between the ovary and the obturator nerve in its intrapelvic portion. Seven embalmed cadavers were dissected; 20 MRIs were then analyzed. The main distance between the lateral pole of the ovary and the obturator nerve was 29 mm. The authors describe various etiologies responsible for obturator neuralgia. An underdiagnosed cause is gonadal hypertrophy. PMID:23796698

  14. Microscopic fungi isolated from the Domica Cave system (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia). A review

    OpenAIRE

    Novakova Alena

    2009-01-01

    A broad spectrum, total of 195 microfungal taxa, were isolated from various cave substrates (cave air, cave sediments, bat droppingsand/or guano, earthworm casts, isopods and diplopods faeces, mammalian dung, cadavers, vermiculations, insect bodies, plantmaterial, etc.) from the cave system of the Domica Cave (Slovak Karst National Park, Slovakia) using dilution, direct and gravitysettling culture plate methods and several isolation media. Penicillium glandicola, Trichoderma polysporum, Oidio...

  15. Organ Culture Bioreactors – Platforms to Study Human Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and Regenerative Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Chan, Samantha CW; Walser, Jochen; Haglund, Lisbet; Ferguson, Stephen J; Iatridis, James C.; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades the application of bioreactors has revolutionized the concept of culturing tissues and organs that require mechanical loading. In intervertebral disc (IVD) research, collaborative efforts of biomedical engineering, biology and mechatronics have led to the innovation of new loading devices that can maintain viable IVD organ explants from large animals and human cadavers in precisely defined nutritional and mechanical environments over extended culture periods. Particularly in...

  16. Arthroscopic Fixation of Cell Free Polymer-Based Cartilage Implants with a Bioinspired Polymer Surface on the Hip Joint: A Cadaveric Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Lahner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the adhesion capacity of a polyglycolic acid- (PGA- hyaluronan scaffold with a structural modification based on a planar polymer (PM surface in a cadaver cartilage defect model. Two cadaver specimens were used to serially test multiple chondral matrices. In a cadaver hip model, cell free polymer-based cartilage implants with a planar bioinspired PM surface (PGA-PM-scaffolds were implanted arthroscopically on 10 mm × 15 mm full-thickness femoral hip cartilage lesions. Unprocessed cartilage implants without a bioinspired PM surface were used as control group. The cartilage implants were fixed without and with the use of fibrin glue on femoral hip cartilage defects. After 50 movement cycles and removal of the distraction, a rearthroscopy was performed to assess the outline attachment and integrity of the scaffold. The fixation techniques without and with fibrin fixation showed marginal differences for outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation after 50 cycles. The PGA-PM-scaffolds with fibrin fixation achieved a higher score in terms of the attachment, integrity, and endpoint fixation than the PGA-scaffold on the cartilage defect. Relating to the outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation, the fixation with PGA-PM-scaffolds accomplished significantly better results compared to the PGA-scaffolds (P=0.03752, P=0.03078, P=0.00512, P=0.00512. PGA-PM-scaffolds demonstrate increased observed initial fixation strength in cadaver femoral head defects relative to PGA-scaffold, particularly when fibrin glue is used for fixation.

  17. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  18. Pure endoscopic endonasal odontoidectomy: anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Andrea; Bruno, Maria Carmela; Decq, Philippe; Coste, Andre; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divittis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Different disorders may produce irreducible atlanto-axial dislocation with compression of the ventral spinal cord. Among the surgical approaches available for a such condition, the transoral resection of the odontoid process is the most often used. The aim of this anatomical study is to demonstrate the possibility of an anterior cervico-medullary decompression through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Three fresh cadaver heads were used. A modified endonasal endoscopic approach was made in al...

  19. Angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle of an island nasal chondromucosal flap: Anatomical study and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    HOU, DIANJU; Fang, Lin; Zhao, Zhenmin; ZHOU, CHUANDE; YANG, MINGYONG

    2012-01-01

    Successful eyelid reconstructions have been reported when using an axial nasal chondromucosal flap based on the dorsal nasal artery. The present study aimed to present a detailed anatomical description of the blood supply of the lateral nasal region and the angular artery, in order to propose the angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle for the island nasal chondromucosal flap. A total of 11 cadavers (22 hemi-faces) were examined. Observations with regard to the origin, course and distributi...

  20. Les restes osseux du gisement d'Urdanarre

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Duday

    1993-01-01

    En el enterramiento se identifican restos óseos humanos que corresponden a dos individuos. En uno de los casos, perteneciente a un adulto de edad madura, el cadaver habría sido incinerado. El otro, mejor representado, se trata de un subadulto que habría sido inhumado. En este caso la superficie de los huesos está muy afectada por la erosión que han experimentado en el lugar de inhumación.

  1. In vivo microstructural analysis of the humeral greater tuberosity in patients with rotator cuff tears using multidetector row computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kido, Akira; Inoue, Kazuya; Sakurai, Goro; Hashiuchi, Tomohisa; Munemoto, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Background In arthroscopic surgery, the suture anchor technique has become popular for rotator cuff repair. Preoperative evaluation of the bone microstructure is of utmost importance because, especially in elderly patients, osteoporotic changes may cause anchor pullout, which results in failure of rotator cuff repair. Many groups have reported humeral microstructural analysis; however, most studies were experiments using porcine specimens or human cadavers. In this study, we used multidetecto...

  2. The Probable Role of Cytomegalovirus in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Izadi; Mohammad Mahdi Zamani; Nastaran Sabetkish; Hassan Abolhassani; Seyed Hassan Saadat; Saeed Taheri; Hossein Dabiri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death worldwide and many studies have been performed on reduction of its prevalence. Objectives: This case control study was designed to investigate the presence of Cytomegaloviruses, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori in atherosclerotic plaques of cadaveric coronary endothelium of patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: Sixty cadavers in two equal groups were analyzed. Acute m...

  3. OSSIFIED CARTILAGO THYREOIDEA AND ITS CLINICAL INSIGHT: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuri Kalyan Chakravarthi*, Nelluri Venumadhav and Huban Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The three major cartilages of the larynx - thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids are all hyaline cartilage. They may undergo calcification or endochondral ossification (or both), such calcified or ossified cartilage may compress the neuro vascular structures around it. Accordingly the present study was undertaken to observe the incidence of the ossified thyroid cartilages (Cartilago Thyreoidea) in the human cadavers, discuss its clinical implications and to review the literature regarding these an...

  4. Variant Branching Pattern of Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy Ravindra Shantakumar; Mohandas Rao, K. G.

    2012-01-01

    During routine dissection of an approximately 50-year-old male cadaver for the undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, we came across a variation in branching pattern of right axillary artery. The second part of axillary artery gave rise to a common trunk which divided into the subscapular and lateral thoracic arteries. The third part of right axillary artery gave rise to anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries. Variations in t...

  5. Bilateral Additional Slips of Triceps Brachii Forming Osseo-Musculo-Fibrous Tunnels for Ulnar Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, RS; Rao, MKG; Somayaji, SN; Raghu, J; Pamidi, N

    2013-01-01

    Rare additional slips of triceps brachii muscle was found bilaterally in a sixty two year old South Indian male cadaver during routine dissection of upper limb for undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India. On left side, the variant additional muscle slip took origin from the lower part of the medial intermuscular septum about 4 cm proximal to the medial humeral epicondyle. From its origin, the muscle fibres were passing over the ulnar nerve ...

  6. A cadaveric study comparing the three approaches for ulnar nerve block at wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Varshney; Nidhi Sharma; Shraddha Malik; Sunny Malik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ulnar nerve blockade as a component of wrist block is a promising technique for adequate anesthesia and analgesia for different surgeries of the hand. Due to anatomical variations in the location of ulnar nerve under the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) a technique with good results and minimal complications are required. Aim: The aim of the following study is to compare the three techniques (volar, transtendinous volar [TTV] and ulnar) for ulnar nerve block at the wrist in human cadave...

  7. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN RADIAL AND ULNAR NERVE AT A HIGH HUMERAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Lalit; Jagdev Singh Kullar; Sanjay Piplani

    2014-01-01

    Various communications between the different branches of brachial plexus have been reported by many authors but the communication between the radial and ulnar nerve; the branches of posterior and medial cords of brachial plexus in the arm is very rare. It features the communicating ramus travelling from proximal radial nerve and distal ulnar nerve at a high humeral level in the right arm of a 56 year old male cadaver. Knowledge of such variations may be of importance in the evalua...

  8. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-xiu-li Li; Qiong He; Zhong-lin Hu; Sheng-hua Chen; Yun-cheng Lv; Zheng-hai Liu; Yong Wen; Tian-hong Peng

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of ...

  9. IN THE GROSS ANATOMY LABORATORY: A REVIEW OF THE EMBRYOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE ABERRANT RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY. EN EL LABORATORIO DE ANATOMÍA MACROSCÓPICA: REVISIÓN DE LA EMBRIOLOGÍA Y GENÉTICA MOLECULAR DE LA ARTERIA SUBCLAVIA DERECHA ABERRANTE

    OpenAIRE

    Todd M. Chappell; Prakash N. Panchani; James Barksdale; Astrin, Kenneth H.; Anthony C. DiLandro; D’Antoni, Anthony V.

    2013-01-01

    Dissection of a 66-year-old female embalmed cadaver by medical students in a first-year gross anatomy course revealed the presence of an aberrant (retroesophageal) right subclavian artery (ARSA). The prevalence of an ARSA is between 0.2-2.0% in the normal population. ARSA has been reported to have an association with various congenital deformities, such as Down syndrome, Kommerell diverticulum, and various other anomalies. Clinical symptoms are usually not associated with ARSAs but when prese...

  10. A new method to examine the cruciate ligaments in the acute stage of injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new plane is described in which it is possible to visualize both the cruciate ligaments using computed tomography, in patients with acute injuries. In those cases the knee is in Bonnet's position, i.e. 30 degrees flexed. Initially, an optimum CT examination schedule for the cruciate ligaments was determined in a cadaver study, subsequently patients were investigated. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. 5 refs.; 6 figs

  11. Anatomical study of the positioning of guide wires for the reconstruction of the two bands of the anterior cruciate ligament using transtibial technique Estudo anatômico do posicionamento dos fios-guia para a reconstrução das duas bandas do ligamento cruzado anterior pela técnica transtibial

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano Saliba Uliana; Marcio Fernando Aparecido de Moura; Mario Namba; Edmar Stieven-Filho; Jurandir Marcondes Ribas-Filho; Osvaldo Malafaia

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether it is possible and the difficulty of anatomical placement of guide wires for reconstruction of the two bands of the anterior cruciate ligament using transtibial technique and to measure the angle and positioning of the anatomic tibial guide wires for this technique. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees were dissected and a guide wire was positioned in the center of origin and insertion of each band. Were collected measurements of the distance from: 1) the entry point of th...

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double bundle versus single bundle: experimental study Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior com duplo feixe versus feixe único: estudo experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto F. Mota e Albuquerque; Sandra Umeda Sasaki; Marco Martins Amatuzzi; Fabio Janson Angelini

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test an intra-articular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee in 10 human cadavers by replacing 2 anterior cruciate ligament bundles, with the purpose of producing a surrogate that would be structurally more similar to the anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament and would provide the knee with more stability. METHODS: We reconstructed the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles using a quadriceps muscle tendon graft that included a patellar bone segment....

  13. INCAPABILITY OF FORMALIN BASED FIXATIVE TO KILL MAGGOT IN MUTILATED HUMAN CARRION

    OpenAIRE

    Oladele, A.A.; Sanya, J.O.; Raji, M.O; Ekundina, V.O

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embalming is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at funerals; thus, are agents that prevent autolysis and putrefaction. The outbreak of maggots from a heap of inadequately embalmed bodies due to deep cuts and bodies involved in inferno, necessitated the need to re-investigate the efficacy of formalin based embalming fluid and its inability to kill maggots. Methodology: Various strength of Formaldehy...

  14. BILATERAL OCCURRENCE OF THE VESTIGIAL MUSCLE PSOAS MINOR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Somanath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscles which regress during the process of evolution are called as vestigial muscles. One of them in humans is psoas minor, which sometimes forms a part of the posterior abdominal wall. It is clinically significant in relation to sports medicine and as a differential diagnosis for certain conditions. The following article presents a case report in a 60 year old male cadaver with bilateral psoas minor.

  15. Arterial blood architecture of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kqiku, Lumnije; Biblekaj, Robert; Weiglein, Andreas H.; Kqiku, Xhylsime; Städtler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To describe vascular anatomy of the maxillary sinus in dentate specimens dissected from human cadavers. Methods Twenty dentate maxillary specimens were dissected, anatomically prepared, and injected with liquid latex for a better visualization of the maxillary sinus artery. Results We found an intraosseous anastomosis in 100% and an extraosseous anastomosis in 90% of the cases. The anterior lateral wall of the maxillary sinus was transversed by two anastomoses between the posterior superi...

  16. The incidence and morphology of maxillary sinus septa in dentate and edentulous maxillae: a cadaveric study with a brief review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Kusum Rajendra; Wabale, Rajendra Namdeo; Siddiqui, Abu Ubaida; Farooqui, Mujjebuddeen Samsudeen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, location, and orientation of maxillary sinus septa in formalin embalmed cadavers. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 210 cadaveric heads available in our department. After taking the mid-sagittal section the specimens were opened from the medial aspect and the sinus cavity was explored for the presence of maxillary sinus septa, their anatomical plane, location and dimensions. Results The mean linear distance between...

  17. The Location of Maxillary Sinus Ostium and Its Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, L.C.; Mamatha, H.

    2010-01-01

    The endoscopic sinus surgeons must have a detailed knowledge of inconsistent location of maxillary sinus openings in any interventional maxillary sinus surgeries as it relates to the orbital floor, ethmoid infundibulum and the nasolacrimal duct. Forty cadaver head and neck specimens had been cut sagittally through the nose, such that the lateral nasal wall had been preserved. The findings were documented with an emphasis on location of the maxillary sinus openings. In the present study maxill...

  18. Concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate used in occlusion body extraction affects Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    SUSURLUK, Hilal; TOPRAK, Umut; GÜRKAN, Mehmet Oktay

    2013-01-01

    Efficacy of a baculovirus as a biological control agent is evaluated according to biological parameters, median lethal dose (LD50) of the virus, and median lethal time (LT50) of infected larvae. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is commonly used in concentrations of 0.1%-1% to extract infective units of the baculoviruses, occlusion bodies (OBs), from infected cadavers. Although several studies have shown disruption of OB structure by SDS, the effects of SDS concentrations on baculovirus biological...

  19. Safety code-14, policy respecting the use of radionuclides in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recommendations and requirments of the Advisory Committee on the Clinical Uses of Radionuclides are set forth. They are based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Qualifications with respect to required training, education and certification are given for ancillary staff, primary and secondary users, and designated physicians. Recommendations for safe handling of hospitalized or surgical patients and of cadavers are also given. An extensive bibliography is included. (J.T.A.)

  20. Nasolacrimal Duct Orifice: A Cadaveric Study in Relation to Important Anatomical Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ankolekar, Vrinda Hari; Hosapatna, Mamatha; Das M, Aswin; Supriya, Supriya; Anne D Souza; Antony Sylvan D Souza

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThe nasolacrimal apparatus is intimately associated with the lateral nasal wall and may be approached using an endoscopic technique. This study was undertaken to describe in detail the gross anatomy of the nasolacrimal duct orifice in relation to various landmarks of the lateral nasal wall to improve the safety and efficiency of endoscopic surgical procedures. The study was conducted on 25 sagittal sections of adult cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mani...

  1. Transverse Carpal Ligament and Forearm Fascia Release for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Change the Entrance Angle of Flexor Tendons to the A1 Pulley: The Relationship between Carpal Tunnel Surgery and Trigger Finger Occurence

    OpenAIRE

    Nazım Karalezli; Harun Kütahya; Ali Güleç; Serdar Toker; Hakan Karabörk; Ogun, Tunc C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The appearance of trigger finger after decompression of the carpal tunnel without a preexisting symptom has been reported in a few articles. Although, the cause is not clear yet, the loss of pulley action of the transverse carpal ligament has been accused mostly. In this study, we planned a biomechanical approach to fresh cadavers. Methods. The study was performed on 10 fresh amputees of the arm. The angles were measured with (1) the transverse carpal ligament and the distal forearm ...

  2. Variations in the quality of uncalcified fibrocartilage at the insertions of the extrinsic calf muscles in the foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Frowen, P; Benjamin, M

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that fibrocartilage at entheses (tendon-bone junctions) prevents collagen fibres bending at the hard tissue interface. We have investigated this function by exploring the relationship between the presence or amount of fibrocartilage at the attachments of the major extrinsic muscles in the foot, and the extent to which these tendons bend near their entheses during movement. The tendons were taken from each of 5 formalin-fixed dissecting room cadavers and prepared for rout...

  3. Fasciocutaneous flaps of the lower leg: Anatomic study and clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Goran; Đorđević Boban; Daković Marija; Trenkić Srbobran; Stojiljković Danilo; Jeremić Slavica; Paravina Jadranka; Janković Irena; Golubović Zoran; Smiljković Igor

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Soft tissue defects of the lower leg, especially in its distal third, still remain a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to examine septocutaneous system of lower leg vascularization, quantitatively and qualitatively, which is the basis of fasciocutaneous and neurocutaneous flaps. Methods. Septocutaneous systems a. tibialis posterior and a. peroneae were examined by anatomical suprafascial lower leg microdissection of 40 fresh cadavers. Sep...

  4. Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung-Sik Park

    2009-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle) in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed o...

  5. Segmental Motion of Forefoot and Hindfoot as a Diagnostic Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Okita, Nori; Meyers, Steven A.; Challis, John H.; Sharkey, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Segmental motions derived from non-invasive motion analysis are being used to investigate the intrinsic functional behavior of the foot and ankle in health and disease. The goal of this research was to examine the ability of a generic segmented model of the foot to capture and differentiate changes in internal skeletal kinematics due to neuromuscular disease and/or trauma. A robotic apparatus that reproduces the kinematics and kinetics of gait in cadaver lower extremities was employed to prod...

  6. Peroneal tendons well vascularized: results from a cadaveric study

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Pim A. D.; Madirolas, F. Xavier; Carrera Burgaya, Ana; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Reina de la Torre, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peroneal tendon tears are relatively common injuries that seem to have a poor healing tendency. The discussion goes that peroneal tendons have avascular zones, contributing to the poor healing of those tears. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence on the vascularization pattern of the peroneal tendons. Methods Ten adult fresh-frozen cadavers were obtained from a university-affiliated body donation programme. The femoral artery was injected with natural coloured latex at the...

  7. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Frank

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radiographic stress measurement. With neither method a sharp distinction between hypermobility and non-hypermobility of the joint could be made. Comparison of the Hohmann surgical procedure with the La...

  8. Computer-Assisted Teaching of Skin Flap Surgery: Validation of a Mobile Platform Software for Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    de Sena, David P.; Fabricio, Daniela D.; Lopes, Maria Helena I.; da Silva, Vinicius D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multimedia software application for mobile platforms to assist in the teaching and learning process of design and construction of a skin flap. Traditional training in surgery is based on learning by doing. Initially, the use of cadavers and animal models appeared to be a valid alternative for training. However, many conflicts with these training models prompted progression to synthetic and virtual reality models. Fifty volunteer fifth- a...

  9. An aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery

    OpenAIRE

    Salve VM; Ratnaprabha C

    2010-01-01

    The internal thoracic artery is the largest artery of the thoracic wall. The internal thoracic artery is often mobilized for coronary artery bypass grafting. During routine dissection (MBBS Batch 2009-2010) of a middle aged male cadaver at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation, Gannavaram, (INDIA); an aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery was found. It arose from right internal thoracic artery behind right first rib. It ran ...

  10. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  11. Modified Shumacker operation for correction of transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, A

    1977-10-01

    Correction of the transposition of the great arteries can be accomplished with a modified Shumacker operation. This procedure has been demonstrated in cadavers to have many advantages over the techniques used by Mustard and by Angelini and Sandiford. At present these two operations provide the best clinical results in correction of transposition of the great arteries. The details of the modified Shumacker technique are described and the different advantages of this technique are discussed. PMID:904361

  12. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Rubens Pinto de Mello; Margareth Maria de Carvalho Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    The calyptrate dipterans are the most important decomposers of human cadavers. Knowledge of their species and distribution are of great importance to forensic entomology, especially because of the enormous diversity in Brazil. Carcasses of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, L) were the experimental models used to attract calyptrates of forensic interest during the winters of 2006 and 2007 and the summers of 2006 and 2008. A total of 24,423 specimens from 44 species were collected (19 Muscidae, 2 Fann...

  13. Feasibility of ultrasound-guided epidural access at the lumbo-sacral space in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Annalisa; Busoni, Valeria; Carrozzo, Maria Valentina; Sandersen, Charlotte; Gabriel, Annick; Bolen, Géraldine

    2015-01-01

    Epidural injections are commonly performed blindly in veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to describe the lumbosacral ultrasonographic anatomy and to assess the feasibility of an ultrasound-guided epidural injection technique in dogs. A cross sectional anatomic atlas of the lumbosacral region and ex vivo ultrasound images were obtained in two cadavers to describe the ultrasound anatomy and to identify the landmarks. Sixteen normal weight canine cadavers were used to establish two variations of the technique for direct ultrasound-guided injection, using spinal needles or epidural catheters. The technique was finally performed in two normal weight cadavers, in two overweight cadavers and in five live dogs with radiographic abnormalities resulting of the lumbosacral spine. Contrast medium was injected and CT was used to assess the success of the injection. The anatomic landmarks to carry out the procedure were the seventh lumbar vertebra, the iliac wings, and the first sacral vertebra. The target for directing the needle was the trapezoid-shaped echogenic zone between the contiguous articular facets of the lumbosacral vertebral canal visualized in a parasagittal plane. The spinal needle or epidural catheter was inserted in a 45° craniodorsal-caudoventral direction through the subcutaneous tissue and the interarcuate ligament until reaching the epidural space. CT examination confirmed the presence of contrast medium in the epidural space in 25/25 dogs, although a variable contamination of the subarachnoid space was also noted. Findings indicated that this ultrasound-guided epidural injection technique is feasible for normal weight and overweight dogs, with and without radiographic abnormalities of the spine. PMID:25187175

  14. In vitro studies on rice bran wax as skin moisturizer

    OpenAIRE

    Sabale Vidya; Sabale P; Lakhotiya C

    2007-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present study aims to investigate possible use of rice bran wax as occlusive moisturizer. The rice bran wax obtained was purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. In vitro studies were carried out to determine trans epidermal water loss through stratum corneum and water holding capacity of stratum corneum of human cadaver...

  15. A decision support system for forensic entomology

    OpenAIRE

    Morvan, Gildas; Jolly, Daniel; Dupont, Daniel; Kubiak, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a multiagent-based model of insect development on a dead body and a three layers Decision Support System architecture able to perform retrodictive (abductive) reasoning from multiagent-based models or more generally, complex systems models. This architecture is used in order to compute post-mortem intervals from entomological data sampled on cadavers. Knowing the exact time of a death is fundamental in criminal investigations. Thus, it is necessar...

  16. Murdering Mothers: Infanticide, Madness, and the Law, Rio de Janeiro, 1890-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Cassia

    2015-01-01

    In 1923, the Rio de Janeiro public prosecutor charged twentyfive- year-old Portuguese immigrant Maria de Jesus for the crimes of both abortion and infanticide.1 Maria stated that she had miscarried a five-month-old fetus at the Eunice Hotel where she worked as a maid. She then disposed of the cadaver by cutting off its head, flushing the body down the toilet, and throwing the head into the backy...

  17. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Gurude PV, Bahetee BH

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  18. Multiple tendons of abductor pollicis longus

    OpenAIRE

    Mansur DI; Krishnamurthy A; Nayak SR; Kumar CG; Rai R; Sujatha D’costa S; Mansur DI, Krishnamurthy A, Nayak SR, Kumar CG, Rai R, Sujatha D’costa S, Prabhu LV.; Prabhu LV

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic variations of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and its knowledge is important to assess the diseased and traumatized hand and when considering tendons for repair or graft. During routine dissection of a 63-year-old male cadaver, in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India we came across an unusual APL in the right upper limb. The muscle had altogether 9 tendons and they were inserted to the lateral and anterolateral sides of th...

  19. BODIES DO MATTER: RETHINKING ANATOMICAL PEDAGOGY, FROM THE SCALPEL TO THE MOUSE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Subhra Mandal; Amrita Gupta; Manjari Chatterjee; Prabir Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy and dissection have long been considered a cornerstone in medical education, irrespective of nation, racial background or medical school. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Anatomy teaching methodology has been revolutionized in the 2Ist century, due to time constraints, less availability of cadavers, stress on computer aided learning, scarcity of ...

  20. Muslim Views On Organ Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi Omar Shuriye

    2012-01-01

    In Islamic worldview human cadaver is considered holy and sacred as of the living person. The human dignity bestowed on all mankind applies and it is extended to the corpse.  For this reason, in the Muslim world at least, organ transplant has been contentious process. This paper is a study on the procedures and ethical implications of organ transplant. It evaluates the Islamic views on the issue. ABSTRAK: Pada panndangan Islam, mayat manusia adalah suci dan mulia sebagaimana orang yang m...

  1. The Interspinous Spacer: A Clinicoanatomical Investigation Using Plastination

    OpenAIRE

    Juergen Koebke; Rolf Sobottke; Peer Eysel; Jutta Knifka; Gregor Stein; Kourosh Zarghooni; Thomas Kaulhausen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The relatively new and less-invasive therapeutic alternative “interspinous process decompression device (IPD)” is expected to result in improved symptoms of neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. The aim of the study was to analyze IPD position particularly regarding damage originating from surgical implantation. Methods. Anatomic assessments were performed on a fresh human cadaver. For the anatomic examination, the lumbar spine was plastinated a...

  2. UTILIZATION OF FORMALIN EMBALMED SPECIMENS UNDER ECO-FRIENDLY CONDITIONS BY ADVANCED PLASTINATION TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Menaka; Chaurasia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of anatomical models and teaching aids is a challenging task in the medical, veterinary and paramedical sciences as like as life form. The successful preservation of conventional methods by embalmed cadavers/ corpse’s are routinely practiced for educational/research purposes. The existing form of preservation technique is not promising to meet the current challenges in the teaching and learning of human/veterinary anatomy. The embalming fluid causes potential health hazards with c...

  3. Plastination of decalcified bone by a new resin technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Rabiei; Ebrahim Esfandiary; Morteza Hajian; Atefe Shamosi; Mohammad Mardani; Bahman Rashidi; Mohsen Setayeshmehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: The scope of this study was to preserve whole detailed structure of dissected and decalcified bones, taken from used cadavers, by a new plastination technique. Materials and Methods: Specimens we used in this study were sheep femurs and human bones including pelvis, femur, tibia, and fibula. Bones, at first, fixed with 5% formalin and were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, and then were fixed again and washed under the tap water. The resulted flexible bones were dehydrated in -...

  4. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Kinematics after ACL Reconstructions in Anatomic SB and DB - Technique with Additional Medial Meniscus Suture

    OpenAIRE

    Lorbach, Olaf; Herbort, Mirco; Engelhardt, Martin; Kieb, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Biomechanical evaluation of knee laxity after single- and double-bundle ACL reconstruction with additional medial meniscus suture. Methods: Kinematics of the intact knee were determined in 12 human cadaver specimens in response to a 134-N anterior tibial load (aTT) and a combined rotatory load of 10 Nm valgus and 4 Nm internal tibial rotation using a robotic/universal force moment sensor testing system. Subsequently, the ACL was resected following the creation of a bucket-handle t...

  5. Cytological factors relating to posterior capsule opacification following cataract surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, T J; Humphry, R. C.; Davies, E. G.; Thompson, G M

    1987-01-01

    Simulated extracapsular cataract extractions on cadaver eyes were performed which demonstrated that the cells of the anterior capsule remain largely intact and that only a small amount of cortical lens matter remains postoperatively. Human lens epithelial cells from normal and cataractous lenses were grown in culture. There was no appreciable difference in growth rate between cells from normal and those from cataractous lenses or between equatorial and central capsule cells. The cells grew fr...

  6. Characterization of the Temporomandibular Joint of Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lieske, Danielle; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Leale, Dustin M.; Young, Colleen; Arzi, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    The structure–function relationship of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of southern sea otter has largely not been described. This study aims to describe the histological, biochemical, and biomechanical features of the TMJ disk in the southern sea otter. The TMJ disks from fresh cadaver heads of southern sea otter adult males (n = 8) and females (n = 8) acquired from strandings were examined. Following macroscopical evaluation, the TMJs were investigated for their histological, mechanical, a...

  7. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit for repair of injured sciatic nerve: A mechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Tao; ZHAO, CHANGFU; Li, Peng; Liu, Guangyao; Luo, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tensile stress and tensile strain directly affect the quality of nerve regeneration after bridging nerve defects by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit transplantation and autogenous nerve grafting for sciatic nerve injury. This study collected the sciatic nerve from the gluteus maximus muscle from fresh human cadaver, and established 10-mm-long sciatic nerve injury models by removing the ischium, following which poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduits or autogenous nerve grafts were transpl...

  8. Slice-based supine-to-standing posture deformation for chinese anatomical models and the dosimetric results with wide band frequency electromagnetic field exposure: Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standing Chinese adult anatomical models are obtained from supine-postured cadaver slices. This paper presents the dosimetric differences between the supine and the standing postures over wide band frequencies and various incident configurations. Both the body level and the tissue/organ level differences are reported for plane wave and the 3T magnetic resonance imaging radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. The influence of posture on the whole body specific absorption rate and tissue specified specific absorption rate values is discussed. . (authors)

  9. A test of the universal applicability of a commonly used principle of hoof balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M N; Allan, L A; Pinchbeck, G L; Clegg, P D; Kissick, K E; Milner, P I

    2016-01-01

    This study used a UK trimming protocol to determine whether hoof balance is achieved (as defined by equivalence of geometric proportions) in cadaver limbs (n = 49) and two cohorts of horses (shod, n = 6, and unshod, n = 20; three trimming cycles). To determine equivalence, dorsal hoof wall length (DHWL), distance from the heel buttress to the centre of pressure (HBUT-COP) and distance from dorsal toe to centre of rotation (DT-COR) were calculated as a proportion of bearing border length (BBL) using digital photography. Geometric proportions were tested using Fieller's test of equivalence with limits of difference of 2.8%. In 22 cadaver limbs the location of external COR and COP was also mapped radiographically to the extensor process of the third phalanx and the centre of rotation of the distal interphalangeal joint. Equivalence of geometric proportions was not present following trimming in cadaver limbs or in the two cohorts. Although the dorsal hoof wall to heel wall ratio improved in cadaver and unshod horses after trimming, dorsal hoof wall and lateral heel parallelism was absent in all groups and COP was not consistently in line with the extensor process. Increased COP-COR distance occurred in shod horses and may relate to solar arch flattening. Palmar heel migration, however, occurred more in unshod horses. The study shows that equivalence of geometric proportions as a measure of static hoof balance was not commonly present and widely published measures and ratios of hoof balance rarely occurred in this sample population of horses. PMID:26639831

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Decomposition Odour in Soil Using Sorbent Tubes and Solid Phase Microextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Perrault, Katelynn A.; Barbara H. Stuart; Shari L. Forbes

    2014-01-01

    Odour profiling of decomposed remains is important for understanding the mechanisms that cadaver dogs and forensically-relevant insects use to locate decomposed remains. The decomposition odour profile is complex and has been documented in outdoor terrestrial environments. The purpose of this study was to perform longitudinal analysis of the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile in soils associated with decomposed remains across all stages of decomposition. Two VOC collection techniques (so...

  11. The use of simulators in the learning for otologic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Ana Maria Almeida de; Okada, Daniel Mochida; Suzuki, Fabio Akira

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The teaching method of "learn by doing it'' was created by Halsted e col. In the beginning of 20th century creating the first model of medical residence in the world. This learning develops in three phases: cognitive, associative and autonomous, through an ascending curve. The simulators appeared in the last years as a complement to the cognitive phase, adding efforts to the training, performed before only in animals and cadavers, ever more hampered by medical and legal dilemmas...

  12. Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, C H; Shephard, B C; Daniel, S E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A standardised odour identification test was used, together with an evoked potential assessment with hydrogen sulphide. In addition, histological analysis was performed on the olfactory bulbs of cadavers who died from Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Over 70% of patients studied (71 of 96) were outside the 95% limit of normal on the identification test in an age matched sample and there was an unusual pattern of selective...

  13. Can evidence-based health policy from high-income countries be applied to lower-income countries: considering barriers and facilitators to an organ donor registry in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Diana K. Vania; Randall, Glen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Organ transplantation has become an effective means to extend lives; however, a major obstacle is the lack of availability of cadaveric organs. India has one of the lowest cadaver organ donation rates in the world. If India could increase the donor rate, the demand for many organs could be met. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that an organ donor registry can be a valuable tool for increasing donor rates. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the implementat...

  14. Organ donor problems and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Veena; Bhosale G

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and...

  15. MEDIAN NERVE AS A NERVE OF ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF ARM WITH ITS VARIANT FORMATION: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charushila D. Shinde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Absence of Musculocutaneous nerve and unusual formation and innervation of Median nerve were noted in left upper limb during anatomical dissection of 60 yr old female cadaver. Median nerve normally does not give any branch in arm but in this case it innervates all the muscles of anterior compartment of arm in place of Musculocutaneous nerve. Here we discussed its embryology. It is important to be aware of such possible anatomical variations in routine clinical practice.

  16. Gross morphological features of plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cevik-Demirkan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervation areas of the plexus brachialis in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera. The animals (5 female and 5 male were euthanased with ketamine hydrocloride and xylazine hydrocloride combination, 60 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, respectively. Skin, muscles and nerves were dissected under a stereo-microscope. The brachial plexus of the chinchilla is formed by rami ventrales of C5-C8, T1 and T2, and possesses a single truncus. The subscapular nerve is formed by the rami of the spinal nerves originating from C6 (one thin ramus and C7 (one thick and 2 thin rami. These nerves innervate the subscapular and teres minor muscles. The long thoracic nerve, before joining with the brachial plexus, obtains branches from C6 and C7 in 5 cadavers (3 male, 2 female, from C7 in 4 cadavers (2 male, 2 female and from C6-C8 in only 1 female cadaver. These nerves disperse in variable combinations to form the extrinsic and intrinstic named, nerves of the thoracic limb. An undefined nerve branch originates from the rami ventrales of C7, C8 and T1 spinal nerves enter the coracobrachial muscle.

  17. Near-infrared measurements of brain oxygenation in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, François; Yang, Runze; Nambiar, Vivek; Demchuk, Andrew M; Dunn, Jeff F

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS) to study brain oxygenation in the first few hours of stroke onset. The OxiplexTS(®) fdNIRS system was used in this study. Using a standard probing protocol based on surface landmarks, we measured brain tHb and [Formula: see text] in healthy volunteers, cadavers, and acute stroke patients within 9 h of stroke onset and 3 days later. We obtained measurements from 11 controls, 5 cadavers, and 5 acute stroke patients. [Formula: see text] values were significantly lower in cadavers compared to the controls and stroke patients. Each stroke patient had at least one area with reduced [Formula: see text] on the stroke side compared to the contralateral side. The evolution of tHb and [Formula: see text] at 3 days differed depending on whether a large infarct occurred. This study shows the proof of principle that quantified measurements of brain oxygenation using NIRS could be used in the hectic environment of acute stroke management. It also highlights the current technical limitations and future challenges in the development of this unique bedside monitoring tool for stroke. PMID:26958577

  18. Measurement of the tendon of the biceps brachii after tenotomy: study on cadavers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Cunha; Ribeiro, Fabiano Rebouças; Martins, Samuel Machado; Brasil-Filho, Rômulo; Tenor-Junior, Antonio Carlos; da Costa, Miguel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of elbow and forearm range of motion on the distal excursion of the long head of the biceps (LHB). Methods The distal excursion of the LHB after tenotomy of the shoulders of eight cadavers was ascertained by measuring the distance between a point marked out on the LHB, 3 cm from the anterolateral border of the acromion, and its position at different degrees of elbow flexion, using a digital pachymeter. The measurements at elbow flexion of 135°, 90°, 45° and 0° were noted: these angles were established using a goniometer. The measurements were made with the forearm in neutral, supination and pronation positions. Results Differences between the mean measurements of the distal excursion of the LHB (total sample) were observed between the degrees of elbow flexion (p < 0.01). However, no statistical differences were observed between the different forearm positions, between the sides, genders and ages of the cadavers studied. Conclusion Progressive extension of the elbow caused progressive distal excursion of the LHB, but without interference in the forearm position, gender, side or age of the cadavers studied. PMID:26401503

  19. Preliminary experimental results of radiofrequency-cement-augmented and cannulated pedicle screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goost H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cut-out of a pedicle screw is high in the presence of osteoporotic bone. In cadaver studies it was found that cement augmentation of pedicle screws markedly increases pullout forces. However, the use of conventional low viscosity vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty cement is associated with the risk of cement extravasation. The risk might be reduced by using high viscosity, radiofrequency-activated bone cement. After performing DEXA scans, six fresh-frozen vertebral bodies of different bone densities were obtained from cadavers. Two pedicle screws (WSI Expertise-Inject, Peter Brehm, Germany were placed in the pedicles. About 3 ml of radiofrequency-activated, ultra-high viscosity cement (ER2 Bone Cement, DFine Europe GmbH, Germany was injected through the right pedicle. The left pedicle screw was left uncemented and served as control. Axial pullout tests were performed using a material testing device (Zwick/Roell Zmartpro, Ulm, Germany. The tests revealed that cementaugmented pedicle screws were able to withstand markedly higher pullout forces. Extravasation of cement did not occur. The value of the study is limited by the fact that only six samples were investigated. Further cadaver studies and clinical evaluation will be needed in the future. However, this pilot study showed that combining cannulated pedicle screws with ultra-high viscosity bone cement is a successful approach. Revision due to cut-out and complications secondary to cement extravasation can be reduced by this method.

  20. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons. PMID:24938642

  1. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  2. Is Dissection a Must for Better Knowledge Among Future Doctors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Barkat Irfan Deeba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of anatomy education in contemporary medicine remains undisputable, the medium used to deliver anatomy information to medical learners is rapidly changing .The traditional dissection lies in the midst of a downward spiral as modern technological teaching alternatives rapidly substitute the cadaver. In this climate of pedagogical metamorphosis, the long-term cognitive impact of a ‘cadaver less' curriculum in the assimilation of core knowledge among our future physicians and surgeons remains an issue of fervent debate.The authors propose the hypothesis that active cadaveric dissection directly enhances the ‘long term learning outcomes' among students and is indispensible to the creation and retention of anatomy memory in the minds of learners. This retention of core concepts is not attainable through other instructional aids and might go a long way in framing the professional character of our medical community and the fate of our patients.To prove the same, this study provides objective evidence based on measurable data regarding the medical student's pedagogic preferences in anatomy education and their superior academic performance with the aid of dissection, thereby indicating the pivotal role of the cadaver in enhancing cognitive outcomes.

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of immediate stability with rectangular versus cylindrical interbody cages in stabilization of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webb John K

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cadaver studies show stability against axial rotation with a cylindrical cage is marginally superior to a rectangular cage. The purpose of this biomechanical study in cadaver spine was to evaluate the stability of a new rectangular titanium cage design, which has teeth similar to the threads of cylindrical cages to engage the endplates. Methods Ten motion segments (five L2-3, five L4-5 were tested. From each cadaver spine, one motion segment was fixed with a pair of cylindrical cages (BAK, Sulzer Medica and the other with paired rectangular cages (Rotafix, Corin Spinal. Each specimen was tested in an unconstrained state, after cage introduction and after additional posterior translaminar screw fixation. The range of motion (ROM in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and rotation was tested in a materials testing machine, with +/- 5 Nm cyclical load over 10 sec per cycle; data from the third cycle was captured for analysis. Results ROM in all directions was significantly reduced (p Conclusions There was no significant difference in immediate stability in any direction between the threaded cylindrical cage and the new design of the rectangular cage with endplate teeth.

  4. Duplication of hepatic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

  5. Design and validation of a simulator for equine joint injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Victoria; Sinclair, Charlotte; Bolt, David M; Lowe, John; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Joint injections are commonly used in equine practice for diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders. Performing joint injections is hence an essential skill for equine practitioners. However, opportunities for veterinary students to practice this skill are often scarce in veterinary curricula. The aim of this study was to design and validate an equine joint injection simulator. We hypothesized that the simulator will enhance student ability and confidence in performing joint injections. The simulator was constructed around an equine forelimb skeleton with soft tissues rebuilt using building foam and rubber bands. An electrical circuit including a buzzer, a battery, wire wool in the joints, and a hypodermic needle at the end of the cable was incorporated. If the students placed the needle into the joint correctly, instant auditory feedback was provided by the buzzer. To validate the simulator, 45 veterinary students were allocated to three groups: cadaver limb, textbook, or simulator. Students' ability to perform joint injections was tested and students' opinions were evaluated with a questionnaire. The proportion of students performing a metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint injection correctly was significantly higher in the cadaver (93%) and simulator (76%) groups compared to the textbook group (50%). There was no significant difference between groups for performing a distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection correctly. Students rated the learning experience with the cadaver and simulator group high and with the textbook group low. The joint injection simulator represents an affordable teaching aid that allows students to repeatedly practice this skill in their own time with immediate feedback. PMID:23709111

  6. Evaluation of the canine tympanic membrane by positive contrast ear canalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive contrast ear canalography was described briefly in 1973 as a method for detecting rupture of the tympanic membrane in dogs with otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and usefulness of the technique. The ears of 10 normal canine cadavers and 31 dogs with clinical signs of ear disease were examined using otoscopy, radiography and contrast radiography after infusing 2 to 5 ml of positive contrast medium into the ear canals. These examinations were repeated in the cadavers after the tympanic membrane had been punctured with a Spreull needle. In the cadavers 14 of 19 (74 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically; contrast medium did not enter the tympanic bulla of any of the ears before the tympanic membrane was ruptured, but was visible in the bulla in every ear after rupture. In the clinical study, 40 of 61 (66 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically, and 12 appeared to be ruptured. Radiographic signs of otitis media (increased opacity and/or thickening of the tympanic bulla) were identified in seven ears. Canalography was positive for rupture of the tympanic membrane in 13 ears, including four in which it appeared to be intact otoscopically. In normal canine ears, canalography was a more accurate method for detecting iatrogenic tympanic membrane rupture than otoscopy. In dogs with ear disease, canalography may be more sensitive for otitis media than either otoscopy or survey radiography

  7. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-10-01

    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  8. Age related changes in histomorphology of medium sized muscular artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of histomorphometric changes which are associated with increasing age in local population, with the experience obtained in the dissection on cadavers. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with Forensic departments of various medical institutes where cadavers were brought for autopsy, spanning from 15 Feb 2010 to 15 Aug 2010. Material and Methods: A total of forty cadavers from local population (Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) were dissected and specimen (Common hepatic artery) (CHA) were obtained. Two age groups, one below the age of forty years (1 to 39 years) and the other above the age of forty years (40 to 70 years) were made. The specimen were processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Using a microscope with 10 X objective, micrometry was done and data of intima thickness (IT), media thickness (MT) and intima media thickness (IMT) was noted. Results: After comparing the two age groups, statistically significant difference was found between the IT (p value <0.01). The mean values of media failed to attain any statistical difference. No statistically significant difference was found in the IMT of the two age groups. Conclusion: Increase in intima thickness was found while MT and IMT did not show any statistical difference. (author)

  9. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods: A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results: The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion: This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, tonometer, ocular compression

  10. The Realistic Significance and Humanistic Reflection of Body Donation%遗体捐献的现实意义和人文反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹东; 王金德; 李雪涛; 段艳萍; 曹珍珍; 罗文东; 邹华

    2011-01-01

    尸体对于人体解刹学教学具有无法替代的作用,而现今全国各医学院校都面临尸体来源短缺的棘手问题,作为社会文明进步象征之一的遗体捐献应当成为教学用尸体的主要来源.结合现状,呼吁认真反思遗体捐献中的医学伦理问题,完善相关法律法规,使遗体捐献被越来越多的人接受和赞同.%The cadavers play an irreplaceable role in anatomical teaching. It is a thorny problem that how all medical colleges and schools across our country solve the shortage of cadaver's source. As one of significant symbols of social civilization and progress, the bodies for donation should be a major cadavers' source for medical education. At present, in order to make more and more people accept and endorse body donation, we must reflect on medical ethnics and legislate for it.

  11. Investigation and macroscopic anatomical study of referred pain in patients with hip disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Junya; Morimoto, Yosuke; Ishii, Shun; Nakano, Jiro; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Okita, Minoru; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and patterns of referred pain in patients with hip disease, as well as the nerve distribution in the hip and knee joints of 2 cadavers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 113 patients with hip joint disease were included in the investigation. The incidence of regional pain and referred pain patterns were evaluated before and after arthroplasty. Two cadavers were macroscopically observed to verify the nerve innervation of the hip and knee joints. [Results] Anterior knee pain was observed preoperatively in 13.3% (in resting) and 33.6% (in motion) of the patients, which was comparable with the incidence of greater trochanter pain. In addition, the preoperative incidence rates of knee pain in resting and motion markedly decreased postoperatively. Of note is the remarkable incidence of pain radiating to the ventral lower limb. An anteromedial innervation was determined in the cadavers by the articular branches of the obturator and femoral nerve, which supply small branches to the knee joints. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that the distribution of the incidence of pain among the patients with hip disease is diverse owing to the sensory distribution of the femoral and obturator nerves. PMID:24648632

  12. The superficial temporal fat pad and its ramifications for temporalis muscle construction in facial approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carl N; Devine, Matthew

    2009-10-30

    The construction of the facial muscles (particularly those of mastication) is generally thought to enhance the accuracy of facial approximation methods because they increase attention paid to face anatomy. However, the lack of consideration for non-muscular structures of the face when using these "anatomical" methods ironically forces one of the two large masticatory muscles to be exaggerated beyond reality. To demonstrate and resolve this issue the temporal region of nineteen caucasoid human cadavers (10 females, 9 males; mean age=84 years, s=9 years, range=58-97 years) were investigated. Soft tissue depths were measured at regular intervals across the temporal fossa in 10 cadavers, and the thickness of the muscle and fat components quantified in nine other cadavers. The measurements indicated that the temporalis muscle generally accounts for curve of the temporalis muscle as currently undertaken in facial approximation methods. New metric-based facial approximation guidelines are presented to facilitate accurate construction of the STFP and the temporalis muscle for future facial approximation casework. This study warrants further investigations of the temporalis muscle and the STFP in younger age groups and demonstrates that untested facial approximation guidelines, including those propounded to be anatomical, should be cautiously regarded. PMID:19632798

  13. Capsulorhexis: Its safe limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook this study to determine the safe limits of capsulorhexis during nucleus expression in 40 eyes of patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL implantation and in 30 cadaver eyes. In group I (patient eyes, capsulorhexis of 4.5 to 7.5 mm was performed and the nucleus was expressed by hydrodissection. The nuclei measured 4.5 to 9.0 mm. One relaxing incision at 12 o′clock position had to be placed in 9 patients. In group II (cadaver eyes, continuous curvilinear capsulotomies of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 mm were made in 5 eyes each. No relaxing incisions were placed. In both the groups, nuclei of all sizes could be safely delivered through intact capsulotomies measuring 5.5 mm or more. In two patient eyes, posterior capsule rupture occurred with rhexis measuring 4.5 and 5.0 mm, respectively. In the cadaver eyes, intracapsular extraction occurred in 4 eyes with rhexis measuring 5.0 mm or less. We conclude that a rhexis less than 5.5 mm is not safe for nucleus delivery during ECCE.

  14. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  15. Semblance analysis to assess GPR data from a five-year forensic study of simulated clandestine graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Adam D.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2016-02-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. There has been extensive research into the geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in different burial scenarios and ground conditions. Whilst these studies have been used to suggest optimum dominant radar frequencies, the data themselves have not been quantitatively analysed to-date. This study uses a common-offset configuration of semblance analysis, both to characterise velocity trends from GPR diffraction hyperbolae and, since the magnitude of a semblance response is proportional to signal-to-noise ratio, to quantify the strength of a forensic GPR response. 2D GPR profiles were acquired over a simulated clandestine burial, with a wrapped-pig cadaver monitored at three-month intervals between 2008 and 2013 with GPR antennas of three different centre-frequencies (110, 225 and 450 MHz). The GPR response to the cadaver was a strong diffraction hyperbola. Results show, in contrast to resistivity surveys, that semblance analysis have little sensitivity to changes attributable to decomposition, and only a subtle influence from seasonality: velocity increases (0.01-0.02 m/ns) were observed in summer, associated with a decrease (5-10%) in peak semblance magnitude, SM, and potentially in the reflectivity of the cadaver. The lowest-frequency antennas consistently gave the highest signal-to-noise ratio although the grave was nonetheless detectable by all frequencies trialled. These observations suggest that forensic GPR surveys could be undertaken with little seasonal hindrance. Whilst GPR analysis cannot currently provide a quantitative diagnostic proxy for time-since-burial, the consistency of responses suggests that graves will remain detectable beyond the five years shown here.

  16. Optimization of computed tomography (CT) arthrography of hip for the visualization of cartilage: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Paolo; Leyder, Pierre-Philippe; Malchair, Francoise; Marechal, Carole; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria [CHU de Liege, Diagnostic Imaging Department, MSK Imaging, Liege (Belgium); Albert, Adelin [CHU de Liege, Biostatistics Department, Liege (Belgium); Scarciolla, Laura; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [Campus Bio-Medico University, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Rome (Italy); Gillet, Philippe [CHU de Liege, Orthopaedic Surgery Department, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    We sought to optimize the kilovoltage, tube current, and the radiation dose of computed tomographic arthrography of the hip joint using in vitro methods. A phantom was prepared using a left femoral head harvested from a patient undergoing total hip arthroplasty and packed in a condom filled with iodinated contrast. The right hip joint of a cadaver was also injected with iodinated contrast. The phantom and the cadaver were scanned using different values of peak kilovoltage (kVp) and tube current (milliamp seconds, mAs). Three different regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in the cartilage, subchondral bone plate, and intraarticular contrast. The attenuation values, contrast/noise ratio (CNR), and effective dose were calculated. Two independent observers classified the quality of the contrast-cartilage interface and the cartilage-subchondral bone plate interface as (1) diagnostic quality or (2) nondiagnostic quality. Contrast, cartilage, and subchondral bone plate attenuation values decreased at higher kVp. CNR increased with both kVp and mAs. The qualitative analysis showed that in both phantom and cadaver, at 120 kVp and 50 mAs, the contrast-cartilage and cartilage-subchondral bone plate interfaces were of diagnostic quality, with an effective dose decreased to 0.5 MSv. The absolute effective dose is not directly related to the quality of images but to the specific combination of kVp and mAs used for image acquisition. The combination of 120 kVp and 50 mAs can be suggested to decrease the dose without adversely affect the visibility of cartilage and subchondral bone plate. (orig.)

  17. Anatomic Parameters of the Lisfranc Joint Complex in a Radiographic and Cadaveric Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Kai, Yeh; Shiu-Bii, Lien

    2015-01-01

    Subtle injuries to the Lisfranc joint complex are difficult to diagnose clinically and radiographically and can ultimately result in obvious disability if misdiagnosed. However, no previous study has shown the true mean average distance between the base of the first and second metatarsals (the Lisfranc distance). Therefore, in the present study, the anatomic and radiographic parameters of the Lisfranc joint were studied in detail to assist in the evaluation of Lisfranc injuries. The parameters of the Lisfranc joint complex in 100 normal volunteers and 10 cadavers were measured, including the medial, lateral depth of the mortise joint, width and height of the second metatarsal base, and distance between the base of the first and second metatarsals. The mean average Lisfranc distance was 0.24 ± 0.06 mm in the left foot and 0.25 ± 0.06 mm in the right foot for the radiographic group (p = .089) and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm in the left foot and 0.37 ± 0.04 mm in the right foot for the cadaver group (p = .129). The medial depth and Lisfranc distance in the radiographic group were smaller than the same measurements in the cadaver group, and these differences were statistically significant (medial depth, p Lisfranc distance, p Lisfranc distance is >3.0 mm radiographically, a subtle injury to the Lisfranc joint should be highly suspected. No test of stability was performed between shallow and narrow versus deeper and broader Lisfranc mortise configurations. We merely speculated that a deeper and wider mortise is likely to be more stable than one that is shallow and narrow, probably owing to the presence of broader ligaments. PMID:26002680

  18. Acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction of ultralow dose volumetric CT scout for organ-based CT scan planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Traditionally, 2D radiographic preparatory scan images (scout scans) are used to plan diagnostic CT scans. However, a 3D CT volume with a full 3D organ segmentation map could provide superior information for customized scan planning and other purposes. A practical challenge is to design the volumetric scout acquisition and processing steps to provide good image quality (at least good enough to enable 3D organ segmentation) while delivering a radiation dose similar to that of the conventional 2D scout. Methods: The authors explored various acquisition methods, scan parameters, postprocessing methods, and reconstruction methods through simulation and cadaver data studies to achieve an ultralow dose 3D scout while simultaneously reducing the noise and maintaining the edge strength around the target organ. Results: In a simulation study, the 3D scout with the proposed acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction strategy provided a similar level of organ segmentation capability as a traditional 240 mAs diagnostic scan, based on noise and normalized edge strength metrics. At the same time, the proposed approach delivers only 1.25% of the dose of a traditional scan. In a cadaver study, the authors’ pictorial-structures based organ localization algorithm successfully located the major abdominal-thoracic organs from the ultralow dose 3D scout obtained with the proposed strategy. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that images with a similar degree of segmentation capability (interpretability) as conventional dose CT scans can be achieved with an ultralow dose 3D scout acquisition and suitable postprocessing. Furthermore, the authors applied these techniques to real cadaver CT scans with a CTDI dose level of less than 0.1 mGy and successfully generated a 3D organ localization map

  19. Acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction of ultralow dose volumetric CT scout for organ-based CT scan planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhye, E-mail: yin@ge.com; De Man, Bruno [Image Reconstruction Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Yao, Yangyang; Wu, Mingye [X-ray and CT Laboratory, GE Global Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); Montillo, Albert [Biomedical Image Processing Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Edic, Peter M. [CT, X-ray and Functional Imaging, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep [Thoracic and Cardiac Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Traditionally, 2D radiographic preparatory scan images (scout scans) are used to plan diagnostic CT scans. However, a 3D CT volume with a full 3D organ segmentation map could provide superior information for customized scan planning and other purposes. A practical challenge is to design the volumetric scout acquisition and processing steps to provide good image quality (at least good enough to enable 3D organ segmentation) while delivering a radiation dose similar to that of the conventional 2D scout. Methods: The authors explored various acquisition methods, scan parameters, postprocessing methods, and reconstruction methods through simulation and cadaver data studies to achieve an ultralow dose 3D scout while simultaneously reducing the noise and maintaining the edge strength around the target organ. Results: In a simulation study, the 3D scout with the proposed acquisition, preprocessing, and reconstruction strategy provided a similar level of organ segmentation capability as a traditional 240 mAs diagnostic scan, based on noise and normalized edge strength metrics. At the same time, the proposed approach delivers only 1.25% of the dose of a traditional scan. In a cadaver study, the authors’ pictorial-structures based organ localization algorithm successfully located the major abdominal-thoracic organs from the ultralow dose 3D scout obtained with the proposed strategy. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that images with a similar degree of segmentation capability (interpretability) as conventional dose CT scans can be achieved with an ultralow dose 3D scout acquisition and suitable postprocessing. Furthermore, the authors applied these techniques to real cadaver CT scans with a CTDI dose level of less than 0.1 mGy and successfully generated a 3D organ localization map.

  20. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions. PMID:24008251

  1. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  2. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  3. Gliding characteristics of flexor tendon and tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Anke M; Zhao, Chunfeng; Amadio, Peter C; O'Byrne, Megan M; An, Kai-Nan

    2007-04-01

    The characteristic pathological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is noninflammatory fibrosis of the synovium. How this fibrosis might affect tendon function, if at all, is unknown. The subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) lies between the flexor tendons and the visceral synovium (VS) of the ulnar tenosynovial bursa. Fibrosis of the SSCT may well affect its gliding characteristics. To investigate this possibility, the relative motion of the flexor tendon and VS was observed during finger flexion in patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery, and for comparison in hands without CTS, in an in vitro cadaver model. We used a camera to document the gliding motion of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS III) tendon and SSCT in three patients with CTS during carpal tunnel release and compared this with simulated active flexion in three cadavers with no antemortem history of CTS. The data were digitized with the use of Analyze Software (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN). In the CTS patients, the SSCT moved en bloc with the tendon, whereas, in the controls the SSCT moved smoothly and separately from the tendon. The ratio of VS to tendon motion was higher for the patients than in the cadaver controls. These findings suggest that in patients with CTS the synovial fibrosis has altered the gliding characteristics of the SSCT. The alterations in the gliding characteristics of the SSCT may affect the ability of the tendons in the carpal tunnel to glide independently from each other, or from the nearby median nerve. These abnormal tendon mechanics may play a role in the etiology of CTS. PMID:16944527

  4. Transplantation of microskin autografts with overlaid selectively decellularized split-thickness porcine skin in the repair of deep burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjun; Han, Yanfu; Chai, Jiake; Yang, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    Selectively decellularized split-thickness porcine skin (SDSTPS) may be an optimal alternative for allograft. This study was designed to explore the efficacy of microskin autografts overlaid with SDSTPS in the repair of deep burn wounds and to resolve the problem of the shortage and risk of cadaver skin allografts. Full-thickness xenogenic skin was harvested from a healthy ternary pig, and SDSTPS was produced by the glutaraldehyde-trypsin-detergent method. Split-thickness autograft skin was harvested from patients and minced into microskin autografts. The microskin autografts with overlaid SDSTPS were applied to 31 patients with deep burn wounds, 4 to 6 days after injury, and comparisons with cadaver skin allograft were carried out on both sides of the torso and limbs. The cases were followed up for 18 months. The following parameters were investigated: time of rejection and exfoliation, percentage of epithelialized wound area, number of cases with wound ulcer, hypertrophic scars, pain and itching, apparent deformity, and functional impairment. The rejection and exfoliation time of the skin xenograft was 17 ± 3 days and that of the skin allograft was 14 ± 2 days (P .05), respectively. There was no significant difference in skin morphology between the two groups. The satisfactory function was observed in the follow-up visit for 18 months postoperatively. The authors' results indicate that the clinical effect of microskin autografts overlaid with SDSTPS in the repair of deep burn wounds is similar to that of microskin autograft overlaid with frozen cadaver skin, and SDSTPS could be an optimal alternative for allograft. PMID:21436718

  5. A randomised controlled trial comparing meat-based with human cadaveric models for teaching ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, A; Lim, Y C; Aneja, H; Duce, N A; Appleyard, R; Forrest, K; Royse, C F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this prospective, blinded, randomised controlled study was to compare novices' acquisition of the technical skills of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia using either a meat phantom model or fresh-frozen human cadavers. The primary outcome was the time taken to successfully perform an ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block on a cadaver; secondary outcomes were the cumulative score of errors, and best image quality of the sciatic nerve achieved. After training, the median (IQR [range]) time taken to perform the block was 311(164-390 [68-600]) s in the meat model trained group and 210 (174-354 [85-600]) s in the fresh-frozen cadaver trained group (p = 0.24). Participants made a median (IQR [range]) of 18 (14-33 [8-55]) and 15 (12-22 [8-44]) errors in the two groups respectively (p = 0.39). The image quality score was also not different, with a median (IQR [range]) of 62.5 (59.4-65.6 [25.0-100.0])% vs 62.5 (62.5-75.0 [25.0-87.5])% respectively (p = 0.58). The training and deliberate feedback improved all participants' block performance, the median (IQR [range]) times being 310 (206-532 [110-600]) s before and 240 (174-354 [85-600]) s after training (p = 0.02). We conclude that novices taught ultrasound scanning and needle guidance skills using an inexpensive and easily constructed meat model perform similarly to those trained on a cadaveric model. PMID:26993374

  6. CT and MRI Determination of Intermuscular Space within Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles at Different Intervertebral Disc Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Deng

    Full Text Available Recognition of the intermuscular spaces within lumbar paraspinal muscles is critically important for using the paramedian muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. As such, it is important to determine the intermuscular spaces within the lumbar paraspinal muscles by utilizing modern medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.A total of 30 adult cadavers were studied by sectional anatomic dissection, and 60 patients were examined using CT (16 slices, 3-mm thickness, 3-mm intersection gap, n = 30 and MRI (3.0T, T2-WI, 5-mm thickness, 1-mm intersection gap, n = 30. The distances between the midline and the superficial points of the intermuscular spaces at different intervertebral disc levels were measured.Based on study of our cadavers, the mean distances from the midline to the intermuscular space between multifidus and longissimus, from intervertebral disc levels L1-L2 to L5-S1, were 0.9, 1.1, 1.7, 3.0, and 3.5 cm, respectively. Compared with the upper levels (L1-L3, the superficial location at the lower level (L4-S1 is more laterally to the midline (P<0.05. The intermuscular space between sacrospinalis and quadratus lumborum, and that between longissimus and iliocostalis did not exist at L4-S1. The intermuscular spaces in patients also varied at different levels of the lumbar spine showing a low discontinuous density in CT and a high signal in MRI. There were no significant differences between the observations in cadavers and those made using CT and MRI.The intermuscular spaces within the paraspinal muscles vary at different intervertebral disc levels. Preoperative CT and MRI can facilitate selection of the muscle-splitting approach to the lumbar spine. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of medical imaging techniques in surgical planning.

  7. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Materials and Methods Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. Results The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. Conclusion The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements. PMID:27358816

  8. Entrepreneurial ventures and whole-body donations: a regional perspective from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteby, Michel; Hyman, Mikell

    2008-02-01

    Human cadavers are crucial to medical science. While the debate on how to secure sufficient cadavers has focused primarily on donors' behaviors, procuring organizations' roles in increasing donations remain less explored. The United States offers a unique setting in which to examine this question since entrepreneurial ventures supplying cadavers for medical science have recently emerged alongside traditional academic-housed programs, raising both hopes and fears about their impact on whole-body donations. To assess their potential impact, an archival survey of voluntary, in-state whole-body donors to two programs procuring in the same U.S. state was conducted. The programs' specimen recipients were also analyzed. One program is academic-housed and the other is an entrepreneurial venture. Both offered equal levels of financial support to donating parties. Eighty donations and 120 specimen shipping invoices from 2005 were analyzed in each program. Donations to the two programs did not significantly differ in terms of donors' sex, marital status, maximum educational level, and estimated hourly wage. The entrepreneurial venture's donors were, however, significantly younger, more likely to be from a minority group, and more likely to have died from cancer. For-profit organizations, continuing medical training organizations, and medical device companies were more likely recipients of the entrepreneurial venture's specimens. Non-profit and academic organizations were more likely recipients of the academic-housed program's specimens. These findings suggest that although the programs procured from a somewhat similar pool of donors, they also complemented one another. The entrepreneurial program procured donations that the academic-housed program often did not attract. Specimen recipients' distinct demands partly explain these procurement behaviors. Thus, organizational efforts to meet demands seem to shape the supply. Examining organizations alongside donors might provide

  9. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banzato Tommaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be

  10. Comparative evaluation of the cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of green iguana (Iguana iguana) , common tegu ( Tupinambis merianae) and bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiology and computed tomography are the most commonly available diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pathologies affecting the head and skull in veterinary practice. Nevertheless, accurate interpretation of radiographic and CT studies requires a thorough knowledge of the gross and the cross-sectional anatomy. Despite the increasing success of reptiles as pets, only a few reports over their normal imaging features are currently available. The aim of this study is to describe the normal cadaveric, radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of the green iguana, tegu and bearded dragon. Results 6 adult green iguanas, 4 tegus, 3 bearded dragons, and, the adult cadavers of : 4 green iguana, 4 tegu, 4 bearded dragon were included in the study. 2 cadavers were dissected following a stratigraphic approach and 2 cadavers were cross-sectioned for each species. These latter specimens were stored in a freezer (−20°C) until completely frozen. Transversal sections at 5 mm intervals were obtained by means of an electric band-saw. Each section was cleaned and photographed on both sides. Radiographs of the head of each subject were obtained. Pre- and post- contrast computed tomographic studies of the head were performed on all the live animals. CT images were displayed in both bone and soft tissue windows. Individual anatomic structures were first recognised and labelled on the anatomic images and then matched on radiographs and CT images. Radiographic and CT images of the skull provided good detail of the bony structures in all species. In CT contrast medium injection enabled good detail of the soft tissues to be obtained in the iguana whereas only the eye was clearly distinguishable from the remaining soft tissues in both the tegu and the bearded dragon. Conclusions The results provide an atlas of the normal anatomical and in vivo radiographic and computed tomographic features of the heads of lizards, and this may be useful in interpreting any

  11. A new technique of bladder neck reconstruction during radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Tolkach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate continence after radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer patients, in whom a new method of the bladder neck reconstruction (BNR using deep dorsal stitch was implemented (deep single stitch through all bladder layers directly dorsal to the bladder opening after “tennis racket” reconstruction and to provide justification for its use by means of anatomical study in cadavers.Material and Methods:Open radical retropubic prostatectomy was performed in 84 patients: 39 patients with a new BNR method used to improve continence and control group of 45 patients with standard “tennis racket” BNR. Median follow-up was 14 months in control group and 12 months in study group. Continence recovery was accessed early postoperatively and every 3 months thereafter. Anatomical study was performed on 2 male fresh cadavers reproducing two different BNR techniques to clarify any underlying continence related mechanisms.Results:Patients with new BNR achieved full continence significantly faster (p=0.041, but the continence rates after 12 months were similar between groups. The severity of incontinence up to month 9 was significantly reduced in BNR group. The anastomotic stricture rate was not affected. Applying new BNR to the cadaver model revealed effects on early continence, namely presence of proximal passive closure mechanism in area of bladder neck.Conclusions:Continence in patients with the new BNR method using deep dorsal stitch recovered significantly faster. Moreover, a reduced grade of residual incontinence was documented. The effect was non-significant at month 12 of follow-up, meaning that only early effect was present.

  12. A STUDY ON THE PATTERNS OF CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERIES

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    R. Chitra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Many different patterns have been described to classify the origins of circumflex femoral arteries by many authors since from 1860.The aim of the present study was to classify the circumflex femoral arteries in 100 lower limbs of adult cadavers of both sexes following the recent classification and to compare with the previous studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 lower limbs of 50 embalmed human adult cadavers (Male: 37, Female: 13 were dissected and observed for the origins of circumflex femoral arteries in femoral triangle in routine educational dissection in the period of 2005-2009 Results: The medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries have been classified into three different patterns based on the levels of their origin. Pattern I: Both arteries arose from the profunda femoris artery (56%. Type Ia, medial circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to the lateral circumflex femoral artery origin (69%; Type Ib, lateral circumflex femoral artery origin was proximal to medial circumflex femoral artery origin (16 %; Type Ic, both arteries arose from a common trunk or at same level (14%. Pattern II: One of the arteries arose from the femoral artery and the other from the profunda femoris artery (36%. Type IIa, the medial circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (75% and Type IIb, the lateral circumflex femoral artery arose from the femoral artery (25%.Pattern III: Both arteries arose from the femoral artery (7%. The medial circumflex femoral artery was absent in a female cadaver on right side. Conclusion: In every pattern or type, there was significantly unilateral higher occurrence than bilateral occurrence. A precise knowledge of the circumflex femoral arteries in relation to the profunda femoris artery is important in surgical interventions of the hip region

  13. MO-E-17A-03: Monte Carlo CT Dose Calculation: A Comparison Between Experiment and Simulation Using ARCHER-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the CT doses derived from the experiments and GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, using a human cadaver and ATOM phantom. Methods: The cadaver of an 88-year old male and the ATOM phantom were scanned by a GE LightSpeed Pro 16 MDCT. For the cadaver study, the Thimble chambers (Model 10×5−0.6CT and 10×6−0.6CT) were used to measure the absorbed dose in different deep and superficial organs. Whole-body scans were first performed to construct a complete image database for MC simulations. Abdomen/pelvis helical scans were then conducted using 120/100 kVps, 300 mAs and a pitch factor of 1.375:1. For the ATOM phantom study, the OSL dosimeters were used and helical scans were performed using 120 kVp and x, y, z tube current modulation (TCM). For the MC simulations, sufficient particles were run in both cases such that the statistical errors of the results by ARCHER-CT were limited to 1%. Results: For the human cadaver scan, the doses to the stomach, liver, colon, left kidney, pancreas and urinary bladder were compared. The difference between experiments and simulations was within 19% for the 120 kVp and 25% for the 100 kVp. For the ATOM phantom scan, the doses to the lung, thyroid, esophagus, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys and thymus were compared. The difference was 39.2% for the esophagus, and within 16% for all other organs. Conclusion: In this study the experimental and simulated CT doses were compared. Their difference is primarily attributed to the systematic errors of the MC simulations, including the accuracy of the bowtie filter modeling, and the algorithm to generate voxelized phantom from DICOM images. The experimental error is considered small and may arise from the dosimeters. R01 grant (R01EB015478) from National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

  14. “El propósito de las TIC en el estudio de la anatomía humana. Aplicación de Blended Learning en la asignatura de Anatomia Humana para estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Medicina.”

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Cofre, Carolina Ivonne

    2011-01-01

    La enseñanza de la Anatomía Humana enfrenta retos pedagógicos ante la formación de grandes cantidades de profesionales bajo condiciones de recursos limitados (material cadavérico). La posibilidad de trabajar en esta disciplina usando TIC propicia un proceso interactivo centrado en el estudiante, con uso de múltiples recursos tecnológicos. Esto se traduce en beneficios para la formación del profesional medico. Se implemento un sistema de Blearning en la asignatura de anatomía...

  15. Normal MR imaging findings of the midhand and fingers with anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article, we correlate MR imaging studies of cadavers, volunteers and patients with cadaveric dissection and sectioning. First anatomy at wrist level is discussed. In a next section, we address the midhand with the flexor and extensor tendons, and interosseous and lumbricalis muscles. The dorsal hood at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint is also addressed. An overview of the anatomy of the thenar is provided. Finally, the flexor system of the fingers with pulleys and volar plates, as well as the central and distal insertion of the finger extensor tendons is discussed

  16. BILATERAL MULTIPLE VARIATIONS IN THE FORMATION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND ITS TERMINAL NERVES: A CASE REPORT

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    Flora M Fabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Variations in formation of brachial plexus roots, trunks, divisions and cords are not uncommon and maybe of important in regional anaesthesia involving the upper limb. However, in the present case we are reporting a rare bilateral multiple variations observed during routine dissection on a 77-years-old embalmed male cadaver on left and right brachial plexus. Understanding the anatomical variations involving brachial plexus is important and might benefit the physicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists and neuroanatomists during their routine procedures involving the cervical, axillary and the upper limb regions.

  17. Gamma-N activation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Anatomical characteristics of the brachial plexus of the maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus Illiger, 1811)

    OpenAIRE

    Gessica Ariane de Melo Cruz; Marta Adami; Vera Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Eight male and female maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus) cadavers, previously fixed in formalin, were used to identify the origin of the brachial plexus, nerves and innervation territory in order to determine an anatomical pattern for this species. The plexus of B. torquatus was derived from the C7 to C10 and T1 to T2 spinal nerves, but the participation of T2 was variable. The spinal nerves gave origin to the cranial and caudal trunks, which joined to form a common trunk, from which two fascic...

  19. UNILATERAL VARIATION IN THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT AXILLARY ARTERY: A CASE REPORT

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    A.K.Manicka Vasuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Axillary artery and its branches are prone to have variations in their course. Knowledge about such variations are important for Radiologists in imaging techniques, Surgeons,Orthopedicians and Anesthetists in performing surgeries in the axilla and giving regional nerve blocks in the axilla.During dissection of a cadaver in the department of Anatomy, PSG IMS &R, Coimbatore, We observed a variation in the third part of right Axillary artery. From the common trunk, Subscapular artery, Anterior and Posterior circumflex humeral arteries and Profunda brachii artery arose. Third part of Axillary artery continued down as brachial artery. We are highlighting the variation in this study.

  20. CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM - ITS ANATOMICAL ASPECTS, EMBRYOGENESIS AND CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    The testes are a pair of male reproductive organs. The testicular variations are unusual and can result in multiple clinical conditions. Congenital cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes have not passed down the scrotal sac. During a routine cadaveric dissection of a middle aged male cadaver, in the left side of the pelvic part of the abdomen an unusual undescended testis was noted near the deep inguinal ring. Additional to this we also noted a thick band of ligament co...