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Sample records for cad

  1. Protein: CAD [Trypanosomes Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotaseCAD... trifunctional proteincarbamoylphosphate synthetase 2/aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotasemultifunctional protein CAD... H.sapiens 47458828 18105007 790 P27708 CAD_(gene) 2.1.3.2|3.5.2.3|6.3.5.5 114010 2p22-p21 hsa00250|hsa00240 ...

  2. AutoCAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium....

  3. AutoCAD workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Metherell, Phil

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD Workbook helps new users learn the basics of AutoCad, providing guidance on most of the commonly used functions in which the program operates.This book discusses loading AutoCad and starting a drawing; drawing and erasing lines, circles, and arcs; and setting up the drawing environment. The topics on drawing and editing polylines; entering text and text styles; and layers, linetype, and color are also considered. This publication likewise covers creating and using blocks, hatching and extracting information, dimensioning drawings, 3D visualization, and plotting a drawing. Other

  4. MS AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye; Heinicke, Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund for praktiskprojekter......Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund...

  5. CAD/CAM/CNC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domermuth, Dave; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

  6. AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial introduction to AutoCAD As the only book to teach AutoCAD using a continuous tutorial which allows you to follow along sequentially or jump in at any exercise by downloading the drawing files, this Autodesk Official Press book is ideal for the AutoCAD novice. Industry expert and AutoCAD guru Donnie Gladfelter walks you through the powerful features of AutoCAD, provides you with a solid foundation of the basics, and shares the latest industry standards and techniques. The hands-on tutorial project inspired by real-world workflows that runs throughout the book

  7. Beginning AutoCAD 2002

    CERN Document Server

    McFarlane, Bob

    2002-01-01

    New features in AutoCAD 2002 are covered in this book, making it a useful refresher course for anyone using AutoCAD at this level, and upgrading to the new software release. The material in the book is also relevant to anyone using other recent releases, including, AutoCAD 2000.

  8. 64006 CAD i Byggesektoren. Grundkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Egil

    1998-01-01

    Overview on Computer Aided Design in Civil Engineering and introduction to AutoCAD version 13, layers, colours, blocks, attributes.......Overview on Computer Aided Design in Civil Engineering and introduction to AutoCAD version 13, layers, colours, blocks, attributes....

  9. AutoCAD 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Learn crucial AutoCAD tools and techniques with this Autodesk Official Press Book Quickly become productive using AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014 with this full color Autodesk Official Press guide. This unique learning resource features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. Following a quick discussion of concepts and goals, each chapter moves on to an approachable hands-on exercise designed to reinforce real-world tactics and techniques. Compelling, full-color screenshots illustrate tutorial steps, and chapters conclude with relat

  10. AutoCAD 2014 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Fane, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Find your way around AutoCAD 2014 with this full-color, For Dummies guide!Put away that pencil and paper and start putting the power of AutoCAD 2014 to work in your CAD projects and designs. From setting up your drawing environment to using text, dimensions, hatching, and more, this guide walks you through AutoCAD basics and provides you with a solid understanding of the latest CAD tools and techniques. You'll also benefit from the full-color illustrations that mirror exactly what you'll see on your AutoCAD 2014 screen and highlight the importance of AutoCAD's Mode

  11. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2014-01-01

    Learn AutoCAD by example with this tutorial-based guide from Autodesk Official Press Whether you are just starting out or an experienced user wanting to brush up on your skills, this Autodesk Official Press book provides you with concise explanations, focused examples, and step-by-step instructions through a hands-on tutorial project that runs throughout the book. As you progress through the project, the book introduces you to the Microsoft Windows-based AutoCAD interface and then guides you through basic commands and creating drawings. A downloadable file is available from the website so that

  12. AutoCAD 2008 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2007-01-01

    A gentle, humorous introduction to this fearsomely complex software that helps new users start creating 2D and 3D technical drawings right awayCovers the new features and enhancements in the latest AutoCAD version and provides coverage of AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD''s lower-cost siblingTopics covered include creating a basic layout, using AutoCAD DesignCenter, drawing and editing, working with dimensions, plotting, using blocks, adding text to drawings, and drawing on the InternetAutoCAD is the leading CAD software for architects, engineers, and draftspeople who need to create detailed 2D and 3D tech

  13. AutoCAD 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2009-01-01

    AutoCAD is the hot computer-aided design software known for both its powerful tools and its complexity. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies is the bestselling guide that walks you through this complicated program so you can build complex 3D technical drawings, edit like a pro, enter new dimensions, and plot with style. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies helps you navigate the program, use the AutoCAD Design Center, create a basic layout and work with dimension, and put your drawings on the Internet. You'll soon be setting up the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoCAD Ribbon, creating annotation and dimension drawi

  14. RBO Hand 2 CAD Files

    OpenAIRE

    Deimel, Raphael; Brock, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This dataset contains the CAD models for creating a RBO Hand 2. It consists of a set of molds that can be printed and used to create Pneuflex actuators, and a scaffold to attach actuators to in order to recreate the RBO Hand 2, a pneumatic soft hand developed by the Robotics and Biology Lab.

  15. Analysis list: cad [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cad Embryo + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/cad.1.tsv ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/cad.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ca...d.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/cad.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  16. AutoCAD platform customization VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Boost productivity and streamline your workflow with expert AutoCAD: VBA programming instruction AutoCAD Platform Customization: VBA is the definitive guide to personalizing AutoCAD and the various programs that run on the AutoCAD platform, including AutoCAD Architecture, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. Written by an Autodesk insider with years of customization and programming experience, this book features detailed discussions backed by real-world examples and easy-to-follow tutorials that illustrate each step in the personalization process. Readers gain expert guidance toward managing layout

  17. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The perfect reference for all AutoCAD users AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 Bible is the book you want to have close at hand to answer those day-to-day questions about this industry-leading software. Author and Autodesk University instructor Ellen Finkelstein guides readers through AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 with clear, easy-to-understand instruction and hands-on tutorials that allow even total beginners to create a design on their very first day. Although simple and fundamental enough to be used by those new to CAD, the book is so comprehensive that even Autodesk power u

  18. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  19. BUILDING A PERGOLA IN CAD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNA Liviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a study and the conclusions they reached, regarding the possibility to automatically representing a pergola, when a CAD system is used. Also, a computer program, made by the authors is presented. This software was named Pergola and it offer the opportunity to sketch a pergola which cover a rectangular or circular area, when using the AutoCAD Architecture or AutoCAD computer program.

  20. Progress of computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD in dentistryCAD in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Katsumata

    2014-08-01

    CAD is also useful in the detection and evaluation of dental and maxillofacial lesions. Identifying alveolar bone resorption due to periodontitis and radiolucent jaw lesions (such as radicular and dentigerous cysts are important goals for CAD. CAD can be applied not only to panoramic radiography but also to dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Linking of CAD and teleradiology will be an important issue.

  1. Sharing the learning activity using intelligent CAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, S. M.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for Intelligent Computer Aided Design (Int.CAD) to jointly support design and learning assistance is introduced. The paper focuses on presenting and exploring the possibility of realizing ''learning'' assistance in Int.CAD by introducing a new concept called Shared Learning...

  2. Dataudveksling mellem CAD og CAE programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Conrad, Finn

    2001-01-01

    Når mange forskelligartede programmer benyttes til beregninger og anden databehandling på samme modeller er det nødvendig at udveksle modellerne mellem disse forskellige programmer. Biler og skibe bliver f.eks. typisk designet i 3D CAD systemer, mens CAD modellerne herefter anvendes i andre...... dedikerede IT-systemer i forbindelse montageplanlægningen, svejseplanlægningen, robotprogrammeringen mm. der således her et behov for at udveksle CAD modellen mellem de forskellige programmer. Udveksling af information mellem forskellige programmer og systemer kræver såvel en fælles specifikation af det...

  3. AutoCAD platform customization autolisp

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Customize and personalize programs built on the AutoCAD platform AutoLISP is the key to unlocking the secrets of a more streamlined experience using industry leading software programs like AutoCAD, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. AutoCAD Platform Customization: AutoLISP provides real-world examples that show you how to do everything from modifying graphical objects and reading and setting system variables to communicating with external programs. It also features a resources appendix and downloadable datasets and customization examples-tools that ensure swift and easy adoption. Find out how to r

  4. AutoCAD 2008 and AutoCAD LT 2008 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "Whether you're new to AutoCAD or a veteran, you will undoubtedly find this book to be an excellent resource."-- Abhi Singh, AutoCAD Product Manager, Autodesk, Inc.Here's the book that makes AutoCAD approachableEven the people at Autodesk look to Ellen Finkelstein for AutoCAD training, so who better to teach you about AutoCAD 2008? This comprehensive guide brings veterans up to speed on AutoCAD updates and takes novices from the basics to programming in AutoLISP(r) and VBA. Every feature is covered in a logical order, and with the Quick Start chapter, you'll be creating drawings on your very f

  5. Conceptual Fuselage Design with Direct CAD Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin K.

    In today's day and age, the use of automated technology is becoming increasingly prevalent. Throughout the aerospace industry, we see the use of automated systems in manufacturing, testing, and, progressively, in design. This thesis focuses on the idea of automated structural design that can be directly coupled with parametric Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) and used to support aircraft conceptual design. This idea has been around for many years; however, with the advancement of CAD technology, it is becoming more realistic. Having the ability to input design parameters, analyze the structure, and produce a basic CAD model not only saves time in the design process but provides an excellent platform to communicate ideas. The user has the ability to change parameters and quickly determine the effect on the structure. Coupling this idea with automated parametric CAD provides visual verification and a platform to export into Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for further verification.

  6. CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.

    2007-07-01

    This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.

  7. The fracture resistance of a CAD/CAM Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) and a CAD ceramic at different thicknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Trindade, F.Z.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the influence of restoration thickness to the fracture resistance of adhesively bonded Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM, a Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC), and IPS e.max CAD ceramic. Methods Polished Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group L), sandblasted Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM

  8. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  9. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The latest version of this perennial favorite, in-depth, reference-tutorial This top-selling book has been updated by AutoCAD guru and author Ellen Finkelstein to provide you with the very latest coverage of both AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012. It begins with a Quick Start tutorial, so you start creating right away. From there, the book covers so much in-depth material on AutoCAD that it is said that even Autodesk employees keep this comprehensive book at their desks. A DVD is included that features before-and-after drawings of all the tutorials and plenty of great examples from AutoCAD prof

  10. Optical integration of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Magne, Pascal

    The optical integration (OI) of monolithic CAD/CAM materials under 4 illuminations was evaluated using a standardized and clinically relevant method. Eighteen inlays were manufactured and placed (glycerin gel). Standardized photos were taken under 4 illuminations (neutral white light direct and indirect illumination, cross-polarized light, fluorescent light). Six evaluators defined the optical integration score (OIS) as the "visibility" of the restoration (0 = worst OI, 4 = optimal OI). The intact tooth served as control. The null hypothesis was that different illuminations did not influence the OI of CAD/CAM inlays. One-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffe's post hoc, was applied (P = 0.05). Neutral light direct illumination: OIS between 2.67 (IPS e.max CAD LT A1, ENAMIC A1) and 3.83 (IPS e.max CAD HT A1) with a mean of 3.28 (± 0.339). Indirect illumination: OIS from 1.00 (Paradigm MZ100 A1) to 2.41 (ENAMIC A1) with a mean of 1.88 (± 0.598). Fluorescent light: OIS between 0.75 and 3.25 with a mean of 1.67 (± 1.025). ENAMIC and VITA BLOCS Mark II showed the best optical integration in fluorescence. IPS e.max CAD, Paradigm MZ 100 demonstrated low fluorescence; Lava Ultimate high fluorescence. OI was influenced by different illumination. A simple method accessible to clinicians for additional evaluation of CAD/CAM materials in daily practice is presented. All materials showed excellent OI under direct illumination with neutral white light. The most pronounced differences in optical integration between tooth and evaluated materials were observed under fluorescent light.

  11. AutoCAD platform customization user interface and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Make AutoCAD your own with powerful personalization options Options for AutoCAD customization are typically the domain of administrators, but savvy users can perform their own customizations to personalize AutoCAD. Until recently, most users never thought to customize the AutoCAD platform to meet their specific needs, instead leaving it to administrators. If you are an AutoCAD user who wants to ramp up personalization options in your favorite software, AutoCAD Platform Customization: User Interface and Beyond is the perfect resource for you. Author Lee Ambrosius is recognized as a leader in Au

  12. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 No Experience Required

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2011-01-01

    The perfect step-by-step introduction to Autodesk's powerful architectural design software With this essential guide, you'll learn how to plan, develop, document, and present a complete AutoCAD project by building a summer cabin from start to finish. You can follow each step sequentially or jump in at any point by downloading the drawing files from the book's companion web site. You'll also master all essential AutoCAD features, get a thorough grounding in the basics, learn the very latest industry standards and techniques, and quickly become productive with AutoCAD 2012.Features concise expla

  13. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for the AutoCAD fundamentals AutoCAD 2015 Essentials contains 400 pages of full-color, comprehensive instruction on the world's top drafting and architecture software. This 2015 edition features architectural, manufacturing, and landscape architecture examples. And like previous editions, the detailed guide introduces core concepts using interactive tutorials and open-ended projects, which can be completed in any order, thanks to downloadable data sets (an especially useful feature for students and professionals studying for Autodesk AutoCAD certification). Unlike man

  14. Using MathCAD in General Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Sol

    1991-01-01

    This article utilizes several examples to describe the use of MathCAD, a computer scratchpad for calculations, within a lecture-demonstration method of teaching general calculus. Both hardware requirements and software features are discussed specifically related to the proper design of student worksheets with emphasis on parameter variation. (JJK)

  15. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  16. DeviceEditor visual biological CAD canvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Joanna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological Computer Aided Design (bioCAD assists the de novo design and selection of existing genetic components to achieve a desired biological activity, as part of an integrated design-build-test cycle. To meet the emerging needs of Synthetic Biology, bioCAD tools must address the increasing prevalence of combinatorial library design, design rule specification, and scar-less multi-part DNA assembly. Results We report the development and deployment of web-based bioCAD software, DeviceEditor, which provides a graphical design environment that mimics the intuitive visual whiteboard design process practiced in biological laboratories. The key innovations of DeviceEditor include visual combinatorial library design, direct integration with scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation, and a graphical user interface for the creation and modification of design specification rules. We demonstrate how biological designs are rendered on the DeviceEditor canvas, and we present effective visualizations of genetic component ordering and combinatorial variations within complex designs. Conclusions DeviceEditor liberates researchers from DNA base-pair manipulation, and enables users to create successful prototypes using standardized, functional, and visual abstractions. Open and documented software interfaces support further integration of DeviceEditor with other bioCAD tools and software platforms. DeviceEditor saves researcher time and institutional resources through correct-by-construction design, the automation of tedious tasks, design reuse, and the minimization of DNA assembly costs.

  17. [The CAD-S, an instrument for the assessment of adaptation to divorce - separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz Yaben, Sagrario; Comino González, Priscila

    2010-02-01

    The CAD-S, an Instrument for the Assessment of Adaptation to Divorce - Separation. This paper presents an instrument for the evaluation of the adaptation to divorce-separation. The CAD-S is a questionnaire created in Spanish, made up of 20 items whose aim is the evaluation of the family's adaptation to divorce-separation, using one of the parents as informant. Data were collected in four different samples of divorced persons and their children from different autonomous comunities from the Spanish state. 223 parents and 160 children from divorced families took part in this study. Four factors emerged, accounting for 52.39 percent of the total variance: psychological and emotional difficulties, conflict with the ex-partner, disposition to co-parentality, and negative outcomes of separation for children. The results suggest that CAD-S appears to be a reliable and valid instrument, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and adequate construct validity supported by its relations with measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), in the case of parents, and conduct problems (CBCL) for children.

  18. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction : designing for appropriate trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, W.; Cnossen, F.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the

  19. Fra form-Z til AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Dette kursus er lavet for at forberede de studerende til deres tegnestuepraktik, og dets indhold er planlagt i samarbejde med tegnestuerne. I 2003 var form-Z Arkitektskolens grundlæggende CAD-program; men på tegnestuerne arbejde man med AutoCad. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min...

  20. A CAD (Classroom Assessment Design) of a Computer Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified…

  1. Machinability of CAD-CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Ramakiran; Nejat, Amir H; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2017-08-01

    Although new materials are available for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fabrication, limited information is available regarding their machinability. The depth of penetration of a milling tool into a material during a timed milling cycle may indicate its machinability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tool penetration rate for 2 polymer-containing CAD-CAM materials (Lava Ultimate and Enamic) and 2 ceramic-based CAD-CAM materials (e.max CAD and Celtra Duo). The materials were sectioned into 4-mm-thick specimens (n=5/material) and polished with 320-grit SiC paper. Each specimen was loaded into a custom milling apparatus. The apparatus pushed the specimens against a milling tool (E4D Tapered 2016000) rotating at 40 000 RPM with a constant force of 0.98 N. After a 6-minute timed milling cycle, the length of each milling cut was measured with image analysis software under a digital light microscope. Representative specimens and milling tools were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The penetration rate of Lava Ultimate (3.21 ±0.46 mm/min) and Enamic (2.53 ±0.57 mm/min) was significantly greater than that of e.max CAD (1.12 ±0.32 mm/min) or Celtra Duo (0.80 ±0.21 mm/min) materials. SEM observations showed little tool damage, regardless of material type. Residual material was found on the tools used with polymer-containing materials, and wear of the embedding medium was seen on the tools used with the ceramic-based materials. Edge chipping was noted on cuts made in the ceramic-based materials. Lava Ultimate and Enamic have greater machinability and less edge chipping than e.max CAD and Celtra Duo. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DFE workbench: a CAD integrated DFE tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Elena; Diez-Campo, Juan E.; Roche, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Because of the emergent legislation (e.g. WEEE and EOLV), environmental standards (e.g. ISO 14000) and a shift in consumer opinion toward environmentally superior products, there is an increased need for CAD integrated Design for Environment tools to assist the designer in the development of environmentally superior products (ESP). Implementing Design for the Environment practices is an extremely effective strategy, as it is widely believed that 95% of development costs are determined at this stage. Many methodologies and tools have been developed to perform environmental analysis; however, many existing methodologies are inadequately integrated in the design process. This paper addresses these problems and presents a CAD integrated DFE tool that has been under development in the authors' institutes for the last number of years.

  3. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  4. Computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) for colposcopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holger; Ferris, Daron G.

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva and vagina), with special emphasis on the subjective appearance of metaplastic epithelium comprising the transformation zone on the cervix. Cervical cancer precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. Lesion characteristics such as margin; color or opacity; blood vessel caliber, intercapillary spacing and distribution; and contour are considered by colposcopists to derive a clinical diagnosis. Clinicians and academia have suggested and shown proof of concept that automated image analysis of cervical imagery can be used for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis, having the potential to have a direct impact on improving women"s health care and reducing associated costs. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD. At the heart of ColpoCAD is a complex multi-sensor, multi-data and multi-feature image analysis system. A functional description is presented of the envisioned ColpoCAD system, broken down into: Modality Data Management System, Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, Reference Database, and Diagnosis and directed Biopsies. The system design and development process of the image analysis system is outlined. The system design provides a modular and open architecture built on feature based processing. The core feature set includes the visual features used by colposcopists. This feature set can be extended to include new features introduced by new instrument technologies, like fluorescence and impedance, and any other plausible feature that can be extracted from the cervical data. Preliminary results of our research on detecting the three most important features: blood vessel structures, acetowhite regions and lesion margins are shown. As this is a new

  5. TEACHING CAD PROGRAMMING TO ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Caffarena CELANI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the relevance of including the discipline of computer programming in the architectural curriculum. To do so I start by explaining how computer programming has been applied in other educational contexts with pedagogical success, describing Seymour Papert's principles. After that, I summarize the historical development of CAD and provide three historical examples of educational applications of computer programming in architecture, followed by a contemporary case that I find of particular relevance. Next, I propose a methodology for teaching programming for architects that aims at improving the quality of designs by making their concepts more explicit. This methodology is based on my own experience teaching computer programming for architecture students at undergraduate and graduate levels at the State University of Campinas, Brazil. The paper ends with a discussion about the role of programming nowadays, when most CAD software are user-friendly and do not require any knowledge of programming for improving performance. I conclude that the introduction of programming in the CAD curriculum within a proper conceptual framework may transform the concept of architectural education. Key-words: Computer programming; computer-aided design; architectural education.

  6. KiCad challenges the big ones

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) are the heart of any electronic device, including your toaster and your smartphone. Designing PCBs is the job of electronic engineers who, so far, have often had no option but to use proprietary tools to design complex circuits. Thanks to the efforts that CERN experts have put in to improve the free KiCad software, that situation is about to change.   KiCad's development started in 1992 as a way to design PCBs, the units that control how an electronic device works. Since 2013, experts in the Beams department have made important contributions to KiCad as part of the Open Hardware Initiative (OHI), which provides a framework to facilitate knowledge exchange across the electronic design community. “Our vision is to allow the hardware developers to share as easily as their software colleagues,” says Javier Serrano, head of the BE-CO-HT section and OHI initiator. “Software sources are easily shared online because they are text ...

  7. Multifunctional facades - design optimisation with CAD; Multifunktionale Fassaden - Effektive Auslegung durch CAD-Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viotto, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Anlagen- und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The energetically optimal design of PV facades requires the consideration of many technical conditions (different elevations/orientations of modules; shading possibility; high and different module temperatures). It also requires the interface with architecture, civil and electrical engineering. To support this planning process, the software program PV-CAD was developed which rapidly calculates energy yield under conditions of inhomogeneous irradiance, shading, thermal behaviour of modules and electrical layout. PV-CAD is compatible with other civil and electrical engineering CAD programs and incorporates extensive databases (weather data; modules and inverter types). (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer optimalen Energieertrag sind zahlreiche technische Randbedingungen bei der Auslegung einer Photovoltaik (PV)-Fassade zu beruecksichtigen (unterschiedliche Ausrichtungen/Neigungen der Module; moegliche Teilabschattung; hoehere und unterschiedliche Betriebstemperaturen). Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Fassade erfordern die Abstimmung zwischen Architektur, Bauwesen und Elektrotechnik. Zur Unterstuetzung der Planer wurde das Programm PV-CAD entwickelt, das den Energieertrag unter Beruecksichtigung von inhomogener Einstrahlung und Abschattung, Temperaturverhalten der Fassadenmodule sowie unterschiedlichen elektrischen Anlagenkonzepten schnell ermittelt; es fuegt sich nahtlos in CAD-Arbeitsumgebungen ein. (orig.)

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia; Revel, Marie-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part-solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p<0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho=0.90[0.84-0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above -671Hounsfield units (HU). The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of cases, allowing automated measurement of size and attenuation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  10. CAD-driven microassembly and visual servoing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Simon, R.W.

    1998-03-10

    This paper describes current research and development on a robotic visual servoing system for assembly of LIGA (Lithography Galvonoforming Abforming) parts. The workcell consists of an AMTI robot, precision stage, long working distance microscope, and LIGA fabricated tweezers for picking up the parts. Fourier optics methods are used to generate synthetic microscope images from CAD drawings. These synthetic images are used off-line to test image processing routines under varying magnifications and depths of field, They also provide reference image features which are used to visually servo the part to the desired position.

  11. DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE INTERSECTION USING CAD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISAN George-Horea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the safety and streamline in road traffic are very important aims, with regard to the nowadays people mobility level. Road infrastructure is an essential element that can meet these requirements. Thus, it is proposed to develop an effective model of intersection by using CAD software tools. This type of intersection can be successfully used on almost any category of roads, increasing road traffic safety, reducing passing times through the intersection and in the same time, reducing conflict points and increase the intersection capacity.

  12. Haemostatic function in coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Sikka, M; Madan, N; Dwidedi, S; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1997-04-01

    Tests to evaluate haemostatic function bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT) partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTK), thrombin time (TT), platelet count, platelet function tests (platelet adhesiveness and microthrombus index) and plasma fibrinogen levels were performed in 30 patients of coronary artery disease (14 myocardial infarction, 16 angina pectoris) and 20 age and sex matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference in platelet adhesiveness and mean microthrombus index in patients and controls. The BT, PT, PTTK and TT were normal in all patients and controls. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that plasma fibrinogen was an independent risk factor in the production of CAD.

  13. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  14. Technology CAD for germanium CMOS circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2006-12-15

    Process simulation for germanium MOSFETs (Ge-MOSFETs) has been performed in 2D SILVACO virtual wafer fabrication (VWF) suite towards the technology CAD for Ge-CMOS process development. Material parameters and mobility models for Germanium were incorporated in simulation via C-interpreter function. We also report on the device design issues along with the DC and RF characterization of the bulk Ge-MOSFETs, AC parameter extraction and circuit simulation of Ge-CMOS. Simulation results are compared with bulk-Si devices. Simulations predict a cut-off frequency, f {sub T} of about 175 GHz for Ge-MOSFETs compared to 70 GHz for a similar gate-length Si MOSFET. For a single stage Ge-CMOS inverter circuit, a GATE delay of 0.6 ns is predicted.

  15. TECHNOLOGY MAPPING TOOL FOR VLSI CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Cheremisinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology mapping program implements a sequential circuit using the gates of a particular technology library. It is an integral component of any automated VLSI circuit design flow. The structure of the program for solving the technology mapping problem and formats of the source and result data are presented. Models of intermediate representations of the sequential circuit and their conversions are described. Technology mapping is a stage of logic synthesis and it is viewed as the transformation of a functional (i.e., algebraic circuit specification into a gate (i.e., netlist specification. The program is included as project operations in the VLSI CAD system for energy-saving logical synthesis developed in the United Institute of Informatics Problems of NAS of Belarus.

  16. Teach CAD and Measuring Skills through Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reverse engineering activity that gives students hands-on, minds-on experience with measuring tools, machine parts, and CAD. The author developed this activity to give students an abundance of practical experience with measuring tools. Equally important, it provides a good interface between the virtual world of CAD 3D…

  17. A MathCAD Exploration: Hunting for Hidden Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Benjamin N.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the use of a program called MathCAD which allows students to solve higher order polynomial equations and geometry problems. The use of cooperative learning is emphasized. Included are graphs and part of a printout generated while solving problems with MathCAD. (KR)

  18. Evaluating the Learning Process of Mechanical CAD Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, R. F.; Artail, H. A.; Jaber, M. Y.

    2007-01-01

    There is little theoretical or experimental research on how beginner-level trainees learn CAD skills in formal training sessions. This work presents findings on how trainees develop their skills in utilizing a solid mechanical CAD tool (Pro/Engineer version 2000i[squared] and later version Wildfire). Exercises at the beginner and intermediate…

  19. Structure of a ganglioside with Cad blood group antigen activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Bouhours, J.-F.; Cartron, J.-P.; Kuik, J.A. van; Kamerling, J.P.; Marcus, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Cad antigen is a rare erythrocyte blood group antigen expressed on both sialoglycoprotein and ganglioside structures. It is related both serologically and biochemically to the Sd' blood group antigen expressed on over 90% of Caucasian erythrocytes. We reported previously that Cad erythrocytes

  20. Predicting readers' diagnostic accuracy with a new CAD algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A

    2011-11-01

    Before computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms can be used in clinical practice, they must be shown to improve readers' diagnostic accuracy over their unaided performance. This is usually accomplished through a large multireader, multicase (MRMC) clinical trial. It is burdensome, however, for an MRMC study to be performed with each new release of a CAD algorithm. The aim of this report is to present an approach for building models to predict readers' accuracy with a new CAD algorithm. A modeling approach for predicting readers' results with a new CAD algorithm is described. Multiple-variable logistic regression was used to build models for readers' sensitivity and false-positive rate, given the results of an MRMC study with an older CAD algorithm and the stand-alone performance results of a new CAD algorithm. Data from a large lung MRMC CAD trial are used to illustrate the modeling approach and test the ability of the models to predict readers' accuracy with the new CAD algorithm. The model overestimated the readers' actual sensitivity with the new CAD algorithm, but this did not reach statistical significance (0.621 vs 0.603, P = .147). The observed and predicted false-positive rates also did not differ significantly (0.275 vs 0.285, P = .250). Using one clinical study as a test case, it is shown that the modeling approach is feasible. More testing of the approach is needed to determine if and under what circumstances it can be used as an alternative to a full-scale MRMC study. Meanwhile, the approach can be used to determine if a new CAD algorithm is likely to improve readers' accuracy before embarking on a full-scale MRMC study. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CAD: how it works, how to use it, performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Halligan, Steve

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are software algorithms designed to assist radiologists (or other practitioners) in solving a diagnostic problem by using a visual prompt (or "CAD mark") to direct the observer towards potential pathology. CT colonography is a recent arrival to CAD, but could represent one of its most fruitful applications in the future. In contrast to other organs, where a variety of different pathologies are equally represented, significant colorectal pathologies other than polyps and cancer are relatively uncommon. As we shall see, this simplifies the diagnostic task for artificial intelligence developers and also for radiologists who, ultimately, must make the final decision. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art for CAD applied to CT colonography. A brief overview of the technical essentials and of the diagnostic performance of CAD in isolation, is followed by an explanation of how CAD is used in day-to-day practice. The last section will deal with the most controversial issues affecting CAD performance in clinical practice, with a focus on the interaction between human and artificial intelligence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  3. CAD-centric Computation Management System for a Virtual TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakanth Munipalli; K.Y. Szema; P.Y. Huang; C.M. Rowell; A.Ying; M. Abdou

    2011-05-03

    HyPerComp Inc. in research collaboration with TEXCEL has set out to build a Virtual Test Blanket Module (VTBM) computational system to address the need in contemporary fusion research for simulating the integrated behavior of the blanket, divertor and plasma facing components in a fusion environment. Physical phenomena to be considered in a VTBM will include fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, neutronics, structural mechanics and electromagnetics. We seek to integrate well established (third-party) simulation software in various disciplines mentioned above. The integrated modeling process will enable user groups to interoperate using a common modeling platform at various stages of the analysis. Since CAD is at the core of the simulation (as opposed to computational meshes which are different for each problem,) VTBM will have a well developed CAD interface, governing CAD model editing, cleanup, parameter extraction, model deformation (based on simulation,) CAD-based data interpolation. In Phase-I, we built the CAD-hub of the proposed VTBM and demonstrated its use in modeling a liquid breeder blanket module with coupled MHD and structural mechanics using HIMAG and ANSYS. A complete graphical user interface of the VTBM was created, which will form the foundation of any future development. Conservative data interpolation via CAD (as opposed to mesh-based transfer), the regeneration of CAD models based upon computed deflections, are among the other highlights of phase-I activity.

  4. A new CAD approach for improving efficacy of cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei; Li, Lihua; Pu, Jiantao; Kang, Yan; Lure, Fleming; Tan, Maxine; Qiu, Yuchen

    2015-03-01

    Since performance and clinical utility of current computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of detecting and classifying soft tissue lesions (e.g., breast masses and lung nodules) is not satisfactory, many researchers in CAD field call for new CAD research ideas and approaches. The purpose of presenting this opinion paper is to share our vision and stimulate more discussions of how to overcome or compensate the limitation of current lesion-detection based CAD schemes in the CAD research community. Since based on our observation that analyzing global image information plays an important role in radiologists' decision making, we hypothesized that using the targeted quantitative image features computed from global images could also provide highly discriminatory power, which are supplementary to the lesion-based information. To test our hypothesis, we recently performed a number of independent studies. Based on our published preliminary study results, we demonstrated that global mammographic image features and background parenchymal enhancement of breast MR images carried useful information to (1) predict near-term breast cancer risk based on negative screening mammograms, (2) distinguish between true- and false-positive recalls in mammography screening examinations, and (3) classify between malignant and benign breast MR examinations. The global case-based CAD scheme only warns a risk level of the cases without cueing a large number of false-positive lesions. It can also be applied to guide lesion-based CAD cueing to reduce false-positives but enhance clinically relevant true-positive cueing. However, before such a new CAD approach is clinically acceptable, more work is needed to optimize not only the scheme performance but also how to integrate with lesion-based CAD schemes in the clinical practice.

  5. Phylogeny and expression profiling of CAD and CAD-like genes in hybrid Populus (P. deltoides x P. nigra): evidence from herbivore damage for subfunctionalization and functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Abdelali; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Frost, Christopher J; Carlson, John E

    2010-05-28

    Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) proteins function in lignin biosynthesis and play a critical role in wood development and plant defense against stresses. Previous phylogenetic studies did not include genes from seedless plants and did not reflect the deep evolutionary history of this gene family. We reanalyzed the phylogeny of CAD and CAD-like genes using a representative dataset including lycophyte and bryophyte sequences. Many CAD/CAD-like genes do not seem to be associated with wood development under normal growth conditions. To gain insight into the functional evolution of CAD/CAD-like genes, we analyzed their expression in Populus plant tissues in response to feeding damage by gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.). Expression of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus tissues (xylem, leaves, and barks) was analyzed in herbivore-treated and non-treated plants by real time quantitative RT-PCR. CAD family genes were distributed in three classes based on sequence conservation. All the three classes are represented by seedless as well as seed plants, including the class of bona fide lignin pathway genes. The expression of some CAD/CAD-like genes that are not associated with xylem development were induced following herbivore damage in leaves, while other genes were induced in only bark or xylem tissues. Five of the CAD/CAD-like genes, however, showed a shift in expression from one tissue to another between non-treated and herbivore-treated plants. Systemic expression of the CAD/CAD-like genes was generally suppressed. Our results indicated a correlation between the evolution of the CAD gene family and lignin and that the three classes of genes may have evolved in the ancestor of land plants. Our results also suggest that the CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved a diversity of expression profiles and potentially different functions, but that they are nonetheless co-regulated under stress conditions.

  6. Phylogeny and expression profiling of CAD and CAD-like genes in hybrid Populus (P. deltoides × P. nigra: evidence from herbivore damage for subfunctionalization and functional divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD proteins function in lignin biosynthesis and play a critical role in wood development and plant defense against stresses. Previous phylogenetic studies did not include genes from seedless plants and did not reflect the deep evolutionary history of this gene family. We reanalyzed the phylogeny of CAD and CAD-like genes using a representative dataset including lycophyte and bryophyte sequences. Many CAD/CAD-like genes do not seem to be associated with wood development under normal growth conditions. To gain insight into the functional evolution of CAD/CAD-like genes, we analyzed their expression in Populus plant tissues in response to feeding damage by gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.. Expression of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus tissues (xylem, leaves, and barks was analyzed in herbivore-treated and non-treated plants by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Results CAD family genes were distributed in three classes based on sequence conservation. All the three classes are represented by seedless as well as seed plants, including the class of bona fide lignin pathway genes. The expression of some CAD/CAD-like genes that are not associated with xylem development were induced following herbivore damage in leaves, while other genes were induced in only bark or xylem tissues. Five of the CAD/CAD-like genes, however, showed a shift in expression from one tissue to another between non-treated and herbivore-treated plants. Systemic expression of the CAD/CAD-like genes was generally suppressed. Conclusions Our results indicated a correlation between the evolution of the CAD gene family and lignin and that the three classes of genes may have evolved in the ancestor of land plants. Our results also suggest that the CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved a diversity of expression profiles and potentially different functions, but that they are nonetheless co-regulated under stress conditions.

  7. Engineering drawing from first principles using AutoCAD

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, Dennis E

    1998-01-01

    Engineering Drawing From First Principles is a guide to good draughting for students of engineering who need to learn how to produce technically accurate and detailed designs to British and International Standards. Written by Dennis Maguire, an experienced author and City and Guilds chief examiner, this text is designed for use on Further Education and University courses where a basic understanding of draughtsmanship and CAD is necessary. Although not written as an AutoCAD tutor, the book will be a useful introduction to good CAD practice.Part of the Revision and Self-Assessmen

  8. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  9. A 3-D CAD tool for CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, F A; Cesaraccio, M; Starita, A; Neri, E

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, biomedical images of the human body are an invaluable source of information that clinicians can use in order to make a correct and final diagnosis. Their use is widespread in almost every branch of medicine. In some cases, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools have received approval for being used without any human intervention and validation, like, for example, in breast cancer detection relying on X-rays mammograms. In this paper we present a framework for building CAD tools based on the well-known software design patterns and an implementation of the first modules of a CAD tool for computed tomography (CT) colonography.

  10. A Virtual CAD Model of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chemli, S; Messerli, R; Muttoni, Y; Prin, H; Van Uytvinck, E

    2000-01-01

    Integrating the large and complex LHC machine into the existing LEP tunnel is a major challenge. Space was not really a problem to fit the LEP machine into its tunnel, but LHC cryostats are much larger than the LEP quadrupoles and the external cryogenic line fills even more the tunnel. Space problems lead to small clearances. Possible conflicts, or at least the most penalising ones, between installed equipment or with transport, must be solved beforehand in order to avoid unacceptable delays and extra costs during the installation. Experience gained with LEP has already shown the help that Computer-Aided Engineering tools could provide for the integration. A virtual model of the LHC is presently prepared. The actual LEP tunnel, known with a quite good accuracy (centimetre level), has been modelled and all the elements of the machine constructed as 3D objects with the CAD system are positioned accurately on the basis of data generated from the theoretical definition. These layouts are used to generate the refe...

  11. UNIFIED DATA FORMAT IN CAD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of data transmission unification is assurance of content consistency for information objects. Data consistency is necessary for development of a subsystem in integrated information systems. The analysis completed by the authors demonstrates that there is no data exchange format in CAD systems covering the whole variety of data to be transmitted via the communication channel. Therefore, STEP protocol (Standard for (provided by international standard ISO 1030 is proposed for data transmission unification. The protocol determines a neutral data format realized through the product information model. This model incorporates the elements and the configuration of the product, different geometrical models, administrative and special data. All data are described in STEP using object-oriented language EXPRESS similar to the programming language. Access to EXPRESS data is provided by standard methods. EXPRESS language is designated for the conceptual description of the model. Global description is split into subject domains, or schemes. The information model represents interconnected schemes. A scheme consists of a set of elements that may include entities, types, constants, rules, functions and procedures.

  12. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  13. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  14. Geometric data transfer between CAD systems: solid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri; Palstroem, Bjarne; Trostmann, Erik

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of the ESPRIT project CAD*I resulted in a specification for the exchange of solid models as well as in some pilot implementations of processors based on this specification. The authors summarize the CAD*I approach, addressing the structure of neutral files for solids, entities......, and attributes supporting three kinds of representations: facilities for the transfer of parametric designs; referencing library components; and other general mechanisms. They also describe the current state of the specification and processor implementations and include an example of a CAD*I neutral file....... Results from cycle and intersystem solid model transfer tests are presented, showing the practicality of the CAD*I proposal. B-rep model transfer results are discussed in some detail. The relationship of this work to standardization efforts is outlined...

  15. CAD-CAE in Electrical Machines and Drives Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmans, R.; Geysen, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques in teaching the design of electrical motors. Approaches described include three technical viewpoints, such as electromagnetics, thermal, and mechanical aspects. Provides three diagrams, a table, and conclusions. (YP)

  16. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structured reporting platform improves CAD-RADS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilveszter, Bálint; Kolossváry, Márton; Karády, Júlia; Jermendy, Ádám L; Károlyi, Mihály; Panajotu, Alexisz; Bagyura, Zsolt; Vecsey-Nagy, Milán; Cury, Ricardo C; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-11-01

    Structured reporting in cardiac imaging is strongly encouraged to improve quality through consistency. The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) was recently introduced to facilitate interdisciplinary communication of coronary CT angiography (CTA) results. We aimed to assess the agreement between manual and automated CAD-RADS classification using a structured reporting platform. Five readers prospectively interpreted 500 coronary CT angiographies using a structured reporting platform that automatically calculates the CAD-RADS score based on stenosis and plaque parameters manually entered by the reader. In addition, all readers manually assessed CAD-RADS blinded to the automatically derived results, which was used as the reference standard. We evaluated factors influencing reader performance including CAD-RADS training, clinical load, time of the day and level of expertise. Total agreement between manual and automated classification was 80.2%. Agreement in stenosis categories was 86.7%, whereas the agreement in modifiers was 95.8% for "N", 96.8% for "S", 95.6% for "V" and 99.4% for "G". Agreement for V improved after CAD-RADS training (p = 0.047). Time of the day and clinical load did not influence reader performance (p > 0.05 both). Less experienced readers had a higher total agreement as compared to more experienced readers (87.0% vs 78.0%, respectively; p = 0.011). Even though automated CAD-RADS classification uses data filled in by the readers, it outperforms manual classification by preventing human errors. Structured reporting platforms with automated calculation of the CAD-RADS score might improve data quality and support standardization of clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Global communication part 1: the use of apparel CAD technology

    OpenAIRE

    Easters, D

    2012-01-01

    Trends needed for improved communication systems, through the development of future computer-aided design technology (CAD) applications, is a theme that has received attention due to its perceived benefits in improving global supply chain efficiencies. This article discusses the developments of both 2D and 3D computer-aided design capabilities, found within global fashion supply chain relationships and environments. Major characteristics identified within the data suggest that CAD/CAM technol...

  19. Individualized Human CAD Models: Anthropmetric Morphing and Body Tissue Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    Part Flow Chart of the Interaction among VBA Macros, Excel® Spreadsheet, and SolidWorks Front View of the Male and Female Soldier CAD Model...yellow highlighting. The spreadsheet is linked to the CAD model by macros created with the Visual Basic for Application ( VBA ) editor in Microsoft Excel...basically three working parts to the anthropometric morphing that are all interconnected ( VBA macros, Excel spreadsheet, and SolidWorks). The flow

  20. Incorporation of CAD/CAM Restoration Into Navy Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Aided Design and Computer- Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature. Journal of international oral health : JIOH 2015;7:96-104...CAD/CAM Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing CDT Common Dental Terminology DENCAS Dental Common Access System DTF Dental...to reduce avoidable dental emergencies for deployed sailors and marines. Dental Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM

  1. Front panel engineering with CAD simulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Jacques; Ungar, Serge; Mathieu, Gilles; Hasna, Guenther; Martinez, Pascal; Roche, Jean-Christophe

    1999-04-01

    THe progress made recently in display technology covers many fields of application. The specification of radiance, colorimetry and lighting efficiency creates some new challenges for designers. Photometric design is limited by the capability of correctly predicting the result of a lighting system, to save on the costs and time taken to build multiple prototypes or bread board benches. The second step of the research carried out by company OPTIS is to propose an optimization method to be applied to the lighting system, developed in the software SPEOS. The main features of the tool requires include the CAD interface, to enable fast and efficient transfer between mechanical and light design software, the source modeling, the light transfer model and an optimization tool. The CAD interface is mainly a prototype of transfer, which is not the subjects here. Photometric simulation is efficiently achieved by using the measured source encoding and a simulation by the Monte Carlo method. Today, the advantages and the limitations of the Monte Carlo method are well known. The noise reduction requires a long calculation time, which increases with the complexity of the display panel. A successful optimization is difficult to achieve, due to the long calculation time required for each optimization pass including a Monte Carlo simulation. The problem was initially defined as an engineering method of study. The experience shows that good understanding and mastering of the phenomenon of light transfer is limited by the complexity of non sequential propagation. The engineer must call for the help of a simulation and optimization tool. The main point needed to be able to perform an efficient optimization is a quick method for simulating light transfer. Much work has been done in this area and some interesting results can be observed. It must be said that the Monte Carlo method wastes time calculating some results and information which are not required for the needs of the simulation

  2. CAD/CAM Preparation Design Effects on Endodontically Treated and Restored Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effects on Endodontically Treated and Restored Molars Aaron T. Krance CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effect on...manuscript entitled: CAD /CAM Preparation Design Effect on Endodonticallv Treated and Restored Molars is appropriately acknowledged and beyond brief...by a CAD /CAM technique on endodontically treated molars restored with the endocrown method versus ceramic full coverage based on amalgam cores with

  3. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  4. CAD May Not be Necessary for Microcalcifications in the Digital era, CAD May Benefit Radiologists for Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatia V Destounis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computer-aided detection (CAD to mark the cancer on digital mammograms at the time of breast cancer diagnosis and also review retrospectively whether CAD marked the cancer if visible on any available prior mammograms, thus potentially identifying breast cancer at an earlier stage. We sought to determine why breast lesions may or may not be marked by CAD. In particular, we analyzed factors such as breast density, mammographic views, and lesion characteristics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review from 2004 to 2008 revealed 3445 diagnosed breast cancers in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients; 1293 of these were imaged with full field digital mammography (FFDM. After cancer diagnosis, in a retrospective review held by the radiologist staff, 43 of these cancers were found to be visible on prior-year mammograms (false-negative cases; these breast cancer cases are the basis of this analysis. All cases had CAD evaluation available at the time of cancer diagnosis and on prior mammography studies. Data collected included patient demographics, breast density, palpability, lesion type, mammographic size, CAD marks on current- and prior-year mammograms, needle biopsy method, pathology results (core needle and/or surgical, surgery type, and lesion size. Results: On retrospective review of the mammograms by the staff radiologists, 43 cancers were discovered to be visible on prior-year mammograms. All 43 cancers were masses (mass classification included mass, mass with calcification, and mass with architectural distortion; no pure microcalcifications were identified in this cohort. Mammograms with CAD applied at the time of breast cancer diagnosis were able to detect 79% (34/43 of the cases and 56% (24/43 from mammograms with CAD applied during prior year(s. In heterogeneously dense/extremely dense tissue, CAD marked 79% (27/34 on mammograms taken at the time of diagnosis and

  5. CAD/CAM produces dentures with improved fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Otto; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca

    2018-02-22

    Resin polymerisation shrinkage reduces the congruence of the denture base with denture-bearing tissues and thereby decreases the retention of conventionally fabricated dentures. CAD/CAM denture manufacturing is a subtractive process, and polymerisation shrinkage is not an issue anymore. Therefore, CAD/CAM dentures are assumed to show a higher denture base congruence than conventionally fabricated dentures. It has been the aim of this study to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures provided by four different manufacturers (AvaDent, Merz Dental, Whole You, Wieland/Ivoclar) were generated from ten different master casts. Ten conventional dentures (pack and press, long-term heat polymerisation) made from the same master casts served as control group. The master casts and all denture bases were scanned and matched digitally. The absolute incongruences were measured using a 2-mm mesh. Conventionally fabricated dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.105 mm, SD = 0.019 from the master cast. All CAD/CAM dentures showed lower mean incongruences. From all CAD/CAM dentures, AvaDent Digital Dentures showed the highest congruence with the master cast surface with a mean deviation of 0.058 mm, SD = 0.005. Wieland Digital Dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.068 mm, SD = 0.005, Whole You Nexteeth prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.074 mm, SD = 0.011 and Baltic Denture System prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.086 mm, SD = 0.012. CAD/CAM produces dentures with better fit than conventional dentures. The present study explains the clinically observed enhanced retention and lower traumatic ulcer-frequency in CAD/CAM dentures.

  6. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  7. Concerns of hydrothermal degradation in CAD/CAM zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-W; Covel, N S; Guess, P C; Rekow, E D; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry; however, their susceptibility to hydrothermal degradation remains elusive. We hypothesized that CAD/CAM machining and subsequent surface treatments, i.e., grinding and/or grit-blasting, have marked effects on the hydrothermal degradation behavior of Y-TZP. CAD/CAM-machined Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thick), both with and without subsequent grinding with various grit sizes or grit-blasting with airborne alumina particles, were subjected to accelerated aging tests in a steam autoclave. Results showed that the CAD/CAM-machined surfaces initially exhibited superior hydrothermal degradation resistance, but deteriorated at a faster rate upon prolonged autoclave treatment compared with ground and grit-blasted surfaces. The accelerated hydrothermal degradation of CAD/CAM surfaces is attributed to the CAD/CAM machining damage and the absence of surface compressive stresses in the fully sintered material. Clinical relevance for surface treatments of zirconia frameworks in terms of hydrothermal and structural stabilities is addressed.

  8. Role of radiologists in CAD life-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietka, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.pietka@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kawa, Jacek, E-mail: jacek.kawa@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Spinczyk, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.spinczyk@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Badura, Pawel, E-mail: pawel.badura@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wieclawek, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.wieclawek@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Czajkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.czajkowska@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Rudzki, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.rudzki@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    A modern CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) system development involves a multidisciplinary team whose members are experts in medical and technical fields. This study indicates the activities of medical experts at various stages of the CAD design, testing, and implementation. Those stages include a medical analysis of the diagnostic problem, data collection, image analysis, evaluation, and clinical verification. At each stage the physicians knowledge and experience are indispensable. The final implementation involves integration with the existing Picture Archiving and Communication System. The term CAD life-cycle describes an overall process of the design, testing, and implementation of a system that in its final form assists the radiologists in their daily clinical routine. Four CAD systems (applied to the bone age assessment, Multiple Sclerosis detection, lung nodule detection, and pneumothorax measurement) developed in our laboratory are given as examples of how consecutive stages are developed by the multidisciplinary team. Specific advantages of the CAD implementation that include the daily clinical routine as well as research and education activities are discussed.

  9. Interoperability of CAD Standards and Robotics in CIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    The research presented in this dissertation concerns the identification of problems and provision of solutions for increasing the degree of interoperability between CAD, CACSD (Computer Aided Control Systems Design) and CAR (Computer Aided Robotics) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engine......The research presented in this dissertation concerns the identification of problems and provision of solutions for increasing the degree of interoperability between CAD, CACSD (Computer Aided Control Systems Design) and CAR (Computer Aided Robotics) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing......· The development of a STEP based interface for general control system data and functions, especially related to robot motion control for interoperability of CAD, CACSD, and CAR systems for the extension of the inter-system communication capabilities beyond the stage achieved up to now.This interface development...

  10. AutoCAD electrical 2013 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham; CADCIM Technologies

    2013-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2013 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers learn the application of various AutoCAD Electrical tools and options for creating electrical control designs. After reading this textbook, the users will be able to create professional electrical-control drawings easily and effectively. Moreover, the users will be able to automate various control engineering tasks such as building circuits, numbering wires, creating bills of materials, and many more. The textbook takes the users across a wide spectrum of electrical control drawings through progressive examples and numerous illustrations and exercises, thereby making it an ideal guide for both the novice and the advanced users. Salient Features of the Textbook Consists of 14 chapters that are organized in a pedagogical sequence covering various tools and features of AutoCAD Electrical such as schematic drawings, parametric and non-parametric PLC modules, Circu...

  11. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  12. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks.

  13. Instant Autodesk AutoCAD 2014 customization with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. An instruction-based guide with examples written in the C# programming language. VB.NET programmers can also take advantage of these examples by using one of the free conversion websites to convert the examples to VB.NET.Clear, step-by-step instructions and complete code examples illustrate the processes, making it easy to develop your own custom AutoCAD tools.This book is perfect if you are interested in customizing AutoCAD 2014 using the .NET API. You should have a basic familiari

  14. Discectomia lombar transforaminal: estudo quantitativo em cadáveres

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliano Neves Vialle; Luiz Roberto Gomes Vialle; Maurício Santos Gusmão; Túlio Albuquerque de Moura Rangel; Ruben Cardenas Moron; Sérgio Rocha; Antônio Bernardo De Queiroz Krieger; Guilherme Moreira

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficácia da discectomia lombar por via transforaminal, de modo quantitativo, em estudo experimental com cadáveres. MÉTODOS: este estudo utilizou cinco cadáveres humanos frescos, submetidos à discectomia pela via de acesso póstero-lateral nos níveis L3-L4 e L4-L5, visando remover a maior quantidade de material discal possível. Uma abordagem anterior complementar, expondo os mesmos discos intervertebrais, permitiu a remoção do material discal remanescente, para posterior com...

  15. Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufactur...

  16. AutoCAD platform customization user interface, AutoLISP, VBA, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Take control of AutoCAD to boost the speed, quality, and precision of your work Senior drafters and savvy users are increasingly taking AutoCAD customization out of the hands of system administrators, and taking control of their own workflow. In AutoCAD Platform Customization, Autodesk customization guru Lee Ambrosius walks you through a multitude of customization options using detailed tutorials and real-world examples applicable to AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and other programs built on the AutoCAD platform. By unleashing the full power of the software, you'll simplify and str

  17. Program Evolves from Basic CAD to Total Manufacturing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Close to a decade ago, John Hersey High School (JHHS) in Arlington Heights, Illinois, made a transition from a traditional classroom-based pre-engineering program. The new program is geared towards helping students understand the entire manufacturing process. Previously, a JHHS student would design a project in computer-aided design (CAD) software…

  18. On CAD-integrated Structural Topology and Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Bendsøe, M.P.; Rasmussen, John

    1991-01-01

    Concepts underlying an interactive CAD-based engineering design optimization system are developed, and methods of optimizing the topology, shape and sizing of mechanical components are presented. These methods are integrated in the system, and the method for determining the optimal topology is used...

  19. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Anthoine, David; Bertalot, Luciano; De Bock, Maartin; O'Connor, Richard; Juarez, Rafael; Krasilnikov, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17). The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM) optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) in Port Interspace (PI) of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM) on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core), an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  20. Contribution of CAD and PLM Research Reactors Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnetain, Xavier [AREVA TA, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    As all the reactors, the main stakes in the engineering of design and construction of the research reactors consist of the management and sharing of the technical data, the functional, physical and contractual interfaces data between the various contributors on the whole designs and construction cycle project. For 40 years, AREVA TA designs and builds reactors. Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools were introduced for 30 years into the engineering processes of AREVA TA, completed for 15 years by Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools. For 15 years AREVA TA pursues the integration since the feasibility of its newest Information Technologies (IT). In the first part, the paper presents IN the second part, the paper presents how the schematics and CAD tools support the engineering processes during the different phases of the project. CAD was used during the studies and now supports the management of the layout and design studies, including interfaces between suppliers, up to the constitution of the as built CAD mock-up. In the third part, the paper presents the relations between the various tools and the PLM solution implemented by AREVA TA to ensure the consistency between all tools and data for the benefit of the project.

  1. Development of Cad Software for Wheel Chair Design | Ayodeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric data of Nigerian paraplegics was used to design wheel chair for the paraplegics. This was done by developing suitable software using Visual Basic, AutoCAD, Access and Corel- Draw programs. The software developed is capable of designing an ergonomically viable wheelchair for any category of ...

  2. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  3. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembish, Fatma A; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N; Thompson, Van P; Opdam, Niek J; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n=24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n=24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electron microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450N. Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3-4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Automation in the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and CAD. High-Level CAD Templates Using Script Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study improvements to the learning method of technical drawing and descriptive geometry through exercises with traditional techniques that are usually solved manually by applying automated processes assisted by high-level CAD templates (HLCts). Given that an exercise with traditional procedures can be solved, detailed step by step in technical drawing and descriptive geometry manuals, CAD applications allow us to do the same and generalize it later, incorporating references. Traditional teachings have become obsolete and current curricula have been relegated. However, they can be applied in certain automation processes. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into HLCts allows the automation of drawing processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or modifying data in the same exercises, users should be able to use HLCts to generate future modifications of these exercises. This paper introduces the automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files, aided by parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, mathematics, and descriptive geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation in the generation of exercises not only saves time but also increases the quality of the statements and reduces the possibility of human error.

  5. Assessment of the Use of AutoCAD in Mechanical Engineering Technical Drawing Education

    OpenAIRE

    Akyürek, Turgut

    2017-01-01

    AutoCAD is one of the widely used software tools in engineering education. In this study, ageneral assessment of AutoCAD for the usage in the mechanical engineering technical drawing educationis made. AutoCAD is assessed in terms of the fulfilment of the requirements defined for the main twotechnical drawing courses. AutoCAD is assessed in terms of its capability in meeting the requirements ofthe technical drawing courses.

  6. CAD-RADS - a new clinical decision support tool for coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldyna, Borek; Szilveszter, Bálint; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Banerji, Dahlia; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Hoffmann, Udo

    2017-11-07

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been established as an accurate method to non-invasively assess coronary artery disease (CAD). The proposed 'Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System' (CAD-RADS) may enable standardised reporting of the broad spectrum of coronary CTA findings related to the presence, extent and composition of coronary atherosclerosis. The CAD-RADS classification is a comprehensive tool for summarising findings on a per-patient-basis dependent on the highest-grade coronary artery lesion, ranging from CAD-RADS 0 (absence of CAD) to CAD-RADS 5 (total occlusion of a coronary artery). In addition, it provides suggestions for clinical management for each classification, including further testing and therapeutic options. Despite some limitations, CAD-RADS may facilitate improved communication between imagers and patient caregivers. As such, CAD-RADS may enable a more efficient use of coronary CTA leading to more accurate utilisation of invasive coronary angiograms. Furthermore, widespread use of CAD-RADS may facilitate registry-based research of diagnostic and prognostic aspects of CTA. • CAD-RADS is a tool for standardising coronary CTA reports. • CAD-RADS includes clinical treatment recommendations based on CTA findings. • CAD-RADS has the potential to reduce variability of CTA reports.

  7. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3661 Optical Impression Systems for CAD... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or...

  8. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  9. THE USE OF CAD METHODS FOR DESIGNING BLOWOUT PREVENTERS BOP IN OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Best practice design and analysis of operational safety requires CAD modeling of these BOP.The primary objective for this paper was to design and select a suitable BOP system to meet the applications and proposing CAD solutions to improve the operation of the entire safe system. This paper presents and modes of BOP accident with investigation methods CAD

  10. The fracture resistance of a CAD/CAM Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) and a CAD ceramic at different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenfeng; Trindade, Flávia Zardo; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Feilzer, Albert J

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of restoration thickness to the fracture resistance of adhesively bonded Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM, a Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC), and IPS e.max CAD ceramic. Polished Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group L), sandblasted Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group LS), and sandblasted IPS e.max CAD (Group ES) discs (n=8, Ø=10 mm) with a thickness of respectively 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm were cemented to corresponding epoxy supporting discs, achieving a final thickness of 3.5 mm. All the 120 specimens were loaded with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The load (N) at failure was recorded as fracture resistance. The stress distribution for 0.5 mm restorative discs of each group was analyzed by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The results of facture resistances were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and regression. For the same thickness of testing discs, the fracture resistance of Group L was always significantly lower than the other two groups. The 0.5 mm discs in Group L resulted in the lowest value of 1028 (112) N. There was no significant difference between Group LS and Group ES when the restoration thickness ranged between 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm. There was a linear relation between fracture resistance and restoration thickness in Group L (R=0.621, PCAD/CAM is used, sandblasting is suggested to get a better bonding. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From CAD to GIS to the geoweb - a natural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Steve [Adamlabs Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    For decades now, geomatics has been used in the pipeline industry for land surveying. Over the years, the geospatial technologies used for pipeline design and operations have changed and the aim of this paper is to review past innovations and to look at future perspectives. At first, designers drew with pens but then CAD systems took over with their greater pace in making edits. CAD provided designers with a rapid drawing method but as the amount of digital data grew it not able to exploit this abundance. Geographic information systems (GIS) was then developed and is used in situations where integrity, environmental and spatial data sets dominate the information. As GIS will also be overtaken at one point, the author thinks that Geoweb is the next generation in geospatial technology evolution thanks to its accessibility through the Internet.

  12. Design Intent for CAD Modeling Features Using Boolean Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant R.; Sujit, Ghadge

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to add one more enhancement to design intent by adding a rule to find the intersection edges created between Boolean features. Design Intent is a core module in CAD software which is used for smart design of referencing elements to create required features. In general, the particular design intent will form a particular rule which can be utilized for specified purpose. In this paper, a design intent rule for Edge Blend feature is designed. The rule is also implemented and integrated with CAD software. The major contributions of this paper is to create a new intent design rule which picks the edges of the feature Present design intent rule is intended to pick the intersection edges of the feature, in doing so; the intent will avoid referencing to topology over referencing to hierarchy objects for greater reliability

  13. From Oss CAD to Bim for Cultural Heritage Digital Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, S.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-02-01

    The paper illustrates the use of open source Computer-aided design (CAD) environments in order to develop Building Information Modelling (BIM) tools able to manage 3D models in the field of cultural heritage. Nowadays, the development of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) has been rapidly growing and their use tends to be consolidated. Although BIM technology is widely known and used, there is a lack of integrated open source platforms able to support all stages of Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) processes. The present research aims to use a FOSS CAD environment in order to develop BIM plug-ins which will be able to import and edit digital representations of cultural heritage models derived by photogrammetric methods.

  14. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  15. CAD And Distributed Manufacturing Solutions for Pellet Boiler Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Mamut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is summarizing the research activities that had been carried out for defining an appropriate manufacturing concept and the system architecture for a manufacturing plant of pellet boilers. The concept has been validated through the implementation of a solution of computer integrated manufacturing that includes a CAD platform and a CAM facility including laser cutting machines, rolling and welding machines and advanced technologies for assembly, quality control and testing.

  16. Translucency of ceramic materials for CEREC CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Alessandro; Carrabba, Michele; Paravina, Rade; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To compare translucency of the ceramic materials (CEREC CAD/CAM). Fifteen ceramic materials for CEREC CAD/CAM system were evaluated: IPS e.max HT/LT/MO, ZirCAD, Empress HT/LT; VITA Mark II, VITA AL; VITA YZ, VITA In-Ceram Spinell/Alumina/Zirconia; and Sirona InCoris AL; Sirona InCoris ZI/TZI. Specimens (0.5-mm and 1.0-mm thick; n = 10 each material) were cut from commercial blocks using a water-cooled diamond saw. Contrast ratio (CR = YB /YW ) was measured using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance was performed followed by Dunn's multiple test for post-hoc. CR varied from 0.35 to 1.00 and from 0.48 to 1.00 for 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses, respectively. CR increased in the following order: IPS e.max HT (most translucent-least opaque), IPS Empress HT, VITA Mark II, IPS Empress LT, IPS e.max LT, In-Ceram Spinell, IPS e.max MO, VITA YZ, InCoris TZI, IPS e.max ZirCAD, InCoris ZI, In-Ceram Alumina, VITA AL, InCoris AL, and In-Ceram Zirconia (least translucent-most opaque). The null hypothesis has been rejected because tested materials exhibited a wide range of CR. Translucency needs to be taken into account in different clinical situations, including considerations associated with thickness of restoration and/or particular layers. A wide range of translucency was identified for the ceramic materials tested. This variability has to be taken into account for the selection of the materials in different clinical situations also related to the thickness clinically required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Astronaut EVA Exposure Estimates from CAD Model Spacesuit Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    GIOVANNI DE, ANGELIS; Brooke M., ANDERSON; William, ATWELL; John E., NEALY; Garry D., QUALLS; John W., WILSON; Old Dominion University:NASA Langley Research Center:Istituto Superiore di Sanita'; Swales Aerospace Corporation; The Boeing Company; Old Dominion University; NASA Langley Research Center

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesu...

  18. A New Approach in CAD System for Designing Shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Guid, Nikola; Kolmanič, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The flattening of digitized surfaces is still very important in design of thin walled objects such as the airplane wings, parts of car bodies, textile products, and shoe uppers. Especially in shoe industry, the ability of quick respond to changing market needs is essential for successful competition. To give needed flexibility to a shoe designer, special CAD/CAM systems have been developed. Those systems are based on algorithms for surface reconstruction and surface flattening. In this articl...

  19. Grinding damage assessment for CAD-CAM restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Philippe; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Anselm Wiskott, H W; Durual, Stéphane; Scherrer, Susanne S

    2017-03-01

    To assess surface/subsurface damage after grinding with diamond discs on five CAD-CAM restorative materials and to estimate potential losses in strength based on crack size measurements of the generated damage. The materials tested were: Lithium disilicate (LIT) glass-ceramic (e.max CAD), leucite glass-ceramic (LEU) (Empress CAD), feldspar ceramic (VM2) (Vita Mark II), feldspar ceramic-resin infiltrated (EN) (Enamic) and a composite reinforced with nano ceramics (LU) (Lava Ultimate). Specimens were cut from CAD-CAM blocs and pair-wise mirror polished for the bonded interface technique. Top surfaces were ground with diamond discs of respectively 75, 54 and 18μm. Chip damage was measured on the bonded interface using SEM. Fracture mechanics relationships were used to estimate fracture stresses based on average and maximum chip depths assuming these to represent strength limiting flaws subjected to tension and to calculate potential losses in strength compared to manufacturer's data. Grinding with a 75μm diamond disc induced on a bonded interface critical chips averaging 100μm with a potential strength loss estimated between 33% and 54% for all three glass-ceramics (LIT, LEU, VM2). The softer materials EN and LU were little damage susceptible with chips averaging respectively 26μm and 17μm with no loss in strength. Grinding with 18μm diamond discs was still quite detrimental for LIT with average chip sizes of 43μm and a potential strength loss of 42%. It is essential to understand that when grinding glass-ceramics or feldspar ceramics with diamond discs surface and subsurface damage are induced which have the potential of lowering the strength of the ceramic. Careful polishing steps should be carried out after grinding especially when dealing with glass-ceramics. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hongtao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Finally, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  1. Analog Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) information can be more effective than binary marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-02-01

    In socially important visual search tasks, such as baggage screening and diagnostic radiology, experts miss more targets than is desirable. Computer-aided detection (CAD) programs have been developed specifically to improve performance in these professional search tasks. For example, in breast cancer screening, many CAD systems are capable of detecting approximately 90% of breast cancer, with approximately 0.5 false-positive detections per image. Nevertheless, benefits of CAD in clinical settings tend to be small (Birdwell, 2009) or even absent (Meziane et al., 2011; Philpotts, 2009). The marks made by a CAD system can be "binary," giving the same signal to any location where the signal is above some threshold. Alternatively, a CAD system presents an analog signal that reflects strength of the signal at a location. In the experiments reported, we compare analog and binary CAD presentations using nonexpert observers and artificial stimuli defined by two noisy signals: a visible color signal and an "invisible" signal that informed our simulated CAD system. We found that analog CAD generally yielded better overall performance than binary CAD. The analog benefit is similar at high and low target prevalence. Our data suggest that the form of the CAD signal can directly influence performance. Analog CAD may allow the computer to be more helpful to the searcher.

  2. Use of Existing CAD Models for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. T.; Barzilla, J. E.; Wilson, P.; Davis, A.; Zachman, J.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of a radiation exposure analysis depends not only on the accuracy of the underlying particle transport code, but also on the accuracy of the geometric representations of both the vehicle used as radiation shielding mass and the phantom representation of the human form. The current NASA/Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) process to determine crew radiation exposure in a vehicle design incorporates both output from an analytic High Z and Energy Particle Transport (HZETRN) code and the properties (i.e., material thicknesses) of a previously processed drawing. This geometry pre-process can be time-consuming, and the results are less accurate than those determined using a Monte Carlo-based particle transport code. The current work aims to improve this process. Although several Monte Carlo programs (FLUKA, Geant4) are readily available, most use an internal geometry engine. The lack of an interface with the standard CAD formats used by the vehicle designers limits the ability of the user to communicate complex geometries. Translation of native CAD drawings into a format readable by these transport programs is time consuming and prone to error. The Direct Accelerated Geometry -United (DAGU) project is intended to provide an interface between the native vehicle or phantom CAD geometry and multiple particle transport codes to minimize problem setup, computing time and analysis error.

  3. AutoCAD electrical 2016 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham

    2016-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2016 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers who are new to AutoCAD Electrical. Using this textbook, the readers can learn the application of basic tools required for creating professional electrical control drawings with the help of AutoCAD Electrical. Keeping in view the varied requirements of the users, this textbook covers a wide range of tools and features such as schematic drawings, Circuit Builder, panel drawings, parametric and nonparametric PLC modules, stand-alone PLC I/O points, ladder diagrams, point-to-point wiring diagrams, report generation, creation of symbols, and so on. This will help the readers to create electrical drawings easily and effectively. Special emphasis has been laid on the introduction of concepts, which have been explained using text and supported with graphical examples. The examples and tutorials used in this book ensure that the users can relate the information provided...

  4. Ovulation leads women to perceive sexy cads as good dads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cantú, Stephanie M; Li, Norman P

    2012-08-01

    Why do some women pursue relationships with men who are attractive, dominant, and charming but who do not want to be in relationships--the prototypical sexy cad? Previous research shows that women have an increased desire for such men when they are ovulating, but it is unclear why ovulating women would think it is wise to pursue men who may be unfaithful and could desert them. Using both college-age and community-based samples, in 3 studies we show that ovulating women perceive charismatic and physically attractive men, but not reliable and nice men, as more committed partners and more devoted future fathers. Ovulating women perceive that sexy cads would be good fathers to their own children but not to the children of other women. This ovulatory-induced perceptual shift is driven by women who experienced early onset of puberty. Taken together, the current research identifies a novel proximate reason why ovulating women pursue relationships with sexy cads, complementing existing research that identifies the ultimate, evolutionary reasons for this behavior.

  5. Strategies for the Curation of CAD Engineering Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 Product Lifecycle Management (PLM has become increasingly important in the engineering community over the last decade or so, due to the globalisation of markets and the rising popularity of products provided as services. It demands the efficient capture, representation, organisation, retrieval and reuse of product data over its entire life. Simultaneously, there is now a much greater reliance on CAD models for communicating designs to manufacturers, builders, maintenance crews and regulators, and for definitively expressing designs. Creating the engineering record digitally, however, presents problems not only for its long-term maintenance and accessibility - due in part to the rapid obsolescence of the hardware, software and file formats involved - but also for recording the evolution of designs, artefacts and products. We examine the curation and preservation requirements in PLM and suggest ways of alleviating the problems of sustaining CAD engineering models through the use of lightweight formats, layered annotation and the collection of Representation Information as defined in the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model.  We describe two tools which have been specifically developed to aid in the curation of CAD engineering models in the context of PLM: Lightweight Models with Multilayered Annotation (LiMMA and a Registry/Repository of Representation Information for Engineering (RRoRIfE.

  6. The efficacy of using CAD for detection of breast cancer in mammography screening A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Emilie; Lauridsen, Carsten Ammitzbøl

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to present an overview of the available studies concerning the use of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems in screening mammography for early detection of breast cancer and compare the diagnostic accuracy and recall rates of single reading...... with single reading + CAD and double reading with single reading + CAD. Materials and methods: PRISMA guidelines were used as a review protocol. Only articles on clinical trials concerning the efficacy of computer-aided detection systems to detect breast cancer for use in a screening population were included...... with CAD group indicate that the addition of CAD increases sensitivity and cancer detection rate (CDR). For the double reading vs. single reading with CAD group none of the studies reported significant differences in sensitivity and CDR. Adding CAD to single reading increased the recall rates and decreased...

  7. Evaluation of mechanical and optical behavior of current esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Liebermann, Anja; Eichberger, Marlis; Güth, Jan-Frederik

    2015-03-01

    To determine the mechanical and optical properties of CAD/CAM composites (LAVA Ultimate, Cerasmart, Shofu Block and two exp. CAD/CAM composites), a hybrid material (VITA Enamic), a leucite (IPS Empress CAD) and a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD). Three-point flexural strength (FS) was investigated according ISO 6872:2008 (N=240/n=30). Two-body wear (TBW) was analyzed in a chewing simulator (1,200,000 cycles, 50N, 5°/55°C) using human teeth as antagonists (N=120/n=15). Quantitative analysis of wear was carried out with a 3D-scanner and associated matching software. Discoloration rate (DR) after 14 days of storage in cress, curry, red wine, and distilled water (N=384/n=12), and translucency (T) (N=384/n=48) of CAD/CAM materials were measured in a spectrophotometer (400-700nm wavelength). Data were analyzed using two-/one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test, Kruskal-Wallis-H test, and linear mixed models (α=0.05). IPS e.max CAD showed the highest FS (pCAD/CAM composites (exception: Shofu Block). The lowest FS showed VITA Enamic and IPS Empress CAD (pCAD, VITA Enamic, exp. CAD/CAM composite 2, followed by IPS e.max presented lower material TBW than the remaining CAD/CAM materials (pcurry>cress>distilled water) exerted the highest influence on DR (pCAD/CAM material. Glass-ceramics showed lower DR than CAD/CAM composites (pCAD/CAM composites presented moderate FS, high T and antagonist friendly behavior. Glass-ceramic demonstrated the most favorable DR and lowest TBW on the material side. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FreeCAD visualization of realistic 3D physical optics beams within a CAD system-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, D.; O'Sullivan, C.; Scully, S.; Burke, D.; Brossard, J.; Chapron, C.

    2016-07-01

    The facility to realise the shape and extent of optical beams within a telescope or beamcombiner can aid greatly in the design and layout of optical elements within the system. It can also greatly facilitate communication between the optical design team and other teams working on the mechanical design of an instrument. Beyond the realm where raytracing is applicable however, it becomes much more difficult to realise accurate 3D beams which incorporate diffraction effects. It then is another issue to incorporate this into a CAD model of the system. A novel method is proposed which has been used to aid with the design of an optical beam combiner for the QUBIC (Q and U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology) 1 experiment operating at 150 GHz and 220 GHz. The method combines calculation work in GRASP 2, a commercial physical optics modelling tool from TICRA, geometrical work in Mathematica, and post processing in MATLAB. Finally, the Python console of the open source package FreeCAD3 is exploited to realise the 3D beams in a complete CAD system-model of the QUBIC optical beam combiner. This paper details and explains the work carried out to reach the goal and presents some graphics of the outcome. 3D representations of beams from some back-to-back input horns of the QUBIC instrument are shown within the CAD model. Beams of the -3dB and -13dB contour envelope are shown as well as envelopes enclosing 80% and 95% of the power of the beam. The ability to see these beams in situ with all the other elements of the combiner such as mirrors, cold stop, beam splitter and cryostat widows etc. greatly simplified the design for these elements and facilitated communication of element dimension and location between different subgroups within the QUBIC group.

  9. Improving CAD performance in pulmonary embolism detection: preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Chapman, Brian; Deible, Christopher; Lee, Sean; Zheng, Bin

    2010-03-01

    In this preliminary study, a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for pulmonary embolism (PE) detection was developed and tested. The scheme applies multiple steps including lung segmentation, candidate extraction using intensity mask and tobogganing method, feature extraction, false positive reduction using a multifeature based artificial neural network (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier to detect and classify suspicious PE lesions. In particular, a new method to define the surrounding background regions of interest (ROI) depicting PE candidates was proposed and tested in an attempt to reduce the detection of false positive regions. In this study, the authors also investigated following methods to improve CAD performance, which include a grouping and scoring method, feature selection using genetic algorithm, and limitation on allowed suspicious lesions to be cued in one examination. To test the scheme performance, a set of 20 chest CT examinations were selected. Among them, 18 are positive cases depicted 44 verified PE lesions and the remaining 2 were negative cases. The dataset was also divided into a training subset (9 examinations) and a testing subset (11 examinations), respectively. The experimental results showed when applying to the testing dataset CAD scheme using tobogganing method alone achieved 2D region-based sensitivity of 72.1% (220/305) and 3D lesion-based sensitivity of 83.3% (20/24) with total 19,653 2D false-positive (FP) PE regions (1,786.6 per case or approximately 6.3 per CT slice). Applying the proposed new method to improve lung region segmentation and better define the surrounding background ROI, the scheme reduced the region-based sensitivity by 6.5% to 65.6% or lesion-based sensitivity by 4.1% to 79.2% while reducing the FP rate by 65.6% to 6,752 regions (or 613.8 per case). After applying the methods of grouping, the maximum scoring, a genetic algorithm (GA) to delete "redundant" features, and limiting the maximum

  10. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David

    2005-04-01

    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  11. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  12. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  13. AutoCAD Civil 3D 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Quickly learn essential Civil 3D tools and techniques Get a thorough introduction to AutoCAD Civil 3D, the industry-leading engineering software used to design roads, highways, subdivisions, drainage and sewer systems, and more. This Autodesk Official Press book is a unique learning resource that features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. With compelling full-color screenshots and approachable exercises that demonstrate core features and functions, the book helps you gain understanding and confidence as you master this premiere

  14. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Deepak; Bergmann, Frank T; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-10-29

    Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD) is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API). TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled and analyzed computationally. TinkerCell can readily accept

  15. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  16. CAD-Based Monte Carlo Neutron Transport KSTAR Analysis for KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Geon Ho; Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2017-09-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport analysis for a complex nuclear system such as fusion facility may require accurate modeling of its complicated geometry. In order to take advantage of modeling capability of the computer aided design (CAD) system for the MC neutronics analysis, the Seoul National University MC code, McCARD, has been augmented with a CAD-based geometry processing module by imbedding the OpenCASCADE CAD kernel. In the developed module, the CAD geometry data are internally converted to the constructive solid geometry model with help of the CAD kernel. An efficient cell-searching algorithm is devised for the void space treatment. The performance of the CAD-based McCARD calculations are tested for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research device by comparing with results of the conventional MC calculations using a text-based geometry input.

  17. A Proposal of the Topology CAD and CAE Integrated System for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Shiiba, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    3D-CAD system is needed for the Designing of plastic processing products that are required art-design. But the current use Boolean 3D-CAD system takes too match man-power of the operation, and design engineers can not use it directly. And this situation have made the degeneration of the design technology. We have developed the new topology-CAD system as next generation-CAD. Also the current CAE system has the same problems as CAD. And so, the design engineers depend on the out-source-technology. We have also developed the new genera- use-CAE system integrated in the Topology-CAD using particle analysis.

  18. A Dedicated Computational Platform for Cellular Monte Carlo T-CAD Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0176 A dedicated computational platform for Cellular Monte Carlo T- CAD software tools Marco Saraniti ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Dedicated Computational Platform for Cellular Monte Carlo T- CAD Software Tools 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14...with an optimized architecture for the Cellular Monte Carlo particle-based T- CAD simulation tools developed by our group. Such code is used for the

  19. Tools for building Breast Cancer CAD methods; Herramientas para elaborar metodos de CAD del cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Herrero, G.; Franco-Valiente, J. M.; Suarez-Ortega, C.; Rubio del Solar, M.; Ramos-Pollam, R.; Guevara-Lopez, M. A.; Gonzalez de Posada, N.; Ramos, I.; Loureiro, J.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the main results of the collaboration currently ongoing between CETA-CIEMAT and the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Porto. It introduces the Mammography image Workstation for Analysis and Diagnosis (MIWAD) and the data analysis processes through which Grid infrastructures are used to develop Breast Cancer Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) methods.MIWAD is a novel integrated software framework that integrates a specialized graphical user interface combining digital image processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques. This paper describes its successful application in a pilot experience, on the first Portuguese Breast Cancer Digital Repository. (Author)

  20. Integrating CAD modules in a PACS environment using a wide computing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge J; Tilve, Amara; López, Ricardo; Ferro, Gonzalo; Quiles, Javier; Souto, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project designed to achieve a total integration of different CAD algorithms into the PACS environment by using a wide computing infrastructure. The aim is to build a system for the entire region of Galicia, Spain, to make CAD accessible to multiple hospitals by employing different PACSs and clinical workstations. The new CAD model seeks to connect different devices (CAD systems, acquisition modalities, workstations and PACS) by means of networking based on a platform that will offer different CAD services. This paper describes some aspects related to the health services of the region where the project was developed, CAD algorithms that were either employed or selected for inclusion in the project, and several technical aspects and results. We have built a standard-based platform with which users can request a CAD service and receive the results in their local PACS. The process runs through a web interface that allows sending data to the different CAD services. A DICOM SR object is received with the results of the algorithms stored inside the original study in the proper folder with the original images. As a result, a homogeneous service to the different hospitals of the region will be offered. End users will benefit from a homogeneous workflow and a standardised integration model to request and obtain results from CAD systems in any modality, not dependant on commercial integration models. This new solution will foster the deployment of these technologies in the entire region of Galicia.

  1. Association of rs662799 in APOA5 with CAD in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ding, Shifang; Zhou, Mi; Wu, Xiayin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yun; Liu, Dechao

    2018-01-08

    CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is a complex disease that influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have found many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of CAD occurrence. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to investigate genetic etiology in Chinese Han population by analysis of 7 SNPs in lipid metabolism pathway that previously has been reported to be associated with CAD. A total of 631 samples were used in this study, including 435 CAD cases and 196 normal healthy controls. SNP genotyping were conducted via multiplex PCR amplifying followed by NGS (next-generation sequencing). Rs662799 in APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A5) gene was associated with CAD in Chinese Han population (Odds-ratio = 1.374, P-value = 0.03). No significant association was observed between the rest of SNPs and CAD. Stratified association analysis revealed rs5882 was associated with CAD in non-hypertension group (Odds-ratio = 1.593, P-value = 0.023). Rs1800588 was associated with CAD in smoking group (Odds-ratio = 1.603, P-value = 0.035). The minor allele of rs662799 was the risk factor of CAD occurrences in Chinese Han population.

  2. Up and Running with AutoCAD 2011 2D and 3D Drawing and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains supporting graphics (screen shot

  3. Up and Running with AutoCAD 2012 2D and 3D Drawing and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains supporting graphics (screen shot

  4. Up and running with AutoCAD 2014 2D and 3D drawing and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Get ""Up and Running"" with AutoCAD using Gindis's combination of step-by-step instruction, examples, and insightful explanations. The emphasis from the beginning is on core concepts and practical application of AutoCAD in architecture, engineering and design. Equally useful in instructor-led classroom training, self-study, or as a professional reference, the book is written with the user in mind by a long-time AutoCAD professional and instructor based on what works in the industry and the classroom. Strips away complexities, both real and perceived, and reduces AutoCAD t

  5. Up and running with AutoCAD 2013 2D and 3D drawing and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains support

  6. Generation and use of human 3D-CAD models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotepass, Juergen; Speyer, Hartmut; Kaiser, Ralf

    2002-05-01

    Individualized Products are one of the ten mega trends of the 21st Century with human modeling as the key issue for tomorrow's design and product development. The use of human modeling software for computer based ergonomic simulations within the production process increases quality while reducing costs by 30- 50 percent and shortening production time. This presentation focuses on the use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production. Today, the entire production chain can be designed, individualized models generated and analyzed in 3D computer environments. Anthropometric design for ergonomics is matched to human needs, thus preserving health. Ergonomic simulation includes topics as human vision, reachability, kinematics, force and comfort analysis and international design capabilities. In German more than 17 billions of Mark are moved to other industries, because clothes do not fit. Individual clothing tailored to the customer's preference means surplus value, pleasure and perfect fit. The body scanning technology is the key to generation and use of human 3D-CAD models for both, the ergonomic design of working environments and made to measure garment production.

  7. Development of CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a CAD prototype system for Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease causes inflammation or ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. The number of patients of Crohn's disease is increasing in Japan. Symptoms of Crohn's disease include intestinal stenosis, longitudinal ulcers, and fistulae. Optical endoscope cannot pass through intestinal stenosis in some cases. We propose a new CAD system using abdominal fecal tagging CT images for efficient diagnosis of Crohn's disease. The system displays virtual unfolded (VU), virtual endoscopic, curved planar reconstruction, multi planar reconstruction, and outside views of both small and large intestines. To generate the VU views, we employ a small and large intestines extraction method followed by a simple electronic cleansing method. The intestine extraction is based on the region growing process, which uses a characteristic that tagged fluid neighbor air in the intestine. The electronic cleansing enables observation of intestinal wall under tagged fluid. We change the height of the VU views according to the perimeter of the intestine. In addition, we developed a method to enhance the longitudinal ulcer on views of the system. We enhance concave parts on the intestinal wall, which are caused by the longitudinal ulcer, based on local intensity structure analysis. We examined the small and the large intestines of eleven CT images by the proposed system. The VU views enabled efficient observation of the intestinal wall. The height change of the VU views helps finding intestinal stenosis on the VU views. The concave region enhancement made longitudinal ulcers clear on the views.

  8. The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

  9. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Adil Othman; Tsitrou, Effrosyni A; Pollington, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone "PEEK", Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10), Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99) µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65) µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96) µm (PCAD-Temp® 124.94 (±22.96) µm, PEEK 113.14 (±23.55) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 110.95 (±11.64) µm, and Protemp™4 143.48(±26.74) µm. The average fracture strength was: VITA CAD-Temp® 361.01 (±21.61) N, PEEK 802.23 (±111.29) N, Telio CAD-Temp 719.24 (±95.17) N, and Protemp™4 416.40 (±69.14) N. One-way ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference for marginal gap, internal gap, and fracture strength between all groups (p0.05). CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  10. Automatización en la enseñanza de Geometría Descriptiva y CAD = Automation in the teaching of descriptive geometry and CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreno Cazorla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este trabajo es cambiar el diseño de ejercicios de Geometría Descriptiva resueltos manualmente a un proceso automatizado mediante Plantillas de CAD de Alto Nivel. En lugar de crear repetidamente ejercicios similares o cambiar los datos en los mismos ejercicios, los usuarios deberían ser capaces de utilizar Plantillas de CAD de Alto Nivel para generar futuras modificaciones del mismo ejercicio. Este documento presenta el proceso de Automatización al generar ejercicios sobre la base de archivos de guión CAD auxiliados con herramientas de cálculo paramétrico de geometrías. Con el método propuesto es posible diseñar nuevos ejercicios sin intervención del usuario. La integración de CAD, Matemáticas y Geometría Descriptiva facilita su aprendizaje conjunto. La Automatización en la generación de ejercicios resueltos no solo ahorra tiempo, también incrementa la calidad de los enunciados y reduce la posibilidad de errores humanos. Abstract The main purpose of this work is to shift from manual Descriptive Geometry exercises method to an automated process using High-Level CAD Templates. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or changing the parameters in the same exercises, users should be able to use High Level CAD Templates to generate future modifications of the same exercise. This paper introduces the Automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files aided with parametric geometry calculation tools. With the proposed method it is possible to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation of generation of solved exercises not only saves time, put also increases quality of statements and reduces the possibility of human errors.

  11. Characteristics study of the gears by the CAD/CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. Y.; Chang, S. L.; Lee, B. Y.; Nguyen, D. H.; Cao, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are the most important transmission component in machines. The rapid development of the machines in industry requires a shorter time of the analysis process. In traditional, the gears are analyzed by setting up the complete mathematical model firstly, considering the profile of cutter and coordinate systems relationship between the machine and the cutter. It is a really complex and time-consuming process. Recently, the CAD/CAE software is well developed and useful in the mechanical design. In this paper, the Autodesk Inventor® software is introduced to model the spherical gears firstly, and then the models can also be transferred into ANSYS Workbench for the finite element analysis. The proposed process in this paper is helpful to the engineers to speed up the analyzing process of gears in the design stage.

  12. CAD and CAE Analysis for Siphon Jet Toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhua; Xiu, Guoji; Tan, Haishu

    The high precision 3D laser scanner with the dual CCD technology was used to measure the original design sample of a siphon jet toilet. The digital toilet model was constructed from the cloud data measured with the curve and surface fitting technology and the CAD/CAE systems. The Realizable k - ɛ double equation model of the turbulence viscosity coefficient method and the VOF multiphase flow model were used to simulate the flushing flow in the toilet digital model. Through simulating and analyzing the distribution of the flushing flow's total pressure, the flow speed at the toilet-basin surface and the siphoning bent tube, the toilet performance can be evaluated efficiently and conveniently. The method of "establishing digital model, flushing flow simulating, performances evaluating, function shape modifying" would provide a high efficiency approach to develop new water-saving toilets.

  13. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  14. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  15. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide determinant of blood group Cad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.-P.; Fournet, B.; Montreuil, J.; Halbeek, H. van

    1983-01-01

    Glycophorin A and B from Cad erythrocyte membranes are the carriers of the blood group Cad determinants. They are characterized by a significant increase in molecular mass, as compared to the corresponding glycophorins from control erythrocytes (Cartron, J.-P., and Blanchard, D. (1982) Biochem. J.

  16. A Survey of CAD/CAM Technology Applications in the U.S. Shipbuilding Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    46. Material Handling C. Steel Work Prodction 47. Stockyard & Treatment 48. cutting 49. Forming 50. Subassembly 51. Structural Unit Assembly 52...Applied to Steel work Production . . CAD/CAM Technologies Applied to Manufacturing and Production Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAD/CAM...ALABAMA SHIPBUILDING & DRY DOCK AMERICAN SHIPBUILDING CO. AVONDALE SHIPYARDS BATH IRON WORKS BAY SHIPBUILDING BETHLEHEM STEEL & SHIPBUILDING Beaumont

  17. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Othman ABDULLAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group. The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10, Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99 µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26 µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65 µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96 µm (P0.05. Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  18. ASPECTS OF DESIGN PROCESS AND CAD MODELLING OF AN ADJUSTABLE CENTRIFUGAL COUPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian BUDALĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with constructive and functional elements of an adjustable coupling with friction shoes and adjustable driving. Also, the paper shows few stages of the design process, some advantages of the using CAD software and some comparative results prototype vs. CAD model.

  19. Microtensile bond strength and impact energy of fracture of CAD-veneered zirconia restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboushelib, M.N.; de Kler, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With state-of-the-art CAD/CAM technology, the fabrication of large and complex zirconia frameworks is just a click away. On the other hand, veneering of the frameworks is still operator-dependent. The aim of this work was to evaluate CAD veneering of zirconia restorations in terms of

  20. Astronaut EVA exposure estimates from CAD model spacesuit geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Anderson, Brooke M; Atwell, William; Nealy, John E; Qualls, Garry D; Wilson, John W

    2004-03-01

    Ongoing assembly and maintenance activities at the International Space Station (ISS) require much more extravehicular activity (EVA) than did the earlier U.S. Space Shuttle missions. It is thus desirable to determine and analyze, and possibly foresee, as accurately as possible what radiation exposures crew members involved in EVAs will experience in order to minimize risks and to establish exposure limits that must not to be exceeded. A detailed CAD model of the U.S. Space Shuttle EVA Spacesuit, developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), is used to represent the directional shielding of an astronaut; it has detailed helmet and backpack structures, hard upper torso, and multilayer space suit fabric material. The NASA Computerized Anatomical Male and Female (CAM and CAF) models are used in conjunction with the space suit CAD model for dose evaluation within the human body. The particle environments are taken from the orbit-averaged NASA AP8 and AE8 models at solar cycle maxima and minima. The transport of energetic particles through space suit materials and body tissue is calculated by using the NASA LaRC HZETRN code for hadrons and a recently developed deterministic transport code, ELTRN, for electrons. The doses within the CAM and CAF models are determined from energy deposition at given target points along 968 directional rays convergent on the points and are evaluated for several points on the skin and within the body. Dosimetric quantities include contributions from primary protons, light ions, and electrons, as well as from secondary brehmsstrahlung and target fragments. Directional dose patterns are displayed as rays and on spherical surfaces by the use of a color relative intensity representation.

  1. Bonding Effectiveness of Luting Composites to Different CAD/CAM Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Marleen; Valjakova, Emilija Bajraktarova; De Munck, Jan; Mishevska, Cece Bajraktarova; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments of six novel CAD/CAM materials on the bonding effectiveness of two luting composites. Six different CAD/CAM materials were tested: four ceramics - Vita Mark II; IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; Celtra Duo - one hybrid ceramic, Vita Enamic, and one composite CAD/CAM block, Lava Ultimate. A total of 60 blocks (10 per material) received various mechanical surface treatments: 1. 600-grit SiC paper; 2. sandblasting with 30-μm Al2O3; 3. tribochemical silica coating (CoJet). Subsequent chemical surface treatments involved either no further treatment (control), HF acid etching (HF), silanization (S, or HF acid etching followed by silanization (HF+S). Two specimens with the same surface treatment were bonded together using two dual-curing luting composites: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (self-etching) or Panavia SA Cement (self-adhesive). After 1 week of water storage, the microtensile bond strength of the sectioned microspecimens was measured and the failure mode was evaluated. The bonding performance of the six CAD/CAM materials was significantly influenced by surface treatment (linear mixed models, p CAD (p = 0.0115), and Lava Ultimate (p CAD/CAM materials: Vita Mark II and IPS Empress CAD: S, HF+S; Celtra Duo: HF, HF+S; IPS e.max CAD: HF+S; Vita Enamic: HF+S, S. For Lava Ultimate, the highest bond strengths were obtained with HF, S, HF+S. Failure analysis showed a relation between bond strength and failure type: more mixed failures were observed with higher bond strengths. Mainly adhesive failures were noticed if no further surface treatment was done. The percentage of adhesive failures was higher for CAD/CAM materials with higher flexural strength (Celtra Duo, IPS e.max CAD, and Lava Ultimate). The bond strength of luting composites to novel CAD/CAM materials is influenced by surface treatment. For each luting composite, an adhesive cementation protocol can be specified in order to obtain the highest bond to the

  2. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2017-09-27

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  3. User productivity as a function of AutoCAD interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitta, D A; Flores, P L

    1995-12-01

    Increased operator productivity is a desired outcome of user-CAD interaction scenarios. Two objectives of this research were to (1) define a measure of operator productivity and (2) empirically investigate the potential effects of CAD interface design on operator productivity, where productivity is defined as the percentage of a drawing session correctly completed per unit time. Here, AutoCAD provides the CAD environment of interest. Productivity with respect to two AutoCAD interface designs (menu, template) and three task types (draw, dimension, display) was investigated. Analysis of user productivity data revealed significantly higher productivity under the menu interface condition than under the template interface condition. A significant effect of task type was also discovered, where user productivity under display tasks was higher than productivity under the draw and dimension tasks. Implications of these results are presented.

  4. Contemporary dental CAD/CAM: modern chairside/lab applications and the future of computerized dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neal

    2014-01-01

    CAD/CAM in dentistry has been particularly useful in enabling the fabrication of custom, patient-specific restorations and prosthetics without the need for traditional analog dental laboratory methods. While the optimal use of CAD/CAM technology must be determined on a case-by-case basis, it is important for clinicians to recognize the opportunity to utilize computerized technology in patient therapy to provide more highly efficient, accurate, and potentially ideal outcomes. This article will discuss and evaluate the state-ofthe- art of CAD/CAM dentistry for both chairside and laboratory-based solutions. Current options for CAD/CAM technology in the treatment of patients for comprehensive dentistry along with the most common uses of chairside and laboratory-based applications will be explored. The discussion will also identify recent and future trends in CAD/CAM applications in dentistry.

  5. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When and why might a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system interfere with visual search? An eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Cunningham, Corbin; Wolfe, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Rational and Objectives Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems are intended to improve performance. This study investigates how CAD might actually interfere with a visual search task. This is a laboratory study with implications for clinical use of CAD. Methods 47 naïve observers in two studies were asked to search for a target, embedded in 1/f2.4 noise while we monitored their eye-movements. For some observers, a CAD system marked 75% of targets and 10% of distractors while other observers completed the study without CAD. In Experiment 1, the CAD system’s primary function was to tell observers where the target might be. In Experiment 2, CAD provided information about target identity. Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant enhancement of observer sensitivity in the presence of CAD (t(22)=4.74, pCAD system were missed more frequently than equivalent targets in No CAD blocks of the experiment (t(22)=7.02, pCAD, but also no significant cost on sensitivity to unmarked targets (t(22)=0.6, p=n.s.). Finally, in both experiments, CAD produced reliable changes in eye-movements: CAD observers examined a lower total percentage of the search area than the No CAD observers (Ex 1: t(48)=3.05, pCAD signals do not combine with observers’ unaided performance in a straight-forward manner. CAD can engender a sense of certainty that can lead to incomplete search and elevated chances of missing unmarked stimuli. PMID:22958720

  7. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  8. Digital Sketch Modelling: Integrating Digital Sketching as a Transition between Sketching and CAD in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranscombe, Charlie; Bissett-Johnson, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Literature on the use of design tools in educational settings notes an uneasy relationship between student use of traditional hand sketching and digital modelling tools (CAD) during the industrial design process. This is often manifested in the transition from sketching to CAD and exacerbated by a preference of current students to use CAD. In this…

  9. CT Colonography: Role of a second reader CAD paradigm in the initial training of radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Emanuele, E-mail: eneri@sirm.org [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy); Faggioni, Lorenzo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy); Regge, Daniele [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Vagli, Paola; Turini, Francesca; Cerri, Francesca; Picano, Eugenia; Giusti, Sabina; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of CAD for the evaluation of CT colonography (CTC) datasets by inexperienced readers during the attendance of a dedicated hands-on training course. Method and materials: Twenty-seven radiologists inexperienced in CTC (11 with no CTC training at all, 16 having previously reviewed no more than 10 CTC cases overall) attended a hands-on training course based on direct teaching on fifteen workstations (four Advantage Windows 4.4 with Colon VCAR software, GE; six CADCOLON, Im3D; five ColonScreen (Toshiba/Voxar) with ColonCAD{sup TM} API, Medicsight). During the course, readers were instructed to analyze 26 CTC cases including 38 colonic lesions obtained through low-dose MDCT acquisitions, consisting of 12 polyps sized less than 6 mm, 9 polyps sized between 6 and 10 mm, 12 polyps sized between 11 mm and 30 mm, and 5 colonic masses sized >3 cm. CTC images were reviewed by each reader both in 2D and 3D mode, respectively by direct evaluation of native axial images and MPR reconstructions, and virtual endoscopy or dissected views. Each reader had 15 min time for assessing each dataset without CAD, after which results were compared with those provided by CAD software. Global rater sensitivity for each lesion size before and after CAD usage was compared by means of two-tailed Student's t test, while sensitivity of each single reader before and after CAD usage was assessed with the McNemar test. Results: For lesions sized <6 mm, global rater sensitivity was 0.1852 {+-} 0.1656 (mean {+-} SD) before CAD-assisted reading and 0.2345 {+-} 0.1761 after CAD (p = 0.0018). For lesions sized 6-9 mm, sensitivity was 0.2870 {+-} 0.1016 before CAD-assisted reading and 0.3117 {+-} 0.1099 after CAD (p = 0.0027). For lesions sized 10-30 mm, sensitivity was 0.5308 {+-} 0.2120 before CAD-assisted reading and 0.5637 {+-} 0.2133 after CAD (p = 0.0086), while for lesions sized >30 mm, sensitivity before CAD-assisted reading was 0.3556 {+-} 0.3105 and did not

  10. The Association between Androgenic Hormone Levels and the Risk of Developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allameh, Farzad; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Bozorgi, Ali; Nekuie, Sepideh; Namdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of androgens and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in an Iranian population. Male individuals admitted to Tehran Heart Center and Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2011-2012 were categorized into CAD and control groups based on selective coronary angiography. Baseline demographic data, including age, BMI, diabetes, and a history of hypertension were recorded. Patients were also assessed for their serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepi and rosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). Data analysis was carried out chi-square and ANOVA tests as well as logistic regression analysis. Two hundred patients were in the CAD group and 135 individuals in control group. In the CAD group, 69 had single-vessel disease, 49 had two-vessel diseases, and 82 had three-vessel diseases. Statistically significant differences were observed between the individuals in the two groups with respect to age (PCAD group; however, the serum level of SHBG was higher in the CAD group than in the control group (P=0.007). Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that only age (P=0.042) and diabetes (P=0.003) had significant relationships with CAD. Although the serum levels of some of the androgens were significantly different between the two groups, no association was found between androgenic hormone levels and the risk of CAD, due mainly to the effect of age and diabetes.

  11. Stress-induced alteration of left ventricular eccentricity: An additional marker of multivessel CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Liga, Riccardo; Giorgetti, Assuero; Casagranda, Mirta; Marzullo, Paolo

    2017-03-28

    Abnormal left ventricular (LV) eccentricity index (EI) is a marker of adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the interaction between stress-induced alterations of EI and major cardiac parameters has not been explored. We sought to evaluate the relationship between LV EI and coronary artery disease (CAD) burden in patients submitted to myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Three-hundred and forty-three patients underwent MPI and coronary angiography. LV ejection fraction (EF) and EI were computed from gated stress images as measures of stress-induced functional impairment. One-hundred and thirty-six (40%), 122 (35%), and 85 (25%) patients had normal coronary arteries, single-vessel CAD, and multivessel CAD, respectively. Post-stress EI was lower in patients with multivessel CAD than in those with normal coronary arteries and single-vessel CAD (P = 0.001). This relationship was confirmed only in patients undergoing exercise stress test, where a lower post-stress EI predicted the presence of multivessel CAD (P = 0.039). Post-stress alterations of LV EI on MPI may unmask the presence of multivessel CAD.

  12. Microhardness evaluations of CAD/CAM ceramics irradiated with CO2or Nd:YAP laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ahmed; Rocca, Jean Paul; Fornaini, Carlo; Medioni, Etienne; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to measure the microhardness values of irradiated computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics surfaces before and after thermal treatment. Sixty CAD/CAM ceramic discs were prepared and grouped by material, i.e. lithium disilicate ceramic (Emax CAD) and zirconia ceramic (Emax ZirCAD). Laser irradiation at the material surface was performed with a carbon dioxide laser at 5 Watt (W) or 10 W power in continuous mode (CW mode), or with a neodymium:yttrium aluminum perovskite (Nd:YAP) laser at 10 W on graphite and non-graphite surfaces. Vickers hardness was tested at 0.3 kg f for lithium disilicate and 1 kg f for zirconia. Emax CAD irradiated with CO 2 at 5 W increased microhardness by 6.32 GPa whereas Emax ZirCAD irradiated with Nd:YAP decreased microhardness by 17.46 GPa. CO 2 laser effectively increases the microhardness of lithium disilicate ceramics (Emax CAD).

  13. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (Pveneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  14. DeepCAD: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Mammographic Masses Using Deep Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system for differentiation between benign and malignant mammographic masses is a challenging task due to the use of extensive pre- and post-processing steps and ineffective features set. In this paper, a novel CAD system is proposed called DeepCAD, which uses four phases to overcome these problems. The speed-up robust features (SURF and local binary pattern variance (LBPV descriptors are extracted from each mass. These descriptors are then transformed into invariant features. Afterwards, the deep invariant features (DIFs are constructed in supervised and unsupervised fashion through multilayer deep-learning architecture. A fine-tuning step is integrated to determine the features, and the final decision is performed via softmax linear classifier. To evaluate this DeepCAD system, a dataset of 600 region-of-interest (ROI masses including 300 benign and 300 malignant masses was obtained from two publicly available data sources. The performance of DeepCAD system is compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC curve. The difference between AUC of DeepCAD and other methods is statistically significant, as it demonstrates a sensitivity (SN of 92%, specificity (SP of 84.2%, accuracy (ACC of 91.5% and AUC of 0.91. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DeepCAD system is reliable for providing aid to radiologists without the need for explicit design.

  15. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  16. Topology, Dimerization, and Stability of the Single-Span Membrane Protein CadC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Eric; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Under acid stress, Escherichia coli induce expression of CadA (lysine decarboxylase) and CadB (lysine/cadaverine antiporter) in a lysine-rich environment. The ToxR-like transcriptional activator CadC controls expression of the cadBA operon. Using a novel Signal Peptidase I (SPase I) cleavage assay, we show that CadC is a Type II single-span membrane protein (MP) with a cytoplasmic DNA binding domain and a periplasmic sensor domain. We further show that, as long assumed, dimerization of the sensor domain is required for activating the cadBA operon. We prove this using a chimera in which the periplasmic domain of RodZ—a Type II MP involved in the maintenance of the rod shape of E. coli—replaces the CadC sensor domain. Because the RodZ periplasmic domain cannot dimerize, the chimera cannot activate the operon. However, replacement of the TM domain of the chimera with the glycophorin-A (GpA) TM domain causes intramembrane dimerization and consequently operon activation. Using a low-expression protocol that eliminates extraneous TM-helix dimerization signals arising from protein over-expression, we enhanced dramatically the dynamic range of the β-galactosidase assay for cadBA activation. Consequently, the strength of the intramembrane dimerization of the GpA domain could be compared quantitatively with the strength of the much stronger periplasmic dimerization of CadC. For the signal-peptidase assay, we inserted a SPase I cleavage site (AAA or AQA) at the periplasmic end of the TM helix. Cleavage occured with high efficiency for all TM and periplasmic domains tested, thus eliminating the need for the cumbersome spheroplast-proteinase K method for topology determinations. PMID:24946151

  17. Estudio preliminar de la fauna de insectos asociada a cadáveres en Maracay, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Magaña, Concepción; Andara, Carmen; Contreras, María José; Coronado, Alfredo; Guerrero, Edmundo; Hernández, Dilcia; Herrera, Melfran; Jiménez, Matilde; Liendo, Carmen; Limongi, Jorge; Liria, Jonathan; Mavárez, Marcel; Oviedo, Milagros; Piñango, José; Rodríguez, Idalia

    2006-01-01

    Los insectos pueden ser una herramienta importante en la investigación médico legal, pero su utilidad depende mucho de la información base que se tenga en relación a las especies y su orden de llegada a los cadáveres para determinada zona. En Venezuela muy poco se conoce de la fauna de insectos asociada a cadáveres. En el presente trabajo se reportan las especies de artrópodos de importancia forense de asociadas a cadáveres de Rattus norvegicus y Oryctolagus cuniculus en Maracay –Venezuela, e...

  18. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and PCB editor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2009-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Editor. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Editor is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need in-depth instruction on how to use the software, and who need background knowledge of the PCB design process. KEY FEATURES:* Beginning to end cove

  19. Introduction to AutoCAD 2013 2D and 3D design

    CERN Document Server

    Yarwood, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Master the complexities of the world's bestselling 2D and 3D software with Alf Yarwood's Introduction to AutoCAD 2013. Ideally suited to new users of AutoCAD, this book will be a useful resource for drawing modules in both vocational and introductory undergraduate courses in engineering and construction.Alf Yarwood has once again produced a comprehensive, step-by-step introduction to the latest release of AutoCAD. Covering all the basic principles and acting as an introduction to 2D drawing, it also contains extensive coverage of all 3D topics, including 3D solid modelling a

  20. A Step-by-Step Conservative Approach for CAD-CAM Laminate Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Ojeda, Gerardo; Henríquez Gutiérrez, Ismael; Guzmán Marusic, Álvaro; Báez Rosales, Abelardo; Tisi Lanchares, José Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) through the layering technique.

  1. A Step-by-Step Conservative Approach for CAD-CAM Laminate Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Durán Ojeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein through the layering technique.

  2. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, carabobo - Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato) fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. R...

  3. Microtensile Bond Strength of Cad-Cam and Pressed-Ceramic Inlays to Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    ?zt?rk, A. Nilg?n; ?nan, ?zg?r; ?nan, Erkan; ?zt?rk, Bora

    2007-01-01

    Objectives CAD-CAM system is popular because of high esthetic and short fabrication time. But, there is limited information available about the microtensile bonding of luting cements to CAD-CAM inlays and to dentin. The aim of this study was to examine the bond strength of CAD-CAM (Cerec 3) and pressed-ceramic (IPS Empress 2) inlays to dentin surface by microtensile testing using two luting cements. Materials and Methods Standardized mesio-occlusal cavities were made in forty extracted molar ...

  4. A Step-by-Step Conservative Approach for CAD-CAM Laminate Veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez Gutiérrez, Ismael; Guzmán Marusic, Álvaro; Báez Rosales, Abelardo; Tisi Lanchares, José Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the preparation of CAD/CAM veneers (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) which have been characterized by a nanofluorapatite ceramic (e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) through the layering technique. PMID:28884029

  5. Complete Dentures Fabricated with CAD/CAM Technology and a Traditional Clinical Recording Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeva, Nadica; Kovacevska, Gordana; Janev, Edvard

    2017-10-15

    The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture (CD) fabrication ushered in a new era in removable prosthodontics. Commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems are expected to improve upon the disadvantages associated with conventional fabrication. The purpose of this report is to present the workflow involved in fabricating a CD with a traditional clinical recording method and CAD/CAM technology and to summarize the advantages to the dental practitioner and the patient.

  6. Konzeption einer Benutzungsoberfläche für CAD im Glasbau

    OpenAIRE

    Germán, Angéla

    2005-01-01

    Wegen der zunehmenden Rolle des Glasbaus in der Bauindustrie steigt auch das Bedürfnis nach CAD-Systemen, die zusätzlich zu den Gewerken Stahlbau und Metallbau auch für computerunterstütztes Konstruieren im Glasbau komplette und anspruchsvolle Lösungen bieten. Heutige CAD-Hochleistungssysteme erstellen ein dreidimensionales Gebäudemodell der gesamten Konstruktion eines Bauwerks inklusive sämtlicher Details. über CAD-Methoden können sie vom Anwender gestellte, komplexe Konstruktionsaufgaben...

  7. From CAD to Digital Modeling: the Necessary Hybridization of Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, G. A.; Bernardi, F.; Cristofolini, A.

    2011-09-01

    The essay deals with the themes of digital representation of architecture starting from several years of teaching activity which is growing within the course of Automatic Design of the degree course in Engineering/Architecture in the University of Trento. With the development of CAD systems, architectural representation lies less in the tracking of a simple graph and drawn deeper into a series of acts of building a complex digital model, which can be used as a data base on which to report all the stages of project and interpretation work, and from which to derive final drawings and documents. The advent of digital technology has led to increasing difficulty in finding explicit connections between one type of operation and the subsequent outcome; thereby increasing need for guidelines, the need to understand in order to precede the changes, the desire not to be overwhelmed by uncontrollable influences brought by technological hardware and software systems to use only in accordance with the principle of maximum productivity. Formation occupies a crucial role because has the ability to direct the profession toward a thoughtful and selective use of specific applications; teaching must build logical routes in the fluid world of info-graphics and the only way to do so is to describe its contours through method indications: this will consist in understanding, studying and divulging what in its mobility does not change, as procedural issues, rather than what is transitory in its fixity, as manual questions.

  8. CT colonography: role of a second reader CAD paradigm in the initial training of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Emanuele; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Regge, Daniele; Vagli, Paola; Turini, Francesca; Cerri, Francesca; Picano, Eugenia; Giusti, Sabina; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of CAD for the evaluation of CT colonography (CTC) datasets by inexperienced readers during the attendance of a dedicated hands-on training course. Twenty-seven radiologists inexperienced in CTC (11 with no CTC training at all, 16 having previously reviewed no more than 10 CTC cases overall) attended a hands-on training course based on direct teaching on fifteen workstations (four Advantage Windows 4.4 with Colon VCAR software, GE; six CADCOLON, Im3D; five ColonScreen (Toshiba/Voxar) with ColonCAD™ API, Medicsight). During the course, readers were instructed to analyze 26 CTC cases including 38 colonic lesions obtained through low-dose MDCT acquisitions, consisting of 12 polyps sized less than 6 mm, 9 polyps sized between 6 and 10 mm, 12 polyps sized between 11 mm and 30 mm, and 5 colonic masses sized>3 cm. CTC images were reviewed by each reader both in 2D and 3D mode, respectively by direct evaluation of native axial images and MPR reconstructions, and virtual endoscopy or dissected views. Each reader had 15 min time for assessing each dataset without CAD, after which results were compared with those provided by CAD software. Global rater sensitivity for each lesion size before and after CAD usage was compared by means of two-tailed Student's t test, while sensitivity of each single reader before and after CAD usage was assessed with the McNemar test. For lesions sizedglobal rater sensitivity was 0.1852±0.1656 (mean±SD) before CAD-assisted reading and 0.2345±0.1761 after CAD (p=0.0018). For lesions sized 6-9 mm, sensitivity was 0.2870±0.1016 before CAD-assisted reading and 0.3117±0.1099 after CAD (p=0.0027). For lesions sized 10-30 mm, sensitivity was 0.5308±0.2120 before CAD-assisted reading and 0.5637±0.2133 after CAD (p=0.0086), while for lesions sized>30 mm, sensitivity before CAD-assisted reading was 0.3556±0.3105 and did not change after CAD usage (p=1). Sensitivity of each single rater did not significantly differ before

  9. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  10. BENEFITS OF APPLICATION OF CAD/CAM SYSTEMS IN METAL PROCESSING COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Pandilov; Aleksandar Naumov

    2017-01-01

    .... The crucial benefits of using the CAD/CAM technology in the metal processing companies are increased productivity of the engineers-designers, increased production productivity, high and repeatable quality and high production flexibility.

  11. DESIGN REVIEW OF CAD MODELS USING A NUI LEAP MOTION SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÎRBACIA Florin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural User Interfaces (NUI is a relatively new area of research that aims to develop humancomputer interfaces, natural and intuitive, using voice commands, hand movements and gesture recognition, similar to communication between people which also implies body language and gestures. In this paper is presented a natural designed workspace which acquires the user's motion using a Leap Motion sensor and visualizes the CAD models using a CAVE-like 3D visualisation system. The user can modify complex CAD models using bimanual gesture commands in a 3D virtual environment. The developed bimanual gestures for rotate, pan, zoom and explode are presented. From the conducted experiments is established that Leap Motion NUI sensor provides an intuitive tool for design review of CAD models, performed even by users with no experience in CAD systems and virtual environments.

  12. Distortion of CAD-CAM-fabricated implant-fixed titanium and zirconia complete dental prosthesis frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Meraikhi, Hadi; Yilmaz, Burak; McGlumphy, Edwin; Brantley, William A; Johnston, William M

    2018-01-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)-fabricated titanium and zirconia implant-supported fixed dental prostheses have become increasingly popular for restoring patients with complete edentulism. However, the distortion level of these frameworks is not well known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 3-dimensional (3D) distortion of CAD-CAM zirconia and titanium implant-fixed screw-retained complete dental prostheses. A master edentulous model with 4 implants at the positions of the maxillary first molars and canines was used. Multiunit abutments (Nobel Biocare) secured to the model were digitally scanned using scan bodies and a laboratory scanner (S600 ARTI; Zirkonzahn). Titanium (n=5) and zirconia (n=5) frameworks were milled using a CAD-CAM system (Zirkonzahn M1; Zirkonzahn). All frameworks were scanned using an industrial computed tomography (CT) scanner (Nikon/X-Tek XT H 225kV MCT Micro-Focus). The direct CT scans were reconstructed to generate standard tessellation language (STL) files. To calculate the 3D distortion of the frameworks, STL files of the CT scans were aligned to the CAD model using a sum of the least squares best-fit algorithm. Surface comparison points were placed on the CAD model on the midfacial aspect of all teeth. The 3D distortion of each direct scan to the CAD model was calculated. In addition, color maps of the scan-to-CAD comparison were constructed using a ±0.500 mm color scale range. Both materials exhibited distortion; however, no significant difference was found in the amount of distortion from the CAD model between the materials (P=.747). Absolute values of deviations from the CAD model were evident in the x and y plane and less so in the z direction. Zirconia and titanium frameworks showed similar 3D distortion compared with the CAD model for the tested CAD-CAM and implant systems. The distortion was more pronounced in the horizontal and sagittal plane than in the vertical plane

  13. Comparison of denture tooth movement between CAD-CAM and conventional fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z; Kattadiyil, Mathew T

    2018-01-01

    Data comparing the denture tooth movement of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional denture processing techniques are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the denture tooth movement of pack-and-press, fluid resin, injection, CAD-CAM-bonded, and CAD-CAM monolithic techniques for fabricating dentures to determine which process produces the most accurate and reproducible prosthesis. A total of 50 dentures were evaluated, 10 for each of the 5 groups. A master denture was fabricated and milled from prepolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate). For the conventional processing techniques (pack-and-press, fluid resin, and injection) a polyvinyl siloxane putty mold of the master denture was made in which denture teeth were placed and molten wax injected. The cameo surface of each wax-festooned denture was laser scanned, resulting in a standard tessellation language (STL) format file. The CAD-CAM dentures included 2 subgroups: CAD-CAM-bonded teeth in which the denture teeth were bonded into the milled denture base and CAD-CAM monolithic teeth in which the denture teeth were milled as part of the denture base. After all specimens had been fabricated, they were hydrated for 24 hours, and the cameo surface laser scanned. The preprocessing and postprocessing scan files of each denture were superimposed using surface-matching software. Measurements were made at 64 locations, allowing evaluation of denture tooth movement in a buccal, lingual, mesial-distal, and occlusal direction. The use of median and interquartile range values was used to assess accuracy and reproducibility. Levene and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences between processing techniques (α=.05). The CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most accurate, followed by fluid resin, CAD-CAM-bonded, pack-and-press, and injection. CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most reproducible, followed by pack-and-press, CAD

  14. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  15. CAD-based Automatic Modeling Method for Geant4 geometry model Through MCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Nie, Fanzhi; Wang, Guozhong; Long, Pengcheng; LV, Zhongliang; LV, Zhongliang

    2014-06-01

    Geant4 is a widely used Monte Carlo transport simulation package. Before calculating using Geant4, the calculation model need be established which could be described by using Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) or C++ language. However, it is time-consuming and error-prone to manually describe the models by GDML. Automatic modeling methods have been developed recently, but there are some problem existed in most of present modeling programs, specially some of them were not accurate or adapted to specifically CAD format. To convert the GDML format models to CAD format accurately, a Geant4 Computer Aided Design (CAD) based modeling method was developed for automatically converting complex CAD geometry model into GDML geometry model. The essence of this method was dealing with CAD model represented with boundary representation (B-REP) and GDML model represented with constructive solid geometry (CSG). At first, CAD model was decomposed to several simple solids which had only one close shell. And then the simple solid was decomposed to convex shell set. Then corresponding GDML convex basic solids were generated by the boundary surfaces getting from the topological characteristic of a convex shell. After the generation of these solids, GDML model was accomplished with series boolean operations. This method was adopted in CAD/Image-based Automatic Modeling Program for Neutronics & Radiation Transport (MCAM), and tested with several models including the examples in Geant4 install package. The results showed that this method could convert standard CAD model accurately, and can be used for Geant4 automatic modeling.

  16. Comparison of Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM PMMA-Based Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Gülce; Murat, Sema; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-01-28

    To compare the flexural strength of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) poly(methyl methacrylate)-based (PMMA) polymers and conventional interim resin materials after thermocycling. Rectangular-shaped specimens (n = 15, for each material) (25 × 2 × 2 mm 3 ) were fabricated from 3 CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers (Telio CAD [T]; M-PM-Disc [M]; Polident-PMMA [P]), 1 bis-acrylate composite resin (Protemp 4 [PT]), and 1 conventional PMMA (ArtConcept Artegral Dentine [C]) according to ISO 10477:2004 Standards (Dentistry-Polymer-Based Crown and Bridge Materials). The specimens were subjected to 10,000 thermocycles (5 to 55°C). Three-point flexural strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine at a 1.0 mm/min crosshead speed, and the flexural strength data (σ) were calculated (MPa). The flexural strength values were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD post-hoc test for multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). Flexural strength values ranged between 66.1 ± 13.1 and 131.9 ± 19.8 MPa. There were significant differences among the flexural strengths of tested materials, except for between T and P CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers (p > 0.05). CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymer M had the highest flexural strength and conventional PMMA had the lowest (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based T and P polymers had significantly higher flexural strength than the bis-acrylate composite resin (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based M (p CAD/CAM PMMA-based polymers was greater than the flexural strength of bis-acrylate composite resin, which had a greater flexural strength compared to conventional PMMA resin. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. The building and application of a flexible CAD model for the DTU ECOCAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    A flexible surface model is required for CFD-optimization of the DTU ECOCAR. The report exemplifies the creation of such a model using the 3D CAD system Creo 3.0 Parametric.......A flexible surface model is required for CFD-optimization of the DTU ECOCAR. The report exemplifies the creation of such a model using the 3D CAD system Creo 3.0 Parametric....

  18. Survey of UK dentists regarding the use of CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Nesbit, M; Petridis, H

    2016-11-18

    Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dentists' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The purpose of this survey was to identify the infiltration of CAD/CAM technology in UK dental practices and to investigate the relationship of various demographic factors to the answers regarding use or non-use of this technology.Materials and methods One thousand and thirty-one online surveys were sent to a sample of UK dentists composing of both users and non-users of CAD/CAM. It aimed to reveal information regarding type of usage, materials, perceived benefits, barriers to access, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM dentistry. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as country of work, dentist experience, level of training and type of work (NHS or private).Results The number of completed responses totalled 385. Most of the respondents did not use any part of a digital workflow, and the main barriers to CAD/CAM use were initial costs and a lack of perceived benefit over conventional methods. Dentists delivering mostly private work were most likely to have adopted CAD/CAM technology (P dentists were interested in incorporating CAD/CAM into their workflow, while most believed that it will have a big role in the future. There are still some concerns from dentists about the quality of chairside CAD/CAM restorations while the costs are still in the main hugely prohibitive (especially for NHS dentistry).

  19. Simulation of impulse response for indoor visible light communications using 3D CAD models

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Silvestre; Pérez Jiménez, Rafael; Rodríguez Mendoza, Beatriz; López Hernández, Francisco José; Ayala Alfonso, Alejandro José

    2013-01-01

    n this article, a tool for simulating the channel impulse response for indoor visible light communications using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) models is presented. The simulation tool is based on a previous Monte Carlo ray-tracing algorithm for indoor infrared channel estimation, but including wavelength response evaluation. The 3D scene, or the simulation environment, can be defined using any CAD software in which the user specifies, in addition to the setting geometry, the reflect...

  20. Analysis of HOM Problems in the C-ADS Main Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Burn [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Ng, King Yuen [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Excitation of higher-order modes (HOMs) in superconducting cavities may severely affect the operation of the main linac in the Chinese Accelerator Driven System (CADS). Preliminary analysis is made on the effects of beam dynamic, which includes possible longitudinal and transverse emittance enlargements, as well as the possibility of beam breakup. Suggestions are given for further investigation. Comparison is made between the C-ADS and the Fermilab Project X.

  1. Microtensile Bond Strength Compared Between CAD/CAM Feldspathic and Resin Nano Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-27

    Mormann WH. Marginal and Internal Fit of All-Ceramic CAD/CAM Crown Copings on Chamfer Preparations . J of Oral Rehab. 2005, Vol. 32, pp. 441-447. 18...Fracture Pattern of Monolithic CAD/CAM- Generated Posterior Crowns . Dental Materials. 2006, Vol. 22, pp. 29- 36. 26. Kelly JR, Giordano R, Pober R, Cima...restorative Esthetic Crown SEM- Scanning Electron Microscopy !- Fracture strength !"- Fracture toughness c- Flaw size Y- Geometric constant MPa

  2. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    5000 Frank J. Huston II1, Gale L. Zielinski1, Matthew P. Reed, PhD.2 1 US Army TARDEC, Warren, MI 2 University of Michigan Transportation Research...Institute, Ann Arbor, MI UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A Approved for Public Release Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD... Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design Page 2 of 9 UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution

  3. CAD-Methoden des Konstruktionsprozesses im Glasbau - Wissensakquisition, Forschung und Entwicklung -

    OpenAIRE

    Hegedus, Krisztian

    2004-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit besteht darin, durch die tiefgreifende Untersuchung allgemeiner Glasfassaden eine komplette und hochautomatisierte, theoretisch fundierte und auch praktische Lösung für Konstruktionprozesse im Glasbau anzubieten. Im Hinblick auf ein integriertes CAD-System wurde die Aufgabe von der Konstruktion bis zu den Fertigungsunterlagen schlüssig behandelt. Basierend auf einer Machbarkeitsstudie in einer realen CAD-Umgebung wurden die hier vorgestellten Konzepte erarbeitet u...

  4. Flexural resistance of heat-pressed and CAD-CAM lithium disilicate with different translucencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Carrabba, Michele; Sedda, Maurizio; Ferrari, Marco; Goracci, Cecilia; Vichi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    To compare flexural strength of CAD-CAM and heat-pressed lithium disilicate. For Pressed specimens (Group A), acrylate polymer blocks were cut with a saw in bars shape. Sprueing, investing and preheating procedures were carried out following manufacturer's instructions. IPS e.max Press ingots (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups (n=15) according to translucency: A.1=HT-A3; A.2=MT-A3; A.3=LT-A3; A.4=MO2. Ingots were then pressed following manufacturer's instructions. For CAD-CAM specimens (Group B) blocks of IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups: B.1=HT-A3; B.2=MT-A3; B.3=LT-A3; B.4=MO2. Specimens (n=15) were obtained by cutting the blocks with a saw. Final crystallization was performed following manufacturer's instructions. Both Press and CAD specimens were polished and finished with silica carbide papers of increasing grit. Final dimensions of the specimens were 4.0±0.2mm, 1.2±0.2mm, and 16.0±0.2mm. Specimens were tested using a three-point bending test. Flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and Weibull characteristic strength were calculated. Flexural strength data were statistically analyzed. The overall means of Press and CAD specimens did not differ significantly. Within the Press group different translucencies were found to have similar flexural strength. Within the CAD group, statistically significant differences emerged among the tested translucencies (pCAD formulations can be based on different criteria than flexural resistance. Within each formulation, for IPS e.max Press translucency does not affect the flexural strength while for IPS e.max CAD it is an influential factor. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sistema CAD integrado para la edificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, Alfonso

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of CAD systems for building construction must not be excessively ambitious to begin with, as this could mean economic problems and a lack of enthusiasm when over —ambitious initial object— ives are not achieved. Building construction covers a very wide range of activities and professionals. In fact, there exists a number of applications which cover the main areas involved in a satisfactory and independent manner: e.g. topography, geometry, structure, installations and management. The Instituto Eduardo Torroja, together with other Research Centres and Tehcnical Project Offices, is working on a research project, the guidelines of which are as follows: The integration of the different exiting applications will be made gradually with a detailed study of their corresponding data bases and their connection to one or more general data bases. Special attention will be paid to the user computer interfaces. The 3-D graphic systems to be used should be more specialised, taking into graphic systems to be used should be more specialised, taking into account the differences that exist between mechanical and building applications. Research is also needed to improved the performance of some graphic algorithms; the structural analysis models to be used must be efficient and adequately complex. Some specific problems, also, such as column slab connections, etc. must be satisfactorily solved. The introduction of artificial intelligence techniques for making decisions on some specific points is also of interest.

    El desarrollo de sistemas CAD para la construcción no debiera ser muy ambicioso en principio, ya que esto podría engendrar problemas económicos y una falta de entusiasmo en el caso de que los objetivos iniciales no puedan ser alcanzados. La construcción de edificios cubre un amplio rango de actividades y de ramas profesionales. De hecho existe un cierto número de aplicaciones que cubren los principales sectores implicados

  6. Cadências escolares, ritmos docentes School cadences, teaching rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Assunção de Castro Teixeira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns dos eixos que estruturam os ritmos cotidianos dos professores, próprios às temporalidades da vida social na escola. Parte do pressuposto de que o tempo é uma "categoria do pensamento lógico", originada no ritmo da vida social (Dukheim, e que essa rítmica é uma "modalidade concreta do tempo social" (Lefebvre e Régulier. O estudo é parte de uma pesquisa que busca tematizar a experiência do tempo de sujeitos que se encontram na condição de professores - docentes de quinta à oitava séries do ensino fundamental e do ensino médio -, levando em conta seus vínculos com a construção de identidades docentes. O texto se desenvolve em torno de três eixos: as cadências das interações entre educandos e educadores, os ritmos dos calendários e os compassos dos horários escolares. Conclui-se que os ritmos docentes, embora circunscritos à rítmica da vida moderna, têm particularidades associadas às cadências da escola, aos processos pedagógicos e àqueles relacionados à formação humana. Trata-se, pois, de analisar a polirritmia dos tempos da escola em sua complexidade e peculiaridades, de forma a se compreenderem as modulações e significações da experiência do tempo na condição de professor, vivência constitutiva das identidades docentes.This paper analyzes some of the concepts peculiar to the temporality of the school social life that structure the everyday rhythm of teachers. It assumes that time is a "category of logical thinking" originated in the rhythm of social life (Durkheim, and that such rhythmic character is a "concrete modality of social time" (Lefebvre and Régulier. This study is part of a research that seeks to discuss the experience of time for teachers of the 5th to 8th grades of the Primary Education and of the Secondary Education, taking into account the teachers’ links with the construction of their own teaching identities. The text is developed around three themes: the cadences

  7. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Incremental Prognostic Value of Stress Echocardiography With Carotid Ultrasound for Suspected CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvazir, Shahram; Shah, Benoy N; Zacharias, Konstantinos; Senior, Roxy

    2018-02-01

    This study hypothesized that ischemia and atherosclerosis assessment by ultrasound (US) may provide incremental prognostic information in patients with new-onset chest pain who do not have coronary artery disease (CAD). The clinical significance of atherosclerosis assessment by carotid US in patients undergoing stress echocardiography (SE) in such patients is unknown. Consecutive patients with suspected angina but no history of CAD underwent simultaneous SE and US prospectively to assess myocardial ischemia and carotid plaque burden (CPB), respectively. Patients were followed up for major adverse events (MAEs)-all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unplanned coronary revascularization. Of 591 recruited patients, 580 (men, 46%; mean age 59 ± 11 years) patients were available for follow-up. SE demonstrated myocardial ischemia in 12%, but prevalence of carotid plaques was 59%. During a mean follow-up of 1,117 ± 361 days, 40 first MAEs occurred. In the multivariable regression model, pre-test probability (PTP) of CAD (p = 0.001), abnormal SE (p CAD and SE; likewise, SE was incremental to PTP-CAD and CPB (p CAD, simultaneous SE (for ischemia) and US (for atherosclerosis) provided incremental prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do CAD/CAM dentures really release less monomer than conventional dentures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Wiedemair, Verena; Huck, Christian; Klaunzer, Florian; Steinmassl, Otto; Grunert, Ingrid; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2017-06-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) dentures are assumed to have more favourable material properties than conventionally fabricated dentures, among them a lower methacrylate monomer release. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures were generated from ten different master casts by using four different CAD/CAM systems. Conventional, heat-polymerised dentures served as control group. Denture weight and volume were measured; the density was calculated, and the denture surface area was assessed digitally. The monomer release after 7 days of water storage was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole You Nexteeth and Wieland Digital Dentures had significantly lower mean volume and weight than conventional dentures. Baltic Denture System and Whole You Nexteeth had a significantly increased density. Baltic Denture System had a significantly smaller surface area. None of the CAD/CAM dentures released significantly less monomer than the control group. All tested dentures released very low amounts of methacrylate monomer, but not significantly less than conventional dentures. A statistically significant difference might nevertheless exist in comparison to other, less recommendable denture base materials, such as the frequently used autopolymerising resins. CAD/CAM denture fabrication has numerous advantages. It enables the fabrication of dentures with lower resin volume and lower denture weight. Both could increase the patient comfort. Dentures with higher density might exhibit more favourable mechanical properties. The hypothesis that CAD/CAM dentures release less monomer than conventional dentures could, however, not be verified.

  10. The effect of milling and postmilling procedures on the surface roughness of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Smidt, Laura Nunes; Fracasso, Lisiane Martins; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-11-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and analyze the surface topography of five different CAD/CAM ceramics and one CAD/CAM composite resin for CEREC after milling and postmilling procedures. Blocks of the ceramics Mark II, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, Suprinity and Enamic, and blocks of the composite resin Lava Ultimate were milled at CEREC MCXL. Ten flat samples of each material were obtained. The surface roughness (Ra) test was performed before and after milling, crystallization, polishing, and glaze when indicated, followed by SEM and AFM analysis. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). The milling step significantly increased the roughness of all the tested materials (P CAD and Suprinity) were more suitable to roughness than the other tested materials (P CAD/CAM materials, that is, fully sintered, should be only hand polished. The glaze step can be suppressed resulting in time saving. However, the glaze step in soft-milling lithium disilicate is imperative. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Design Automation Using Script Languages. High-Level CAD Templates in Non-Parametric Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the advantages offered by the application of traditional techniques of technical drawing in processes for automation of the design, with non-parametric CAD programs, provided with scripting languages. Given that an example drawing can be solved with traditional step-by-step detailed procedures, is possible to do the same with CAD applications and to generalize it later, incorporating references. In today’s modern CAD applications, there are striking absences of solutions for building engineering: oblique projections (military and cavalier), 3D modelling of complex stairs, roofs, furniture, and so on. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into high-level CAD templates allows the automation of processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar designs or modifying their data, users should be able to use these templates to generate future variations of the same design. This paper presents the automation process of several complex drawing examples based on CAD script files aided with parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to solve complex geometry designs not currently incorporated in the current CAD applications and to subsequently create other new derivatives without user intervention. Automation in the generation of complex designs not only saves time but also increases the quality of the presentations and reduces the possibility of human errors.

  12. Progress of conversion system from CAD data to MCNP geometry data in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S., E-mail: sato.satoshi92@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nashif, H.; Masuda, F.; Morota, H.; Iida, H. [MHI Nuclear Engineering Company Ltd., Minatoku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Konno, C. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Automatic conversion systems from CAD data to MCNP geometry input data have been developed to convert the CAD data of the fusion reactor with very complicated structure. So far, two conversion systems (GEOMIT-1 and ARCMCP) have been developed and the third system (GEOMIT-2) is under developing. The void data can be created in these systems. GEOMIT-1 was developed in 2007, but a lot of manual shape splitting work for the CAD data was required to convert the complicated geometry. ARCMCP was developed in 2008. The algorithm has been drastically improved on automatic creation of ambiguous surface in ARCMCP, but it still required a little manual shape splitting work. The latest system, GEOMIT-2, does not require additional commercial software packages, though the previous systems require them. It also has functions of the CAD data healing and the automatic shape splitting. Geometrical errors of CAD data can be automatically revised by the healing function, and complicated geometries can be automatically split into simple geometries by the shape splitting function. Any manual works for CAD data are not required in GEOMIT-2. GEOMIT-2 is very useful for nuclear analyses of fusion reactors.

  13. Myosin VIIA regulates microvillus morphogenesis and interacts with cadherin Cad99C in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowinski, Cory; Liu, Ri-Hua Sandy; Chen, Xi; Darabie, Audrey; Godt, Dorothea

    2014-11-15

    Microvilli and related actin-based protrusions permit multiple interactions between cells and their environment. How the shape, length and arrangement of microvilli are determined remains largely unclear. To address this issue and explore the cooperation of the two main components of a microvillus, the central F-actin bundle and the enveloping plasma membrane, we investigated the expression and function of Myosin VIIA (Myo7A), which is encoded by crinkled (ck), and its interaction with cadherin Cad99C in the microvilli of the Drosophila follicular epithelium. Myo7A is present in the microvilli and terminal web of follicle cells, and associates with several other F-actin-rich structures in the ovary. Loss of Myo7A caused brush border defects and a reduction in the amount of the microvillus regulator Cad99C. We show that Myo7A and Cad99C form a molecular complex and that the cytoplasmic tail of Cad99C recruits Myo7A to microvilli. Our data indicate that Myo7A regulates the structure and spacing of microvilli, and interacts with Cad99C in vivo. A comparison of the mutant phenotypes suggests that Myo7A and Cad99C have co-dependent and independent functions in microvilli. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Chipping behaviour of all-ceramic crowns with zirconia framework and CAD/CAM manufactured veneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the ultimate load to failure of zirconia based crowns veneered with CAD/CAM manufactured ceramic. 32 identical, anatoform zirconia (Sirona inCoris ZI, mono L F1) frameworks (thickness 0.6mm) were constructed (Sirona inLab 3.80). Afterwards, 16 crowns were completed using a CAD/CAM manufactured lithium disilicate ceramic veneer (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The remaining 16 frames were veneered using conventional manual layering technique. For the CAD/CAM manufactured veneers, the connection between framework and veneer was accomplished via a glass fusion ceramics. Before fracture tests, half of the specimens underwent thermocycling and chewing simulation (1.2 million chewing cycles, force magnitude F(max)=108 N). To further investigate the new technique, finite element computations were carried out on the basis of the original geometry. Nearly all (87.5%) conventionally veneered crowns failed already during chewing simulation, whereas crowns with CAD/CAM manufactured veneers were non-sensitive to artificial ageing. Crowns veneered with lithium disilicate ceramic displayed ultimate loads to failure of about 1600 N. The CAD/CAM production of veneers for restorations with zirconia framework is a promising way to reduce failures originating from material fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  16. High-Performance CAD-CTC Scheme Using Shape Index, Multiscale Enhancement Filters, and Radiomic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yacheng; Ma, Jingchen; Xiong, Junfeng; Lu, Lin; Zhao, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems for computed tomography colonography (CTC) can automatically detect colorectal polyps. The main problem of currently developed CAD-CTC systems is the numerous false positives (FPs) caused by the existence of complicated colon structures (e.g., haustral fold, residual fecal material, inflation tube, and ileocecal valve). This study proposes a CAD-CTC scheme using shape index, multiscale enhancement filters, and radiomic features to address the FP issue. Shape index and multiscale enhancement filter calculated in the Gaussian smoothed geodesic distance field are combined to generate the polyp candidates. A total of 440 well-defined radiomic features collected from previous radiomic studies and 200 newly developed radiomic features are used to construct a supervised classification model to reduce the numerous FPs. The proposed CAD-CTC scheme was evaluated on 152 oral contrast-enhanced CT datasets from 76 patients with 103 polyps ≥5 mm. The detection results were 98.1% and 95.3% by-polyp sensitivity and per-scan sensitivity, respectively, with the same FP rate of 1.3 FPs per dataset for polyps ≥5 mm. Experimental results indicate that the proposed CAD-CTC scheme can achieve high sensitivity while maintaining a low FP rate. The proposed CAD-CTC scheme would be a beneficial tool in clinical colon examination.

  17. Studying the Relation of Postprandial Triglyceride with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manochehri, Mohammad; Moghadam, Adel Johari

    2016-07-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality worldwide and determination of contributing factors is essential. This study was conducted to study the relation of postprandial triglyceride as a risk of coronary artery disease in patients with proven CAD by angiography, referred to 502 Hospital of Army in 2015. This observational study conducted as a case-control and contained 80 male participants referred to 502 Hospital of Army. Half of these participants had proven CAD by angiography test and the other ones were healthy as a control group. Fasting serum triglyceride was evaluated in all participants and postprandial TG was checked 4 hours after a standard meal. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 13. The results indicated that fasting TG and postprandial TG level were significantly higher in CAD patients (P-value=0.001). It was also shown evaluation of postprandial TG is more sensitive test than fasting TG in case of CAD patients. Our obtained results shown, evaluation of high level of postprandial TG is more reliable than fasting TG for patients whom suffer from CAD.

  18. Advances in computer-aided engineering : CAD/CAM-research at Delft University of Technology. Report of the VF-project CAD/CAM 1989-1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.

    1994-01-01

    This book contains a collection of articles describing on-going CAD/CAM-research at several engineering faculties at Delft University of Technology. Two main themes covered in this book are 'Conceptual design of complex products' and 'Product modelling and product data exchange'.

  19. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 1: Measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Wendler, Michael; de Ligny, Dominique; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Petschelt, Anselm; Peterlik, Herwig; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the mechanical behavior of dental restorative materials requires an insight into the materials elastic constants and microstructure. Here we aim to use complementary methodologies to thoroughly characterize chairside CAD/CAM materials and discuss the benefits and limitations of different analytical strategies. Eight commercial CAM/CAM materials, ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Elastic constants were evaluated using three methods: Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS), Resonant Beam Technique (RBT) and Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (PE). The microstructures were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Young's modulus (E), Shear modulus (G), Bulk modulus (B) and Poisson's ratio (ν) were obtained for each material. E and ν reached values ranging from 10.9 (Lava Ultimate) to 201.4 (e.max ZirCAD) and 0.173 (Empress CAD) to 0.47 (Lava Ultimate), respectively. RUS showed to be the most complex and reliable method, while the PE method the easiest to perform but most unreliable. All dynamic methods have shown limitations in measuring the elastic constants of materials showing high damping behavior (hybrid materials). SEM images, Raman spectra and XRD patterns were made available for each material, showing to be complementary tools in the characterization of their crystal phases. Here different methodologies are compared for the measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization of CAD/CAM restorative materials. The elastic properties and crystal phases of eight materials are herein fully characterized. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials

  20. Microtensile bond strength of lithium disilicate to zirconia with the CAD-on technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, James J; Harding, Aaron B; Bailey, Clifton W; Guillory, Villa L; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel technique was introduced to combine lithium disilicate and zirconia into one restoration. The purpose of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of veneering ceramic to a zirconia core in two techniques: the e.max® CAD-on technique and the Press-on technique. Group A was prepared by veneering sintered zirconia blocks (e.max® ZirCAD) with lithium disilicate blocks (e.max® CAD) using the CAD-on technique according to manufacturer's instructions. Group B was prepared by taking sintered e.max® ZirCAD blocks and veneering them with fluorapatite glass-ceramic (e.max® ZirPress) using the Press-on technique according to manufacturer's instructions. Each block was loaded in a dynamic cyclic loading machine. The blocks were then sectioned into 1 × 1 mm(2) beams (n = 43) using a precision saw, thermocycled, and loaded in tension until failure on a universal testing machine. A mean and standard deviation were determined per group. Data were analyzed using an unpaired t-test (α = 0.05). The mean microtensile bond strengths were 44.0 ± 13.8 MPa for the CAD-on technique and 14.9 ± 8.8 MPa for the Press-on technique. Significant differences were found between the two groups (p = 2.7E-19). The CAD-on technique (lithium disilicate/zirconia) resulted in greater microtensile bond strength than the Press-on technique (fluorapatite glass-ceramic/zirconia). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Reproducibility - an important factor determining the quality of computer aided detection (CAD) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, Ansgar E-mail: ansgarmalich@gmx.de; Azhari, Tarek; Boehm, Thomas; Fleck, Marlies; Kaiser, Werner A

    2000-12-01

    Purpose: To test the reproducibility of markings on mammography films set by a commercial computer aided detection (CAD) system. Patients and methods: One hundred unilateral mammography examinations (each in CC and MLO) of 100 patients with mammographically detected suspicious foci, which were histopathologically proven to be malignant, were scanned three times with the CAD system, retrospectively. Every fifth patient of the institutional tumor case sampler was enrolled in the study. Only cases with one visible lesion were included in the study. Reproducibility and sensitivity (in both the strict and the broader sense) were determined. Strict sensitivity means the correct set of markers in both images, whereas broader sensitivity means the correct set in at least one of the images. Sixteen of 100 malignancies were indicated by focal suspicious microcalcification clusters, 53 tumors by masses and 31 cases by both signs of breast cancer. The CAD evaluation was divided into only two different markers: one for microcalcifications and one for masses. Thus, 47 (16+31) tumor-induced microcalcifications and 84 (53+31) malignancy-related masses were checked using the CAD system. Results: Eighteen of 100 unilateral mammography examinations revealed identical patterns in all three scans (18% reproducibility). Eleven of 47 suspicious focal microcalcification clusters and 43/84 masses were correctly marked on both mammographic views in all three CAD scans (strict and broader sensitivity, 23.4 and 51.1%, respectively). Six of 47 microcalcification clusters and 8/84 masses were totally missed in all images by the system (false negative rate, 12.8 and 9.6%, respectively). Conclusion: Reproducibility is essential for CAD systems. Currently, reproducibility of the used CAD system appears to be insufficient for clinical routine. Improvement of the system characteristics would make such systems valuable as a 'second reader' in clinical examination.

  2. Variation in CAD Secondary Prevention Prescription among Outpatient Cardiology Practices: Insights from the NCDR®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Thomas M.; Chan, Paul S.; Spertus, John A.; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil; Ho, P. Michael; Bradley, Steven M.; Tsai, Thomas T.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Peterson, Pamela N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study assesses practice variation of secondary prevention medication prescription among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated in outpatient practices participating in the NCDR® PINNACLE Registry®. Background Among patients with CAD, secondary prevention with a combination of beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins reduces cardiac mortality and myocardial infarction (MI). Accordingly, every CAD patient should receive the combination of these medications for which they are eligible. However, little is known about current prescription patterns of these medications and the variation in use among outpatient cardiology clinics. Methods Using data from NCDR® PINNACLE Registry®, a national outpatient cardiology practice registry, we assessed medication prescription patterns among eligible CAD patients between July 2008 and December 2010. Overall rates of prescription and variation by practice were calculated, adjusting for patient characteristics. Results Among 156,145 CAD patients in 58 practices, 103,830 (66.5%) were prescribed the optimal combination of medications for which they were eligible. The median rate of optimal combined prescription by practice was 73.5% and varied from 28.8% to 100%. After adjustment for patient factors, the practice median rate ratio for prescription was 1.25 (95% CI 1.2,1.32), indicating a 25% likelihood that 2 random practices would differ in treating identical CAD patients. Conclusions Among a national registry of CAD patients treated in outpatient cardiology practices, over one-third of patients failed to receive their optimal combination of secondary prevention medications. Significant variation was observed across practices, even after adjusting for patient characteristics, suggesting that quality improvement efforts may be needed to support more uniform practice. PMID:24184238

  3. Reproducibility--an important factor determining the quality of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malich, A; Azhari, T; Böhm, T; Fleck, M; Kaiser, W A

    2000-12-01

    To test the reproducibility of markings on mammography films set by a commercial computer aided detection (CAD) system. One hundred unilateral mammography examinations (each in CC and MLO) of 100 patients with mammographically detected suspicious foci, which were histopathologically proven to be malignant, were scanned three times with the CAD system, retrospectively. Every fifth patient of the institutional tumor case sampler was enrolled in the study. Only cases with one visible lesion were included in the study. Reproducibility and sensitivity (in both the strict and the broader sense) were determined. Strict sensitivity means the correct set of markers in both images, whereas broader sensitivity means the correct set in at least one of the images. Sixteen of 100 malignancies were indicated by focal suspicious microcalcification clusters, 53 tumors by masses and 31 cases by both signs of breast cancer. The CAD evaluation was divided into only two different markers: one for microcalcifications and one for masses. Thus, 47 (16+31) tumor-induced microcalcifications and 84 (53+31) malignancy-related masses were checked using the CAD system. Eighteen of 100 unilateral mammography examinations revealed identical patterns in all three scans (18% reproducibility). Eleven of 47 suspicious focal microcalcification clusters and 43/84 masses were correctly marked on both mammographic views in all three CAD scans (strict and broader sensitivity, 23.4 and 51.1%, respectively). Six of 47 microcalcification clusters and 8/84 masses were totally missed in all images by the system (false negative rate, 12.8 and 9.6%, respectively). Reproducibility is essential for CAD systems. Currently, reproducibility of the used CAD system appears to be insufficient for clinical routine. Improvement of the system characteristics would make such systems valuable as a 'second reader' in clinical examination.

  4. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  5. Design of Complete Dentures by Adopting CAD Developed for Fixed Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfeng; Han, Weili; Cao, Jing; Iv, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Han, Yishi; Shen, Yi; Ma, Zheng; Liu, Huanyue

    2018-02-01

    The demand for complete dentures is expected to increase worldwide, but complete dentures are mainly designed and fabricated manually involving a broad series of clinical and laboratory procedures. Therefore, the quality of complete dentures largely depends on the skills of the dentist and technician, leading to difficulty in quality control. Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has been used to design and fabricate various dental restorations including dental inlays, veneers, crowns, partial crowns, and fixed partial dentures (FPDs). It has been envisioned that the application of CAD/CAM technology could reduce intensive clinical/laboratory work for the fabrication of complete dentures; however, CAD/CAM is seldom used to fabricate complete dentures due to the lack of suitable CAD software to design virtual complete dentures although the CAM techniques are in a much advanced stage. Here we report the successful design of virtual complete dentures using CAD software of 3Shape Dental System 2012, which was developed for designing fixed prostheses instead of complete dentures. Our results demonstrated that complete dentures could be successfully designed by the combination of two modeling processes, single coping and full anatomical FPD, available in the 3Shape Dental System 2012. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Effect of Home Bleaching on the Translucency of CAD/CAM Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Muhammet; Demir, Necla

    2017-11-10

    To evaluate the effect of a home bleaching agent (Opalescence PF) on the translucency of CAD/CAM ceramic systems. The 28 sintered ceramic specimens (IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; 15 mm long, 10 mm wide, 1 mm thick) were divided into two subgroups as control and bleaching groups (n = 7). Carbamide peroxide (CP), 16%, home bleaching agent was applied onto the surface of each specimen for 6 hours per day for 7 days. A spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance) was used to measure the CIE L * a * b * coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of the specimens on white and black backgrounds. The translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio (CR), and opalescence parameter (OP) of the specimens were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistically significant differences in the TP values after 16% CP bleaching treatment were observed (p ˂ 0.05); however, no significant differences were found in the OP and CR values after the surface treatment (p ˃ 0.05). According to our study, patients who have all-ceramic restorations in their mouths should be careful when using home bleaching agents, because whitening agents can affect the translucency of all-ceramic restorations such as e.max CAD and Empress CAD. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Toward clinically usable CAD for lung cancer screening with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Lo, Pechin; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Barnoy, Eran; Kim, Grace Hyun J.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Aberle, Denise R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to define clinically appropriate, computer-aided lung nodule detection (CAD) requirements and protocols based on recent screening trials. In the following paper, we describe a CAD evaluation methodology based on a publically available, annotated computed tomography (CT) image data set, and demonstrate the evaluation of a new CAD system with the functionality and performance required for adoption in clinical practice. A new automated lung nodule detection and measurement system was developed that incorporates intensity thresholding, a Euclidean Distance Transformation, and segmentation based on watersheds. System performance was evaluated against the Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC) CT reference data set. The test set comprised thin-section CT scans from 108 LIDC subjects. The median (±IQR) sensitivity per subject was 100 (±37.5) for nodules ≥ 4 mm and 100 (±8.33) for nodules ≥ 8 mm. The corresponding false positive rates were 0 (±2.0) and 0 (±1.0), respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient between the CAD nodule diameter and the LIDC reference was 0.91, and for volume it was 0.90. The new CAD system shows high nodule sensitivity with a low false positive rate. Automated volume measurements have strong agreement with the reference standard. Thus, it provides comprehensive, clinically-usable lung nodule detection and assessment functionality. (orig.)

  8. Flexural resistance of Cerec CAD/CAM system ceramic blocks. Part 2: Outsourcing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Maurizio; Vichi, Alessandro; Del Siena, Francesco; Louca, Chris; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-02-01

    To test different Cerec CAD/CAM system ceramic blocks, comparing mean flexural strength (sigma), Weibull modulus (m), and Weibull characteristic strength (sigma0) in an ISO standardized set-up. Following the recent ISO Standard (ISO 6872:2008), 11 types of ceramic blocks were tested: IPS e.max CAD MO, IPS e.max CAD LT and IPS e.max CAD HT (lithium disilicate glass-ceramic); In-Ceram SPINELL, In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia (glass-infiltrated materials); inCoris AL and In-Ceram AL (densely sintered alumina); In-Ceram YZ, IPS e.max Zir-CAD and inCoris ZI (densely sintered zirconia). Specimens were cut out from ceramic blocks, finished, crystallized/infiltrated/sintered, polished, and tested in a three-point bending test apparatus. Flexural strength, Weibull characteristic strength, and Weibull modulus were obtained. A statistically significant difference was found (P materials (sigma = 376.9 +/- 405.5 MPa, m = 7.5 +/- 11.5, sigma0 = 393.7 +/- 427.0 MPa). No statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.160) in densely sintered zirconia (sigma = 1,060.8 +/- 1,227.8 MPa, m = 5.8 +/- 7.4, sigma0 = 1,002.4 +/- 1,171.0 MPa). Not all the materials tested fulfilled the requirements for the clinical indications recommended by the manufacturer.

  9. Flexural resistance of Cerec CAD/CAM system ceramic blocks. Part 1: Chairside materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Alessandro; Sedda, Maurizio; Del Siena, Francesco; Louca, Chris; Ferrari, Marco

    2013-10-01

    This study tested the materials available on the market for Cerec CAD/CAM, comparing the mean flexural strength in an ISO standardized set-up, since the ISO standard for testing such materials was issued later than the marketing of the materials tested. Following the recent Standard ISO 6872:2008, eight types of ceramic blocks were tested: Paradigm C, IPS Empress CAD LT, IPS Empress CAD Multi, Cerec Blocs, Cerec Blocs PC, Triluxe, Triluxe Forte, Mark II. Specimens were cut out from ceramic blocks, finished, polished, and tested in a three-point bending test apparatus until failure. Flexural strength, Weibull characteristic strength, and Weibull modulus, were calculated. The results obtained from the materials for flexural strength were IPS Empress CAD (125.10 +/- 13.05), Cerec Blocs (112.68 +/- 7.97), Paradigm C (109.14 +/- 10.10), Cerec Blocs PC (105.40 +/- 5.39), Triluxe Forte (105.06 +/- 4.93), Mark II (102.77 +/- 3.60), Triluxe (101.95 +/- 7.28) and IPS Empress CAD Multi (100.86 +/- 15.82). All the tested materials had a flexural strength greater than 100 MPa, thereby satisfying the requirements of the ISO standard for the clinical indications of the materials tested. In all tested materials the Weibull characteristic strength was greater than 100 MPa.

  10. The CENP-A NAC/CAD kinetochore complex controls chromosome congression and spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Sarah E; Borusu, Satyarebala; Amaro, Ana C; Winter, Jennifer R; Belwal, Mukta; McAinsh, Andrew D; Meraldi, Patrick

    2007-12-12

    Kinetochores are complex protein machines that link chromosomes to spindle microtubules and contain a structural core composed of two conserved protein-protein interaction networks: the well-characterized KMN (KNL1/MIND/NDC80) and the recently identified CENP-A NAC/CAD. Here we show that the CENP-A NAC/CAD subunits can be assigned to one of two different functional classes; depletion of Class I proteins (Mcm21R(CENP-O) and Fta1R(CENP-L)) causes a failure in bipolar spindle assembly. In contrast, depletion of Class II proteins (CENP-H, Chl4R(CENP-N), CENP-I and Sim4R(CENP-K)) prevents binding of Class I proteins and causes chromosome congression defects, but does not perturb spindle formation. Co-depletion of Class I and Class II proteins restores spindle bipolarity, suggesting that Class I proteins regulate or counteract the function of Class II proteins. We also demonstrate that CENP-A NAC/CAD and KMN regulate kinetochore-microtubule attachments independently, even though CENP-A NAC/CAD can modulate NDC80 levels at kinetochores. Based on our results, we propose that the cooperative action of CENP-A NAC/CAD subunits and the KMN network drives efficient chromosome segregation and bipolar spindle assembly during mitosis.

  11. Marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM and slip-cast made zirconia copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Ardekani, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Farahi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    CAD/CAM systems facilitate the use of zirconia substructure materials for all-ceramic copings. This in vitro study investigated the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings made with CAD/CAM system and slip-casting method. Sixteen CAD/CAM made zirconia copings and 16 slip-cast made zirconia copings were fabri-cated and cemented with glass-ionomer cement to their respective master abutment models, and thickness of the cement layer was measured at specific measuring points with stereomicroscope. In the left wall, the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (62.49 vs. 48.14) (P =0.007), in the right wall the mean axial internal gap was greater in group one than group two (44.87 vs. 40.91) (P = 0.465). The oc-clusal internal gap was greater in group one than group two (118.81 vs. 102.11) (P =0.423). The mean marginal gap also was greater in group one than group two (46.67 vs. 44.29) (P = 0.863). The differences in marginal fit between these two methods were not statistically significant, except for left axial internal gap that was significantly greater in the CAD/CAM system than conventional slip-cast technique (P =0.007). It was concluded that this CAD/CAM system can compete well with conventional systems for clinical fit, and can achieve good in vitro marginal fit.

  12. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  13. Effect of CALIPSO Cloud Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Confidence Levels on Observations of Aerosol Properties near Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Liu, Zhaoyan

    2012-01-01

    CALIPSO aerosol backscatter enhancement in the transition zone between clouds and clear sky areas is revisited with particular attention to effects of data selection based on the confidence level of cloud-aerosol discrimination (CAD). The results show that backscatter behavior in the transition zone strongly depends on the CAD confidence level. Higher confidence level data has a flatter backscatter far away from clouds and a much sharper increase near clouds (within 4 km), thus a smaller transition zone. For high confidence level data it is shown that the overall backscatter enhancement is more pronounced for small clear-air segments and horizontally larger clouds. The results suggest that data selection based on CAD reduces the possible effects of cloud contamination when studying aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds.

  14. Design, preparation and preliminary use of a novel biomimetic agent rFN/CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong KUANG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To prepare a novel biomimetic agent with adhesive and osteoinduction capabilities, and provide a new approach for improving seeding cell adhesion and osteoblastic differentiation on a scaffold surface. Methods  A novel bifunctional recombinant protein was engineered and prepared by bioinformatics, standard molecular cloning, protein expression and purification techniques. A centrifugal cell adhesive assay and an osteoinduction assay were employed to determine the biofunction ex vivo. Results  A 1954bp long DNA chimera of FN Ⅲ7-10/CAD11 EC1-2 and recombinant FN Ⅲ7-10/CAD11 EC1-2 of 641 amino acids were obtained. Polystyrene surface coated with this protein significantly increased the adhesive property and osteodifferentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Conclusion  rFN/CAD possesses dual biofunctions of osteoblastic adhesion and differentiation, which can be further applied as an ideal biomimetic molecule for surface modification.

  15. DESIGN OF A SUPERBIKE PADDOCK STAND USING CAD AND CAE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohd Noh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two people are required to operate current superbike paddock stands in order to elevate the superbike. Lifting the superbike alone using the current design of paddock stand may be impractical and inconvenient for users. To overcome this limitation, a new design of a superbike paddock stand was conceived that could be operated by a single user. CAD and CAE tools using CATIA V5R18 software were utilised in designing this new stand. A 3D CAD model was developed and analysed through finite element analysis (FEA and a prototype fabricated for verification testing of the design. The use of CAD and CAE tools saved much time in the design work and gave the researchers and designers freedom in producing their own design. However, the most important aspect of this design study was to design a superbike paddock stand that is more practical and convenient for operation by a single user.

  16. The design and integration of retinal CAD-SR to diabetes patient ePR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiqun; Wei, Yufang; Liu, Brent J.; Shang, Yujuan; Shi, Lili; Jiang, Kui; Dong, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the serious complications of diabetes that could lead to blindness. Digital fundus camera is often used to detect retinal changes but the diagnosis relies too much on ophthalmologist's experience. Based on our previously developed algorithms for quantifying retinal vessels and lesions, we developed a computer aided detection-structured report (CAD-SR) template and implemented it into picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Furthermore, we mapped our CAD-SR into HL7 CDA to integrate CAD findings into diabetes patient electronic patient record (ePR) system. Such integration could provide more quantitative features from fundus image into ePR system, which is valuable for further data mining researches.

  17. Analysis on the workspace of palletizing robot based on AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-quan; Zhang, Rui; Guan, Qi; Cui, Fang; Chen, Kuan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a four-degree-of-freedom articulated palletizing robot is used as the object of research. Based on the analysis of the overall configuration of the robot, the kinematic mathematical model is established by D-H method to figure out the workspace of the robot. In order to meet the needs of design and analysis, using AutoCAD secondary development technology and AutoLisp language to develop AutoCAD-based 2D and 3D workspace simulation interface program of palletizing robot. At last, using AutoCAD plugin, the influence of structural parameters on the shape and position of the working space is analyzed when the structure parameters of the robot are changed separately. This study laid the foundation for the design, control and planning of palletizing robots.

  18. Minimally invasive lithium disilicate ceramic veneers fabricated using chairside CAD/CAM: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, M; Seydler B, B

    2012-02-01

    This clinical report describes the use of modern CAD/CAM technology combined with a conventional impression technique to treat a malformed tooth with ceramic veneer in a single appointment. A thin veneer (0.4 mm) made of lithium disilicate ceramic was used to correct the shape of the malformed tooth with a minimally invasive preparation using a chairside CAD/CAM system. Thus the treatment can be performed during one appointment. To facilitate the CAD/CAM process and fabrication of the veneer, a scanable model fabricated on a modified gypsum definitive cast was used. The malformed tooth was corrected on the cast by use of a composite resin and an impression was then made. This trimmed impression was used intraorally during the scanning process to facilitate fabrication of the veneer. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabricating CAD/CAM Implant-Retained Mandibular Bar Overdentures: A Clinical and Technical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Ling Goo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical and technical aspects in the oral rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with knife-edge ridge at the mandibular anterior edentulous region, using implant-retained overdentures. The application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM in the fabrication of the overdenture framework simplifies the laboratory process of the implant prostheses. The Nobel Procera CAD/CAM System was utilised to produce a lightweight titanium overdenture bar with locator attachments. It is proposed that the digital workflow of CAD/CAM milled implant overdenture bar allows us to avoid numerous technical steps and possibility of casting errors involved in the conventional casting of such bars.

  20. PromoterCAD: Data-driven design of plant regulatory DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Nishikata, Koro; Shimoyama, Sayoko; Yoshida, Yuko; Matsui, Minami; Makita, Yuko; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic promoters can control the timing, location and amount of gene expression for any organism. PromoterCAD is a web application for designing synthetic promoters with altered transcriptional regulation. We use a data-first approach, using published high-throughput expression and motif data from for Arabidopsis thaliana to guide DNA design. We demonstrate data mining tools for finding motifs related to circadian oscillations and tissue-specific expression patterns. PromoterCAD is built on the LinkData open platform for data publication and rapid web application development, allowing new data to be easily added, and the source code modified to add new functionality. PromoterCAD URL: http://promotercad.org. LinkData URL: http://linkdata.org.

  1. Roughness, surface energy, and superficial damages of CAD/CAM materials after surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Thomas; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of surface pre-treatment on CAD/CAM materials including ceramics, zirconia, resin-infiltrated ceramic, and resin-based composite. Specimens were made of ten CAD/CAM materials (Celtra Duo, Degudent, D; Vita Suprinity, Vita, D; E.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL; E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL; Vita Enamic, Vita, D; Cerasmart, GC, B; LAVA Ultimate, 3M, D; SHOFU Block HC, SHOFU, US; Grandio Blocs, VOCO, D; BRILLIANT Crios, Coltene, CH) and pretreated to represent clinical procedures (Hf 20 s/5%; phosphoric acid 20 s/37%; Monobond etch and prime (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL); water-cooled diamond bur (80 μm; 4 μm); Al 2 O 3 -blasting (50 μm/1 bar, 50 μm/2 bar, 120 μm/1 bar, 120 μm/2 bar); untreated; manufacturer's instructions). SEM-analysis (Phenom, FEI, NL) of the surfaces was performed (magnifications ≤ 10,000×). Roughness values R a , R z (KJ 3D, Keyence, J), and surface energy SE (OCA15 plus, SCA20, DataPhysics, D) were determined (statistics: non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test/Kruskal-Wallis test for independent specimen, α = 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis revealed significant (p CAD/CAM materials require individual pre-treatment for optimized and protective surface activation. Cementation is a key factor for clinical success. Given the variety of available CAD/CAM materials, specific procedures are needed.

  2. Effect of staining beverages on color and translucency of CAD/CAM composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S H Q; Yap, A U J; Rosa, V; Tan, K B C; Teoh, K H

    2018-01-17

    This study investigated the color (ΔE) and translucency changes (ΔTP) of CAD/CAM composites after exposure to staining solutions using both spectrophotometer and shade-matching device. Direct (Filtek Z350XT [ZT]), indirect (Shofu Ceramage [CE]) and CAD/CAM (Shofu HC Block [HC], Lava Ultimate [LU], Vita Enamic [EN]) composite specimens measuring 12 × 14 × 1.5 mm were fabricated, divided into five groups (n = 8), and immersed in cola, tea, coffee, red wine, distilled water (control) at 37°C for 7 days. Color parameters were determined with both spectrophotometer and shade-taking device at baseline and 1 week. Delta E (ΔE) with white and black backgrounds, and Delta TP (ΔTP) were computed. Statistical testing was performed with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test (P CAD/CAM composites fared better in red wine than direct and indirect materials. Clinically perceptible color changes (ΔE > 3.3) were observed for almost all materials when exposed to wine, coffee and tea. Direct, indirect, and CAD/CAM composites are all susceptible to various degrees of discoloration and translucency changes after exposure to staining beverages. Red wine caused the most discoloration and translucency changes. Limitations of these materials must be considered when placing an aesthetic restoration. Direct, indirect, and CAD/CAM composites are all susceptible to various degrees of discoloration and translucency changes after exposure to staining beverages. Red wine generally caused the most discoloration and translucency changes. Although CAD/CAM composites were more color stable than direct and indirect materials when exposed to red wine, color changes were still clinically perceptible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sandblasting may damage the surface of composite CAD-CAM blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-03-01

    CAD-CAM blocks to fabricate semi-direct and indirect restorations are available in different sorts of ceramics as well as composite. In order to bond restorations prepared out of composite blocks into tooth cavities, it is recommended to gently sandblast the surface prior to the application of a primer/adhesive. Today, the effect of sandblasting composite block surfaces has not thoroughly been investigated. In this study, the ultra-structure of composite CAD-CAM blocks was investigated with special attention to the effect of sandblasting on the surface topography and of silanization on the bonding performance. Five different composite CAD-CAM blocks were involved. We correlatively investigated their structural and chemical composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). The effect of sandblasting was also imaged in cross-section and at the interface with composite cement. Finally, we measured the shear bond strength to the sandblasted block surface with and without silanization. All composite blocks revealed a different ultra-structure. Sandblasting increased surface roughness and resulted in an irregular surface with some filler exposure. Sandblasting also damaged the surface. When the sandblasted composite blocks were silanized, superior bonding receptiveness in terms of higher bond strength was achieved except for Shofu Block HC. Sandblasting followed by silanization improved the bond strength to composite CAD-CAM blocks. However, sandblasting may also damage the composite CAD-CAM block surface. For the composite CAD-CAM block Shofu Block HC, the damage was so severe that silanization did not improve bond strength. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2017-12-21

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  5. A CAD of fully automated colonic polyp detection for contrasted and non-contrasted CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Gökalp; Bolat, Bülent; Osman, Onur

    2017-04-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are developed to help radiologists detect colonic polyps over CT scans. It is possible to reduce the detection time and increase the detection accuracy rates by using CAD systems. In this paper, we aimed to develop a fully integrated CAD system for automated detection of polyps that yields a high polyp detection rate with a reasonable number of false positives. The proposed CAD system is a multistage implementation whose main components are: automatic colon segmentation, candidate detection, feature extraction and classification. The first element of the algorithm includes a discrete segmentation for both air and fluid regions. Colon-air regions were determined based on adaptive thresholding, and the volume/length measure was used to detect air regions. To extract the colon-fluid regions, a rule-based connectivity test was used to detect the regions belong to the colon. Potential polyp candidates were detected based on the 3D Laplacian of Gaussian filter. The geometrical features were used to reduce false-positive detections. A 2D projection image was generated to extract discriminative features as the inputs of an artificial neural network classifier. Our CAD system performs at 100% sensitivity for polyps larger than 9 mm, 95.83% sensitivity for polyps 6-10 mm and 85.71% sensitivity for polyps smaller than 6 mm with 5.3 false positives per dataset. Also, clinically relevant polyps ([Formula: see text]6 mm) were identified with 96.67% sensitivity at 1.12 FP/dataset. To the best of our knowledge, the novel polyp candidate detection system which determines polyp candidates with LoG filters is one of the main contributions. We also propose a new 2D projection image calculation scheme to determine the distinctive features. We believe that our CAD system is highly effective for assisting radiologist interpreting CT.

  6. Using AutoCAD to improve the visibility of the organizational technological design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Irina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issue of increasing the visibility of technological solutions in organizational-technological design. The ability to visualize the main stages of building process technology contributes to organic integration of all the requirements. A special role for the harmonious perception is played by correct display of the lighting facilities, shadowing. Realistic shadows help to analyze the rooms’ insolation of the designed facility and the surrounding areas. We give a justification for the use of AutoCAD in order to automate the process of visualizing the results of organizational-technological design. The author describes the methods of obtaining realistic natural lighting in AutoCAD without significantly increasing the complexity of the process. Engineering companies in 46 % of cases use the software AutoCAD in order to create construction plans. AutoCAD has a variety of possibilities and is constantly evolving. Continuation is one of the benefits of this program. AutoCAD is unique in terms of customization, because, apart from instruction languages, it has two built-in programming languages: AutoLISP and VisualBasic. Because of these specific features AutoCAD allows to create any applications related to graphics implementation. Constant monitoring of lightning changes allows finding the appropriate in terms of aesthetics, ergonomics and insolation decisions on planning and associating a building or structure to the environment. Solar lighting is simulated by a combination of several directional lightning point sources. The author offers a brief description of the program algorithm, which allows automatically managing lighting settings and creating a file with a realistic visualization of the design solutions.

  7. Discoloration of various CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipin Lauvahutanon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee. Materials and Methods Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6. The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05. The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. Results After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent. The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC. There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. Conclusions The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed.

  8. Discoloration of various CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvahutanon, Sasipin; Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Oki, Meiko; Finger, Werner J; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs) and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs) of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) blocks after immersion in coffee. Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6). The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC). There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed.

  9. Developing a visual sensitive image features based CAD scheme to assist classification of mammographic masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Qiu, Yuchen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) schemes of mammograms have been previously developed and tested. However, due to using "black-box" approaches with a large number of complicated features, radiologists have lower confidence to accept or consider CAD-cued results. In order to help solve this issue, this study aims to develop and evaluate a new CAD scheme that uses visual sensitive image features to classify between malignant and benign mammographic masses. A dataset of 301 masses detected on both craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateraloblique (MLO) view images was retrospectively assembled. Among them, 152 were malignant and 149 were benign. An iterative region-growing algorithm was applied to the special Gaussian-kernel filtered images to segment mass regions. Total 13 Image features were computed to mimic 5 categories of visually sensitive features that are commonly used by radiologists in classifying suspicious mammographic masses namely, mass size, shape factor, contrast, homogeneity and spiculation. We then selected one optimal feature in each of 5 feature categories by using a student t-test, and applied two logistic regression classifiers using either CC or MLO view images to distinguish between malignant and benign masses. Last, a fusion method of combining two classification scores was applied and tested. By applying a 10-fold cross-validation method, the area under receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.806+/-0.025. This study demonstrated a new approach to develop CAD scheme based on 5 visually sensitive image features. Combining with a "visual-aid" interface, CAD results are much more easily explainable to the observers and may increase their confidence to consider CAD-cued results.

  10. NEW CAD TECHNIQUES USED FOR VIRTUAL BONE MODELS APPLIED IN ORTHOPEDICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Dragos-Laurentiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some methods used to create and analyze human virtual bones. The cooperation between medical research team and the engineer research group give important tools for medical devices or implants design. To re-create anatomical 3D models it was used a CAD software which permits to define complex models. First, there were defined the "hard" parts as the main bone components and "soft" parts as ligaments or menisci using CT images. Also, using CAD methods, were created virtual models of human joints. In the last decade, a new concept called rapid prototyping, physical coating or without solid pre-form manufacturing, has become very popular.

  11. Effectiveness and efficiency of a CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew W; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Mengqi; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-12-01

    The first straight-wire appliance was introduced over 40 years ago to increase the consistency and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. More recently, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used to create individualized orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and efficiency of CAD/CAM customized orthodontic appliances compared with direct and indirect bonded stock orthodontic brackets. This retrospective study included 3 treatment groups: group 1 patients were direct bonded with self-ligating appliances, group 2 patients were indirect bonded with self-ligating appliances, and group 3 patients were indirect bonded with CAD/CAM self-ligating appliances. Complete pretreatment and posttreatment records were obtained for all patients. The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) Discrepancy Index was used to evaluate the pretreatment records, and the posttreatment outcomes were analyzed using the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation. All data collection and analysis were completed by 1 evaluator. There were no statistically significant differences in the ABO Discrepancy Index or the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation among the groups. Treatment times for the 3 groups were significantly different; the CAD/CAM group was the shortest at 13.8 ± 3.4 months, compared with 21.9 ± 5.0 and 16.9 ± 4.1 months for the direct bonded and indirect bonded groups, respectively. The number of treatment appointments for the CAD/CAM group was significantly fewer than for the direct bonded group. The CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system evaluated in this study was as effective in treatment outcome measures as were standard brackets bonded both directly and indirectly. The CAD/CAM appliance was more efficient in regard to treatment duration, although the decrease in total archwire appointments was minimal. Further investigation is needed to better quantify the clinical benefits of CAD/CAM orthodontic

  12. Light irradiance through novel CAD-CAM block materials and degree of conversion of composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Diogo Pedrollo; Van Ende, Annelies; De Munck, Jan; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Cardoso Vieira, Luiz Clovis; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2018-02-01

    To assess light irradiance (LI) delivered by two light-curing units (LCU's) and to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of three composite cements, when cured through different thicknesses of two novel CAD-CAM block materials. 100-μm-thick films of a dual-curable composite cement (G-CEM LinkAce, GC), a light-curable flowable resin-based composite (RBC) (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC) and a micro-hybrid RBC (G-ænial Posterior, GC) were investigated as luting agents. Two 'polymer-ceramic' CAD-CAM blocks (Cerasmart, GC; Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were sectioned in slabs with different thicknesses (1, 3 and 5mm). LI at the bottom of the specimens was measured using a calibrated spectrometer, while being light-cured through the CAD-CAM block slabs for 40s with a low- (±500mW/cm 2 ) or high- (±1,600mW/cm 2 ) irradiance LCU (n=5). After light-curing, micro-Raman spectra of the composite films were acquired to determine DC at 5min, 10min, 1h and 24h. LI data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis followed by post-hoc comparisons, while a linear mixed-effect model was applied for the DC analysis. In addition, the CAD-CAM blocks ultrastructure was characterized upon argon-ion slicing using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Finally, light transmission (LT) through each CAD-CAM block material was assessed using a spectrophotometer. Curing-light attenuation and DC were significantly influenced by thickness and type of the overlying material. LCU only had a significant effect on DC of the micro-hybrid RBC. DC significantly increased over time for all composite cements. CAD-CAM block structural analysis revealed a relatively small and homogenous filler configuration (mean filler size of 0.2-0.5μm) for Cerasmart, while Enamic contained ceramic grains varying in shape and size (1-10μm), which were interconnected by the polymer-based network. LT was much higher at a wavelength range of 300-800nm for Cerasmart than for Enamic. Light-curable composite cements

  13. Repairability of CAD/CAM high-density PMMA- and composite-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Stucki, Lukas; Hoffmann, Robin; Attin, Thomas; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to analyse the shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)- and composite-based polymer materials repaired with a conventional methacrylate-based composite after different surface pretreatments. Each 48 specimens was prepared from six different CAD/CAM polymer materials (Ambarino high-class, artBloc Temp, CAD-Temp, Lava Ultimate, Telio CAD, Everest C-Temp) and a conventional dimethacrylate-based composite (Filtek Supreme XTE, control) and aged by thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C). The surfaces were left untreated or were pretreated by mechanical roughening, aluminium oxide air abrasion or silica coating/silanization (each subgroup n = 12). The surfaces were further conditioned with an etch&rinse adhesive (OptiBond FL) before the repair composite (Filtek Supreme XTE) was adhered to the surface. After further thermal cycling, shear bond strength was tested, and failure modes were assessed. Shear bond strength was statistically analysed by two- and one-way ANOVAs and Weibull statistics, failure mode by chi(2) test (p ≤ 0.05). Shear bond strength was highest for silica coating/silanization > aluminium oxide air abrasion = mechanical roughening > no surface pretreatment. Independently of the repair pretreatment, highest bond strength values were observed in the control group and for the composite-based Everest C-Temp and Ambarino high-class, while PMMA-based materials (artBloc Temp, CAD-Temp and Telio CAD) presented significantly lowest values. For all materials, repair without any surface pretreatment resulted in adhesive failures only, which mostly were reduced when surface pretreatment was performed. Repair of CAD/CAM high-density polymers requires surface pretreatment prior to adhesive and composite application. However, four out of six of the tested CAD/CAM materials did not achieve the repair bond strength of a conventional dimethacrylate

  14. The influence of polishing techniques on pre-polymerized CAD\\CAM acrylic resin denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammari, Manal Rahma

    2017-10-01

    Lately, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has broadly been successfully employed in dentistry. The CAD/CAM systems have recently become commercially available for fabrication of complete dentures, and are considered as an alternative technique to conventionally processed acrylic resin bases. However, they have not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to inspect the effects of mechanical polishing and chemical polishing on the surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (wettability) of heat-cured, auto-cured and CAD/CAM denture base acrylic resins. This study was conducted at the Advanced Dental Research Laboratory Center of King Abdulaziz University from March to June 2017. Three denture base materials were selected: heat cure poly-methylmethacrylate resin, thermoplastic (polyamide resin) and (CAD\\CAM) denture base resin. Sixty specimens were prepared and divided into three groups, twenty in each. Each group was divided according to the polishing techniques into (Mech P) and (Chem P), ten specimens in each; surface roughness and wettability were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using one-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests were used for comparing the surface roughness values between three groups which revealed a statistical significant difference between them (p 1 CAD\\CAM denture base material (group III) showed the least mean values (1.08±0.23, 1.39±0.31, Mech P and Chem P respectively). CAD/CAM showed the least contact angle in both polishing methods, which were statistically significant at 5% level (p=0.034 and pCAD\\CAM denture base resin with superior smooth surface compared to chemical polishing. Mechanical polishing is considered the best effective polishing technique. CAD/CAM denture base material should be considered as the material of choice for complete denture construction in the near future, especially for older dental

  15. DISEÑO E IMPLEMENTACIÓN DE UN LABORATORIO DE CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Ingeniero industrial de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    El diseño y fabricación asistida con computadora comúnmente denominado CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Desing / Computer Aided Manufacturing) es una tecnología indispensable en los procesos productivos que se encuentran sometidos al alto nivel de competitividad en el mercado nacional e internacional, debido fundamentalmente a que las compañías necesitan abatir sus tiempos de diseño y manufactura con altos niveles de calidad. Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing commonly called CAD / CAM ...

  16. Accuracy Assessment for Cad Modeling of Freeform Surface Described by Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golba Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of comparative analysis of modeling accuracy the freeform surface constructed by using a variety of algorithms for surface modeling. Also determined the accuracy of mapping the theoretical freeform surface described by mathematical equation. To model surface objects used: SolidWorks 2012, CATIA v5 and Geomagic Studio 12. During the design process of CAD models were used: profile curves, fitting parametric surface and polygonal mesh. To assess the accuracy of the CAD models used Geomagic Qualify 12. On the basis of analyse defined the scope of application of each modeling techniques depending on the nature of the constructed object.

  17. 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    Syan, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future. This book specially focuses on the positive changes made in the field of robotics, CAD/CAM and future outlook for emerging manufacturing units. Some of the important topics discussed in the conference are product development and sustainability, modeling and simulation, automation, robotics and handling systems, supply chain management and logistics, advanced manufacturing processes, human aspects in engineering activities, emerging scenarios in engineering education and training. The contents of this set of proceedings will prove useful to both researchers and practitioners.

  18. INVESTIGATION THE FITTING ACCURACY OF CAST AND SLM CO-CR DENTAL BRIDGES USING CAD SOFTWARE

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanka Dikova; Tihomir Vasilev; Dzhendo Dzhendov; Elisaveta Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the fitting accuracy of Co-Cr dental bridges, manufactured by three technologies, with the newly developed method using CAD software. The four-part dental bridges of Co-Cr alloys were produced by conventional casting of wax models, casting with 3D printed patterns and selective laser melting. The marginal and internal fit of dental bridges was studied out by two methods – silicone replica test and CAD software. As the silicone replica test charac...

  19. Clinical outcome of alveolar ridge augmentation with individualized CAD-CAM-produced titanium mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheb, K; Schiegnitz, E.; Moergel, M.; Walter, C.; Al-Nawas, B.; Wagner, W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The augmentation of the jaw has been and continues to be a sophisticated therapy in implantology. Modern CAD-CAM technologies lead to revival of old and established augmentation techniques such as the use of titanium mesh (TM) for bone augmentation. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of an individualized CAD-CAM-produced TM based on the CT/DVT-DICOM data of the patients for the first time. Methods In 17 patients, 21 different regions were augme...

  20. FROM CAD MODEL TO 3D PRINT VIA “STL” FILE FORMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents the STL file format, which is now used for transferring information from CAD software to a 3D printer, for obtaining the solid model in Rapid prototyping and Computer Aided Manufacturing. It’s presented also the STL format structure, its history, limitations and further development, as well as its new version to arrive and other similar file formats. As a conclusion, STL files used to transfer data from CAD package to 3D printers has a series of limitations and therefore new formats will replace it soon.

  1. A CAD Model for Creep Behavior of RF-MEMS Varactors and Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Hao-Han; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a compact computer-aided design (CAD) model that may be utilized to simulate the creep behavior of RF microelectromechanical systems (RF-MEMS) varactors in RF circuits and subsystems. This model is capable of calculating the long-term response of RF-MEMS devices to an arbitrary input waveform. It is implemented using Agilent's Advanced Design System (ADS). The presented CAD model employs the generalized Voigt-Kelvin model to capture the long-term behavior of RF-MEMS ...

  2. Online mammographic images database for development and comparison of CAD schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Bruno Roberto Nepomuceno; Schiabel, Homero

    2011-06-01

    Considering the difficulties in finding good-quality images for the development and test of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), this paper presents a public online mammographic images database free for all interested viewers and aimed to help develop and evaluate CAD schemes. The digitalization of the mammographic images is made with suitable contrast and spatial resolution for processing purposes. The broad recuperation system allows the user to search for different images, exams, or patient characteristics. Comparison with other databases currently available has shown that the presented database has a sufficient number of images, is of high quality, and is the only one to include a functional search system.

  3. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  4. An Educational Exercise Examining the Role of Model Attributes on the Creation and Alteration of CAD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Diwakaran, Ram Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) is a ubiquitous tool that today's students will be expected to use proficiently for numerous engineering purposes. Taking full advantage of the features available in modern CAD programs requires that models are created in a manner that allows others to easily understand how they are organized and alter them in an…

  5. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Albrektson, Josh; Lerman, Lawrence; Tolo, Vernon T; Skaggs, David L

    2007-12-01

    CAD/CAM technology is a newer technique for creating spinal orthoses than standard plaster molded methods. To our knowledge there has been only one previous study of CAD/CAM braces. The purpose of our study was to compare patient preference and in-brace correction of Cobb angle between plaster molded thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSO) and CAD/CAM designed TLSOs in a series of patients with scoliosis. Ten patients with an average initial Cobb angle of 30.8 degrees (range 18 degrees -46 degrees ) had both a plaster molded TLSO and a CAD/CAM TLSO fabricated for them. In each case, the decision to brace was made by the treating surgeon based on curve magnitude and skeletal maturity. After 3 weeks of 23 h a day wear, in-brace correction of the Cobb angle was measured for each brace based on standard PA spine radiographs. After 3 months of use, patients were asked which brace they preferred. For the CAD/CAM brace, the mean curve correction after 3 months was 51% compared to 44% in the plaster molded TLSO cohort. (p = 0.46). Seven out of nine patients preferred the CAD/CAM TLSO over the plaster molded TLSO. There were no brace complications in either group. In our matched cohort study, CAD/CAM TLSOs had at least equivalent if not superior correction of the Cobb angle compared to standard plaster molded TLSOs; 78% of our patients preferred the CAD/CAM brace over the standard TLSO.

  6. Project Integration Architecture (PIA) and Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI) for Accessing Geometry Data from CAD Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of a supersonic inlet simulation with a computer aided design (CAD) system is demonstrated. The integration is performed using the Project Integration Architecture (PIA). PIA provides a common environment for wrapping many types of applications. Accessing geometry data from CAD files is accomplished by incorporating appropriate function calls from the Computational Analysis Programming Interface (CAPRI). CAPRI is a CAD vendor neutral programming interface that aids in acquiring geometry data directly from CAD files. The benefits of wrapping a supersonic inlet simulation into PIA using CAPRI are; direct access of geometry data, accurate capture of geometry data, automatic conversion of data units, CAD vendor neutral operation, and on-line interactive history capture. This paper describes the PIA and the CAPRI wrapper and details the supersonic inlet simulation demonstration.

  7. RayTrace: A Simplified Ray Tracing Software for use in AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Tang, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    A design aid tool for testing and development of daylighting systems was developed. A simplified ray tracing software was programmed in Lisp for AutoCad. Only fully specularly reflective, fully transparent and fully absorbant surfaces can be defined in the software. The software is therefore best...

  8. A tool to convert CAD models for importation into Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuosalo, C.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Palladino, K.; LUX-ZEPLIN Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The engineering design of a particle detector is usually performed in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program, and simulation of the detector’s performance can be done with a Geant4-based program. However, transferring the detector design from the CAD program to Geant4 can be laborious and error-prone. SW2GDML is a tool that reads a design in the popular SOLIDWORKS CAD program and outputs Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML), used by Geant4 for importing and exporting detector geometries. Other methods for outputting CAD designs are available, such as the STEP format, and tools exist to convert these formats into GDML. However, these conversion methods produce very large and unwieldy designs composed of tessellated solids that can reduce Geant4 performance. In contrast, SW2GDML produces compact, human-readable GDML that employs standard geometric shapes rather than tessellated solids. This paper will describe the development and current capabilities of SW2GDML and plans for its enhancement. The aim of this tool is to automate importation of detector engineering models into Geant4-based simulation programs to support rapid, iterative cycles of detector design, simulation, and optimization.

  9. The Role of Flow Experience and CAD Tools in Facilitating Creative Behaviours for Architecture Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Husameddin M.; Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Zaqout, Fahed

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of flow experience in intellectual activity with an emphasis on the relationship between flow experience and creative behaviour in design using CAD. The study used confluence and psychometric approaches because of their unique abilities to depict a clear image of creative behaviour. A cross-sectional study…

  10. Learning CAD at University through Summaries of the Rules of Design Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Samperio, Raúl Zamora

    2017-01-01

    The ease with which 3D CAD models may be modified and reused are two key aspects that improve the design-intent variable and that can significantly shorten the development timelines of a product. A set of rules are gathered from various authors that take different 3D modelling strategies into account. These rules are then applied to CAD…

  11. 4D CAD Based Method for Supporting Coordination of Urban Subsurface Utility Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Hartmann, T.; Doree, Andries G.

    Coordinators of inner city utility construction works face increasing difficulty in managing their projects due to tight physical restrictions, strict deadlines and growing stakeholder fragmentation. This paper therefore presents a 4D CAD based coordination method that supports project plan scoping,

  12. Use of MathCAD in a Pharmacokinetics Course for PharmD Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Student Edition of MathCAD as a computational aid in an introductory graduate level pharmacokinetics course. The program allows the student to perform mathematical calculations and analysis on a computer screen. The advantages and disadvantages of this application are discussed. (GLR)

  13. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng-Chang Chiu; Wen-Teng Wang; Wan-Shan Yin

    2017-01-01

    ...-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  14. The marginal fit of lithium disilicate crowns: Press vs. CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Azar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to compare the vertical marginal gap of teeth restored with lithium disilicate crowns fabricated using CAD/CAM or by pressed ceramic approach. Twenty mandibular third molar teeth were collected after surgical extractions and prepared to receive full veneer crowns. Teeth were optically scanned and lithium disilicate blocks were used to fabricate crowns using CAD/CAM technique. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions of the prepared teeth were made and monolithic pressed lithium disilicate crowns were fabricated. The marginal gap was measured using optical microscope at 200× magnification (Keyence VHX-5000, Japan. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon test. The lithium disilicate pressed crowns had significantly smaller (p = 0.006 marginal gaps (38 ± 12 μm than the lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns (45 ± 12 μm. This research indicates that lithium disilicate crowns fabricated with the press technique have measurably smaller marginal gaps compared with those fabricated with CAD/CAM technique within in vitro environments. The marginal gaps achieved by the crowns across all groups were within a clinically acceptable range.

  15. Incorporation of composite defects from ultrasonic NDE into CAD and FE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Onur Rauf; Schiefelbein, Bryan; Grandin, Robert J.; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are widely used in aerospace industry due to their combined properties of high strength and low weight. However, owing to their complex structure, it is difficult to assess the impact of manufacturing defects and service damage on their residual life. While, ultrasonic testing (UT) is the preferred NDE method to identify the presence of defects in composites, there are no reasonable ways to model the damage and evaluate the structural integrity of composites. We have developed an automated framework to incorporate flaws and known composite damage automatically into a finite element analysis (FEA) model of composites, ultimately aiding in accessing the residual life of composites and make informed decisions regarding repairs. The framework can be used to generate a layer-by-layer 3D structural CAD model of the composite laminates replicating their manufacturing process. Outlines of structural defects, such as delaminations, are automatically detected from UT of the laminate and are incorporated into the CAD model between the appropriate layers. In addition, the framework allows for direct structural analysis of the resulting 3D CAD models with defects by automatically applying the appropriate boundary conditions. In this paper, we show a working proof-of-concept for the composite model builder with capabilities of incorporating delaminations between laminate layers and automatically preparing the CAD model for structural analysis using a FEA software.

  16. Full-wave CAD of a rectangular waveguide filter with integrated coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Coaxial waveguides are very commonly used in many microwave subsystems for the connection of various components. Significant size reduction could, therefore, be achieved by integrating the design of the coaxial transition in the computer-aided design (CAD) of microwave filters. In this context, we

  17. Aplicacion del simulador ChemCAD[TM] en la ensenanza en carreras de ingenieria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toselli, Luis A; Guerrero, Monica P; Monesterolo, Vanina M; Beltran, Romina A

    2009-01-01

    .... Se analiza la utilizacion dada al software ChemCAD[TM] y sus modulos CC-Therm[TM] y CC-Batch[TM] durante mas de una decada en catedras del ciclo superior de las carreras de ingenieria que imparte la Facultad, en especial en ingenieria quimica...

  18. A distributed data base management facility for the CAD/CAM environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balza, R. M.; Beaudet, R. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    Current/PAD research in the area of distributed data base management considers facilities for supporting CAD/CAM data management in a heterogeneous network of computers encompassing multiple data base managers supporting a variety of data models. These facilities include coordinated execution of multiple DBMSs to provide for administration of and access to data distributed across them.

  19. Unique CAD/CAM three-quarter crown restoration of a central incisor: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin B; Siegel, Sharon C; Rezakani, Niloufar

    2013-07-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dentistry has been in use for more than 2 decades. Recent improvements in this technology have made CAD/CAM restorations a viable alternative for routine dental care. This technology is being taught in dental schools to prepare students for contemporary dental practice and is particularly useful in unique restorative situations that allow conservation of tooth structure. This case report describes the restoration of a central incisor that was previously restored with an unesthetic three-quarter gold crown. The tooth exhibited recurrent caries and an unaffected labial wall of supported enamel. A CAD/CAM three-quarter crown was planned to conserve tooth structure. After preparation, the tooth was scanned for a CAD/CAM crown in order to fabricate a ceramic restoration, which was then milled and bonded, producing an esthetic result. Typically, in cases of esthetic enhancement, a labial laminate restoration is fabricated, but in this situation, a different approach was necessary to make a design for the lingual surface of an anterior tooth.

  20. Research on AutoCAD secondary development and function expansion based on VBA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runmei; Gu, Yehuan

    2017-06-01

    AutoCAD is the most widely used drawing tool among the similar design drawing products. In the process of drawing different types of design drawings of the same product, there are a lot of repetitive and single work contents. The traditional manual method uses a drawing software AutoCAD drawing graphics with low efficiency, high error rate and high input cost shortcomings and many more. In order to solve these problems, the design of the parametric drawing system of the hot-rolled I-beam (steel beam) cross-section is completed by using the VBA secondary development tool and the Access database software with large-capacity storage data, and the analysis of the functional extension of the plane drawing and the parametric drawing design in this paper. For the secondary development of AutoCAD functions, the system drawing work will be simplified and work efficiency also has been greatly improved. This introduction of parametric design of AutoCAD drawing system to promote the industrial mass production and related industries economic growth rate similar to the standard I-beam hot-rolled products.

  1. ClusterCAD: a computational platform for type I modular polyketide synthase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Clara H; Backman, Tyler W H; Bailey, Constance B; Magnan, Christophe; García Martín, Héctor; Katz, Leonard; Baldi, Pierre; Keasling, Jay D

    2017-10-11

    ClusterCAD is a web-based toolkit designed to leverage the collinear structure and deterministic logic of type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) for synthetic biology applications. The unique organization of these megasynthases, combined with the diversity of their catalytic domain building blocks, has fueled an interest in harnessing the biosynthetic potential of PKSs for the microbial production of both novel natural product analogs and industrially relevant small molecules. However, a limited theoretical understanding of the determinants of PKS fold and function poses a substantial barrier to the design of active variants, and identifying strategies to reliably construct functional PKS chimeras remains an active area of research. In this work, we formalize a paradigm for the design of PKS chimeras and introduce ClusterCAD as a computational platform to streamline and simplify the process of designing experiments to test strategies for engineering PKS variants. ClusterCAD provides chemical structures with stereochemistry for the intermediates generated by each PKS module, as well as sequence- and structure-based search tools that allow users to identify modules based either on amino acid sequence or on the chemical structure of the cognate polyketide intermediate. ClusterCAD can be accessed at https://clustercad.jbei.org and at http://clustercad.igb.uci.edu. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Integration of CAD and GIS technology using ArcGIS for development of building information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetinović Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper will present basic definitions and significance of implementation of information systems for facility maintenance, as well as terms Facility management (FM and FM lifecycle. The main focus of this paper is on CAD and GIS integration within ArcGIS software in order to consolidate different data formats for creating unique information system for FM.

  3. Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AutoLISP was used to automate AutoCAD to produce reinforced concrete drawing of a half-turn dog-leg staircase, on receiving information relating to geometry and related parameters. This was done to improve efficiency as well as to save time and effort during structural detailing of the staircase type. The software ...

  4. Chipping behaviour of all-ceramic crowns with zirconia framework and CAD/CAM manufactured veneer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitter, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2012-01-01

    .... 32 identical, anatoform zirconia (Sirona inCoris ZI, mono L F1) frameworks (thickness 0.6mm) were constructed (Sirona inLab 3.80). Afterwards, 16 crowns were completed using a CAD/CAM manufactured lithium disilicate ceramic veneer...

  5. Parametric CAD and Fea Model of a Saddle Tapping Tee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Lund Jepsen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    is determined from paragraph K302.3.2 in ASME B31.3. A full parametric 3D CAD model of the Saddle Tapping Tee is developed where a number of user-defined parameters are controlled from an Excel spreadsheet allowing parameter studies and technical documentation to be generated effectively. The same Excel spread...

  6. Simulation model to analyze the scatter radiation effects on breast cancer diagnosis by CAD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irita, Ricardo T.; Frere, Annie F.; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2002-05-01

    One of factors that more affect the radiographic image quality is the scatter radiation produced by interaction between the x-ray and the radiographed object. Recently the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Systems are coming to aid the detection of breast small details. Nevertheless, we not sure how much the scatter radiation decrease the efficiency of this systems. This work presents a model in order to quantify the scatter radiation and find it relation between CAD's results used for the microcalcification detection. We simulated scatter photons that reaches the film and we added it to the mammography image. The new images were processed and the alterations of the CAD's results were analyzed. The information loss to breast composed by 80 percent adipose tissue was 0,0561 per each centimeter increased in the breast's thickness. We calculated these same data considering a proportion variation of adipose tissue and considering the breast composition of 90 percent and 70 percent the loss it would be of 0.0504 and 0.07559 per increased cm, respectively. We can increase the wanted scattered radiation to any image with its own characteristics and analyze the disturbances that it can bring to the visual inspection or the automatic detection (CAD system) efficiently.

  7. Bridging CAGD knowledge into CAD/CG applications: Mathematical theories as stepping stones of innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, Kenjiro T.; Hassan, Mohamad Nor

    2014-07-01

    Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD) which surpasses the underlying theories of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Graphics (CG) has been taught in a number of Malaysian universities under the umbrella of Mathematical Sciences' faculty/department. On the other hand, CAD/CG is taught either under the Engineering or Computer Science Faculty. Even though CAGD researchers/educators/students (denoted as contributors) have been enriching this field of study by means of article/journal publication, many fail to convert the idea into constructive innovation due to the gap that occurs between CAGD contributors and practitioners (engineers/product/designers/architects/artists). This paper addresses this issue by advocating a number of technologies that can be used to transform CAGD contributors into innovators where immediate impact in terms of practical application can be experienced by the CAD/CG practitioners. The underlying principle of solving this issue is twofold. First would be to expose the CAGD contributors on ways to turn mathematical ideas into plug-ins and second is to impart relevant CAGD theories to CAD/CG to practitioners. Both cases are discussed in detail and the final section shows examples to illustrate the importance of turning mathematical knowledge into innovations.

  8. Improved mammographic CAD performance using multi-view information: a Bayesian network framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, M.V.; Samulski, M.R.M.; Lucas, P.J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Mammographic reading by radiologists requires the comparison of at least two breast projections (views) for the detection and the diagnosis of breast abnormalities. Despite their reported potential to support radiologists, most mammographic computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have a major

  9. SonoCAD: a software to solve the dilemma of the prenatal diagnosis of fetal syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnaby, Mahmoud; Fawzi, Abdulmeneam; Swelem, Manal; Elgammal, Hisham; Elgammal, Hamdy

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an efficient, user-friendly, time-saving computer software program specified with prenatal diagnosis, based solely on ultrasound findings provided by the sonographer. Sonographyic computer-assisted diagnosis (SonoCAD) program was developed in four phases. Phase I: data gathering phase. Phase II: the software development phase in which the source code of the software was developed. Phase III: system testing phase that was divided into two steps: alpha testing phase, in which 20 syndromic scenarios were supplied to the software and the beta testing phase, in which the performance of SonoCAD was compared with the performance of the already established web site phenotip.com launched in 2014. Phase IV: the refining phase. In 92% of the syndromes provided, SonoCAD was capable of providing the correct diagnosis, while only in 53.3% of the syndromes phenotip.com was capable of providing the correct diagnosis. Sonographyic computer-assisted diagnosis is an efficient, properly functioning, time-saving software that could be utilized by all who are involved in prenatal diagnosis. SonoCAD was found to be more efficient and more accurate in generating a correct diagnosis when compared with the already available website phenotip.com having the same functionality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Workflow of CAD / CAM Scoliosis Brace Adjustment in Preparation Using 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Tournavitis, Nicos; Nan, Xiaofeng; Borysov, Maksym; Paul, Lothar

    2017-01-01

    High correction bracing is the most effective conservative treatment for patients with scoliosis during growth. Still today braces for the treatment of scoliosis are made by casting patients while computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is available with all possibilities to standardize pattern specific brace treatment and improve wearing comfort. CAD / CAM brace production mainly relies on carving a polyurethane foam model which is the basis for vacuuming a polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) brace. Purpose of this short communication is to describe the workflow currently used and to outline future requirements with respect to 3D printing technology. Description of the steps of virtual brace adjustment as available today are content of this paper as well as an outline of the great potential there is for the future 3D printing technology. For 3D printing of scoliosis braces it is necessary to establish easy to use software plug-ins in order to allow adding 3D printing technology to the current workflow of virtual CAD / CAM brace adjustment. Textures and structures can be added to the brace models at certain well defined locations offering the potential of more wearing comfort without losing in-brace correction. Advances have to be made in the field of CAD / CAM software tools with respect to design and generation of individually structured brace models based on currently well established and standardized scoliosis brace libraries.

  11. Wind Turbine Blade CAD Models Used as Scaffolding Technique to Teach Design Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    The Siemens PLM CAD software NX is commonly used for designing mechanical systems, and in complex systems such as the emerging area of wind power, the ability to have a model controlled by design parameters is a certain advantage. Formula driven expressions based on the amount of available wind in an area can drive the amount of effective surface…

  12. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  13. In vitro fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM composite resin and ceramic posterior occlusal veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2010-09-01

    Thin, bonded, posterior occlusal veneers constitute a conservative alternative to traditional complete coverage crowns. Information regarding selection of the appropriate material and its influence on fatigue resistance, which may affect the longevity of the restoration, is missing. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the fatigue resistance of composite resin and ceramic posterior occlusal veneers. Thirty extracted molars received a standardized nonretentive tooth preparation (simulating advanced occlusal erosion), including removal of occlusal enamel, exposure of dentin, and immediate dentin sealing (Optibond FL). All teeth were restored with a 1.2-mm-thick occlusal veneer (Cerec 3 chairside CAD/CAM system). The restorations (n=10) were milled from leucite-reinforced and lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD, respectively) and a composite resin (Paradigm MZ100). The intaglio surfaces of the ceramic restorations were conditioned by hydrofluoric acid etching and silane. Airborne-particle abrasion and silane were used to condition the composite resin restorations. Preparations were airborne-particle abraded and etched. All restorations were bonded with preheated luting material and submitted to cyclic isometric loading at 5 Hz, starting with a load of 200 N (x5000 cycles), followed by stepwise loading of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. The number of cycles at initial failure (first cracks) was recorded. Specimens were loaded for a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (alpha=.016, Bonferroni method). IPS Empress CAD failed at an average load of 900 N, with no specimen withstanding all 185,000 load cycles (survival 0%), while IPS e.max CAD and Paradigm MZ100 demonstrated survival rates of 30% and 100%, respectively. None of the specimens exhibited catastrophic failure, but only cracks limited to the restorative material. Posterior

  14. Different Routes for Conifer- and Sinapaldehyde and Higher Saccharification upon Deficiency in the Dehydrogenase CAD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Déjardin, Annabelle; Desmet, Sandrien; Hoengenaert, Lennart; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Laurans, Françoise; Kim, Hoon; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff; Goeminne, Geert; Légée, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout

    2017-11-01

    In the search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and, therefore, is a prime target to engineer. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) by specifically down-regulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach, which resulted in only 5% residual CAD1 transcript abundance. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thioacidolysis revealed a strong increase (up to 20-fold) in sinapaldehyde incorporation into lignin, whereas coniferaldehyde was not increased markedly. Accordingly, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a more than 24,000-fold accumulation of a newly identified compound made from 8-8 coupling of two sinapaldehyde radicals. However, no additional cinnamaldehyde coupling products could be detected in the CAD1-deficient poplars. Instead, the transgenic lines accumulated a range of hydroxycinnamate-derived metabolites, of which the most prominent accumulation (over 8,500-fold) was observed for a compound that was identified by purification and nuclear magnetic resonance as syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Our data suggest that, upon down-regulation of CAD1, coniferaldehyde is converted into ferulic acid and derivatives, whereas sinapaldehyde is either oxidatively coupled into S'(8-8)S' and lignin or converted to sinapic acid and derivatives. The most prominent sink of the increased flux to hydroxycinnamates is syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Furthermore, low-extent saccharification assays, under different pretreatment conditions, showed strongly increased glucose (up to +81%) and xylose (up

  15. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyun Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB under the same milling parameters. To assess the marginal and internal fit, the restorations were cemented to replicas and were embedded in an acrylic mold for sectioning at 0.5 mm intervals. The measured gap data were pooled according to the block types and measuring points for statistical analysis. Results Both the block type and measuring point significantly affected gap values, and their interaction was significant (p = 0.000. In crowns and inlays made from the two blocks, gap values were significantly larger in the occlusal area than in the axial area, while gap values in the marginal area were smallest (p < 0.001. Among the blocks, the restorations milled from EB had a significantly larger gap at all measuring points than those milled from LU (p = 0.000. Conclusions The marginal and internal gaps of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks differed according to the measuring points. Among the internal area of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations, occlusal gap data were significantly larger than axial gap data. The EB crowns and inlays had significantly larger gaps than LU restorations.

  16. TopoCad - A unified system for geospatial data and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felus, Y. A.; Sagi, Y.; Regev, R.; Keinan, E.

    2013-10-01

    "E-government" is a leading trend in public sector activities in recent years. The Survey of Israel set as a vision to provide all of its services and datasets online. The TopoCad system is the latest software tool developed in order to unify a number of services and databases into one on-line and user friendly system. The TopoCad system is based on Web 1.0 technology; hence the customer is only a consumer of data. All data and services are accessible for the surveyors and geo-information professional in an easy and comfortable way. The future lies in Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 technologies through which professionals can upload their own data for quality control and future assimilation with the national database. A key issue in the development of this complex system was to implement a simple and easy (comfortable) user experience (UX). The user interface employs natural language dialog box in order to understand the user requirements. The system then links spatial data with alpha-numeric data in a flawless manner. The operation of the TopoCad requires no user guide or training. It is intuitive and self-taught. The system utilizes semantic engines and machine understanding technologies to link records from diverse databases in a meaningful way. Thus, the next generation of TopoCad will include five main modules: users and projects information, coordinates transformations and calculations services, geospatial data quality control, linking governmental systems and databases, smart forms and applications. The article describes the first stage of the TopoCad system and gives an overview of its future development.

  17. CAD/CAM post-and-core using different esthetic materials: Fracture resistance and bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão Spina, Denis Roberto; Goulart da Costa, Rogério; Farias, Isabelli Carolini; da Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves; Ritter, André Vicente; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Giselle Maria

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the fracture resistance (FR), and push-out bond strengths (BS) of custom-made CAD/CAM post-and-cores manufactured with different esthetic materials. 90 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected, endodontically treated and prepared to receive the posts. The specimens were randomly divided into three equal groups according to the material: hybrid ceramic Vita Enamic (HC); nano-ceramic resin composite Lava Ultimate (RC); and experimental epoxy-resin reinforced by glass-fiber (FG). The post-and-cores were manufactured using CAD/CAM and cemented using a self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X Unicem2). A subgroup of 30 specimens (n=10) was subjected to fatigue (1,000,000 cycles at 5 Hz) and then to the FR test. Another subgroup with 60 specimens was submitted to the BS test, with and without fatigue. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (FR - one-way ANOVA; BS - two-way ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). The FR values (mean±SD, in Newtons) were 414.5±83.9 (HC), 621.3±100.3 (RC), and 407.6±109.0 (FG), with RC showing significantly higher FR values (Pmaterials, with and without fatigue (P> 0.05). The type of material used to obtain the CAD/CAM-customized post-and-cores had a significant effect on the FR, but not on the BS of the specimens. Fatigue did not influence the BS for the tested materials. CAD/CAM custom-made esthetic post-and-cores showed good performance relative to fracture resistance and bond strength to root canal dentin walls. The CAD/CAM materials tested could be used as an alternative to restore wide flared root canals in esthetically compromised teeth.

  18. Rationale and design of a randomized trial on the effectiveness of aerobic interval training in patients with coronary artery disease : The SAINTEX-CAD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conraads, Viviane M; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Beckers, Paul J; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; De Maeyer, Catherine; Denollet, J.; Frederix, Geert; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Hoymans, Vicky Y; Possemiers, Nadine; Schepers, Dirk; Shivalkar, Bharati; Vanhees, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is considered an important adjunct treatment and secondary prevention measure in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the issues of training modality and exercise intensity for CAD patients remain controversial. Objective: Main aim

  19. Differences in wood density and growth of fertilized and nonfertilized loblolly pine associated with a mutant gene, cad-n1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Yu; S.E. McKeand; C.D. Nelson; B. Li; J.R. Sherrill; T.J. Mullin

    2005-01-01

    A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydroganase (CAD). Effects associated with this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family...

  20. Is computer aided detection (CAD) cost effective in screening mammography? A model based on the CADET II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Single reading with computer aided detection (CAD) is an alternative to double reading for detecting cancer in screening mammograms. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of a single reader with CAD is more cost-effective than double reading. Methods Based on data from the CADET II study, the cost-effectiveness of single reading with CAD versus double reading was measured in terms of cost per cancer detected. Cost (Pound (£), year 2007/08) of single reading with CAD versus double reading was estimated assuming a health and social service perspective and a 7 year time horizon. As the equipment cost varies according to the unit size a separate analysis was conducted for high, average and low volume screening units. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the reading time, equipment and assessment cost, recall rate and reader qualification. Results CAD is cost increasing for all sizes of screening unit. The introduction of CAD is cost-increasing compared to double reading because the cost of CAD equipment, staff training and the higher assessment cost associated with CAD are greater than the saving in reading costs. The introduction of single reading with CAD, in place of double reading, would produce an additional cost of £227 and £253 per 1,000 women screened in high and average volume units respectively. In low volume screening units, the high cost of purchasing the equipment will results in an additional cost of £590 per 1,000 women screened. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the factors having the greatest effect on the cost-effectiveness of CAD with single reading compared with double reading were the reading time and the reader's professional qualification (radiologist versus advanced practitioner). Conclusions Without improvements in CAD effectiveness (e.g. a decrease in the recall rate) CAD is unlikely to be a cost effective alternative to double reading for mammography screening in UK. This study

  1. Is computer aided detection (CAD cost effective in screening mammography? A model based on the CADET II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single reading with computer aided detection (CAD is an alternative to double reading for detecting cancer in screening mammograms. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of a single reader with CAD is more cost-effective than double reading. Methods Based on data from the CADET II study, the cost-effectiveness of single reading with CAD versus double reading was measured in terms of cost per cancer detected. Cost (Pound (£, year 2007/08 of single reading with CAD versus double reading was estimated assuming a health and social service perspective and a 7 year time horizon. As the equipment cost varies according to the unit size a separate analysis was conducted for high, average and low volume screening units. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the reading time, equipment and assessment cost, recall rate and reader qualification. Results CAD is cost increasing for all sizes of screening unit. The introduction of CAD is cost-increasing compared to double reading because the cost of CAD equipment, staff training and the higher assessment cost associated with CAD are greater than the saving in reading costs. The introduction of single reading with CAD, in place of double reading, would produce an additional cost of £227 and £253 per 1,000 women screened in high and average volume units respectively. In low volume screening units, the high cost of purchasing the equipment will results in an additional cost of £590 per 1,000 women screened. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the factors having the greatest effect on the cost-effectiveness of CAD with single reading compared with double reading were the reading time and the reader's professional qualification (radiologist versus advanced practitioner. Conclusions Without improvements in CAD effectiveness (e.g. a decrease in the recall rate CAD is unlikely to be a cost effective alternative to double reading for mammography screening

  2. Adherence ofCandidato complete denture surfacesin vitro: A comparison of conventional and CAD/CAM complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F; Al-Mejrad, Lamya A; Albarrag, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surfaces of CAD/CAM and conventionally fabricated complete denture bases. Twenty discs of acrylic resin poly (methyl methacrylate) were fabricated with CAD/CAM and conventional procedures (heat-polymerized acrylic resin). The specimens were divided into two groups: 10 discs were fabricated using the CAD/CAM procedure (Wieland Digital Denture Ivoclar Vivadent), and 10 discs were fabricated using a conventional flasking and pressure-pack technique. Candida colonization was performed on all the specimens using four Candida albicans isolates. The difference in Candida albicans adhesion on the discs was evaluated. The number of adherent yeast cells was calculated by the colony-forming units (CFU) and by Fluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference in the adhesion of Candida albicans to the complete denture bases created with CAD/CAM and the adhesion to those created with the conventional procedure. The CAD/CAM denture bases exhibited less adhesion of Candida albicans than did the denture bases created with the conventional procedure ( P CAD/CAM procedure for fabricating complete dentures showed promising potential for reducing the adherence of Candida to the denture base surface. Clinical Implications. Complete dentures made with the CAD/CAM procedure might decrease the incidence of denture stomatitis compared with conventional dentures.

  3. TNF-alpha-308G>A polymorphism and the risk of familial CAD in a Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Tahir; Javed, Qamar

    2015-01-01

    A case-control and trio-families study was performed to establish a potential association between TNF-alpha gene promoter SNPs at -308 and -238, and occurrence of CAD in a Pakistani population. In the first phase, 150 patients and 150 controls were enrolled in the case-control association study. In the second phase, heritability of susceptible alleles was investigated from 88 trio-families with CAD affected offspring. Biochemical analysis of lipids and hs-CRP was carried out spectrophotometrically, while serum TNF-alpha concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotyping of the TNF-alpha SNPs were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Elevated serum TNF-alpha and hs-CRP were observed from CAD vs. controls (PA polymorphism in case-control study revealed that the said SNP was significantly associated with the increased risk of CAD. The findings demonstrated a significant link between the TNF-alpha variant allele A at -308 and CAD (P=0.0035), whereas the -238 SNP was not associated with the disease. Haplotype A-G of the TNF-alpha gene at -308G>A and -238G>A showed higher frequency in the patient group compared with controls (PA polymorphism is associated with CAD in the study population. Furthermore, for the first time, we showed that the TNF-alpha-308A allele was significantly associated with the familial CAD in our high risk population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Influence of different surface treatments on bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömürcüoğlu, Meltem Bektaş; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Tulga, Ayça

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of different surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement by four point bending test. The CAD/CAM materials under investigation were e.max CAD, Mark II, Lava Ultimate, and Enamic. A total of 400 bar specimens (4×1.2×12 mm) (n=10) milled from the CAD/CAM blocks underwent various pretreatments (no pretreatment (C), hydrofluoric acid (A), hydrofluoric acid + universal adhesive (Scotchbond) (AS), sandblasting (Sb), and sandblasting + universal adhesive (SbS)). The bars were luted end-to-end on the prepared surfaces with a dual curing adhesive resin cement (Variolink N, Ivoclar Vivadent) on the custom-made stainless steel mold. Ten test specimens for each treatment and material combination were performed with four point bending test method. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The surface treatment and type of CAD/CAM restorative material showed a significant effect on the four point bending strength (FPBS) ( P CAD/CAM restorative materials was modified after treatments. The surface treatment of sandblasting or HF acid etching in combination with a universal adhesive containing MDP can be suggested for the adhesive cementation of the novel CAD/CAM restorative materials.

  5. CAD-CAM plates versus conventional fixation plates for primary mandibular reconstruction: A biomechanical in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Sellenschloh, Kay; Gerbig, Lucca; Morlock, Michael M; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Smeets, Ralf; Heiland, Max; Huber, Gerd; Hanken, Henning

    2017-11-01

    CAD/CAM reconstruction plates have become a viable option for mandible reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine whether CAD/CAM plates provide higher fatigue strength compared with conventional fixation systems. 1.0 mm miniplates, 2.0 mm conventional locking plates (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany), and 2.0 mm CAD/CAM plates (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium/DePuy Synthes) were used to reconstruct a polyurethane mandible model (Synbone, Malans, CH) with cortical and cancellous bone equivalents. Mastication was simulated via cyclic dynamic testing using a universal testing machine (MTS, Bionix, Eden Prairie, MN, USA) until material failure reached a rate of 1 Hz with increasing loads on the left side. No significant difference was found between the groups until a load of 300 N. At higher loads, vertical displacement differed increasingly, with a poorer performance of miniplates (p = 0.04). Plate breakage occurred in miniplates and conventional locking plates. Screw breakage was recorded as the primary failure mechanism in CAD/CAM plates. Stiffness was significantly higher with the CAD/CAM plates (p = 0.04). CAD/CAM plates and reconstruction plates provide higher fatigue strength than miniplates, and stiffness is highest in CAD/CAM systems. All tested fixation methods seem sufficiently stable for mandible reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coronary artery disease reporting and data system (CAD-RADSTM): Inter-observer agreement for assessment categories and modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroules, Christopher D; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Branch, Kelley; Lee, James; Cury, Roberto C; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Thomas, Dustin; Williams, Michelle; Guo, Yanshu; Cury, Ricardo C

    2017-12-05

    The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) provides a lexicon and standardized reporting system for coronary CT angiography. To evaluate inter-observer agreement of the CAD-RADS among an panel of early career and expert readers. Four early career and four expert cardiac imaging readers prospectively and independently evaluated 50 coronary CT angiography cases using the CAD-RADS lexicon. All readers assessed image quality using a five-point Likert scale, with mean Likert score ≥4 designating high image quality, and CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers were assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and Fleiss' Kappa (κ).The impact of reader experience and image quality on inter-observer agreement was also examined. Inter-observer agreement for CAD-RADS assessment categories was excellent (ICC 0.958, 95% CI 0.938-0.974, p CAD-RADS assessment categories and modifiers is excellent, except for high-risk plaque (modifier V) which demonstrates fair agreement. These results suggest CAD-RADS is feasible for clinical implementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Implant-supported fixed dental prostheses with CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain crown and zirconia-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaba, Masayuki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ishiura, Yuichi; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a hybrid structure of CAD/CAM porcelain crowns adhered to a CAD/CAM zirconia framework (PAZ) have been developed. The aim of this report was to describe the clinical application of a newly developed implant-supported FDP fabrication system, which uses PAZ, and to evaluate the outcome after a maximum application period of 36 months. Implants were placed in three patients with edentulous areas in either the maxilla or mandible. After the implant fixtures had successfully integrated with bone, gold-platinum alloy or zirconia custom abutments were first fabricated. Zirconia framework wax-up was performed on the custom abutments, and the CAD/CAM zirconia framework was prepared using the CAD/CAM system. Next, wax-up was performed on working models for porcelain crown fabrication, and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were fabricated. The CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were bonded using adhesive resin cement, and the PAZ was cemented. Cementation of the implant superstructure improved the esthetics and masticatory efficiency in all patients. No undesirable outcomes, such as superstructure chipping, stomatognathic dysfunction, or periimplant bone resorption, were observed in any of the patients. PAZ may be a potential solution for ceramic-related clinical problems such as chipping and fracture and associated complicated repair procedures in implant-supported FDPs. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. MDCT assessment of CAD in type-2 diabetic subjects with diabetic neuropathy: the role of Charcot neuro-arthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, Riccardo; Savino, Giancarlo; Merlino, Biagio; Pirro, Federica; Rutigliano, Claudia; Santangelo, Carolina; Minoiu, Aurelian Costin; Natale, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences - Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Pitocco, Dario [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Rome (Italy); Di Stasio, Enrico [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rome (Italy); Trani, Carlo [Catholic University of Rome, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine - Institute of Cardiology, Rome (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To compare the CACS and CAD severity assessed by MDCT in neuropathic type-2 diabetic patients with and without Charcot-neuroarthropathy (CN). Thirty-four CN asymptomatic-patients and 36 asymptomatic-patients with diabetic-neuropathy (DN) without CN underwent MDCT to assess CACS and severity of CAD. Patients were classified as positive for significant CAD in presence of at least one stenosis >50 % on MDCT-coronary-angiography (MDCT-CA). Groups were matched for age, sex and traditional CAD risk-factors. The coronary-angiography (CA) was performed in all patients with at least a significant stenosis detected by MDCT-CA, both as reference and eventually as treatment. CN patients showed higher rates of significant CAD in comparison with DN subjects [p < 0.001], while non-significant differences were observed in CACS (p = 0.980). No significant differences were also observed in CACS distribution in all subjects for stenosis ≥/<50 % (p = 0.814), as well as in both groups (p = 0.661 and 0.559, respectively). The MDCT-CA showed an overall diagnostic-accuracy for significant CAD of 87 %. These preliminary data suggest that CN-patients have a higher prevalence of severe CAD in comparison with DN-patients, while coronary plaques do not exhibit an increased amount of calcium. MDCT may be helpful to assess the CV risk in such asymptomatic type-2-diabetic patients with autonomic-neuropathy. (orig.)

  9. The CD4/CD8 ratio is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in elderly Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan; Rong, Hong-Hui; Lu, Ting; Tang, Gang; Si, Liang-Yi; Lederer, James A; Xiong, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between number of circulating T cells and coronary artery disease (CAD) in an elderly Chinese population. A total of 295 elderly inpatients (age≥60) were included in this cross-sectional study. Their clinical and biochemical characteristics were recorded. Patients were divided to two groups: control patients and CAD patients. The risk factors of CAD were explored by binary logistic regression analysis. Compared with control patients, the ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells was significantly increased in CAD patients. There was no difference in the number of CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cells between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CAD was independently associated with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), chronic heart failure (CHF) and the CD4/CD8 ratio. In addition, after adjusting for different clinical parameters (including gender, age, CHF, hypertension, arrhythmia, SBP, and BMI), the risk of CAD was significantly increased in patients with a CD4/CD8 ratio>1.5. There was a strong and independent association between the ratio of CD4/CD8 and CAD in elderly Chinese population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Incorporation of an iterative, linear segmentation routine into a mammographic mass CAD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarious, David M; Baydush, Alan H; Floyd, Carey E

    2004-06-01

    In previous research, we have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system designed to detect masses in mammograms. The previous version of our system employed a simple but imprecise method to localize the masses. In this research, we present a more robust segmentation routine for use with mammographic masses. Our hypothesis is that by more accurately describing the morphology of the masses, we can improve the CAD system's ability to distinguish masses from other mammographic structures. To test this hypothesis, we incorporated the new segmentation routine into our CAD system and examined the change in performance. The developed iterative, linear segmentation routine is a gray level-based procedure. Using the identified regions from the previous CAD system as the initial seeds, the new segmentation algorithm refines the suspicious mass borders by making estimates of the interior and exterior pixels. These estimates are then passed to a linear discriminant, which determines the optimal threshold between the interior and exterior pixels. After applying the threshold and identifying the object's outline, two constraints on the border are applied to reduce the influence of background noise. After the border is constrained, the process repeats until a stopping criterion is reached. The segmentation routine was tested on a study database of 183 mammographic images extracted from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Eighty-three of the images contained 50 malignant and 50 benign masses; 100 images contained no masses. The previously developed CAD system was used to locate a set of suspicious regions of interest (ROIs) within the images. To assess the performance of the segmentation algorithm, a set of 20 features was measured from the suspicious regions before and after the application of the developed segmentation routine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed on the ROIs to examine the discriminatory capabilities of each

  11. Comparison of Fit of Dentures Fabricated by Traditional Techniques Versus CAD/CAM Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J Bryan; Ramos, Van; Dickinson, Douglas P

    2017-11-14

    To compare the shrinkage of denture bases fabricated by three methods: CAD/CAM, compression molding, and injection molding. The effect of arch form and palate depth was also tested. Nine titanium casts, representing combinations of tapered, ovoid, and square arch forms and shallow, medium, and deep palate depths, were fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM) technology. For each base fabrication method, three poly(vinyl siloxane) impressions were made from each cast, 27 dentures for each method. Compression-molded dentures were fabricated using Lucitone 199 poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), and injection molded dentures with Ivobase's Hybrid Pink PMMA. For CAD/CAM, denture bases were designed and milled by Avadent using their Light PMMA. To quantify the space between the denture and the master cast, silicone duplicating material was placed in the intaglio of the dentures, the titanium master cast was seated under pressure, and the silicone was then trimmed and recovered. Three silicone measurements per denture were recorded, for a total of 243 measurements. Each silicone measurement was weighed and adjusted to the surface area of the respective arch, giving an average and standard deviation for each denture. Comparison of manufacturing methods showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001). Using a ratio of the means, compression molding had on average 41% to 47% more space than injection molding and CAD/CAM. Comparison of arch/palate forms showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.023), with shallow palate forms having more space with compression molding. The ovoid shallow form showed CAD/CAM and compression molding had more space than injection molding. Overall, injection molding and CAD/CAM fabrication methods produced equally well-fitting dentures, with both having a better fit than compression molding. Shallow palates appear to be more affected by shrinkage than medium or deep palates. Shallow ovoid arch forms appear to benefit from

  12. Functional characterization of a cadmium resistance operon in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600: CadC does not function as a repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Dyk, Lisa A Van; Buit, Tyler S; Roukema, David; Resseguie, Emily; Plaisier, Christina; Le, Nga; Heeringa, Lee; Griend, Douglas A Vander

    2015-02-01

    Sequencing of a cadmium resistance operon from a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 plasmid revealed that it is identical to a cadCA operon found in MRSA strains. Compared to plasmid-cured and cadC-mutant strains, cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells had increased resistance to cadmium (1 mg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate) and zinc (4 mg ml(-1) zinc sulfate), but not to other metal ions. After growth in media containing 20 µg ml(-1) cadmium sulfate, cadC-mutant cells contained more intracellular cadmium than cadC-positive ATCC12600 cells, suggesting that cadC absence results in impaired cadmium efflux. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed with CadC proteins encoded by the S. aureus ATCC12600 plasmid and by the cadC gene of pI258, which is known to act as a transcriptional repressor and shares only 47% protein sequence identity with ATCC12600 CadC. Mobility shifts occurred when pI258 CadC protein was incubated with the promoter DNA-regions from the pI258 and S. aureus ATCC12600 cadCA operons, but did not occur with S. aureus ATCC12600 CadC protein, indicating that the ATCC12600 CadC protein does not interact with promoter region DNA. This cadCA operon, found in MRSA strains and previously functionally uncharacterized, increases resistance to cadmium and zinc by an efflux mechanism, and CadC does not function as a transcriptional repressor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs.

  14. Optics learning by computing, with examples using Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Karl Dieter

    2007-01-01

    This new edition is intended for a one semester course in optics for juniors and seniors in science and engineering; it uses scripts from Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB provide a simulated laboratory where students can learn by exploration and discovery instead of passive absorption. The text covers all the standard topics of a traditional optics course, including: geometrical optics and aberration, interference and diffraction, coherence, Maxwell's equations, wave guides and propagating modes, blackbody radiation, atomic emission and lasers, optical properties of materials, Fourier transforms and FT spectroscopy, image formation, and holography. It contains step by step derivations of all basic formulas in geometrical, wave and Fourier optics. The basic text is supplemented by over 170 files in Maple, MathCad, Mathematica, and MATLAB (many of which are in the text, each suggesting programs to solve a particular problem, and each linked to a topic in or application of optics. The computer files are d...

  15. Tool application CAD / CAM for design and construction of a prototype of plastic injection mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Miyer Suárez Castrillón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study, development and production of injection molds comes with the implementation of CAD and CAM tools available on the market; using these tools, a prototype injection mold for thermoplastic materials was designed and built, based on a mold is injection in the laboratory of the University of Pamplona, in which a couple of modifications were made in order to experiment with its design. The prototype was manufactured through a 3D scan of the original mold to provide the CAD / CAM files with the simulated 3D printing technique for performing an experimental study with the prototype for adjusting temperature and pressure sensors and for coatings metallic materials for use in the injection molding process.

  16. Industrial Robotics Platform for Simulation Design, Planning and Optimization based on Off-line CAD Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baizid Khelifa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents IRoSim: Industrial Robotics Simulation Design Planning and Optimization platform which we developed based on SolidWorks API. The main objective is to integrate features from mechanical and robotics CAD software into the same platform in order to facilitate the development process through a friendly interaction interface. The platform provides important steps to develop a given robotized task such as: defining a given task, CAD learning of the end-effectors’ trajectory, checking the manipulator’s reach-ability to perform a task, simulating the motion and preventing the trajectory from possible collisions. To assess the usability of the proposed platform, a car’s doors painting task using a 6 Degree Of Freedom industrial manipulator has been developed.

  17. CAD, 3D modeling, engineering analysis, and prototype experimentation industrial and research applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Li, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    This succinct book focuses on computer aided design (CAD), 3-D modeling, and engineering analysis and the ways they can be applied effectively in research and industrial sectors including aerospace, defense, automotive, and consumer products. These efficient tools, deployed for R&D in the laboratory and the field, perform efficiently three-dimensional modeling of finished products, render complex geometrical product designs, facilitate structural analysis and optimal product design, produce graphic and engineering drawings, and generate production documentation. Written with an eye toward green energy installations and novel manufacturing facilities, this concise volume enables scientific researchers and engineering professionals to learn design techniques, control existing and complex issues, proficiently use CAD tools, visualize technical fundamentals, and gain analytic and technical skills. This book also: ·       Equips practitioners and researchers to handle powerful tools for engineering desi...

  18. CAD Tools for Creating Space-filing 3D Escher Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howison, Mark; Sequin, Carlo H.

    2009-04-10

    We discuss the design and implementation of CAD tools for creating decorative solids that tile 3-space in a regular, isohedral manner. Starting with the simplest case of extruded 2D tilings, we describe geometric algorithms used for maintaining boundary representations of 3D tiles, including a Java implementation of an interactive constrained Delaunay triangulation library and a mesh-cutting algorithm used in layering extruded tiles to create more intricate designs. Finally, we demonstrate a CAD tool for creating 3D tilings that are derived from cubic lattices. The design process for these 3D tiles is more constrained, and hence more difficult, than in the 2D case, and it raises additional user interface issues.

  19. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (pVita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  20. IPAD 2: Advances in Distributed Data Base Management for CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, S. W. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) Project objective is to improve engineering productivity through better use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The focus is on development of technology and associated software for integrated company-wide management of engineering information. The objectives of this conference are as follows: to provide a greater awareness of the critical need by U.S. industry for advancements in distributed CAD/CAM data management capability; to present industry experiences and current and planned research in distributed data base management; and to summarize IPAD data management contributions and their impact on U.S. industry and computer hardware and software vendors.

  1. Transfusión de sangre de cadáver al hombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Méndez S.

    1935-05-01

    Full Text Available El profesor Sergio Judíne, de Moscú, jefe del Instituto de Cirugía de Urgencia y director de la misma cátedra, fue quien practicó por prirnera vez, en un caso desesperado, la transfusión de sangre de un cadáver a un paciente en estado agónico, con éxito asombroso. El precursor de este método terapéutico es el profesor ruso Schamoff, quien presentó al Congreso de Cirugía reunido en Karkoff el 11 de septiembre de 1928, un estudio sobre la transfusión de sangre de cadáver en los perros.

  2. A completely CAD/CAM individual transmission device for electronic mandible movement registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Kordaß, Bernd; Ruge, Sebastian

    The connection of a device for the registration of mandibular movements depends on the coupling of the teeth with a paraocclusal adapter. This is normally done by individualizing a prefabricated metal support, either directly on the patient or in the dental laboratory. The goal was to create an individual paraocclusal adapter by means of additive computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) procedures, and to test it clinically. Starting from intraoral scans of the maxillary and mandibular teeth, an individual paraocclusal adapter was constructed by combining an adapter piece adapted to the tooth and jaw shape with a prefabricated standard part. This article describes step by step the design using the 3D CAD software, up until production by means of 3D printing. Initial clinical experience is also discussed.

  3. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Cheng-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roughing and cementing are very essential to the process of bonding shoe uppers and the corresponding soles; however, for shoes with complicated design, such as sport shoes, roughing and cementing greatly relied on manual operation. Recently, shoe industry is progressing to 3D design, thus 3D model of the shoe upper and sole will be created before launching into mass production. Taking advantage of the 3D model, this study developed a plug-in program on Rhino 3D CAD platform, which realized the complicated roughing and cementing route planning to be performed by the plug-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  4. Radmap: ''as-built'' cad models incorporating geometrical, radiological and material information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, L. [Electricite de France (EDF/DRD), 78 - Chatou (France); Lubawy, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF/CNEPE), 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-07-01

    EDF intends to achieve successful and cost-effective dismantling of its obsolete nuclear plants. To reach this goal, EDF is currently extending its ''as-built'' 3-D modelling system to also include the location and characteristics of gamma sources in the geometrical models of its nuclear installations. The resulting system (called RADMAP) is a complete CAD chain covering 3-D and gamma data acquisitions, CAD modelling and exploitation of the final model. Its aim is to describe completely the geometrical and radiological state of a particular nuclear environment. This paper presents an overall view of RADMAP. The technical and functional characteristics of each element of the chain are indicated and illustrated using real (EDF) environments/applications. (author)

  5. Integrated approach for fusion multi-physics coupled analyses based on hybrid CAD and mesh geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yuefeng, E-mail: yuefeng.qiu@kit.edu; Lu, Lei; Fischer, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated approach for neutronics, thermal and structural analyses was developed. • MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4 were coupled with CFX, Fluent and ANSYS Workbench. • A novel meshing approach has been proposed for describing MC geometry. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics analyses on fusion reactor devices require high-fidelity neutronic models, and flexible, accurate data exchanging between various calculation codes. An integrated coupling approach has been developed to enable the conversion of CAD, mesh, or hybrid geometries for Monte Carlo (MC) codes MCNP5/6, TRIPOLI-4, and translation of nuclear heating data for CFD codes Fluent, CFX and structural mechanical software ANSYS Workbench. The coupling approach has been implemented based on SALOME platform with CAD modeling, mesh generation and data visualization capabilities. A novel meshing approach has been developed for generating suitable meshes for MC geometry descriptions. The coupling approach has been concluded to be reliable and efficient after verification calculations of several application cases.

  6. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  7. INTEGRASI SOFTWARE CAD-CAM DALAM SISTEM OPERASI MESIN BUBUT CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuris Setyoadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM adalah sebuah teknologi aplikasi yang menggunakan perangkat lunak komputer dan mesin untuk memfasilitasi dan mengotomatisasi proses manufaktur. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM adalah penerus dari Computer Aided Engineering (CAE dan sering digunakan bersama dengan Computer-Aided Design (CAD. Bidang manufaktur, perangkat komputer telah dipergunakan untuk mengontrol mesin-mesin produksi otomatis dengan ketepatan tinggi, misalnya mesin CNC. ?é?áArtikel ini membahas tentang penggunaan software CAD-CAM (SOLIDWorks dan CAMWorks yang terintegrasi kemudian diaplikasikan ke mesin bubut CNC yang menggunakan software Mach3, Mach3 adalah software yang bisa mengubah komputer dekstop menjadi sebuah piranti kontroller mesin CNC. Software SOLIDWorks, CAMWorks dan Mach3 diintegrasikan ke dalam sistem operasi mesin bubut CNC sehingga proses koreksi dan modifikasi format perintah gerakan dalam G/M code dapat dilakukan dalam software tersebut.

  8. PorkCAD: Case study of the design of a pork product prototyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Bærentzen, J. Andreas; Igarashi, T.

    2013-01-01

    the usability of porkCAD, we tested it with personnel from the pork industry, using two different controller interfaces, one being a traditional mouse and keyboard input, and the other a six degrees of freedom haptic feedback device. The accurate depiction of pig anatomy guided trained professionals to re......With the help of industry experts we developed porkCAD, an application intended to aid in the communication process between producer and retailer when developing new meat products for a constantly evolving market. The application interface allows the user to make planar cuts to a virtual pig formed...... from CT-scans of a real-world pig carcass. We present a case study of the design process from conceptualization to intended introduction into the work flow of a meat production company. We discuss critical design decisions during development and present perspectives for future development. To determine...

  9. El CAD en la actividad de reingeniería e ingeniería en los mantenimientos a centrales eléctricas // CAD in the reengineering and engineering activity in maintenance of power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Ramírez

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra algunas experiencias obtenidas en la actividad de ingeniería y reingeniería durante elmantenimiento a centrales eléctricas con empleo del CAD (Computer Aided Design, se muestran además las estrategiasseguidas con vistas a automatizar la actividad de reingeniería en ordenadores y a lograr mejoras económicas en la actividada costa de disminuir los costos de producción.Palabras claves: CAD, reingeniería, mantenimiento de calderas._________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe present work shows some experiences obtained in the engineering and reengineering during the maintenance activity inpower plants carried out by our company applying the CAD (Computer Aided Design, it is also exposed the strategyfollowed with a view to automating the reengineering activity with the use of computers, keeping in mind a view to achieveconomic improvements in the activity to diminish production costs.Key words: reengineering, CAD, maintenance, boiler.

  10. CAD and digital technologies in development of new aesthetics for jewellery and small objects

    OpenAIRE

    Abramicheva, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    This project investigates contemporary figurations of the Jungian archetype of the trickster. Through my research into various trickster characters, this figure has come to symbolise and highlight changes in contemporary society with a particular emphasis on current technology in the field of jewellery. The digital process of design (CAD) is employed to explore a personal vocabulary of these figures and to investigate the transformations in terms of the meaning that they are given within cont...

  11. Machining variability impacts on the strength of a 'chair-side' CAD-CAM ceramic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2012-08-01

    To develop a novel methodology to generate specimens for bi-axial flexure strength (BFS) determination from a \\'chair-side\\' CAD-CAM feldspathic ceramic with surface defect integrals analogous to the clinical state. The hypotheses tested were: BFS and surface roughness (R(a)) are independent of machining variability introduced by the renewal or deterioration of form-grinding tools and that a post-machining annealing cycle would significantly modify BFS.

  12. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  13. 3D fitting accuracy evaluation of CAD/CAM copings - comparison with spacer design settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, Philippe; Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fromentin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of computer-aided design/computer- aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems is linked to their technical characteristics and reliability for manufacturing the restoration designed. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fit of zirconia copings manufactured with different CAD/CAM systems and their capacity to conform to pre-established spacer design settings. Sixty zirconia copings were manufactured by three CAD/CAM systems, with their spacers set as recommended by their manufacturer on occlusal, axial, and marginal surfaces. The 3D triple-scan optical technique was used to obtain a fit mapping and to analyze the marginal and axial accuracy of fit. The reliability of the 3D measurement method was estimated using intraclass correlation and repeatability coefficients. The preparation coping interface width results were statistically analyzed using non-parametric analysis (Kruskal-Wallis, one-way ANOVA, and Wilcoxon signedrank tests) (P < 0.05). The repeatability coefficient was 6, 8, and 15 μm for axial, marginal, and occlusal interface width measurements, respectively. For the three systems tested, no differences were found in the marginal area of the copings studied, with a mean fitting accuracy ranging from 54.3 to 66.6 μm interface width. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed for the fitting accuracy measured in axial and occlusal areas. With the spacers set in the different areas, mean fit measurements of the zirconia copings were significantly larger, with an increased fit width ranging from 30 to 73 μm. The three CAD/CAM systems evaluated allowed similar marginal accuracy but failed to reproduce the pre-established spacer parameters, with larger spacing showing throughout.

  14. A Step-by-Step Conservative Approach for CAD-CAM Laminate Veneers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Durán Ojeda; Ismael Henríquez Gutiérrez; Álvaro Guzmán Marusic; Abelardo Báez Rosales; José Pablo Tisi Lanchares

    2017-01-01

    The use of CAD/CAM technology has allowed the fabrication of ceramic restorations efficiently and with predictable results. Lithium disilicate is a type of glass ceramic material that can be used for the elaboration of laminate veneers, being monolithic restorations which require characterization through a covering ceramic in order to achieve acceptable esthetic results. The next case report shows a predictable clinical protocol for the rehabilitation of the anterior teeth through the prepara...

  15. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  16. Esthetic Rehabilitation through Crown Lengthening Surgery and Conservative CAD/CAM Veneers: A Multidisciplinary Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Passos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach used to improve the smile esthetics of a patient presenting with excessive gingival display, asymmetric gingival margins, and small upper anterior teeth and lower anterior teeth. The treatment combined esthetic crown lengthening, dental bleaching, and restorative dentistry using CAD/CAM veneer. The 6-month follow-up examination confirmed the stability of the modification and absence of adverse effects.

  17. Premolar Axial Wall Height Effect on CAD/CAM Crown Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    0.4-degree step size. Individual images were combined into a three dimensional ( 3D ) image using recombination software (nRecon, Bruker MicroCT) and...microCT image ........16 Figure 8. Intaglio surface one mm occlusocervical height............................17 ix List of Abbreviations CAD... teeth were used in this study. All teeth were collected from local oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics which had been removed as per routine

  18. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  19. Use of CAD output to guide the intelligent display of digital mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Morgan, Trevor; Rico, Dan; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-05-01

    For digital mammography to be efficient, methods are needed to choose an initial default image presentation that maximizes the amount of relevant information perceived by the radiologist and minimizes the amount of time spent adjusting the image display parameters. The purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of using the output of computer aided detection (CAD) software to guide image enhancement and presentation. A set of 16 digital mammograms with lesions of known pathology was used to develop and evaluate an enhancement and display protocol to improve the initial softcopy presentation of digital mammograms. Lesions were identified by CAD and the DICOM structured report produced by the CAD program was used to determine what enhancement algorithm should be applied in the identified regions of the image. An improved version of contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) is used to enhance calcifications. For masses, the image is first smoothed using a non-linear diffusion technique; subsequently, local contrast is enhanced with a method based on morphological operators. A non-linear lookup table is automatically created to optimize the contrast in the regions of interest (detected lesions) without losing the context of the periphery of the breast. The effectiveness of the enhancement will be compared with the default presentation of the images using a forced choice preference study.

  20. Technologies for the investigation of CAD: association between scientific publications and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom

    2010-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests an association between a technology exposure in the literature and its dissemination in clinical practice, few studies have evaluated such association. To analyze whether the pattern of scientific publication on two competitive technologies used in the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) reflects what occurs in clinical practice. The number of scientific articles published annually in the medical literature (global scientific interest in technology) on two technologies used in the assessment of CAD was evaluated: electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The number of countries that annually publish scientific articles about these technologies (geographic interest in the technology) was also analyzed. The EBCT showed a peak of "global scientific interest" in 2001, with 127 published articles. After this peak, the "global scientific interest" decreased by around 50% in 2008. In opposition, the "global scientific interest" for MDCT progressively increased up to 2007, with 454 articles published in that year. The "geographic scientific interest" by EBCT showed a peak in 2002, with 14 countries publishing about this technology. After this peak, the "geographic scientific interest" decreased by almost 25% up to 2008, with 11 countries publishing about this technology. In opposition, the "geographic scientific interest" by MDCT progressively increased up to 2008, with 37 countries publishing articles about it. The medical scientific literature is compatible with the substitution of EBCT by MDCT in the assessment of CAD.

  1. The application of CAD, CAE & CAM in development of butterfly valve’s disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiff Razif Shah Ranjit, Muhammad; Hanie Abdullah, Nazlin

    2017-06-01

    The improved design of a butterfly valve disc is based on the concept of sandwich theory. Butterfly valves are mostly used in various industries such as oil and gas plant. The primary failure modes for valves are indented disc, keyways and shaft failure and the cavitation damage. Emphasis on the application of CAD, a new model of the butterfly valve’s disc structure was designed. The structure analysis was analysed using the finite element analysis. Butterfly valve performance factors can be obtained is by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software to simulate the physics of fluid flow in a piping system around a butterfly valve. A comparison analysis was done using the finite element to justify the performance of the structure. The second application of CAE is the computational fluid flow analysis. The upstream pressure and the downstream pressure was analysed to calculate the cavitation index and determine the performance throughout each opening position of the valve. The CAM process was done using 3D printer to produce a prototype and analysed the structure in form of prototype. The structure was downscale fabricated based on the model designed initially through the application of CAD. This study is utilized the application of CAD, CAE and CAM for a better improvement of the butterfly valve’s disc components.

  2. Noninvasive bilaminar CAD/CAM composite resin veneers: 
a semi-(in)direct approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    Direct composite resin restorations have been recognized for their valuable clinical service and respect of intact hard tissue. The cost-effectiveness and inherent minimally invasive approach of resin-based materials means that they are also gaining popularity for use in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) procedures. Several cases from the student clinics at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC are presented that could have been resolved either with direct composite resin restorations or with indirect porcelain veneers. A novel semi-indirect CAD/CAM approach, characterized by its absolute noninvasiveness and simplicity, was chosen instead. The bilaminar restoration consists of a customized histoanatomical CAD/CAM dentin base (incisoproximal cutback), and a generic enamel skin. The patients can be treated either in one clinical session (semi-directly) or in two clinical sessions (semi-indirectly). The purpose of this article is to present another tool from the anterior restorative armamentarium to bridge the gap between direct and indirect techniques.

  3. Maxillary sinus augmentation using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, F; Zecca, P; Pozzi-Taubert, S; Macchi, A; Ricci, M; Luongo, G; Mangano, C

    2013-09-01

    Maxillary sinus augmentation is a common method for increasing bone height for insertion of dental implants. In most cases, the graft is manually cut into a roughly appropriate shape by visual estimation during the operation; accordingly, the shape of the graft depends considerably on the experience of the surgeon. We have developed a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique to generate custom-made block grafts for sinus augmentation, and a customized cutting guide to precisely position the lateral wall and facilitate membrane elevation, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Custom-made blocks of hydroxyapatite (HA) were preoperatively cut to the required shape, based on a three-dimensional (3D) simulation, using CAD/CAM technology. The custom-made HA blocks were used for sinus augmentation. Five patients underwent bilateral sinus elevation with custom-made HA blocks. Six months later, implants were placed. Two years after placement, all implants were in function. No clinical or prosthetic complications were encountered. We present a CAD/CAM technique for the fabrication of custom-made block grafts for sinus augmentation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CAD/CAM glass ceramics for single-tooth implant crowns: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kvanç; Cavusoglu, Yeliz; Sagirkaya, Elcin; Aybar, Buket; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the load distribution of CAD/CAM mono-ceramic crowns supported with single-tooth implants in functional area. A 3-dimensional numerical model of a soft tissue-level implant was constructed with cement-retained abutment to support glass ceramic machinable crown. Implant-abutment complex and the retained crown were embedded in a Ø 1.5 × 1.5 cm geometric matrix for evaluation of mechanical behavior of mono-ceramic CAD/CAM aluminosilicate and leucite glass crown materials. Laterally positioned axial load of 300 N was applied on the crowns. Resulting principal stresses in the mono-ceramic crowns were evaluated in relation to different glass ceramic materials. The highest compressive stresses were observed at the cervical region of the buccal aspect of the crowns and were 89.98 and 89.99 MPa, for aluminosilicate and leucite glass ceramics, respectively. The highest tensile stresses were observed at the collar of the lingual part of the crowns and were 24.54 and 25.39 MPa, respectively. Stresses induced upon 300 N static loading of CAD/CAM aluminosalicate and leucite glass ceramics are below the compressive strength of the materials. Impact loads may actuate the progress to end failure of mono-ceramic crowns supported by metallic implant abutments.

  5. Color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic and staining drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Cavallo, Marco; Miegge, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics following exposure to acidic drink (Coca Cola) and after exposure to staining solution (coffee). All the samples were immersed in different staining solutions over a 28-day test period. A colorimetric evaluation according to the CIE L*a*b* system was performed by a blind trained operator at 7, 14, 21, 28 days of the staining process. Shapiro Wilk test and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA were applied to assess significant differences among restorative materials. Paired t-test was applied to test which CIE L*a*b* parameters significantly changed after immersion in staining solutions. One week immersion in acidic drink did not cause a perceivable discoloration for all restorative materials (ΔE < 3.3). Subsequent immersion in coffee affected color stability of all Zirconia samples, even if Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA found significant differences among the various restorative materials. The ∆Es of CAD/CAM Zirconia ceramics after immersion in coffee varied among the products, but color integrity is not affected by contact with acidic drinks. Key words:CAD/CAM restorative materials, CIE Lab, Zirconia ceramics.

  6. Clinical observation on application of CAD/CAM technique in orbital reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical application of CAD/CAM(computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturingtechnique in orbital reconstruction. METHODS:Thirty-three patients(33 eyeswere included who were admitted and accepted orbital reconstructionin operation in our hospital from June 2011 and October 2015. The three-dimensional(3Dmodel was made by CAD/CAM technology, according to the orbital three-dimensional CT examination for each patient preoperatively, and the repairing materials were shaped under 3D entity model in operation. The patients were followed up for 3-12mo, and the orbital shape, enophthalmos, diplopia and eye movement were observed. RESULTS:Among the 33 cases(33 eyes, except that 1 case required to remove the implants postoperative because of overcorrection, the patients were satisfied with the orbital shape. Enophthalmos were corrected. The effective rate was 97%. Among 19 cases(19 eyeswith diplopia and eye movement disorders, symptoms in 16 cases(16 eyeswere disappeared or improved, the efficiency rate was 84%. There were no operative complications. CONCLUSION:The CAD/CAM technique is effective and practical in the reconstruction of orbital deformity with shorter operation time, higher efficacy, better outcomes and lower risk, and it is worth to be popularized in clinical application. But the fabrication of 3D model costs certain money which may bring economic pressures to poor patients.

  7. Ceramicas y sistemas para restauraciones CAD-CAM: una revision.(REVISION DE TEMA)(Perspectiva general del procedimiento medico)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Carlos Caparroso; Vargas, Jaiver Andres Duque

    2010-01-01

    En la actualidad disponemos de muchos sistemas para hacer de restauraciones indirectas libres de metal, el de mayor actualidad y uso es el denominado CAD-CAM, cuyo diseno y elaboracion son asistidas por un computador...

  8. The accuracy of the CAD system using intraoral and extraoral scanners for designing of fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Sakura; Shinya, Akikazu; Kuroda, Soichi; Gomi, Harunori

    2017-07-26

    The accuracy of prostheses affects clinical success and is, in turn, affected by the accuracy of the scanner and CAD programs. Thus, their accuracy is important. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of an intraoral scanner with active triangulation (Cerec Omnicam), an intraoral scanner with a confocal laser (3Shape Trios), and an extraoral scanner with active triangulation (D810). The second aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the digital crowns designed with two different scanner/CAD combinations. The accuracy of the intraoral scanners and extraoral scanner was clinically acceptable. Marginal and internal fit of the digital crowns fabricated using the intraoral scanner and CAD programs were inferior to those fabricated using the extraoral scanner and CAD programs.

  9. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Co-Cr Dental Alloys Fabricated by Three CAD/CAM-Based Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Hae; Jang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Young; Son, Jun; Min, Bong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-01-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by three CAD/CAM-based processing techniques were investigated in comparison with those produced by the traditional casting technique...

  10. Scoliosis in-brace curve correction and patient preference of CAD/CAM versus plaster molded TLSOs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankar, Wudbhav N; Albrektson, Josh; Lerman, Lawrence; Tolo, Vernon T; Skaggs, David L

    2007-01-01

    .... To our knowledge there has been only one previous study of CAD/CAM braces. The purpose of our study was to compare patient preference and in-brace correction of Cobb angle between plaster molded thoracolumbosacral orthoses (TLSO...

  11. Fracture analysis of CAD-CAM high-density polymers used for interim implant-supported fixed, cantilevered prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Alp, Gülce; Seidt, Jeremy; Johnston, William M; Vitter, Roger; McGlumphy, Edwin A

    2018-01-06

    The load-to-fracture performance of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) high-density polymer (HDP) materials in cantilevers is unknown. The purposes of this in vitro study were to evaluate the load-to-fracture performance of CAD-CAM-fabricated HDPs and to compare that with performance of autopolymerized and injection-molded acrylic resins. Specimens from 8 different brands of CAD-CAM HDPs, including Brylic Solid (BS); Brylic Gradient (BG); AnaxCAD Temp EZ (AE); AnaxCAD Temp Plus (AP); Zirkonzahn Temp Basic (Z); GDS Tempo-CAD (GD); Polident (Po); Merz M-PM-Disc (MAT); an autopolymerized acrylic resin, Imident (Conv) and an injection-molded acrylic resin, SR-IvoBase High Impact (Inj) were evaluated for load-to-fracture analysis (n=5). CAD-CAM specimens were milled from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blocks measuring 7 mm in buccolingual width, 8 mm in occlusocervical thickness, and 30 mm in length. A wax pattern was prepared in the same dimensions used for CAD-CAM specimens, flasked, and boiled out. Autopolymerizing acrylic resin was packed and polymerized in a pressure container for 30 minutes. An identical wax pattern was flasked and boiled out, and premeasured capsules were injected (SR-IvoBase) and polymerized under hydraulic pressure for 35 minutes for the injection-molded PMMA. Specimens were thermocycled 5000 times (5°C to 55°C) and fixed to a universal testing machine to receive static loads on the 10-mm cantilever, vertically at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture occurred. Maximum load-to-fracture values were recorded. ANOVA was used to analyze the maximum force values. Significant differences among materials were analyzed by using the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (α=.05). Statistically significant differences were found among load-to-fracture values of different HDPs (PCAD-CAM polymer. GD and Po CAD-CAM materials had the highest load-to-fracture values. AE, AP, Z, MAT, and BS CAD-CAM polymers

  12. Stress Perfusion Coronary Flow Reserve Versus Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for Known or Suspected CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Saito, Naka; Nakachi, Tatsuya; Fukui, Kazuki; Iwasawa, Tae; Taguri, Masataka; Kosuge, Masami; Kimura, Kazuo

    2017-08-15

    Phase-contrast (PC) cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the coronary sinus is a noninvasive method to quantify coronary flow reserve (CFR). This study sought to compare the prognostic value of CFR by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and stress perfusion CMR to predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Participants included 276 patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and 400 with suspected CAD. CFR was calculated as myocardial blood flow during adenosine triphosphate infusion divided by myocardial blood flow at rest using PC cine MRI of the coronary sinus. During a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 47 patients (7%) experienced MACE. Impaired CFR (10% ischemia on stress perfusion CMR were significantly associated with MACE in patients with known CAD (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.17 and HR: 5.10, respectively) and suspected CAD (HR: 14.16 and HR: 6.50, respectively). The area under the curve for predicting MACE was 0.773 for CFR and 0.731 for stress perfusion CMR (p = 0.58) for patients with known CAD, and 0.885 for CFR and 0.776 for stress perfusion CMR (p = 0.059) in the group with suspected CAD. In patients with known CAD, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to predict MACE were 64%, 91%, 38%, and 97%, respectively, for CFR, and 82%, 59%, 15%, and 97%, respectively, for stress perfusion CMR. In the suspected CAD group, these values were 65%, 99%, 80%, and 97%, respectively, for CFR, and 72%, 83%, 22%, and 98%, respectively, for stress perfusion CMR. The predictive values of CFR and stress perfusion CMR for MACE were comparable in patients with known CAD. In patients with suspected CAD, CFR showed higher HRs and areas under the curve than stress perfusion CMR, suggesting that CFR assessment by PC cine MRI might provide better risk stratification for patients with suspected CAD. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS): Prognostic and Clinical Implications Associated With Standardized Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Joe X; Cury, Ricardo C; Leipsic, Jonathon; Crim, Matthew T; Berman, Daniel S; Gransar, Heidi; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Callister, Tracy Q; Marques, Hugo; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Cademartiri, Filippo; Maffei, Erica; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Raff, Gilbert; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Dunning, Allison; DeLago, Augustin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Villines, Todd C; Chow, Benjamin J W; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Lin, Fay Y; Jones, Erica; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to assess clinical outcomes associated with the novel Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) scores used to standardize coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) reporting and their potential utility in guiding post-coronary CTA care. Clinical decision support is a major focus of health care policies aimed at improving guideline-directed care. Recently, CAD-RADS was developed to standardize coronary CTA reporting and includes clinical recommendations to facilitate patient management after coronary CTA. In the multinational CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry, 5,039 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent coronary CTA and were stratified by CAD-RADS scores, which rank CAD stenosis severity as 0 (0%), 1 (1% to 24%), 2 (25% to 49%), 3 (50% to 69%), 4A (70% to 99% in 1 to 2 vessels), 4B (70% to 99% in 3 vessels or ≥50% left main), or 5 (100%). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were used to estimate all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare CAD-RADS to the Duke CAD Index and traditional CAD classification. Referrals to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) after coronary CTA were also assessed. Cumulative 5-year event-free survival ranged from 95.2% to 69.3% for CAD-RADS 0 to 5 (p CAD-RADS, which was noninferior to the Duke Index (0.7073; p = 0.893) and traditional CAD classification (0.7095; p = 0.783). ICA rates were 13% for CAD-RADS 0 to 2, 66% for CAD-RADS 3, and 84% for CAD-RADS ≥4A. For CAD-RADS 3, 58% of all catheterizations occurred within the first 30 days of follow-up. In a patient subset with available medication data, 57% of CAD-RADS 3 patients who received 30-day ICA were either asymptomatic or not receiving antianginal therapy at baseline, whereas only 32% had angina and were receiving medical therapy. CAD-RADS effectively

  14. Translucency of esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials and composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Liebermann, Anja; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Little information is available about the translucency of monolithic CAD/CAM materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translucency of restorative CAD/CAM materials and direct composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness. In total, 240 disk-shaped specimens (12×14×1 mm and 12×14×2 mm) of 3 different CAD/CAM glass ceramics (CELTRA Duo, IPS e.max CAD, IPS Empress CAD), a fine-structure feldspathic ceramic (VITA Mark II), a hybrid ceramic (VITA Enamic), a resin nanoceramic composite resin (LAVA Ultimate), an experimental (CAD/CAM nanohybrid composite resin), 2 interim materials (Telio CAD; VITA CAD-Temp), and 3 direct composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram; Filtek Supreme XTE; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) were fabricated (n=10). After 3 different surface pretreatments (polished, rough SiC P1200, or SiC P500), absolute translucency and surface roughness were measured using spectrophotometry and tactile profilometry. The influence of material type, thickness, and roughness on absolute translucency was analyzed using a multivariate analysis, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<.05). Pearson correlations and statistical hypothesis tests were used to assess the results (P<.05). The effect of all tested parameters was significant among the materials (P<.05). The greatest influence on the measured translucency was thickness (partial eta squared ηP²=.988), closely followed by material (.982), and the pretreatment method (.835). The surface roughness was strongly influenced by the pretreatment method (.975) and type of material (.941). Thickness and surface roughness are major factors affecting the absolute translucency of adhesively luted restorations. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An 8-year evaluation of sintered ceramic and glass ceramic inlays processed by the Cerec CAD/CAM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Dijken van, J.W.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cerec CAD/CAM inlays processed of two industrially made machinable ceramics during an 8-yr follow-up period. Each of 16 patients received two similar ceramic inlays. Half the number of the inlays were made of a feldspathic (Vita Mark II) and the other...... be concluded that the CAD/CAM inlays processed of the two ceramics functioned well during the 8-yr follow-up period....

  16. Fracture and Fatigue Resistance of Cemented versus Fused CAD-on Veneers over Customized Zirconia Implant Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossair, Shereen Ahmed; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Morsi, Tarek Salah

    2015-01-05

    To evaluate the fracture mechanics of cemented versus fused CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments. Forty-five identical customized CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutments (0.5 mm thick) were prepared and seated on short titanium implant abutments (Ti base). A second scan was made to fabricate 45 CAD-on veneers (IPS Empress CAD, A2). Fifteen CAD-on veneers were cemented on the zirconia abutments (Panavia F2.0). Another 15 were fused to the zirconia abutments using low-fusing glass, while manually layered veneers served as control (n = 15). The restorations were subjected to artificial aging (3.2 million cycles between 5 and 10 kg in a water bath at 37°C) before being axially loaded to failure. Fractured specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy to detect fracture origin, location, and size of critical crack. Stress at failure was calculated using fractography principles (alpha = 0.05). Cemented CAD-on restorations demonstrated significantly higher (F = 72, p veneers failed due to radial cracks originating from the veneer/resin interface. Branching of the critical crack was observed in the bulk of the veneer. Fused CAD-on veneers demonstrated cohesive fracture originating at the thickest part of the veneer ceramic, while manually layered veneers failed due to interfacial fracture at the zirconia/veneer interface. Within the limitations of this study, cemented CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments demonstrated higher fracture than fused and manually layered veneers. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Automatic lung nodule detection in thick slice CT: a comparative study of different gating schemes in CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakota, Pandu; Dinesh, M. S.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Vikal, Siddharth; Raghupathi, Laks; Salganicoff, Marcos

    2011-03-01

    Common chest CT clinical workflows for detecting lung nodules use a large slice thickness protocol (typically 5 mm). However, most existing CAD studies are performed on a thin slice data (0.3-2 mm) available on state-of-the art scanners. A major challenge for the widespread clinical use of Lung CAD is the concurrent availability of both thick and thin resolutions for use by radiologist and CAD respectively. Having both slice thickness reconstructions is not always possible based on the availability of scanner technologies, acquisition parameters chosen at remote site, and transmission and archiving constraints that may make transmission and storage of large data impracticable. However, applying current thin-slice CAD algorithms on thick slice cases outside their designed acquisition parameters may result in degradation of sensitivity and high false-positive rate making them clinically unacceptable. Therefore a CAD system that can handle thicker slice acquisitions is desirable to address those situations. In this paper, we propose a CAD system which works directly on thick slice scans. We first propose a multi-stage classifier based CAD system for detecting lung nodules in such data. Furthermore, we propose different gating systems adapted for thick slice scans. The proposed gating schemes are based on: 1. wall-attached and non wall-attached. 2. central and non-central region. These gating schemes can be used independently or combined as well. Finally, we present prototype1 results showing significant improvement of CAD sensitivity at much better false positive rate on thick-slice CT images are presented.

  18. Contours, 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West Zone, US Foot. Broken into Township, Range, and Section Grids, Published in 2006, City of Carson City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Contours dataset current as of 2006. 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West...

  19. In vitro evaluation of the marginal integrity of CAD/CAM interim crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin Khng, Kwang Yong; Ettinger, Ronald L; Armstrong, Steven R; Lindquist, Terry; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy of interim crowns made with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems has not been well investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. A dentoform mandibular left second premolar was prepared for a ceramic crown and scanned for the fabrication of 60 stereolithical resin dies, half of which were scanned to fabricate 15 Telio CAD-CEREC and 15 Paradigm MZ100-E4D-E4D crowns. Fifteen Caulk and 15 Jet interim crowns were made on the remaining resin dies. All crowns were cemented with Tempgrip under a 17.8-N load, thermocycled for 1000 cycles, placed in 0.5% acid fuschin for 24 hours, and embedded in epoxy resin before sectioning from the mid-buccal to mid-lingual surface. The marginal discrepancy was measured using a traveling microscope, and dye penetration was measured as a percentage of the overall length under the crown. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy of the conventionally made interim crowns was greater than for the CAD/CAM crowns (P=.006), while no difference was found for the horizontal component (P=.276). The mean vertical marginal discrepancy at the facial surface of the Caulk crowns was significantly greater than that of the other 3 types of interim crowns (Pcrowns was significantly larger than that of the other 3 types, with no difference at the lingual margins (P=.150). The mean percentage dye penetration for the Paradigm MZ100-E4D crowns was significantly greater and for Jet crowns significantly smaller than for the other 3 crowns (Pcrowns at the facial surface and with the horizontal marginal discrepancies of the Caulk interim crowns at the lingual surface (Pcrowns fabricated by CAD/CAM as compared with PMMA crowns; however, this difference was not observed for the horizontal component. The percentage dye penetration was correlated with vertical and horizontal

  20. Colour parameters and shade correspondence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; Cardona, Juan C; Pérez, María M

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate colour differences between (1) CAD-CAM ceramic systems considering shades A1, A2 and A3 and the corresponding nominal shade of VC (Vita Classical shade guide) and (2) shades A1-A2, A2-A3 and A1, A2 and A3 within the same ceramic system. Samples of shades A1, A2 and A3 were fabricated (n=5) from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD LT and HT, IPS Empress(®) CAD LT and HT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. Spectral reflectance and colour coordinates were measured using a spectroradiometer inside a viewing booth using the CIE D65 illuminant and the d/0° geometry. Spectral reflectance curves were compared using VAF coefficient and were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U test (α=0.05). Colour coordinates were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.001). All colour differences (ΔEab(*) and ΔE00) were analyzed through comparisons with the PT - perceptibility and AT - acceptability thresholds for dental ceramics. ΔE between ceramic systems and its corresponding shade ranged from 6.32 to 13.42 (ΔEab(*)) and 4.48 to 9.30 (ΔE00). ΔE between shades A1-A2, A2-A3 and A1, A2 and A3 ranged, respectively, 1.93-4.82, 1.22-5.59 and 3.63-8.84 (ΔEab(*)); 1.54-3.87, 1.03-3.90 and 2.95-6.51 (ΔE00). Considering the corresponding nominal shade from VC, none of the ceramic systems showed colour differences below the AT. In addition, some ceramic systems showed colour differences below AT (shades A1-A2 and A2-A3) and below PT (shades A2-A3). Careful adjustments should be made to the final shade of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations to reach a clinically acceptable shade match. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pou5f1-dependent EGF expression controls E-cad endocytosis, cell adhesion, and zebrafish epiboly movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sungmin; Eckerle, Stephanie; Onichtchouk, Daria; Marrs, James A.; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Initiation of motile cell behavior in embryonic development occurs during late blastula stages when gastrulation begins. At this stage, the strong adhesion of blastomeres has to be modulated to enable dynamic behavior, similar to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. We show that in zebrafish MZspg embryos mutant for the stem cell transcription factor Pou5f1/Oct4, which are severely delayed in the epiboly gastrulation movement, all blastomeres are defective in E-cad endosomal trafficking and E-cad accumulates at the plasma membrane. We find that Pou5f1-dependent control of EGF expression regulates endosomal E-cad trafficking. EGFR may act via modulation of p120 activity. Loss of E-cad dynamics reduces cohesion of cells in reaggregation assays. Quantitative analysis of cell behavior indicates that dynamic E-cad endosomal trafficking is required for epiboly cell movements. We hypothesize that dynamic control of E-cad trafficking is essential to effectively generate new adhesion sites when cells move relative to each other. PMID:23484854

  2. Electronic cleansing for CT colonography: does it help CAD software performance in a high-risk population for colorectal cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wi, Jae Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Sang Gyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To compare the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) for CT colonography (CTC) with and without electronic cleansing (EC) in a high-risk population tagged with a faecal tagging (FT) protocol. Thirty-two patients underwent CTC followed by same-day colonoscopy. All patients underwent bowel preparation and FT with barium and gastrografin. Each CTC dataset was processed with colon CAD with and without EC. Per-polyp sensitivity was calculated. The average number of false-positive (FP) results and their causes were also analysed and compared. Eighty-six polyps were detected in 29 patients. Per-polyp sensitivities of CAD with EC (93.8% and 100%) were higher than those without EC (84.4% and 87.5%) for polyps {>=}6 mm and {>=}10 mm, respectively. However, the differences were not significant. The average number (6.3) of FPs of CAD with EC was significantly larger than that (3.1) without EC. The distribution of FPs in both CAD settings was also significantly different. The most common cause of FPs was the ileocaecal valve in both datasets. However, untagged faeces was a significantly less common cause of FPs with EC, EC-related artefacts being more common. Electronic cleansing has the potential to improve per-polyp sensitivity of CTC CAD, although the significantly larger number of FPs with EC remains to be improved. (orig.)

  3. Colour stainability of indirect CAD-CAM processed composites vs. conventionally laboratory processed composites after immersion in staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Mariana A; Basilio, Juan; Llopis, Jaume; Di Bella, Enrico; Roig, Miguel; Ardu, Stefano; Mayoral, Juan R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, by using a spectrophotometer device, the colour stainability of two indirect CAD/CAM processed composites in comparison with two conventionally laboratory-processed composites after being immersed 4 weeks in staining solutions such as coffee, black tea and red wine, using distilled water as control group. Two indirect CAD/CAM composites (Lava Ultimate and Paradigm MZ100) and two conventionally laboratory-processed composites (SR Adoro and Premise Indirect) of shade A2 were selected (160 disc samples). Colour stainability was measured after 4 weeks of immersion in three staining solutions (black tea, coffee, red wine) and distilled water. Specimen's colour was measured each week by means of a spectrophotometer (CIE L*a*b* system). Statistical analysis was carried out performing repeated ANOVA measurements and Tukey's HSD test to evaluate differences in ΔE00 measurements between groups; the interactions among composites, staining solutions and time duration were also evaluated. All materials showed significant discoloration (pcolour stability compared with CAD/CAM resin blocks. CAD/CAM processed composites immersed in staining solutions showed lower colour stability when compared to conventionally laboratory-processed resin composites. The demand for CAD/CAM restorations has been increasing; however, colour stainability for such material has been insufficiently studied. Moreover, this has not been performed comparing CAD/CAM processed composites versus laboratory-processed indirect composites by immersing in staining solutions for long immersion periods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving digital breast tomosynthesis reading time: A pilot multi-reader, multi-case study using concurrent Computer-Aided Detection (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleyguier, Corinne; Arfi-Rouche, Julia; Levy, Laurent; Toubiana, Patrick R; Cohen-Scali, Franck; Toledano, Alicia Y; Boyer, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Evaluate concurrent Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) to determine impact on radiologist performance and reading time. The CAD system detects and extracts suspicious masses, architectural distortions and asymmetries from DBT planes that are blended into corresponding synthetic images to form CAD-enhanced synthetic images. Review of CAD-enhanced images and navigation to corresponding planes to confirm or dismiss potential lesions allows radiologists to more quickly review DBT planes. A retrospective, crossover study with and without CAD was conducted with six radiologists who read an enriched sample of 80 DBT cases including 23 malignant lesions in 21 women. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC) compared the readings with and without CAD to determine the effect of CAD on overall interpretation performance. Sensitivity, specificity, recall rate and reading time were also assessed. Multi-reader, multi-case (MRMC) methods accounting for correlation and requiring correct lesion localization were used to analyze all endpoints. AUCs were based on a 0-100% probability of malignancy (POM) score. Sensitivity and specificity were based on BI-RADS scores, where 3 or higher was positive. Average AUC across readers without CAD was 0.854 (range: 0.785-0.891, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.769,0.939) and 0.850 (range: 0.746-0.905, 95% CI: 0.751,0.949) with CAD (95% CI for difference: -0.046,0.039), demonstrating non-inferiority of AUC. Average reduction in reading time with CAD was 23.5% (95% CI: 7.0-37.0% improvement), from an average 48.2 (95% CI: 39.1,59.6) seconds without CAD to 39.1 (95% CI: 26.2,54.5) seconds with CAD. Per-patient sensitivity was the same with and without CAD (0.865; 95% CI for difference: -0.070,0.070), and there was a small 0.022 improvement (95% CI for difference: -0.046,0.089) in per-lesion sensitivity from 0.790 without CAD to 0.812 with CAD. A slight reduction in specificity with a -0

  5. Long-term prognostic impact of CT-Leaman score in patients with non-obstructive CAD: Results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Mushtaq, Saima; Gransar, Heidi; Conte, Edoardo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro; Opolski, Maksymilian P; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Min, James K

    2017-03-15

    Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) identified by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) demonstrated prognostic value. CT-adapted Leaman score (CT-LeSc) showed to improve the prognostic stratification. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of CT-LeSc to assess long-term prognosis of patients with non-obstructive (CAD). From 17 centers, we enrolled 2402 patients without prior CAD history who underwent CCTA that showed non-obstructive CAD and provided complete information on plaque composition. Patients were divided into a group without CAD and a group with non-obstructive CAD (CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and activity in predicting cad risk in North-West Indian Punjabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hydrolyzes the oxidized form, therefore preventing the development of atherosclerosis. The polymorphisms of PON1 gene are known to affect the PON1 activity and thereby coronary artery disease (CAD risk. As studies are lacking in North-West Indian Punjabi's, a distinct ethnic group with high incidence of CAD, we determined PON1 activity, genotypes and haplotypes in this population and correlated them with the risk of CAD.350 angiographically proven (≥ 70% stenosis CAD patients and 300 healthy controls were investigated. PON1 activity was determined towards paraoxon (Paraoxonase; PONase and phenylacetate (Arylesterase; AREase substrates. In addition, genotyping was carried out by using multiplex PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide -PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and haplotyping was determined by PHASE software. The serum PONase and AREase activities were significantly lower in CAD patients as compared to the controls. All studied polymorphisms except L55M had significant effect on PONase activity. However AREase activity was not affected by them. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for the conventional risk factors for CAD, QR (OR: 2.73 (1.57-4.72 and RR (OR, 16.24 (6.41-41.14 genotypes of Q192R polymorphism and GG (OR: 2.07 (1.02-4.21 genotype of -162A/G polymorphism had significantly higher CAD risk. Haplotypes L-T-G-Q-C (OR: 3.25 (1.72-6.16 and L-T-G-R-G (OR: 2.82 (1.01-7.80 were also significantly associated with CAD.In conclusion this study shows that CAD patients had lower PONase and AREase activities as compared to the controls. The coding Q192R polymorphism, promoter -162A/G polymorphism and L-T-G-Q-C and L-T-G-R-G haplotypes are all independently associated with CAD.

  7. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. Background To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. Methods and results The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40–5.11), diabetes (1.50–5.97), and smoking (1.37–5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part of this review. Conclusions This review provides a systematic summary of CAD risk factors in China and demonstrates the important differences that exist in CAD risk factors between countries and regions. Approaches to reduce CAD globally must take into

  8. Retrospective analysis of a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology; Retrospektive Analyse eines computerassistierten Detektions-Systems (CAD) in der digitalen Vollfeldmammographie in Abhaengigkeit von der Histologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Sohns, C.; Grabbe, E. [Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany); Werner, C. [Abt. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Georg-August-Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system in full-field digital mammography in correlation to tumor histology. Material and methods: a total of 476 patients (226 patients with histologically proven malignant tumors, 250 healthy women) took part in this study. The mammograms were studied retrospectively, using the CAD system Image Checker. For 226 patients digital mammograms in MLO-projection were available. For 186 of these patients the CC-projection was also available. CAD markers that correlated with histologically proven carcinomas were considered to be true-positive markers. All other CAD markers were considered to be false-positive. Histologically proven carcinomas without markers were false-negative results. The dependence of the CAD markers placement upon the different carcinoma histologies was studied using the Chi-square test. Results: no significant difference could be proven for the detectability of malignant breast lesions of different histologic types. For the detectability of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), tubular carcinoma and ductulo-lobular carcinoma, the true positives were 71.1%, 75%, 70.7%, 70%, 60% and 80%, respectively, in the MLO projection and 83.9%, 75.9%, 81.8%, 77.8%, 87.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in the CC projection. There was an average of 0.5 false-positive markers per mammographic image. Conclusion: The histologic type of carcinoma seems to have no influence on detectability when using the CAD system. The high rate of false-positive markers shows, however, the limited specificity of the CAD system and that improvements are necessary. (orig.)

  9. Mechanical properties and internal fit of 4 CAD-CAM block materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujat, Alexis; Abouelleil, Hazem; Colon, Pierre; Jeannin, Christophe; Pradelle, Nelly; Seux, Dominique; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2017-05-26

    Recent polymer-based computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials have been commercialized for inlay restorations, a polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) and composite resin nanoceramics. Little independent evidence regarding their mechanical properties exists. Internal adaptation is an important factor for the clinical success and longevity of a restoration, and data concerning this parameter for inlays made with these blocks are scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties (flexural strength, flexural modulus, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness) and the internal adaptation of these recent polymer-based blocks with a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic block. The materials tested in this study were a PICN material (Vita Enamic), 2 composite resin nanoceramics (Lava Ultimate; 3M ESPE and Cerasmart; GCDental Products), and a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD). Mechanical properties were evaluated according to ISO norm DIS 6872:2013. Bar-shaped specimens (18×3×3 mm) were prepared and submitted to a 3-point bend test using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. In addition, identical cavities were prepared in 60 human mandibular extracted molars (n=15) and optically scanned to receive mesioocclusodistal inlays milled with the 4 materials tested in a CEREC Inlab milling machine. The replica technique and a stereomicroscope (×20) were used to measure the internal fit of the inlays at 9 preselected locations. All data were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison or Games-Howell test (α=.05). The mean flexural strength of the tested blocks ranged from 148.7 ±9.5 MPa (Vita Enamic) to 216.5 ±28.3 MPa (Cerasmart). The mean flexural modulus ranged from 23.3 ±6.4 GPa (Vita Enamic) to 52.8 ±10.5 GPa (IPS e.max CAD). The mean Vickers hardness ranged from 0.66 ±0.02 GPa (Cerasmart) to 5.98 ±0

  10. Effect of denture cleaning on abrasion resistance and surface topography of polymerized CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinawi, Lana Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers. To evaluate the influence of tooth brushing with dentifrices on CAD CAM resin blocks in terms of abrasion resistance, surface roughness and scanning electron photomicrography. This experimental study was carried out at the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University during 2016. A total of 40 rectangular shaped polymerized CAD CAM resin samples were subjected to 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes under a 200-gram vertical load simulating three years of tooth brushing strokes using commercially available denture cleaning dentifrice. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20, using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. ANOVA test revealed a statistical significant weight loss of CAD CAM acrylic resin denture base specimens following 40.000 and 60.000 brushing strokes as well as a statistical significant change (p=0.0.5) in the surface roughness following brushing. The CAD CAM resin samples SEM baseline imaging revealed a relatively smooth homogenous surface, but following 40,000 and 60,000 brushing strokes, imaging displayed the presence of small scratches on the surface. CAD CAM resin displayed a homogenous surface initially with low surface roughness that was significantly affected following simulating three years of manual brushing, but despite the significant weight loss, the findings are within the clinically acceptable limits.

  11. Evaluation of five CAD/CAM materials by microstructural characterization and mechanical tests: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Nesrin; Gultekin, Pinar; Turp, Volkan; Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2018-01-08

    Polymer infiltrated ceramics and nano-ceramic resins are the new restorative materials which have been developed in order to enhance the adverse properties of glass-matrix ceramics and resin composites. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the characteristics of various CAD/CAM materials through mechanical, microstructural, and SEM analysis. Five test groups (n = 22) were formed by using the indicated CAD/CAM blocks: VITA Enamic (VITA Zahnfabrik), Lava Ultimate (3 M ESPE), IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent), and VITA Mark II (VITA Zahnfabrik). Two specimens from each test group were used for XRD and EDS analysis. Remaining samples were divided into two subgroups (n = 10). One subgroup specimens were thermocycled (5 °C to 55 °C, 30s, 10,000 cycles) whereas the other were not. All of the specimens were evaluated in terms of flexural strength, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness. Results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD, and Student's t tests (α = .05). Fractured specimens were evaluated using SEM. The highest Vickers microhardness value was found for VITA Mark II (p CAD was found to have the highest flexural strength (p CAD was also higher than other tested block materials (p CAD groups. It should be realised that simulated aging process seem to affect ceramic-polymer composite materials more significantly than glass ceramics.

  12. Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Ardu, Stefano; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the stain susceptibility of CAD/CAM blocks and direct composite after long term exposure to various staining agents. 40 disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials; six CAD/CAM (Vitablocs Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Experimental Vita Hybrid Ceramic, Vita Enamic, Experimental Kerr and Lava Ultimate) and three direct composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) according to different staining solutions (distilled water, tea, red wine, coffee and artificial saliva). Initial L*a*b* values were assessed using a calibrated digital spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions and stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 120 days. L*a*b* values were assessed again and color change (∆E) was calculated as difference between recorded L*a*b* values. ANOVA, and Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences in ∆E values were detected between materials (p = 0.000). Among all staining solutions, the highest ∆E value was observed with red wine. The new CAD/CAM blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Hybrid Ceramic and Lava Ultimate) showed the highest resistance to staining compared to the MZ100 composite resin blocks. Filtek Silorane, a direct composite, showed high stain resistance values compared to CAD/CAM materials and other direct composites. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks had lower staining susceptibility than methacrylate based direct composite. Staining susceptibility of the new resin based CAD/CAM materials Vita Enamic and Lava Ultimate was comparable to feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitablocs Mark II). Filtek Silorane showed promising results that were comparable to some CAD/CAM blocks.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis for breast cancer screening: double reading versus single + CAD reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Kawai, Masaaki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) increases breast cancer detection, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown for breast cancer screening in Japan. We aimed to determine whether screening mammography diagnosed by one physician using CAD is cost-effective when compared with the standard double reading by two physicians. We established our model with a decision tree and Markov model concept based on feasible screening and clinical pathways, combined with prognosis of the health state transition of breast cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis between double reading by two readers and single reading with CAD by one reader was performed from a social perspective in terms of the expected cost, life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The hypothetical population comprised 50-year-old female breast cancer screening examinees. Only direct medical costs related to breast cancer screening and treatment were considered. One simulation cycle was 2 years, and the annual discount rate was 3 %. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of the model and input data. Single reading with CAD increased expected costs by 2,704 yen and extended life expectancy by 0.0087 years compared with double reading. The ICER was 310,805 yen per life year gained, which is below the threshold. Sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the number of breast cancer screening examinees greatly affected the results. Single reading using CAD in mammography screening is more cost-effective than double reading, although the results are highly sensitive to the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the numbers of examinees.

  14. MDCT assessment of CAD in type-2 diabetic subjects with diabetic neuropathy: the role of Charcot neuro-arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Riccardo; Pitocco, Dario; Di Stasio, Enrico; Savino, Giancarlo; Merlino, Biagio; Trani, Carlo; Pirro, Federica; Rutigliano, Claudia; Santangelo, Carolina; Minoiu, Aurelian Costin; Natale, Luigi; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    To compare the CACS and CAD severity assessed by MDCT in neuropathic type-2 diabetic patients with and without Charcot-neuroarthropathy (CN). Thirty-four CN asymptomatic-patients and 36 asymptomatic-patients with diabetic-neuropathy (DN) without CN underwent MDCT to assess CACS and severity of CAD. Patients were classified as positive for significant CAD in presence of at least one stenosis >50 % on MDCT-coronary-angiography (MDCT-CA). Groups were matched for age, sex and traditional CAD risk-factors. The coronary-angiography (CA) was performed in all patients with at least a significant stenosis detected by MDCT-CA, both as reference and eventually as treatment. CN patients showed higher rates of significant CAD in comparison with DN subjects [p < 0.001], while non-significant differences were observed in CACS (p = 0.980). No significant differences were also observed in CACS distribution in all subjects for stenosis ≥/<50 % (p = 0.814), as well as in both groups (p = 0.661 and 0.559, respectively). The MDCT-CA showed an overall diagnostic-accuracy for significant CAD of 87%. These preliminary data suggest that CN-patients have a higher prevalence of severe CAD in comparison with DN-patients, while coronary plaques do not exhibit an increased amount of calcium. MDCT may be helpful to assess the CV risk in such asymptomatic type-2-diabetic patients with autonomic-neuropathy. Type 2-diabetic-patients with CN result having more severe coronary artery plaque-burden. MDCT-CA may stratify the CV risk in type 2-diabetic-patients with CN. Adequate diagnostic is mandatory for optimal management of type 2-diabetic-patients with CN.

  15. Monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate versus veneered Y-TZP crowns: comparison of failure modes and reliability after fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra C; Zavanelli, Ricardo A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the fatigue behavior and reliability of monolithic computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate and hand-layer-veneered zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A CAD-based mandibular molar crown preparation, fabricated using rapid prototyping, served as the master die. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max CAD, n = 19) and hand-layer-veneered zirconia-based crowns (IPS e.max ZirCAD/Ceram, n = 21) were designed and milled using a CAD/CAM system. Crowns were cemented on aged dentinlike composite dies with resin cement. Crowns were exposed to mouth-motion fatigue by sliding a WC-indenter (r = 3.18 mm) 0.7 mm lingually down the distobuccal cusp using three different step-stress profiles until failure occurred. Failure was designated as a large chip or fracture through the crown. If no failures occurred at high loads (> 900 N), the test method was changed to staircase r ratio fatigue. Stress level probability curves and reliability were calculated. Hand-layer-veneered zirconia crowns revealed veneer chipping and had a reliability of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns failed during step-stress mouth-motion fatigue (180,000 cycles, 900 N). CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns also survived r ratio fatigue (1,000,000 cycles, 100 to 1,000 N). There appears to be a threshold for damage/bulk fracture for the lithium disilicate ceramic in the range of 1,100 to 1,200 N. Based on present fatigue findings, the application of CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic in a monolithic/fully anatomical configuration resulted in fatigue-resistant crowns, whereas hand-layer-veneered zirconia crowns revealed a high susceptibility to mouth-motion cyclic loading with early veneer failures.

  16. Comparison of radiologist and CAD performance in the detection of CT-confirmed subtle pulmonary nodules on digital chest radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Thorsten Alexander; Baumann, Tobias; Saueressig, Ulrich; Pache, Gregor; Treier, Markus; Schaefer, Oliver; Neitzel, Ulrich; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2008-06-01

    Detection of subtle pulmonary nodules on digital radiography is a challenging task for radiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly approved computer aided detection (CAD) system. The sensitivity of 3 radiologists and of a CAD system for the detection of pulmonary nodules from 5 to 15 mm in size on digital chest radiography of 117 patients was compared. The reference standard was established by consensus reading of computed tomography scans by 2 experienced radiologists. Computed tomography scans and chest radiographs were performed within 4 weeks. Sixty-six pulmonary nodules from 42 patients, with a mean nodule diameter of 7.5 mm (standard deviation: 2.2 mm), were included in the statistical analysis. Seventy-five of the 117 patients did not have nodules from 5 to 15 mm of size. Two hundred and eighty-eight false-positive detections of the CAD system were found with an average of 2.5 false-positives per image. Sensitivity of the CAD system was 39.4% (95% confidence interval: 11.8%), when compared with 18.2% to 30.3% (95% confidence interval 9.3% to 11.1%) of the 3 radiologists. Substantial agreement for nodule detection ([kappa]N: 0.64-0.73) was found among the 3 radiologists, whereas only moderate agreement was found between the radiologists and the CAD performance ([kappa]N: 0.45-0.52). The CAD system's diagnostic sensitivity in detecting pulmonary nodules of 5 to 15 mm of size was superior to the 1 of radiologists. The CAD system may be used for assisting the radiologist in the detection of lung nodules on digital chest radiographs.

  17. Shutdown dose rate analysis with CAD geometry, Cartesian/tetrahedral mesh, and advanced variance reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D., E-mail: biondo@wisc.edu; Davis, Andrew, E-mail: davisa@engr.wisc.edu; Wilson, Paul P.H., E-mail: wilsonp@engr.wisc.edu

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A CAD-based shutdown dose rate analysis workflow has been implemented. • Cartesian and superimposed tetrahedral mesh are fully supported. • Biased and unbiased photon source sampling options are available. • Hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques accelerate photon transport. • The workflow has been validated with the FNG-ITER benchmark problem. - Abstract: In fusion energy systems (FES) high-energy neutrons born from burning plasma activate system components to form radionuclides. The biological dose rate that results from photons emitted by these radionuclides after shutdown—the shutdown dose rate (SDR)—must be quantified for maintenance planning. This can be done using the Rigorous Two-Step (R2S) method, which involves separate neutron and photon transport calculations, coupled by a nuclear inventory analysis code. The geometric complexity and highly attenuating configuration of FES motivates the use of CAD geometry and advanced variance reduction for this analysis. An R2S workflow has been created with the new capability of performing SDR analysis directly from CAD geometry with Cartesian or tetrahedral meshes and with biased photon source sampling, enabling the use of the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) variance reduction technique. This workflow has been validated with the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG)-ITER SDR benchmark using both Cartesian and tetrahedral meshes and both unbiased and biased photon source sampling. All results are within 20.4% of experimental values, which constitutes satisfactory agreement. Photon transport using CADIS is demonstrated to yield speedups as high as 8.5·10{sup 5} for problems using the FNG geometry.

  18. Fatigue behavior of resin-modified monolithic CAD-CAM RNC crowns and endocrowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, G T; Sedlakova, P; Saratti, C M; Sedlacek, R; Gregor, L; Rizcalla, N; Feilzer, A J; Krejci, I

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of different types of modifications with resin on fatigue resistance and failure behavior of CAD-CAM resin nano ceramic (RNC) restorations for maxillary first premolars. Sixty standardized resin composite root dies received CAD-CAM RNC endocrowns (n=30) and crowns (n=30) (Lava Ultimate, 3M Espe). Restorations were divided into six groups: full anatomic endocrowns (group A) and crowns (group D), buccal resin veneered endocrowns (group B) and crowns (group E) and buccal resin veneered endocrowns (group C) and crowns (group F) with a central groove resin filling. A nano-hybrid resin composite was used to veneer the restorations (Filtek Supreme, 3M Espe). All specimens were first submitted to thermo-mechanical cyclic loading (1.7Hz, 49N, 600000 cycles, 1500 thermo-cycles) and then submitted to cyclic isometric stepwise loading (5Hz) until completion of 105000 cycles or failure after 5000 cycles at 200N, followed by 20000 cycles at 400N, 600N, 800N, 1000N and 1200N. In case of fracture, fragments were analyzed using SEM and modes of failure were determined. Results were statistically analyzed by Kaplan-Meier life survival analysis and log rank test (p=0.05). The differences in survival between groups were not statistically significant, except between groups D and F (p=0.039). Endocrowns fractured predominantly with a mesio-distal wedge-opening fracture (82%). Partial cusp fractures were observed above all in crowns (70%). Analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the origin of the fracture was mainly at the occlusal contact points of the stepwise loading. Veneering of CAD-CAM RNC restorations has no influence on their fatigue resistance except when monolithic crowns are modified on their occlusal central groove. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. INVESTIGATION THE FITTING ACCURACY OF CAST AND SLM CO-CR DENTAL BRIDGES USING CAD SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsanka Dikova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to investigate the fitting accuracy of Co-Cr dental bridges, manufactured by three technologies, with the newly developed method using CAD software. The four-part dental bridges of Co-Cr alloys were produced by conventional casting of wax models, casting with 3D printed patterns and selective laser melting. The marginal and internal fit of dental bridges was studied out by two methods – silicone replica test and CAD software. As the silicone replica test characterizes with comparatively low accuracy, a new methodology for investigating the fitting accuracy of dental bridges was developed based on the SolidWorks CAD software. The newly developed method allows the study of the marginal and internal adaptation in unlimited directions and high accuracy. Investigation the marginal fit and internal adaptation of Co-Cr four-part dental bridges by the two methods show that the technological process strongly influences the fitting accuracy of dental restorations. The fitting accuracy of the bridges, cast with 3D printed patterns, is the highest, followed by the SLM and conventionally cast bridges. The marginal fit of the three groups of bridges is in the clinically acceptable range. The internal gap values vary in different regions – it is highest on the occlusal surfaces, followed by that in the marginal and axial areas. The higher fitting accuracy of the bridges, manufactured by casting with 3D printed patterns and SLM, compared to the conventionally cast bridges is a good precondition for their successful implementation in the dental offices and laboratories.

  20. Low-volume, high-intensity interval training in patients with CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Dubberley, Jonathan B; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-08-01

    Isocaloric interval exercise training programs have been shown to elicit improvements in numerous physiological indices in patients with CAD. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is effective in healthy populations; however, its effectiveness in cardiac rehabilitation has not been established. This study compared the effects of 12-wk of HIT and higher-volume moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) in patients with CAD. Twenty-two patients with documented CAD were randomized into HIT (n = 11) or END (n = 11) based on pretraining FMD. Both groups attended two supervised sessions per week for 12 wk. END performed 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 58% peak power output (PPO), whereas HIT performed ten 1-min intervals at 89% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO per session. Relative FMD was increased posttraining (END, 4.4% ± 2.6% vs 5.9% ± 3.6%; HIT, 4.6% ± 3.6% vs 6.1% ± 3.4%, P ≤ 0.001 pre- vs posttraining) with no differences between groups. A training effect was also observed for relative VO2 peak (END, 18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.3 ± 6.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); HIT, 19.8 ± 3.7 vs 24.5 ± 4.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), P cardiac rehabilitation. HIT elicited similar improvements in fitness and FMD as END, despite differences in exercise duration and intensity.

  1. Masking Colored Substrates Using Monolithic and Bilayer CAD-CAM Ceramic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, G R; Kodama, A B; Pimentel, A H; Kaizer, M R; Bona, A Della; Moraes, R R; Boscato, N

     To evaluate the masking ability and translucency of monolithic and bilayer CAD-CAM ceramic structures.  Discs of high translucency (HT) and low translucency (LT) lithium disilicate-based ceramic (IPS e.max CAD) with different thicknesses (0.7, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm) were evaluated as a monolithic structure or combined (bilayer) with a 0.5-mm-thick zirconia framework (IPS e.max ZirCAD). The masking ability and translucency were calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color coordinates measured with a spectrophotometer (SP60, X-Rite). The translucency parameter (TP) was calculated using color coordinates measured over standard white-and-black backgrounds. The masking ability was calculated by CIEDE2000 color difference metric (ΔE00) for each specimen measured over a tooth-colored substrate (shade A2) compared to three darker backgrounds (shade C4 and two metal substrates). Confidence intervals (CI) for the means (95% CI) were calculated for TP and ΔE00. The Pearson correlation between ΔE00 and TP was investigated for monolithic and bilayer structures over all backgrounds.  The thinner the lithium disilicate layer, the greater the translucency and the higher the ΔE00 values. The effect of ceramic thickness on both translucency and masking ability was more pronounced for the monolithic structures. In addition, monolayers always presented a greater color variation than their bilayer counterparts. The metallic background produced greater ΔE00 than the C4-shaded substrate.  Monolithic veneers were able to mask C4-shaded background but did not mask metallic backgrounds. Bilayer structures showed greater shade masking ability than monolithic structures.

  2. Microtensile bond strength of cad-cam and pressed-ceramic inlays to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, A Nilgün; Inan, Ozgür; Inan, Erkan; Oztürk, Bora

    2007-04-01

    CAD-CAM system is popular because of high esthetic and short fabrication time. But, there is limited information available about the microtensile bonding of luting cements to CAD-CAM inlays and to dentin. The aim of this study was to examine the bond strength of CAD-CAM (Cerec 3) and pressed-ceramic (IPS Empress 2) inlays to dentin surface by microtensile testing using two luting cements. Standardized mesio-occlusal cavities were made in forty extracted molar teeth. An occlusal reduction of 2 mm was made; the bucco-lingual width of the proximal boxes was 4 mm, the occlusal width 3 mm and the depth of the pulpal and axial walls 2 mm. The proximal boxes were extended 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Teeth were randomly assigned to 2 groups to evaluate the bonding of 2 ceramic systems, Cerec 3 (Group I) and IPS Empress 2 (Group II), to dentin. Each of the 2 groups were further divided into 2 luting cement groups, Panavia F (Group A) and Variolink II (Group B). After cementation, the teeth were sectioned into two 1.2x1.2 mm wide 'I' shape sections. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile testing at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results. The mean microtensile bond strengths of Cerec 3 and IPS Empress 2 bonding to dentin with luting agents in MPa were Panavia F (13.98+/-3.44), Variolink II (14.19+/-3.12) and Panavia F (15.12+/-3.15), Variolink II (15.45+/-3.08) respectively. No significant differences were found among the 2 ceramic systems (P>.05) and 2 luting cements with regard to dentin bond strengths (P>.05). There was no difference found between the dentin bond strength of the Cerec 3 and IPS Empress 2 inlays cemented with two luting cements.

  3. Clinical performance of two different CAD/CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns: 2-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydler, Bodo; Schmitter, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Recently, technical problems, especially chipping, have been reported for ceramic restorations; as a result, ceramic crowns produced entirely by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) have become popular because the incidence of chipping is less. The purpose of this study was to report on 2-year results for 2 different types of CAD/CAM ceramic crowns placed in adult patients in a dental practice. Sixty participants who required a crown for a first or second molar were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Crowns in the veneered zirconia (VZ) group were made of zirconia frameworks veneered with CAD/CAM-produced lithium disilicate ceramic; the other group's crowns were made of monolithic lithium disilicate (MLD) ceramic. Each crown was reviewed after 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years by using modified the US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Statistical analysis was performed by using the log-rank test, nonparametric tests, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. All 60 participants were recalled after 1 and 2 years. In the VZ group, 2 endodontic complications occurred, and deterioration of periodontal health was observed for 3 participants. In the MLD group, 2 endodontic complications occurred within 2 years. In both of the groups, no caries or marginal discoloration was observed. No technical complications, for example, cracks, chipping, or fractures, were detected after 2 years. The shape and appearance of all crowns were assessed positively by the examining dentist. The log-rank test showed no significant differences in respect to technical or biologic complications (P=.324). For both types of single-crown restoration, no technical failures occurred. The number of biological complications did not differ significantly between the types of crowns. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction to AutoCAD 2004 2D and 3D design

    CERN Document Server

    Yarwood, Alf

    2004-01-01

    Taking the reader step-by-step through the features of AutoCAD, Alf Yarwood provides a structured course of work matched to the latest release of this software. Introducing first principles and the creation of 2D technical drawings, the author goes on to demonstrate construction of 3D solid model drawings and rendering of 3D models. Worked examples and exercises are included throughout the text, to enable the reader to apply theory into real-world engineering practice, along with revision notes and exercises at the end of chapters for the reader to check their understanding of the material the

  5. Effects of core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wol; Park, Jong-Kyoung; Kim, So-Ri; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2017-07-06

    The color of dental ceramics is important for achieving successful esthetic restorations. However, insufficient studies are available of the color of recently introduced computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) lithium disilicate ceramics as functions of the core and veneer thicknesses. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of the thickness of different core and veneer thicknesses on the color of CAD-CAM lithium disilicate ceramics. A total of 42 specimens from 2 groups of 7 ceramic cores at 3 thicknesses (0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mm) were fabricated. The veneer was fabricated at 3 thicknesses (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mm). The group name was based on the name of the ceramic core (IPS e.max CAD; lithium disilicate [LD], IPS Empress CAD; leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic [LR]), and the associated number was determined by the combined thicknesses of the core and the veneer: 1=0.8+0.7; 2=1.0+0.5; and 3=1.2+0.3. The color coordinates and the color differences were calculated using a spectrophotometer. The color difference was analyzed using the CIEDE2000 chrominance and the acceptability threshold. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify the color difference based on the core/veneer thicknesses, and the Tukey honest significant differences and Games-Howell tests were conducted to verify the ΔE00 differences of the group (α=.05). In addition, regression analysis was carried out to estimate the causal relationship between the independent variables and the chrominance. At a certain thickness, the color differences of LD1, LR1, and LR2 were not clinically acceptable based on the thicknesses of the core and the veneer. Results of 2-way ANOVA demonstrated that the different thicknesses of core/veneer combination significantly affected the color difference (Pcore decreased by 0.2 mm. The color is influenced by the thicknesses of the core and the veneer. With a certain thickness, the color differences increased as the thickness of the core

  6. Reassigning the CaH+ 11Σ → 21Σ vibronic transition with CaD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoluci, J.; Janardan, S.; Calvin, A. T.; Rugango, R.; Shu, G.; Sherrill, C. D.; Brown, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    We observe vibronic transitions in CaD+ between the 11Σ and 21Σ electronic states by resonance enhanced multiphoton photodissociation spectroscopy in a Coulomb crystal. The vibronic transitions are compared with previous measurements on CaH+. The result is a revised assignment of the CaH+ vibronic levels and a disagreement with multi-state-complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory theoretical calculations by approximately 700 cm-1. Updated high-level coupled-cluster calculations that include core-valence correlations reduce the disagreement between theory and experiment to 300 cm-1.

  7. Products eco-sustainability analysis using CAD SolidWorks software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Luminița I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the analysis of environmental impact and Eco-sustainability of models designed using CAD SolidWorks software. We have evaluated the material it was made the whole ansamble, in terms of strength, durability and environmental pollution considering the carbon footprint, energy consumption, air acidification and eutrophication. We considered the whole product life-cycle management, from raw material extraction, processing it, piece production, assembly it, and use it until the end of his life, considering the mode of transport and the distance between these stages. The case study presents the virtual model of the product and Sustainability Report.

  8. In-vitro performance of CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported temporary crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Raab, Philipp; Hahnel, Sebastian; Stöckle, Matthias; Preis, Verena

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro performance and fracture resistance of a temporary computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured polymethylmethacrylate (CAD/CAM-PMMA) material as implant or tooth-supported single crown with respect to the clinical procedure (permanently bonded/temporarily cemented). Sixty-four crowns were fabricated on implants or human molar teeth simulating (a) labside procedure on prefabricated titanium-bonding base ([TiBase] implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (b) labside procedure ([LAB] standard abutment and implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (c) chairside procedure ([CHAIR] implant crown bonded to abutment), and (d) reference ([TOOTH] crowns luted on prepared human teeth). Crowns were made of a CAD/CAM-PMMA temporary material (TelioCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent). For investigating the influence of fixation, half of the crowns were permanently (P) or temporarily (T) bonded. Combined thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML) was performed simulating a 5-year clinical situation. Fracture force was determined. Data were statistically analyzed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA; post hoc Bonferroni, α = 0.05). All restorations survived TCML without visible failures. Fracture results varied between 3034.3 (Tooth-P) and 1602.9 N (Tooth-T) [TOOTH], 1510.5 (TiBase-P) and 963.6 N (TiBase-T) [TiBase], 2691.1 (LAB-P) and 2064.5 N (LAB-T) [LAB], and 1609.4 (Chair-P) and 1253.0 N (Chair-T) [CHAIR]. Tested groups showed significantly (p < 0.001) different fracture values. Failure pattern was characterized by fractures in mesial-distal, buccal-oral, or mixed (mesial-distal/buccal-oral) directions, with differences for the individual groups. Temporary CAD/CAM crowns showed no different in-vitro performance but provided different fracture results that depended on cementation, screw channel, and type of abutment. All bonded and screwed PMMA crowns were in a range where clinical

  9. Mastering Mental Ray Rendering Techniques for 3D and CAD Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for using mental ray effectively. If you're a busy artist seeking high-end results for your 3D, design, or architecture renders using mental ray, this is the perfect book for you. It distills the highly technical nature of rendering into easy-to-follow steps and tutorials that you can apply immediately to your own projects. The book uses 3ds Max and 3ds Max Design to show the integration with mental ray, but users of any 3D or CAD software can learn valuable techniques for incorporating mental ray into their pipelines.: Takes you under the hood of mental ray, a stand-alone or

  10. Sizing of Compression Coil Springs Gas Regulators Using Modern Methods CAD and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Ionel Tuţă

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for compression coil springs sizing by gas regulators composition, using CAD techniques (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering. Sizing is to optimize the functioning of the regulators under dynamic industrial and house-hold. Gas regulator is a device that automatically and continuously adjusted to maintain pre-set limits on output gas pressure at varying flow and input pressure. The performances of the pressure regulators like automatic systems depend on their behaviour under dynamic opera-tion. Time constant optimization of pneumatic actuators, which drives gas regulators, leads to a better functioning under their dynamic.

  11. Nano-scale CMOS analog circuits models and CAD techniques for high-level design

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Soumya; Patra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Reliability concerns and the limitations of process technology can sometimes restrict the innovation process involved in designing nano-scale analog circuits. The success of nano-scale analog circuit design requires repeat experimentation, correct analysis of the device physics, process technology, and adequate use of the knowledge database.Starting with the basics, Nano-Scale CMOS Analog Circuits: Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design introduces the essential fundamental concepts for designing analog circuits with optimal performances. This book explains the links between the physic

  12. Clinical outcome of alveolar ridge augmentation with individualized CAD-CAM-produced titanium mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, K; Schiegnitz, E; Moergel, M; Walter, C; Al-Nawas, B; Wagner, W

    2017-12-01

    The augmentation of the jaw has been and continues to be a sophisticated therapy in implantology. Modern CAD-CAM technologies lead to revival of old and established augmentation techniques such as the use of titanium mesh (TM) for bone augmentation. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of an individualized CAD-CAM-produced TM based on the CT/DVT-DICOM data of the patients for the first time. In 17 patients, 21 different regions were augmented with an individualized CAD-CAM-produced TM (Yxoss CBR®, Filderstadt, Germany). For the augmentation, a mixture of autologous bone and deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) or autologous bone alone was used. Reentry with explantation of the TM and simultaneous implantation of 44 implants were performed after 6 months. Preoperative and 6-month postoperative cone beam computed tomographies (CBCT) were performed to measure the gained bone height. The success rate for the bone grafting procedure was 100%. Thirty-three percent of cases presented an exposure of the TM during the healing period. However, premature removal of these exposed meshes was not necessary. Exposure rate in augmentations performed with mid-crestal incisions was higher than in augmentations performed with a modified poncho incision (45.5 vs. 20%, p = 0.221). In addition, exposure rates in the maxilla were significantly higher than in the mandible (66.7 vs. 8.3%, p = 0.009). Gender, smoking, periodontal disease, gingiva type, used augmentation material, and used membrane had no significant influence on the exposure rate (p > 0.05). The mean vertical augmentation was 6.5 ± 1.7 mm, and the mean horizontal augmentation was 5.5 ± 1.9 mm. Implant survival rate after a mean follow-up of 12 ± 6 months after reentry was 100%. Within the limits of the retrospective character of this study, this study shows for the first time that individualized CAD-CAM TM provide a sufficient and safe augmentation technique

  13. Logística de Retirada de Cadáveres en Instalaciones Agropecuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Díaz, David

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto tiene como objetivo la logística de retirada de cadáveres de animales en instalaciones agropecuarias (Análisis del coste de transporte), optimizando los posibles precios al máximo, para producir el mayor ahorro posible. En la gestión de este proyecto, se ha puesto especial interés en cuestiones relativas a cálculos económicos, con características especiales relacionadas con la Logística. Los aspectos más importantes estarán relacionados con los cálculos y e...

  14. Clinical outcomes of three different crown systems with CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Emily R; Cooper, Lyndon F; Duqum, Ibrahim; Mendonça, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) generated restorations are gaining popularity. However, limited clinical evidence is available for single-unit posterior CAD/CAM restorations fabricated with established and newer crown materials. The purpose of this clinical study was to assess the restoration quality of and gingival response to CAD/CAM fabricated posterior single-tooth restorations with different processing technologies. Twenty-two individuals in need of posterior complete coverage crowns were recruited under an institutional review board approved protocol. Teeth were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: metal ceramic, lithium disilicate, and monolithic zirconia. An unprepared or minimally restored tooth on the contralateral side was chosen as a control tooth for gingival measurements with each participant. Teeth were prepared and scanned intraorally by 1 of 3 experienced practitioners. A total of 32 restorations were digitally designed and fabricated with either milling technology or rapid-prototype printing and casting with conventional porcelain application. Restorations were evaluated with modified United States Public Health Service criteria for contour, marginal adaptation, occlusion, and shade. Gingival crevicular fluid volume and bleeding on probing were recorded preoperatively, at 1-month and 6-month postcementation visits. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions were made of the buccal margin of cemented restorations and evaluated with microcomputed tomography to assess marginal adaptation (horizontal discrepancy). The Mantel Haenszel row mean score was used to assess whether the crown systems differed with respect to the modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Linear mixed models were used to assess whether the average gingival volumes were affected by the explanatory variables (crown system, tooth status [treated vs control], or visit). A generalized estimating equation approach was used to assess whether bleeding on

  15. GRIOT - sistema CAD inteligente para design de calçados

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Marizilda dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho é o estudo dos aspectos da metodologia projetual, face às novas tecnologias da informática, Inteligência Artificial (Sistemas Especialistas) e CAD, consideradas as reais possibilidades de automatização no processo de concepção em Design. Esse artigo propõe uma metodologia para a construção de sistema inteligente capaz de auxiliar o designer nas tarefas projetuais. A indústria de calçados foi utilizada como estudo de caso para a aplicação da metodologia, onde as reais possi...

  16. Monolithic and bi-layer CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate versus metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses: comparison of fracture loads and failure modes after fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Stefan; Strub, Joerg R; Gerds, Thomas A; Guess, Petra C

    2013-06-01

    The authors analyzed the effect of fatigue on the survival rate and fracture load of monolithic and bi-layer CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate posterior three-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) in comparison to the metal-ceramic gold standard. The authors divided 96 human premolars and molars into three equal groups. Lithium-disilicate ceramic (IPS-e.max-CAD) was milled with the CEREC-3-system in full-anatomic FDP dimensions (monolithic: M-LiCAD) or as framework (Bi-layer: BL-LiCAD) with subsequent hand-layer veneering. Metal-ceramic FDPs (MC) served as control. Single-load-to-failure tests were performed before and after mouth-motion fatigue. No fracture failures occurred during fatigue. Median fracture loads in [N], before and after fatigue were, respectively, as follows: M-LiCAD, 1,298/1,900; BL-LiCAD, 817/699; MC, 1,966/1,818. M-LiCAD and MC FPDs revealed comparable fracture loads and were both significantly higher than BL-LiCAD. M-LiCAD and BL-LiCAD both failed from core/veneer bulk fracture within the connector area. MC failures were limited to ceramic veneer fractures exposing the metal core. Fatigue had no significant effect on any group. Posterior monolithic CAD/CAM fabricated lithium-disilicate FPDs were shown to be fracture resistant with failure load results comparable to the metal-ceramic gold standard. Clinical investigations are needed to confirm these promising laboratory results. Monolithic CAD/CAM fabricated lithium-disilicate FDPs appeared to be a reliable treatment alternative for the posterior load-bearing area, whereas FDPs in bi-layer configuration were susceptible to low load fracture failure.

  17. Clinical Acceptability of the Internal Gap of CAD/CAM PD-AG Crowns Using Intraoral Digital Impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Gyung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the internal gap between CAD/CAM palladium-silver crowns and cast gold crowns generated from intraoral digital versus conventional impressions and to determine the clinical acceptability. Nickel-chrome master dies were made from the prepared resin tooth with the conventional impression method (n=40. For ICC (Intraoral, CAD/CAM group, 10 intraoral digital impressions were made, and 10 CAD/CAM crowns of a PD-AG (palladium-silver machinable alloy were generated. For IC (Intraoral, Cast group, 10 gold crowns were cast from ten intraoral digital impressions. For CCC (Conventional, CAD/CAM group, 10 CAD/CAM PD-AG crowns were made using the conventional impression method. For CC (Conventional, Cast group, 10 gold crowns were fabricated from 10 conventional impressions. One hundred magnifications of the internal gaps of each crown were measured at 50 points with an optical microscope and these values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (α=0.05. The internal gap of the intraoral digital impression group was significantly larger than in the conventional impression group (P0.05. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, crowns from intraoral digital impressions showed larger internal gap values than crowns from conventional impressions.

  18. Clinical Acceptability of the Internal Gap of CAD/CAM PD-AG Crowns Using Intraoral Digital Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyung; Kim, Sungtae; Choi, Hyunmin; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hong; Moon, Hong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the internal gap between CAD/CAM palladium-silver crowns and cast gold crowns generated from intraoral digital versus conventional impressions and to determine the clinical acceptability. Nickel-chrome master dies were made from the prepared resin tooth with the conventional impression method (n = 40). For ICC (Intraoral, CAD/CAM) group, 10 intraoral digital impressions were made, and 10 CAD/CAM crowns of a PD-AG (palladium-silver) machinable alloy were generated. For IC (Intraoral, Cast) group, 10 gold crowns were cast from ten intraoral digital impressions. For CCC (Conventional, CAD/CAM) group, 10 CAD/CAM PD-AG crowns were made using the conventional impression method. For CC (Conventional, Cast) group, 10 gold crowns were fabricated from 10 conventional impressions. One hundred magnifications of the internal gaps of each crown were measured at 50 points with an optical microscope and these values were statistically analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). The internal gap of the intraoral digital impression group was significantly larger than in the conventional impression group (P 0.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, crowns from intraoral digital impressions showed larger internal gap values than crowns from conventional impressions.

  19. In vitro analysis of the fracture resistance of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia molar crowns with different occlusal thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Triulzio, Clementina; Tricarico, Maria Gabriella; Bonadeo, Giovanni; Gherlone, Enrico Felice; Ferrari, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To compare the fracture resistance and mode of failure of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns with different occlusal thickness. Forty CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns with different occlusal thickness were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: 2.0mm (group 1), 1.5mm (group 2), 1.0mm (group 3) and 0.5mm (group 4). The restorations were cemented onto human molars with a self-adhesive resin cement. The specimens were loaded until fracture; the fracture resistance and mode of failure were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed with the one-way ANOVA followed by the Fisher׳s Exact test with Bonferroni׳s correction (p=0.05). The fracture resistance values of all the specimens exceeded the maximum physiological occlusal loads in molar regions. All the crowns showed cohesive microcracks of the zirconia core; only 1 crown with a thickness of 0.5mm was interested by a complete fracture. The occlusal thickness of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns did not influence either the fracture resistance and the mode of failure of the restorations; the occlusal thickness of CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns can be reduced up to a lower bound of 0.5mm keeping a sufficient strength to withstand occlusal loads; CAD-CAM monolithic zirconia crowns showed sufficient fracture resistance to be used in molar regions, even in a thin configuration (0.5mm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of CO2 and Nd:YAP lasers on CAD/CAM Ceramics: SEM, EDS and thermal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, Ahmed; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean Paul; Muhammad, Omid H; Medioni, Etienne; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie

    2016-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of infrared laser light on Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic surfaces. Sixty CAD/CAM ceramic discs were prepared and divided into two different groups: lithiumdisilicate ceramic (IPSe.maxCADs) and Zirconia ceramic (IPSe.maxZirCADs). The laser irradiation was performed on graphite and non-graphite surfaces with a Carbon Dioxide laser at 5W and 10W power in continuous mode (CW mode) and with Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (Nd:YAP) laser at 10W. Surface textures and compositions were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Thermal elevation was measured by thermocouple during laser irradiation. The SEM observation showed a rough surface plus cracks and fissures on CO2 10W samples and melting areas in Nd:YAP samples; moreover, with CO2 5W smooth and shallow surfaces were observed. EDS analysis revealed that laser irradiation does not result in modifications of the chemical composition even if minor changes in the atomic mass percentage of the components were registered. Thermocouple showed several thermal changes during laser irradiation. CO2 and Nd:YAP lasers modify CAD/CAM ceramic surface without chemical composition modifications.

  1. Ergonomics Perspective in Agricultural Research: A User-Centred Approach Using CAD and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata

    2016-09-01

    Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.

  2. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondo, Elliott D [ORNL; Ibrahim, Ahmad M [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  3. Advanced 3D-CAD Design Methods in Education and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Rossbacher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of advanced virtual engineering methods into 3D-CAD based development processes leads to increased requirements, concerning the software packages as well as regarding the applied procedures and strategies. Modern IT- based engineering tools offer much more than the conventional development methodologies in component creation and digital mock-up processes. The trend definitely goes into the direction of simultaneous CAE - support during the layout and design phases, attendant quality and structural management and the implementation of external data sources and receivers into the product development. It is up to the engineers to tap the full potential of virtual engineering processes regarding time reduction, error prevention in early phases and through technical modifications, whereas the applied methods and strategies represent a key factor on the way to efficient progresses. The present publication includes an assessment and evaluation of modern 3D-CAD based development processes and discusses future prospects in the field of virtual engineering. On the basis of parametric geometry generation, different methods and tools, which are able to increase the efficiency in virtual development processes, will be introduced and compared.

  4. A CAD system for B-mode fatty liver ultrasound images using texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M B; Kumar, Vinod; Mukherjee, Shaktidev; Saini, Manju

    2015-02-01

    The present study proposes a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the diagnosis of grades of fatty liver disease, namely mild, moderate and severe fatty liver along with normal liver tissue. Fifty-three B-mode ultrasound images consisting of 12 normal, 14 mild, 14 moderate and 13 severe fatty liver images are used. Based on the visual interpretations by the radiologists, region of interests (ROIs) from within the liver and one ROI from the diaphragm region are considered from each image. The texture features of these ROIs are combined in three ways to form ratio features, inverse ratio features and additive features. The sub-sets of optimal features are obtained by a differential evolution feature selection (DEFS) algorithm and a support vector machine (SVM) has been used for the classification task. The Laws ratio features have shown better performance with an average accuracy and standard deviation of 84.9±3.2. Hence, the CAD system could be useful to the radiologists in diagnosing grades of fatty liver disease.

  5. CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported restorations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Sebastian Berthold Maximilian; Spies, Benedikt C; Kohal, Ralf J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize the available literature related to CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported restorations. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Cochrane Library and the US Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health databases (Pubmed). Several search runs with specific search terms were performed and combined. All published papers available on the databases up to January 15, 2015 were considered with primarily no restrictions. About 12 of 3484 identified papers met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in the present review. One paper reported results on implant-supported single crowns (SCs), one on partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), and 10 papers reported results on full-arch screw-retained FDPs. Publications on SCs and FDPs were very limited but it was possible to identify 10 papers reporting adequate results on full-arch screw-retained FDPs. Survival rates ranged between 92% and 100% with observation times of 1-10 years. The available data provided promising results for CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported restorations; nonetheless, current evidence is limited due to the quality of available studies and the paucity of data on long-term clinical outcomes of 5 years or more. In the sense of an evidence-based dentistry, the authors recommend further studies designed as randomized controlled clinical trials and reported according to the CONSORT statement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The MAGIC-5 CAD for nodule detection in low dose and thin slice lung CTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerello, Piergiorgio, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.i [INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2010-11-11

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in developed countries. Only 10-15% of all men and women diagnosed with lung cancer live 5 years after the diagnosis. However, the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the early asymptomatic stage of the disease can reach 70%. Early-stage lung cancers can be diagnosed by detecting non-calcified small pulmonary nodules with computed tomography (CT). Computer-aided detection (CAD) could support radiologists in the analysis of the large amount of noisy images generated in screening programs, where low-dose and thin-slice settings are used. The MAGIC-5 project, funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, Italy) and Ministero dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MUR, Italy), developed a multi-method approach based on three CAD algorithms to be used in parallel with a merging of their results: the Channeler Ant Model (CAM), based on Virtual Ant Colonies, the Dot-Enhancement/Pleura Surface Normals/VBNA (DE-PSN-VBNA), and the Region Growing Volume Plateau (RGVP). Preliminary results show quite good performances, to be improved with the refining of the single algorithm and the added value of the results merging.

  7. Modelización matemática de sistemas CAD en Edificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Manuel Falcón Ganfornina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Existe una amplia gama de sistemas CAD destinados a modelar objetos tridimensionales. Basados en una creación y transformación intuitiva de objetos geométricos básicos, el fundamento matemático de estas herramientas es generalmente desconocido por sus usuarios. La incorporación de las mismas en el aula de Matemáticas es una pieza clave para lograr captar la atención del alumnado de aquellas titulaciones universitarias en las que los sistemas CAD no sólo son atrayentes, sino que son además de suma importancia para la futura vida profesional. El presente artículo trata acerca de la experiencia docente llevada a cabo en este sentido durante los últimos cinco años en el Grado de Ingeniería de Edificación de la Universidad de Sevilla. La búsqueda metodológica de modelos matemáticos que les permita construir virtualmente edificios reales ha mejorado no sólo el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, sino también su interés en la materia y su rendimiento académico. Un recorrido virtual a través de sus construcciones es una perfecta excusa para tratar también el fundamento matemático en los que se basan los mismos.

  8. Optical Properties and Failure Load of Thin CAD/CAM Ceramic Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunula, Henriika; Hjerppe, Jenni; Lassila, Lippo L V; Närhi, Timo O

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare optical properties and failure load of leucite (IPS Empress CAD LT) and lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD LT) materials in incisor veneers. Four groups of veneers were made on 36 bovine incisors with Cerec 3D milling unit (n=9/group): 0.5 and 0.3 mm thick leucite glass and 0.5 and 0.3 mm lithium disilicate glass veneers. The optical features were measured with CM-700d spectrophotometer using white and yellow try-in pastes. Differences were determined by means of ΔE value and luminance. The bovine teeth with veneers were mounted on acrylic resin blocks (Palapress, Heraeus Kulzer) and static loading test was conducted (LR30K plus, Lloyd Instruments). The color difference of veneers could be noticed with yellow and white cements when the material thickness increased from 0.3 to 0.5 mm (leucite ΔE yellow 4.4, white 6.0; lithiumdisilicate ΔE yellow 2.1, white 4.1). Both materials showed similar failure load with 0.5 mm veneers (leucite 1906 +/-319 N; lithiumdisilicate 2098 +/- 309 N). The failure load of 0.3 mm thick lithium dilisilicate veneers (2002 +/- 427 N) was comparable with the 0.5mm veneers. Ultrathin lithium disilicate glass ceramic veneers (0.3 mm) could be a potential option for clinical use. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  9. Automated detection of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: CAD system application to MIAS database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hara, Takeshi; Endo, Tokiko

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the detection performance of our automated detection scheme for clustered microcalcifications on mammograms, we applied our computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to the database of the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) in the UK. Forty-three mammograms from this database were used in this study. In our scheme, the breast regions were firstly extracted by determining the skinline. Histograms of the original images were used to extract the high-density area within the breast region as the segmentation from the fatty area around the skinline. Then the contrast correction technique was employed. Gradient vectors of the image density were calculated on the contrast corrected images. To extract the specific features of the pattern of the microcalcifications, triple-ring filter analysis was employed. A variable-ring filter was used for more accurate detection after the triple-ring filter. The features of the detected candidate areas were then characterized by feature analysis. The areas which satisfied the characteristics and specific terms were classified and displayed as clusters. As a result, the sensitivity was 95.8% with the false-positive rate at 1.8 clusters per image. This demonstrates that the automated detection of clustered microcalcifications in our CAD system is reliable as an aid to radiologists.

  10. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A. Naumova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU, a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion.

  11. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A.; Schneider, Stephan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Piwowarczyk, Andree

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS)) were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion. PMID:28772602

  12. Luting of CAD/CAM ceramic inlays: direct composite versus dual-cure luting cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Bonroy, Kim; Elsen, Caroline; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; Suyama, Yuji; Peumans, Marleen; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bonding effectiveness in direct restorations. A two-step self-etch adhesive and a light-cure resin composite was compared with luting with a conventional dual-cure resin cement and a two-step etch and rinse adhesive. Class-I box-type cavities were prepared. Identical ceramic inlays were designed and fabricated with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) device. The inlays were seated with Clearfil SE Bond/Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray Medical) or ExciTE F DSC/Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), each by two operators (five teeth per group). The inlays were stored in water for one week at 37°C, whereafter micro-tensile bond strength testing was conducted. The micro-tensile bond strength of the direct composite was significantly higher than that from conventional luting, and was independent of the operator (P<0.0001). Pre-testing failures were only observed with the conventional method. High-power light-curing of a direct composite may be a viable alternative to luting lithium disilicate glass-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations.

  13. ELM BASED CAD SYSTEM TO CLASSIFY MAMMOGRAMS BY THE COMBINATION OF CLBP AND CONTOURLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Venkatalakshmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a serious life threat to the womanhood, worldwide. Mammography is the promising screening tool, which can show the abnormality being detected. However, the physicians find it difficult to detect the affected regions, as the size of microcalcifications is very small. Hence it would be better, if a CAD system can accompany the physician in detecting the malicious regions. Taking this as a challenge, this paper presents a CAD system for mammogram classification which is proven to be accurate and reliable. The entire work is decomposed into four different stages and the outcome of a phase is passed as the input of the following phase. Initially, the mammogram is pre-processed by adaptive median filter and the segmentation is done by GHFCM. The features are extracted by combining the texture feature descriptors Completed Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and contourlet to frame the feature sets. In the training phase, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is trained with the feature sets. During the testing phase, the ELM can classify between normal, malignant and benign type of cancer. The performance of the proposed approach is analysed by varying the classifier, feature extractors and parameters of the feature extractor. From the experimental analysis, it is evident that the proposed work outperforms the analogous techniques in terms of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

  14. PTC MathCAD and Workgroup Manager: Implementation in a Multi-Org System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, the presenter will review what was done at Kennedy Space Center to deploy and implement PTC MathCAD and PTC Workgroup Manager in a multi-org system. During the presentation the presenter will explain how they configured PTC Windchill to create custom soft-types and object initialization rules for their custom numbering scheme and why they choose these methods. This presentation will also include how to modify the EPM default soft-type file in the PTC Windchill server codebase folder. The presenter will also go over the code used in a start up script to initiate PTC MathCAD and PTC Workgroup Manager in the proper order, and also set up the environment variables when running both PTC Workgroup Manager and PTC Creo. The configuration.ini file the presenter used will also be reviewed to show you how to set up the PTC Workgroup Manager and customized it to their user community. This presentation will be of interest to administrators trying to create a similar set-up in either a single org or multiple org system deployment. The big take away will be ideas and best practices learned through implementing this system, and the lessons learned what to do and not to do when setting up this configuration. Attendees will be exposed to several different sets of code used and that worked well and will hear some limitations on what the software can accomplish when configured this way.

  15. Elastomeric degradable biomaterials by photopolymerization-based CAD-CAM for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Stefan; Nehl, Franziska; Ligon, S Clark; Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163MC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nigisch, Anneliese; Bernhard, David [Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergmeister, Helga [Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen, E-mail: robert.liska@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Material Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    A predominant portion of mortalities in industrial countries can be attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the last decades great efforts have been undertaken to develop materials for artificial vascular constructs. However, bio-inert materials like ePTFE or PET fail as material for narrow blood vessel replacements (coronary bypasses). Therefore, we aim to design new biocompatible materials to overcome this. In this paper we investigate the use of photoelastomers for artificial vascular constructs since they may be precisely structured by means of additive manufacturing technologies. Hence, 3D computer aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) offer the possibility of creating cellular structures within the grafts that might favour ingrowth of tissue. Different monomer formulations were screened concerning their suitability for this application but all had drawbacks, especially concerning the suture tear resistance. Therefore, we chose to modify the original network architecture by including dithiol chain transfer agents which effectively co-react with the acrylates and reduce crosslink density. A commercial urethane diacrylate was chosen as base monomer. In combination with reactive diluents and dithiols, the properties of the photopolymers could be tailored and degradability could be introduced. The optimized photoelastomers were in good mechanical accordance with native blood vessels, showed good biocompatibility in in vitro tests, degraded similar to poly(lactic acid) and were successfully manufactured with the 3D CAD-CAM technology.

  16. Development of simulation tools for numerical investigation and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-10-01

    As the most powerful CW sources of coherent radiation in the sub-terahertz to terahertz frequency range the gyrotrons have demonstrated a remarkable potential for numerous novel and prospective applications in the fundamental physical research and the technologies. Among them are powerful gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasma in various reactors for controlled thermonuclear fusion (e.g., tokamaks and most notably ITER), high-frequency gyrotrons for sub-terahertz spectroscopy (for example NMR-DNP, XDMR, study of the hyperfine structure of positronium, etc.), gyrotrons for thermal processing and so on. Modelling and simulation are indispensable tools for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of such sophisticated vacuum tubes (fast-wave devices) operating on a physical principle known as electron cyclotron resonance maser (ECRM) instability. During the recent years, our research team has been involved in the development of physical models and problem-oriented software packages for numerical analysis and CAD of different gyrotrons in the framework of a broad international collaboration. In this paper we present the current status of our simulation tools (GYROSIM and GYREOSS packages) and illustrate their functionality by results of numerical experiments carried out recently. Finally, we provide an outlook on the envisaged further development of the computer codes and the computational modules belonging to these packages and specialized to different subsystems of the gyrotrons.

  17. 3D CAD model of the subcritical nuclear reactor of IPN; Modelo CAD 3D del reactor nuclear subcritico del IPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahuamba V, F. de J.; Delfin L, A.; Gomez T, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ibarra R, G.; Del Valle G, E.; Sanchez R, A., E-mail: narehc@hotmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN, Edif. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The three-dimensional (3D) CAD model of the subcritical reactor Chicago model 9000 of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) allows obtaining a 3D view with the dimensions of each of its components, such as: natural uranium cylindrical rods, fuel elements, hexagonal reactor core arrangement, cylindrical stainless steel tank containing the core, fuel element support grids and reactor water cleaning system. As a starting point for the development of the model, the Chicago model 9000 subcritical reactor manual provided by the manufacturer was used, the measurement and verification of the components to adapt the geometric, physical and mechanical characteristics was carried out and materials standards were used to obtain a design that allows to elaborate a new manual according to the specifications. In addition, the 3D models of the building of the Advanced Physics Laboratory, neutron generator, cobalt source and the corridors connecting to the subcritical reactor facility were developed, allowing an animated ride, developed by computer-aided design software. The manual provided by the company Nuclear Chicago, dates from the year 1959 and presents diverse deviations in the design and dimensions of the reactor components. The model developed; in addition to supporting the development of the new manual represents a learning tool to visualize the reactor components. (Author)

  18. Fabrication of lithium silicate ceramic veneers with a CAD/CAM approach: a clinical report of cleidocranial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Mukai, Eduardo; Hamerschmitt, Raphael Meneghetti; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-05-01

    The fabrication of minimally invasive ceramic veneers remains a challenge for dental restorations involving computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The application of an appropriate CAD/CAM protocol and correlation mode not only simplifies the fabrication of ceramic veneers but also improves the resulting esthetics. Ceramic veneers can restore tooth abnormalities caused by disorders such as cleidocranial dysplasia, enamel hypoplasia, or supernumerary teeth. This report illustrates the fabrication of dental veneers with a new lithium silicate ceramic and the CAD/CAM technique in a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Blue-Light Transmittance of Esthetic Monolithic CAD/CAM Materials With Respect to Their Composition, Thickness, and Curing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, B; Awad, D; Ilie, N

    2016-01-01

    Determining the amount of blue light (360-540nm) passing through nine monolithic computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials depends on material thickness, initial irradiance, and the distance between the curing unit and the specimen's surface. A total of 180 specimens of two thicknesses (1 mm and 2 mm, n=10/subgroup) were fabricated from TelioCAD, VITA CAD-Temp (VCT), experimental nanocomposite, LAVA Ultimate (LU), VITA ENAMIC (VE), VITA MarkII (VM), IPS EmpressCAD (IEC), IPS e.maxCAD (IEM), and CELTRA DUO (CD). The irradiance passing through the CAD/CAM materials and thicknesses was measured using a light-emitting-diode curing unit with standard-power, high-power, and plasma modes by means of a USB4000 spectrometer. The curing unit was placed directly on the specimen's surface at 2- and 4-mm distances from the specimen's surface. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis and one-way analysis of variance with the post hoc Scheffé test (p<0.05). The highest transmitted irradiance was measured for VM and LU, followed by VCT and IEC, while the lowest values showed VE, followed by IEM and CD. The highest transmitted irradiance was recorded by exposing the material to the plasma mode, followed by the high- and standard-power modes. The measured irradiance was decreased by increasing the specimen's thickness from 1 to 2 mm. Fewer differences were measured when the curing unit was placed at 0 or 2 mm from the specimen's surface, and the irradiance passing through the specimens was lower at a distance of 4 mm.

  20. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses in patients with flexible flatfeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Banafsheh; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam; Farzadi, Maede; Norouzi, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    The effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution has been proven by researchers but there are some controversies about advantages of custom-made foot orthoses to less expensive prefabricated foot orthoses. Nineteen flatfeet adults between 18 and 45 participated in this study. CAD-CAM foot orthoses were made for these patients according to their foot scan. Prefabricated foot orthoses were prepared according to their foot size. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were measured using pedar ® -x in-shoe system wearing shoe alone, wearing CAD-CAM foot orthoses and wearing prefabricated foot orthoses. Repeated measures ANOVA model with post-hoc, Bonferroni comparison were used to test differences. CAD-CAM and prefabricated foot orthoses both decreased pressure and force under 2nd, 3-5 metatarsal and heel regions comparing to shoe alone condition. CAD-CAM foot orthosis increased pressure under lateral toe region in comparison to shoe alone and prefabricated foot orthosis. Both foot orthoses increased pressure and contact area in medial midfoot region comparing to shoe alone condition. Increased forces were seen at hallux and lateral toes by prefabricated foot orthoses in comparison with CAD-CAM foot orthoses and control condition, respectively. According to the results, both foot orthoses could decrease the pressure under heel and metatarsal area. It seems that the special design of CAD-CAM foot orthoses could not make great differences in plantar pressure distribution in this sample. Further research is required to determine whether these results are associated with different scan systems or design software. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic association of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastana, Sarabjit; Prakash, Swayam; Akam, Elizabeth C; Kirby, Melissa; Lindley, Martin R; Sinha, Nakul; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2017-09-10

    Cytokines regulate the expression of inflammatory molecules which destabilize the atheromatic plaques. This study focuses on studying the association of inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms like TNF-α -308 (G/A), TNF-β +252 (A/G), IL-6 -174 (G/C) and IL-6 -597 (G/A), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) with coronary artery disease (CAD) among north Indian patients. 143 CAD and 137 normal healthy controls were recruited in this study. DNA extraction was carried out by high salting out method. TNF-α -308 (G/A) (rs1800797), TNF-β +252 (A/G) (rs909253), IL-6 -174 (G/C) (rs1800795), IL6 -597 (G/A) (rs1800797), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) (rs2430561) SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan®SNP genotyping assays. Different statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v 22.0 and SNPStats. p≤0.05 was considered significant. Significant risk association with CAD was found for TNF-α -308 (G/A) "A" allele (OR=5.6, CI 1.8-17.4, p=0.001) and TNF-β +252 (A/G) "G" allele (OR=3.4, CI=1.9-6.0, pCAD. TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) haplotype "GG" "AG" increased CAD risk significantly (GG haplotype, adjusted OR=2.6, CI 1.4-5.0, p=0.003 and AG haplotype OR=8.5, CI 2.2-33.35, p=0.002) after adjustments for age, sex, TC, TG, HDL, APOB, smoking and diet. The present study found significant risk association for TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) genotypes, alleles and haplotypes, with CAD in a North Indian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of Indirect Particle-Filled Composite Resin CAD/CAM Partial Crowns after 24 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Koller, Christina; Reymus, Marcel; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard

    2017-04-19

    Resin-based CAD/CAM compound materials might be promising for single-tooth restorations. Insufficient clinical data are available for this new material class. The purpose of this study was to describe initial clinical in vivo results for indirect particle-filled composite resin CAD/CAM restorations after 24 months. Indirect particle-filled composite resin restorations were fabricated with a CAD/CAM method (CEREC Bluecam intraoral scanner, CEREC MCXL milling unit) by calibrated dental students. Forty-two partial crown restorations were seated adhesively in 30 patients with caries lesions or insufficient restorations (baseline). Strict inclusion criteria were defined for the patient collective. Follow-up evaluation comprised 40 restorations after 12 months and 33 restorations after 24 months. Evaluation criteria were modified FDI criteria with grades (1) to (5). Rating with FDI criteria (5) was defined as clinical failure. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon-Test (p CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months was 95.0% with two debondings observed. The cumulative success rate for indirect particle-filled composite resin CAD/CAM restorations after 24 months was 85.7% with two tooth fractures and one debonding. Statistically significant differences were found for baseline and 24-month follow-up evaluation for anatomic form and marginal adaptation criterion examined in respect to FDI criteria guidelines (Wilcoxon-Test, p CAD/CAM restorations having a clinical success rate of 85.7% after 24 months. Adhesive bonding procedures need to be ensured carefully. A longer clinical evaluation period is necessary to draw further conclusions. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Soft tissues stability of cad-cam and stock abutments in anterior regions: 2-year prospective multicentric cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Diego; Bressan, Eriberto; Parpaiola, Andrea; Sbricoli, Luca; Cecchinato, Denis; Romeo, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this study was to verify if the type of implant abutment manufacturing, stock or cad-cam, could influence the maintenance of stable gingival margins around single restorations in anterior areas. After 16 weeks of healing, implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech Dental Implant) were positioned. Depending on the different fixture inclination and the thickness of buccal peri-implant soft tissue, abutment selection resulted in four groups: Group 1 (patients with zirconia ZirDesign(®) stock abutments), Group 2 (titanium stock TiDesign(®) abutments), Group 3 (zirconia cad-cam abutments), and Group 4 (titanium cad-cam abutments). The following parameters were assessed: buccal gingival margin modification (BGM). The modification of the implant gingival margin was followed at 1 and 2 years of follow-up. A computerized analysis was performed for measurements. Differences between soft tissue margin at baseline and after 2 years measured the gingival margin recession. A general linear model was used to evaluate each group in relation to gingival recession after two years. Tukey's post hoc test was used to compare the mean REC indexes of each group of abutments. Seventy-two healthy patients (39 males and 33 females; mean age of 46 years) scheduled for single gap rehabilitation in anterior areas were enrolled. A 100% of implant survival rate was observed after 24 months of function. One failure occurred due to fracture of a Zirconia cad-cam abutment. Moreover, two abutment screw unscrewing were observed. Both for zirconia and titanium stock abutments (Group 1 and 2), the mean recession of implant buccal soft tissue was of 0.3 mm (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). Soft tissue mean recession of zirconia and titanium cad-cam abutments (Group 3 and 4) was of 0.1 and -0.3 mm, respectively (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). REC values of cad-cam titanium abutments (Group 4) were significantly lower than that of Group 1 (-0.57 mm), Group 2 (-0.61 mm), and Group 3 (-0.40 mm

  4. Cadmium-hazard mapping using a general linear regression model (Irr-Cad) for rapid risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert W; Noble, Andrew D; Pongsakul, P; Sukreeyapongse, O; Chinabut, N

    2009-02-01

    Research undertaken over the last 40 years has identified the irrefutable relationship between the long-term consumption of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated rice and human Cd disease. In order to protect public health and livelihood security, the ability to accurately and rapidly determine spatial Cd contamination is of high priority. During 2001-2004, a General Linear Regression Model Irr-Cad was developed to predict the spatial distribution of soil Cd in a Cd/Zn co-contaminated cascading irrigated rice-based system in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand (Longitude E 98 degrees 59'-E 98 degrees 63' and Latitude N 16 degrees 67'-16 degrees 66'). The results indicate that Irr-Cad accounted for 98% of the variance in mean Field Order total soil Cd. Preliminary validation indicated that Irr-Cad 'predicted' mean Field Order total soil Cd, was significantly (p channels and subsequent inter-field irrigation flows. This in turn determines Field Order in Irrigation Sequence (Field Order(IS)). Mean Field Order total soil Cd represents the mean total soil Cd (aqua regia-digested) for a given Field Order(IS). In 2004-2005, Irr-Cad was utilized to evaluate the spatial distribution of total soil Cd in a 'high-risk' area of Mae Sot District. Secondary validation on six randomly selected field groups verified that Irr-Cad predicted mean Field Order total soil Cd and was significantly (p strategic sampling of all primary fields and laboratory based determination of total soil Cd (T-Cd(P)) and the use of a weighed coefficient for Cd (Coeff(W)). The use of primary fields as the basis for Irr-Cad is also an important practical consideration due to their inherent ease of identification and vital role in the classification of fields in terms of Field Order(IS). The inclusion of mean field order soil pH (1:5(water)) to the Irr-Cad model accounted for over 79% of the variation in mean Field Order bio-available (DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-extractable) soil Cd. Rice is the

  5. A method for using solid modeling CAD software to create an implant library for the fabrication of a custom abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Rimei; Ren, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaojie

    2017-02-01

    This article describes a method that incorporates the solid modeling CAD software Solidworks with a dental milling machine to fabricate individual abutments in house. This process involves creating an implant library with 3-dimensional (3D) models and manufacturing a base, scan element, abutment, and crown anatomy. The 3D models can be imported into any dental computer-aided design and computer-aided (CAD-CAM) manufacturing system. This platform increases abutment design flexibility, as the base and scan elements can be designed to fit several shapes as needed to meet clinical requirements. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An RM-ODP Based Ontology and a CAD Tool for Modeling Hierarchical Systems in Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, Lam Son; Wegmann, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) requires modeling enterprises across multiple levels (from markets down to IT systems) i.e. modeling hierarchical systems. Our goal is to build a Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool for EA. To be able to build this CAD tool, we need an ontology that can be used to describe hierarchical systems. The Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) was originally defined for describing IT systems and their environment. RM-ODP can also be suited to general, hier...

  7. Simplified Fabrication of an Esthetic Implant-Supported Crown With a Novel CAD/CAM Glass Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Julián; Blatz, Markus B

    2016-06-01

    Implant therapy and CAD/CAM technologies are advancing quickly, providing predictable esthetic and functional treatment options. A recent development involves the use of zirconia-reinforced lithium-silicate ceramic for fabrication of implant-supported restorations. Suitable for monolithic crowns, the material provides the optical advantages of a silicate ceramic with improved physical strength. Several prerequisites, however, are necessary to fabricate screw-retained monolithic restorations in the anterior maxilla. This case report demonstrates the clinical steps to fabricate a monolithic ceramic CAD/CAM crown on an immediately placed dental implant in the esthetic zone.

  8. El cadáver mediático y su potencia visual: una mirada antropo-semiótica

    OpenAIRE

    Johandry A. Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio se propone analizar el tratamiento informativo de la exhibición de cadáveres en las noticias de sucesos. A partir de lo que Finol (2010) ha denominado como la Corposfera, se establece una aproximación desde tres conceptos fundamentales: la sintaxis, la semántica y la pragmática del cuerpo, según la representación del cadáver en los medios. Se recurre a los aportes de Imbert (2004), Kristeva (2004), Navarro (2004), entre otros. Metodológicamente, se recopiló un seriado de noticias...

  9. Herramienta CAD para la proyección de elementos estructurales de hormigón armado

    OpenAIRE

    Alkaid Benítez Pérez; Sócrates Muñoz Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    Se presenta la creación de una herramienta que permite el diseño, revisión y proyección automatizada sobre plataforma CAD (AutoCAd) de diferentes elementos de hormigón armado sometidos a todo tipo de solicitaciones con factores de seguridad correctos y económicos conforme a las características y exigencias de las normas cubanas, garantizando la durabilidad de los mismos sin fallos de resistencia y estabilidad; además de generar información numérica, gráfica, realice el despiezo del refuerzo, ...

  10. CAD-Based Calibration and Shape Measurement with StereoDIC Principle and Application on Test and Industrial Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Beaubier, Benoît; Dufour, John-Eric; Hild, François; Roux, Stéphane; Lavernhe, Sylvain; Lavernhe Taillard, Karine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A new calibration procedure is proposed for a stereovision setup. It uses the object of interest as the calibration target, provided the observed surface has a known de nition (e.g., its CAD model). In a rst step, the transformation matrices needed for the calibration of the setup are determined assuming that the object conforms to its CAD model. Then the 3D shape of the surface of interest is evaluated by deforming the a priori given freeform surface. These two steps ...

  11. Evaluation of internal fit of interim crown fabricated with CAD/CAM milling and 3D printing system

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wan-Sun; Lee, Du-Hyeong; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This study is to evaluate the internal fit of the crown manufactured by CAD/CAM milling method and 3D printing method. MATERIALS AND METHODS The master model was fabricated with stainless steel by using CNC machine and the work model was created from the vinyl-polysiloxane impression. After scanning the working model, the design software is used to design the crown. The saved STL file is used on the CAD/CAM milling method and two types of 3D printing method to produce 10 interim crown...

  12. Translucency of zirconia copings made with different CAD/CAM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissara, Paolo; Llukacej, Altin; Ciocca, Leonardo; Valandro, Felipe L; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Zirconia cores are reported to be less translucent than glass, lithium disilicate, or alumina cores. This could affect the esthetic appearance and the clinical choices made when using zirconia-based restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the translucency of zirconia copings for single crowns fabricated using different CAD/CAM systems, using lithium disilicate glass ceramic as a control. Using impressions made from a stainless steel complete-crown master die, 9 stone cast replicas were fabricated, numbered, and distributed into 8 ceramic ZrO(2) CAD/CAM system groups (Lava Frame 0.3 and 0.5, IPS e.max ZirCAD, VITA YZ, Procera AllZircon, Digizon, DC Zircon, and Cercon Base) and to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic control group (IPS e.max Press) using a simple computer-generated randomization method. From each die, the manufacturer's authorized milling centers supplied 5 copings per group without applying any dying technique to the ceramic base material. The copings were prepared to allow for a 40-mum cement layer and were of different thicknesses according to system specifications. Translucency was measured by the direct transmission method with a digital photoradiometer mounted in a dark chamber. The light source was a 150-W halogen lamp beam. Measurements were repeated 3 times for each specimen. Data obtained were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test (alpha=.05). Among ZrO(2) copings, Lava (0.3 mm and 0.5 mm thick) showed the highest (Ptranslucency measured as light flow units (3.572 + or - 018 x 10(3) lx and 3.181 + or - 0.13 x 10(3) lx, respectively). These values represent 71.7% and 63.9%, respectively, of the glass-ceramic control group (4.98 x 10(3) lx). All ZrO(2) copings demonstrated different levels of light transmission, with the 2 Lava specimens showing the highest values. Translucency of zirconia copings was significantly lower (P=.001) than that of the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic control

  13. Influence of ceramic color and translucency on shade match of CAD/CAM porcelain veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Ziad; Tehini, Georges; Ziadeh, Norma; Ragab, Hala A; Berberi, Antoine; Aboushelib, Moustafa Nabil

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of translucency of CAD/CAM ceramic milling blocks on the final color of porcelain veneer cemented using resin cement with two different opacities. A standardized incisal lap preparation was made on a maxillary right central incisor that was duplicated using composite resin material (Z250, A4, 3M ESPE). The resin dies were individually laser scanned (Bluecam, Sirona) in order to build a 3D model of the porcelain veneer on the CAD software (Cerec 3D). Three types of milling blocks were used to fabricate the required restorations: multichromatic, high translucency, and low translucency milling blocks (IPS Empress CAD, A1 Vita shade tab). The milled veneers were polished, glazed, and bonded on the resin dies using high opacity and low opacity resin cements (Panavia F2.0). A digital shade guide device (Easyshade Advance, Vita) was used to measure color parameters (CIE Lab values) at the incisal, middle, and cervical third of each cemented restoration. ΔE values of the cemented veneers were calculated against the target color (A1). Cementation of porcelain veneers resulted in significant color change of the resin die (A4) as ΔE values ranged between 8.9 and 13.7. However, the type of milling block did not have an observable effect on final color as the measured ΔE values, against original die color, were very close for the multichromatic block (ΔE = 10.7 ± 0.1), high translucency (ΔE = 9.7 ± 0.09), and low translucency blocks (ΔE = 13.4 ± 0.11). The opacity of the used resin cement did not affect the final shade match, as the observed ΔE values using either high opacity and low opacity resin cement were less than 2 for the three used ceramic blocks. The greatest color difference was observed between the incisal third of multichromatic veneers (ΔE = 8.9) and the cervical third of low translucency veneers (ΔE = 13.7), while for the rest of the test groups this shift was not clinically observable (ΔE veneers was not influenced by

  14. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM complete crowns with a simplified cementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Adriana O; Bruzi, Greciana; Giannini, Marcelo; Magne, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    Various computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials are available to fabricate complete crowns. The type of material may have an effect on the longevity of these restorations. To evaluate the fatigue resistance, load-to-failure, failure mode, and antagonistic wear of complete molar computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns made of resin nanoceramic (RNC), feldspathic glass ceramic (FEL), or lithium disilicate (LD) placed with a simplified cementation process. Forty-five molars received a standardized complete crown preparation and were restored with CAD/CAM crowns (1.5-mm thickness, n=15) made of RNC, FEL, and LD. After cementation, the restorations were submitted to cyclic isometric loading: 200 (×5000), 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30 000 cycles each. Surviving specimens were axially loaded until failure or to a maximum load of 4500 N. The specimens were analyzed as to failure mode: catastrophic, possibly repairable, and repairable. The groups were compared by using the life table survival analysis and the t test (α=.05). All the specimens survived the fatigue process until the 800-N step. The survival rate of RNC was 80%, LD 93.3%, and FEL 6.6%. The survival of RNC and LD crowns did not differ from each other but exceeded that of FEL. Postfatigue load-to-failure test was 2500 N (FEL), 3122 N (RNC), and 3237 N (LD). No catastrophic failure occurred in the fatigue test, whereas all of the specimens in the load-to-failure test exhibited catastrophic fractures. Crowns made of RNC seemed to generate the least amount of antagonistic wear. Posterior crowns made of RNC and LD were not statistically different, and both had significantly higher fatigue resistance than FEL. All materials survived beyond the normal range of masticatory forces, and all failures were possibly re-restorable except those in the load-to-failure test. RNC crowns seemed to cause less wear of the

  15. Colecistectomia videolaparoscópica experimental em cadáver humano: 70 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivamberg Nobre de Sena

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar, descrever e propor como método de treinamento e/ou aperfeiçoamento em colecistectomia videolaparoscópica, um modelo desenvolvido em cadáver de feto humano. MÉTODO: No Departamento de Morfologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Ceará foram utilizados 70 cadáveres de fetos humanos, de ambos sexos, frescos-congelados, com tamanhos entre 39 e 54 centímetros (média = 49cm e pesos entre 1.210 e 3.900 gramas (média = 2.900g. Foi empregado, ainda, todo o arsenal de equipamentos e instrumentais de cirurgia videolaparoscópica. Cada feto foi submetido à videocolecistectomia experimental e os dados referentes aos aspectos técnicos e anatômicos registrados em fitas de vídeo e em protocolo para análise posterior. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada seguiu todos as etapas operatórias da videocolecistectomia in vivo. RESULTADOS: Foi possível manter um pneumoperitônio eficiente, em torno de 18mmHg, em todos os casos. A adequada clipagem do ducto cístico foi possível em 66 dos 68 casos operados, e da artéria cística em 62 casos. A vesícula foi extirpada satisfatoriamente em 67 fetos. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 70 minutos. Observou-se que o método proposto permite ao cirurgião adquirir, a partir de um treinamento adequado, habilidades técnicas, bem como segurança na execução de manobras necessárias para a prática desta modalidade cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: A videocolecistectomia em cadáver de feto humano representa um método factível, de grande importância, que pode ser aplicado no treinamento e/ou aperfeiçoamento de cirurgiões videolaparoscópicos.

  16. Mechanical and optical properties of monolithic CAD-CAM restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Nazmiye; Us, Yesim Olcer

    2017-08-04

    Achieving natural tooth appearance with sufficient mechanical strength is one of the most challenging issues of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) materials. However, limited evidence is available regarding their optical and mechanical properties for proper and evidence-based material selection in clinical practice. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the translucency and biaxial flexural strength of 5 monolithic CAD-CAM restorative materials. Disk-shaped specimens (n=30) of each material (Lava Ultimate [LU], Vita Enamic [VE], Vitablocs Mark II [VMII], Vita Suprinity [VS], and IPS e.max CAD [IPS]) with a diameter of 12 mm and a thickness of 1.2 ±0.05 mm were prepared. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the translucency parameter. The specimens were then subjected to a biaxial flexure test using 3 balls and loaded with a piston in a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure occurred (International Organization for Standardization standard 6872). Weibull statistics were used to evaluate the characteristic strength and reliability of each material. Chemical compositions were analyzed using an energy dispersive spectrometer, and microstructural analysis was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference test (α=.05). Significant differences were found among the materials concerning translucency and biaxial flexural strength (P<.05). The highest mean transparency value was obtained in the VS group, whereas the lowest mean value was obtained in the VE group. The VS group produced the highest mean biaxial flexural strength, followed by the IPS, LU, VE, and VMII groups. Based on the results of the present study, zirconia-reinforced glass-ceramic revealed higher mean translucency and biaxial flexural strength than resin nanoceramic, feldspathic ceramic, lithium disilicate ceramic, and dual

  17. Impact of machining on the flexural fatigue strength of glass and polycrystalline CAD/CAM ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Sara; Amaral, Marina; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Kleverlaan, Cornelis Johannes; May, Liliana Gressler

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effect of machining on the flexural fatigue strength and on the surface roughness of different computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics by comparing machined and polished after machining specimens. Disc-shaped specimens of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP), leucite-, and lithium disilicate-based glass ceramics were prepared by CAD/CAM machining, and divided into two groups: machining (M) and machining followed by polishing (MP). The surface roughness was measured and the flexural fatigue strength was evaluated by the step-test method (n=20). The initial load and the load increment for each ceramic material were based on a monotonic test (n=5). A maximum of 10,000 cycles was applied in each load step, at 1.4Hz. Weibull probability statistics was used for the analysis of the flexural fatigue strength, and Mann-Whitney test (α=5%) to compare roughness between the M and MP conditions. Machining resulted in lower values of characteristic flexural fatigue strength than machining followed by polishing. The greatest reduction in flexural fatigue strength from MP to M was observed for Y-TZP (40%; M=536.48MPa; MP=894.50MPa), followed by lithium disilicate (33%; M=187.71MPa; MP=278.93MPa) and leucite (29%; M=72.61MPa; MP=102.55MPa). Significantly higher values of roughness (Ra) were observed for M compared to MP (leucite: M=1.59μm and MP=0.08μm; lithium disilicate: M=1.84μm and MP=0.13μm; Y-TZP: M=1.79μm and MP=0.18μm). Machining negatively affected the flexural fatigue strength of CAD/CAM ceramics, indicating that machining of partially or fully sintered ceramics is deleterious to fatigue strength. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory Performance of Universal Adhesive Systems for Luting CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Fabiana; Cardenas, Andres Millan; Gutierrez, Mario Felipe; Malaquias, Pâmela; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Perdigão, Jorge

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of several universal adhesive systems applied on five different indirect restorative materials. Five CAD/CAM materials were selected: 1) indirect resin composite (LAV); 2) feldspathic glass ceramic (VTR); 3) leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (EMP); 4) lithium disilicate ceramic (EMX); 5) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide (CZI). For each material, 15 blocks were cut into 4 rectangular sections (6 × 6 × 6 mm) (n = 60 per group), and processed as recommended by the respective manufacturer. For each indirect material, the following adhesive systems were applied according to the respective manufacturer's instructions: 1) AdheSE Universal [ADU]; 2) All-Bond Universal (ABU); 3) Ambar Universal (AMB); 4) Clearfil Universal (CFU); 5) Futurabond U (FBU); 6) One Coat 7 Universal (OCU); 7) Peak Universal Bond (PUB); 8) Prime&Bond Elect (PBE); 9) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU); 10) Xeno Select (XEN, negative control). After the application of the adhesive system, cylinder-shaped transparent matrices were filled with a dual-curing resin cement (NX3) and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h) and tested in shear mode at 1.0 mm/min (mSBS). The failure pattern and μSBS were statistically evaluated (a = 0.05). LAV, VTR, and EMP showed a greater number of cohesive fractures than EMX and CZI (p adhesive for which the mean μSBS reached the highest ranking of statistical significance for all five substrates. When each adhesive was compared across the five substrates, 8 out of 10 (ADU, ABU, AMB, CFU, OCU, PUB, PBE, and SBU) reached the statistically highest mean μSBS when applied on CZI. The specific chemical composition of universal adhesives was not the decisive factor in the bond strength values measured for different CAD/CAM indirect materials. There was a wide variability in mean μSBS when different universal adhesives were applied to the several CAD/CAM indirect materials. Most universal adhesives

  19. Bonding to CAD-CAM Composites: An Interfacial Fracture Toughness Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldafrawy, M; Ebroin, M G; Gailly, P A; Nguyen, J-F; Sadoun, M J; Mainjot, A K

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the interfacial fracture toughness (IFT) of composite cement with dispersed filler (DF) versus polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite blocks after 2 different surface pretreatments using the notchless triangular prism (NTP) test. Two DFs (Cerasmart [CRT] and Lava Ultimate [LVA]), 2 PICNs (Enamic [ENA] and experimental PICN [EXP]), and e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (EMX, control) prism samples were bonded to their counterparts with Variolink Esthetic DC composite cement after either hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) or gritblasting (GR). Both procedures were followed by silanization. All samples ( n = 30 per group) were thermocycled (10,000 cycles) and tested for their IFT in a water bath at 36°C. Moreover, representative samples from each group were subjected to a developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) measurement by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. EXP-HF gave the highest IFT (1.85 ± 0.39 MPa·m1/2), followed by EMX-HF and ENA-HF, while CRT-HF gave the lowest (0.15 ± 0.22 MPa·m1/2). PICNs gave significantly better results with HF, and DF showed better results with GR. A 2-way analysis of variance indicated that there were significantly higher IFT and Sdr for PICNs than for DF. A positive correlation ( r² = 0.872) was found between IFT and Sdr. SEM characterization showed the specific microstructure of the surface of etched PICNs, indicating the presence of a retentive polymer-based honeycomb structure. Etching of the typical double-network microstructure of PICNs causes an important increase in the Sdr and IFT, while DF should be gritblasted. DF exhibited significantly lower Sdr and IFT values than PICNs. The present results show the important influence of the material class and surface texture, and consequently the micromechanical bond, on the adhesive interface performance of CAD

  20. PopupCAD: a tool for automated design, fabrication, and analysis of laminate devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukes, Daniel M.; Wood, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in laminate manufacturing techniques have driven the development of new classes of millimeter-scale sensorized medical devices, robots capable of terrestrial locomotion and sustained flight, and new techniques for sensing and actuation. Recently, the analysis of laminate micro-devices has focused more manufacturability concerns and not on mechanics. Considering the nature of such devices, we draw from existing research in composites, origami kinematics, and finite element methods in order to identify issues related to sequential assembly and self-folding prior to fabrication as well as the stiffness of composite folded systems during operation. These techniques can be useful for understanding how such devices will bend and flex under normal operating conditions, and when added to new design tools like popupCAD, will give designers another means to develop better devices throughout the design process.

  1. 1st Order Modeling of a SAW Delay Line using MathCAD(Registered)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created using MathCadA. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design. Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles [1]. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. Passive wireless sensors have been developed using SAW technology. For these reasons new SAW sensors are being investigated for aerospace applications.

  2. Optical CAD Utilization for the Design and Testing of a LED Streetlamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jafrancesco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical design. In particular, in every step of the process, it is important to closely compare theoretical or simulated results with measured data (obtained from a prototype. This work examines the various possibilities for using an optical CAD (Lambda Research TracePro to design and check a LED lamp for outdoor use. This analysis includes the simulations and testing on a prototype as an example; data acquired by measurement are inserted into the same simulation software, making it easy to compare theoretical and actual results.

  3. Optical CAD Utilization for the Design and Testing of a LED Streetlamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafrancesco, David; Mercatelli, Luca; Fontani, Daniela; Sansoni, Paola

    2017-08-24

    The design and testing of LED lamps are vital steps toward broader use of LED lighting for outdoor illumination and traffic signalling. The characteristics of LED sources, in combination with the need to limit light pollution and power consumption, require a precise optical design. In particular, in every step of the process, it is important to closely compare theoretical or simulated results with measured data (obtained from a prototype). This work examines the various possibilities for using an optical CAD (Lambda Research TracePro) to design and check a LED lamp for outdoor use. This analysis includes the simulations and testing on a prototype as an example; data acquired by measurement are inserted into the same simulation software, making it easy to compare theoretical and actual results.

  4. Studies Regarding Design and Optimization of Mechanisms Using Modern Techniques of CAD and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents applications of modern techniques of CAD (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering to design and optimize the mechanisms used in mechanical engineering. The use exemplification of these techniques was achieved by designing and optimizing parts of a drawing installation for horizontal continuous casting of metals. By applying these design methods and using finite element method at simulations on designed mechanisms results a number of advantages over traditional methods of drawing and design: speed in drawing, design and optimization of parts and mechanisms, kinematic analysis option, kinetostatic and dynamic through simulation, without requiring physical realization of the part or mechanism, the determination by finite element method of tension, elongations, travel and safety factor and the possibility of optimization for these sizes to ensure the mechanical strength of each piece separately. Achieving these studies was possible using SolidWorks 2009 software suite.

  5. An Integrated Unix-based CAD System for the Design and Testing of Custom VLSI Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    A computer aided design (CAD) system that is being used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the design of custom and semicustom very large scale integrated (VLSI) chips is described. The system consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX computer with the UNIX operating system and a collection of software tools for the layout, simulation, and verification of microcircuits. Most of these tools were written by the academic community and are, therefore, available to JPL at little or no cost. Some small pieces of software have been written in-house in order to make all the tools interact with each other with a minimal amount of effort on the part of the designer.

  6. THE APPLICATION OF FEATURE TECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING A CAD-BASED HIGH LEVEL PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Febransyah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level process planning plays an important role in determining candidate process domains at the configuration design stage. Changing the process domains later increases the product development cycle and the product development cost. Therefore, determining the most appropriate manufacturing processes at the beginning stages of the design process becomes critical. However, high-level process planning systems have traditionally lacked integration of design synthesis and design evaluation. The objective of this paper is to propose a CAD-based high-level process planning system that will help designers decide whether or not the designs are worth pursuing. A hybrid approach incorporating design by feature and feature recognition approaches is proposed and implemented. Synergizing both advantages of both approaches will reduce the complexity of feature recognition algorithm without sacrificing the flexibility in creating a part model.

  7. Creating CAD designs and performing their subsequent analysis using opensource solutions in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushkin, Oleg O.; Sedova, Olga S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of a system that encapsulates the transition from geometry building to strength tests. The solution we propose views the engineer as a programmer who is capable of coding the procedure for working with the modeli.e., to outline the necessary transformations and create cases for boundary conditions. We propose a prototype of such system. In our work, we used: Python programming language to create the program; Jupyter framework to create a single workspace visualization; pythonOCC library to implement CAD; FeniCS library to implement FEM; GMSH and VTK utilities. The prototype is launched on a platform which is a dynamically expandable multi-tenant cloud service providing users with all computing resources on demand. However, the system may be deployed locally for prototyping or work that does not involve resource-intensive computing. To make it possible, we used containerization, isolating the system in a Docker container.

  8. Cadmium-sensitive, cad1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana are phytochelatin deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, R; Goldsbrough, P B; Andersen, C R; Cobbett, C S

    1995-04-01

    An allelic series of cad1, cadmium-sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, was isolated. These mutants were sensitive to cadmium to different extents and were deficient in their ability to form cadmium-peptide complexes as detected by gel-filtration chromatography. Each mutant was deficient in its ability to accumulate phytochelatins (PCs) as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and the amount of PCs accumulated by each mutant correlated with its degree of sensitivity to cadmium. The mutants had wild-type levels of glutathione, the substrate for PC biosynthesis, and in vitro assays demonstrated that each of the mutants was deficient in PC synthase activity. These results demonstrate conclusively the importance of PCs for cadmium tolerance in plants.

  9. Media design of iD PHOTO disk with the CAD structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Hiroshi; Yoshihiro, Masafumi; Inaba, Akira; Takao, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Satoru; Shimazaki, Katsusuke; Terasaki, Hitoshi; Kume, Minoru

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new MO(Magneto-Optical) disk, which is named iD(image/intelligent disk) PHOTO, as a promising candidate for a digital still camera memory. The iD PHOTO disk achieves 730MB/disk in a 50.8mm diameter by adopting some techniques mainly as follows, CAD (center aperture detection) type Magnetic Super Resolution reading, recording both on land and in groove, magnetic field modulation writing with irradiation of a pulsed laser beam, and PR(1,1) code. The iD PHOTO disk is required high performance in various environments, for it is used in a portable drive. As one of the most important factors, we have previously reported a reduction of electric power consumption by reducing the recording magnetic field. Here, we introduce thermal structure design of iD PHOTO disk to be suit for a drive in a digital still camera.

  10. Beam-based calibrations of the BPM offset at C-ADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Long; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Chi; Dou, Wei-Ping; Tao, Yue; Jia, Huan; Wang, Wang-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Hui; He, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Beam-based BPM offset calibration was carried out for Injector II at the C-ADS demonstration facility at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). By using the steering coils integrated in the quadrupoles, the beam orbit can be effectively adjusted and BPM positions recorded at the Medium Energy Beam Transport of the Injector II Linac. The studies were done with a 2 mA, 2.1 MeV proton beam in pulsed mode. During the studies, the “null comparison method” was applied for the calibration. This method is less sensitive to errors compared with the traditional transmission matrix method. In addition, the quadrupole magnet’s center can also be calibrated with this method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  11. Minimally invasive corticotomy in orthodontics: a new technique using a CAD/CAM surgical template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, M; Pandolfi, S; Giansanti, M

    2015-07-01

    Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement is a topical issue. Despite the different techniques described in the literature, the corticotomy is the only effective and safe means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Although effective, the corticotomy presents significant postoperative discomfort. The aggressive nature of these particular methods, related to the elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps and to the length of the surgery, has resulted in reluctance to proceed with this technique among both patients and the dental community. To overcome the disadvantages of the corticotomy, this technical note describes an innovative, minimally invasive, flapless procedure combining piezoelectric surgical cortical micro-incisions with the use of a 3D Printed CAD/CAM surgical guide. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CAD/CAM and analysis - A production tool for spacecraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, Assemby and Test System to achieve increased productivity and quality. The term CADMAT has been used to emphasize the importance of integrating the familiar CAD, CAM and CAT functions. The CADMAT methodology encompasses all automated and computer augmented processes throughout the product and business organizations. In Electronics, Design Simulation and Verification, Interactive Graphics (IAG), Automated Board Layout, and Automatic Test Vector Generation are discussed. In the mechanical area, the use of 2D and 3D graphics techniques, computerized finite element modeling, and structural analysis programs are described. The use of the design database in N/C manufacturing, automated inspection and testing is also examined.

  13. Fracture resistance of manually and CAD/CAM manufactured ceramic onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Coskun; Vanlıoğlu, Burcin Akoglu; Evren, Buket; Uludamar, Altay; Kulak-Ozkan, Yasemin

    2013-10-01

    This in vitro study aimed to evaluate fracture resistance in lithium disilicate onlays fabricated with IPS e.max Press and IPS e.max CAD systems and luted with different adhesive cements. Fifty maxillary first molars were prepared using a mesio-occluso-disto-lingual onlay cavity model. Ten onlays from each group were cemented using etch-and-rinse adhesives and high-viscosity composite resin cement, and 10 were cemented with self-adhesive, dual-curing universal resin cement. Fracture resistance was measured. Significant differences were observed between resin cements (p Variolink was significantly higher than that of Multilink Sprint (p adhesive cements can be a viable treatment option. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. High rate of CAD gene amplification in human cells deficient in MLH1 or MSH6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sihong; Bigner, Sandra H.; Modrich, Paul

    2001-01-01

    MutS and MutL homologs have been implicated in multiple genetic stabilization pathways. The activities participate in the correction of DNA biosynthetic errors, are involved in cellular responses to certain types of DNA damage, and serve to ensure the fidelity of genetic recombination. We show here that the rate of CAD (carbamyl-P synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase) gene amplification is elevated 50- to 100-fold in human cell lines deficient in MLH1 or MSH6, as compared with mismatch repair-proficient control cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicates that these amplification events are the probable consequence of unequal sister chromatid exchanges involving chromosome 2, as well as translocation events involving other chromosomes. These results implicate MutSα and MutLα in the suppression of gene amplification and suggest that defects in this genetic stabilization function may contribute to the cancer predisposition associated with mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:11717437

  15. CAD – CAM PROCEDURE USING FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING WITH APPLICATION IN BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAUN Barbu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new and efficient method for modeling some components with application in Biomechanics. It is shown the way in which this method could be successfully applied for orthopedic shoes, namely for foot insoles to correct any plantar deformities. The main advantages of the proposed method refer to low costs, successfully applying for different products for Biomechanics. The prototyped models via CAD/CAM method allowed a rapid and efficient improvement of their design. Another advantage refer to the fact that these can be properly and efficiently tested before prototyping by the point of view of mechanical stress, due to prior simulations, eliminating all costs meaning wastes or adjustments.

  16. CAD AND CAE METHODS IN COMPUTER ASSISTED DESIGN OF WORM MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk SABINIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of worm gear meshes is their complex geometry and now the application of computer aided design allows for mapping their real construction patterns with great affinity. Modelling of worm meshes with the use of CAD (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering methods enables tracking the design process from the very beginning, i.e. from the concept or specific assumptions, until the final stage only by using appropriate software, thereby lowering the costs and eliminating common errors. Owing to this, just before the manufacturing process of the first meshing elements begins, one can conduct geometric analysis and correct or modify working profiles of the teeth in order to improve the operation properties of future gear. Visualizing such a geometric modelling process can also serve didactic purposes when used in education of future engineers, technologists and operators of this type of gears.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Wave Gait of a Hexapod Walking Robot: A CAD/CAE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mahapatra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an attempt has been made to carry out dynamic analysis of a hexapod robot using the concept of multibody dynamics. A CAD (Computer Aided Design model of a realistic hexapod robot has been made for dynamic simulation of its locomotion using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems multibody dynamics solver. The kinematic model of each leg of three degrees of freedom has been designed using CATIA (Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application and SimDesigner package in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. Joint Torque variation as well as the variation of the aggregate center of mass of the robot was analyzed for the wave tetrapod gait. The simulation results provide the basis for developing the control algorithm as well as an intelligent decision making for the robot while in motion.

  18. Simulation of the Induction Motor Drives in OrCAD Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Şchiop

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how induction motor drive, can be simulated with modern simulation programs. The focus will be on OrCAD, which is one of the most widely used general-purpose simulation programs. Static power converters can be analyzed by means of widely available circuit simulation software packages such as PSpice. However, they are usually modeled as a set of real switches, which results in long execution times and possible convergence problems in the case of complex circuits. This paper presents a model to simulate a sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM for three-phase inverter fed induction machine using PSPICE. The proposed model are based on converter switching function rather then actual circuit configuration, and they are suited for steady state and large signal transient analysis at system level. The operation mode and simulation results are presented.

  19. Association of CAD, a multifunctional protein involved in pyrimidine synthesis, with mLST8, a component of the mTOR complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background mTOR is a genetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which controls cell growth, proliferation, and survival. A multifunctional protein CAD, catalyzing the initial three steps in de novo pyrimidine synthesis, is regulated by the phosphorylation reaction with different protein kinases, but the relationship with mTOR protein kinase has not been known. Results CAD was recovered as a binding protein with mLST8, a component of the mTOR complexes, from HEK293 cells transfected with the FLAG-mLST8 vector. Association of these two proteins was confirmed by the co-immuoprecipitaiton followed by immunoblot analysis of transfected myc-CAD and FLAG-mLST8 as well as that of the endogenous proteins in the cells. Analysis using mutant constructs suggested that CAD has more than one region for the binding with mLST8, and that mLST8 recognizes CAD and mTOR in distinct ways. The CAD enzymatic activity decreased in the cells depleted of amino acids and serum, in which the mTOR activity is suppressed. Conclusion The results obtained indicate that mLST8 bridges between CAD and mTOR, and plays a role in the signaling mechanism where CAD is regulated in the mTOR pathway through the association with mLST8. PMID:23594158

  20. The Effects of Integrating Mobile and CAD Technology in Teaching Design Process for Malaysian Polytechnic Architecture Student in Producing Creative Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustapha, Ramlee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the digital media such as mobile and CAD technology on designing process of Malaysian polytechnic architecture students in producing a creative product. A website is developed based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  1. Assessment of the Incremental Benefit of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) for Interpretation of CT Colonography by Experienced and Inexperienced Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Darren; Mallett, Susan; McQuillan, Justine; Taylor, Stuart A; Altman, Douglas G; Halligan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the incremental benefit of computer-assisted-detection (CAD) for polyps, for inexperienced readers versus experienced readers of CT colonography. 10 inexperienced and 16 experienced radiologists interpreted 102 colonography studies unassisted and with CAD utilised in a concurrent paradigm. They indicated any polyps detected on a study sheet. Readers' interpretations were compared against a ground-truth reference standard: 46 studies were normal and 56 had at least one polyp (132 polyps in total). The primary study outcome was the difference in CAD net benefit (a combination of change in sensitivity and change in specificity with CAD, weighted towards sensitivity) for detection of patients with polyps. Inexperienced readers' per-patient sensitivity rose from 39.1% to 53.2% with CAD and specificity fell from 94.1% to 88.0%, both statistically significant. Experienced readers' sensitivity rose from 57.5% to 62.1% and specificity fell from 91.0% to 88.3%, both non-significant. Net benefit with CAD assistance was significant for inexperienced readers but not for experienced readers: 11.2% (95%CI 3.1% to 18.9%) versus 3.2% (95%CI -1.9% to 8.3%) respectively. Concurrent CAD resulted in a significant net benefit when used by inexperienced readers to identify patients with polyps by CT colonography. The net benefit was nearly four times the magnitude of that observed for experienced readers. Experienced readers did not benefit significantly from concurrent CAD.

  2. Association of the cad-n1 allele with increased stem growth and wood density in full-sib families of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Yu; B. Li; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin

    2005-01-01

    Stem growth and wood density associated with a mutant null (cad-nl) allele were examined in three 15-year old loblolly pine half-diallel tests established on two sites in the southern United States. In each half-diallel test, one or two cad-nl heterozygous parents were crossed with five unrelated wild-type parents to produce five...

  3. Listeria monocytogenes CadC Regulates Cadmium Efflux and Fine-tunes Lipoprotein Localization to Escape the Host Immune Response and Promote Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombinho, Rita; Camejo, Ana; Vieira, Ana; Reis, Olga; Carvalho, Filipe; Almeida, Maria Teresa; Pinheiro, Jorge Campos; Sousa, Sandra; Cabanes, Didier

    2017-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed L. monocytogenes cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that L. monocytogenes CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC but not CadA is required for L. monocytogenes infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection. lspB overexpression promotes the release of the LpeA lipoprotein to the extracellular medium, inducing tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 expression, thus impairing L. monocytogenes survival in macrophages. We propose that L. monocytogenes uses CadC to repress lspB expression during infection to avoid LpeA exposure to the host immune system, diminishing inflammatory cytokine expression and promoting intramacrophagic survival and virulence. CadC appears as the first metal efflux pump regulator repurposed during infection to fine-tune lipoprotein processing and host responses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Lung cancer screening with CT: Evaluation of radiologists and different computer assisted detection software (CAD) as first and second readers for lung nodule detection at different dose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christe, A., E-mail: andreas.christe@insel.ch [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, L.; Huber, A.; Steiger, P. [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Szucs-Farkas, Z. [Radiology, Hospital Center of Biel (Switzerland); Roos, J.E. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Heverhagen, J.T.; Ebner, L. [Department of Diagnostic, Interventional und Pediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To find the best pairing of first and second reader at highest sensitivity for detecting lung nodules with CT at various dose levels. Materials and methods: An anthropomorphic lung phantom and artificial lung nodules were used to simulate screening CT-examination at standard dose (100 mAs, 120 kVp) and 8 different low dose levels, using 120, 100 and 80 kVp combined with 100, 50 and 25 mAs. At each dose level 40 phantoms were randomly filled with 75 solid and 25 ground glass nodules (5–12 mm). Two radiologists and 3 different computer aided detection softwares (CAD) were paired to find the highest sensitivity. Results: Sensitivities at standard dose were 92%, 90%, 84%, 79% and 73% for reader 1, 2, CAD1, CAD2, CAD3, respectively. Combined sensitivity for human readers 1 and 2 improved to 97%, (p1 = 0.063, p2 = 0.016). Highest sensitivities – between 97% and 99.0% – were achieved by combining any radiologist with any CAD at any dose level. Combining any two CADs, sensitivities between 85% and 88% were significantly lower than for radiologists combined with CAD (p < 0.03). Conclusions: Combination of a human observer with any of the tested CAD systems provide optimal sensitivity for lung nodule detection even at reduced dose at 25 mAs/80 kVp.

  5. LED and Halogen Light Transmission through a CAD/CAM Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carolina Nemesio de Barros; De Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Daleprane, Bruno; Peixoto, Rogéli Tibúrcio Ribeiro da Cunha; Ferreira, Raquel da Conceição; Cury, Luiz Alberto; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    The effect of thickness, shade and translucency of CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass-ceramic on light transmission of light-emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen units (QTH) were evaluated. Ceramic IPS e.max CAD shades A1, A2, A3, A3.5, high (HT) and low (LT) translucency were cut (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm). Light sources emission spectra were determined. Light intensity incident and transmitted through each ceramic sample was measured to determine light transmission percentage (TP). Statistical analysis used a linear regression model. There was significant interaction between light source and ceramic translucency (p=0.008) and strong negative correlation (R=-0.845, pceramic thickness and TP. Increasing one unit in thickness led to 3.17 reduction in TP. There was no significant difference in TP (p=0.124) between shades A1 (ß1=0) and A2 (ß1=-0.45) but significant reduction occurred for A3 (ß1=-0.83) and A3.5 (ß1=-2.18). The interaction QTH/HT provided higher TP (ß1=0) than LED/HT (ß1=-2.92), QTH/LT (ß1=-3.75) and LED/LT (ß1=-5.58). Light transmission was more effective using halogen source and high-translucency ceramics, decreased as the ceramic thickness increased and was higher for the lighter shades, A1 and A2. From the regression model (R2=0.85), an equation was obtained to estimate TP value using each variable ß1 found. A maximum TP of 25% for QTH and 20% for LED was found, suggesting that ceramic light attenuation could compromise light cured and dual cure resin cements polymerization.

  6. Technology CAD of silicided Schottky barrier MOSFET for elevated source-drain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India); School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Bose, C. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 (India); Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2005-12-05

    Technology CAD has been used to study the performance of a silicided Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET with gate, source and drain contacts realized with nickel-silicide. Elevated source-drain structures have been used towards the S/D engineering of CMOS devices. A full process-to-device simulation has been employed to predict the performance of sub-micron SB n-MOSFETs for the first time. A model for the diffusion and alloy growth kinetics has been incorporated in SILVACO-ATLAS and ATHENA to explore the processing and design parameter space for the Ni-silicided MOSFETs. The temperature and concentration dependent diffusion model for NiSi have been developed and necessary material parameters for nickel-silicide and epitaxial-Si have been incorporated through the C-interpreter function. Two-dimensional (2D) process-to-device simulations have also been used to study the dc and ac (RF) performance of silicided Schottky barrier (SB) n-MOSFETs. The extracted sheet resistivity, as a function of annealing temperature of the silicided S/D contacts, is found to be lower than the conventional contacts currently in use. It is also shown that the Technology CAD has the full capability to predict the possible dc and ac performance enhancement of a MOSFET with elevated S/D structures. While the simulated dc performance shows a clear enhancement, the RF analyses show no performance degradation in the cut-off frequency/propagation delay and also improve the ac performance due to the incorporation of silicide contacts in the S/D region.

  7. Markers of hypercoagulability in CAD patients. Effects of single aspirin and clopidogrel treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratseth Vibeke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease with disturbances in the haemostatic system, might lead to thrombotic complications with clinical manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke. Activation of the coagulation cascade with subsequent increased thrombin generation, characterizes a prothrombotic phenotype. In the present study we investigated whether prothrombotic markers were associated with risk factors and clinical subgroups in a cohort of patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD. The patients were randomized to long-term treatment with the antiplatelet drugs aspirin or clopidogrel, and we further investigated the effect on hypercoagulability of such treatment for 1 year, of which limited data exists. Methods Venous blood samples were collected in fasting condition between 08:00 and 10:30 am, at baseline when all patients were on aspirin therapy (n = 1001 and in 276 patients after 1 year follow-up on aspirin or clopidogrel. In vivo thrombin generation was assessed by prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2 and D-dimer, and the endogenous thrombin potentiale (ETP in the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT assay, representing ex vivo thrombin generation. In addition soluble tissue factor (sTF and free- and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI were measured. Results We found age to be significantly associated with F1+2 and D-dimer (β = 0.229 and β =0.417 respectively, p Conclusions In the present population of stable CAD, we could demonstrate a more hypercoagulable profile among women, smokers and patients on RAS medication, assessed by the prothrombotic markers F1+2, D-dimer and ETP. Long-term antiplatelet treatment with aspirin alone seems to attenuate thrombin generation to a greater extent than with clopidogrel alone. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00222261.

  8. CADS grading scale: towards better grading of ophthalmic involvement in facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Raman; Ziahosseini, Kimia; Litwin, Andre; Nduka, Charles; El-Shammah, Nora

    2016-06-01

    Ophthalmologists lack a facial nerve grading instrument (FNGI) that comprehensively encompasses the ophthalmic sequelae of facial nerve paralysis (FNP). Assessment and management of ophthalmic sequelae remains inconsistent, and outcomes of clinical studies are incomparable. We have developed and successfully adopted an FNGI based on four aspects of periorbital involvement: cornea, asymmetry, dynamic function and synkinesis. This CADS classification is specific for periorbital involvement, with objective and subjective parameters, to standardise grading. We present this classification and the results of a validation study in clinical practice. A cross-sectional, validation study. Two clinicians independently assessed and graded each patient on the same day, blinded to each other's grading. Each grader assigned a score to each of four parameters: C (0-3, ±a), A (0-2), D (0-3), S (0-2). Thirty patients (19 females, mean age 60, range 30-84 years) with unilateral facial paralysis were graded. A total of 60 assessments were conducted. CADS scores ranged from C0A0D1S1 to C3aA2D3S0. In the first 30 assessments (of the first 15 patients), the two assessors disagreed over the corneal grading in four patients. The last 30 assessments of 15 patients showed complete agreement in all four parameters of the grading scale. The overall inter-observer agreement was 86.7% for cornea, 93.3% for resting asymmetry, 93.3% for dynamic function and 86.7% for synkinesis. After the first six patients, Cohen's κ reached 1 for all but synkinesis that ranged between 0.9 and 1. We present a validation study of an FNGI specifically designed for ophthalmic involvement of FNP. Objective and subjective parameters helped standardise grading and management planning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Computer aided analysis of digitized dental stone replicas by dental CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna S K; Andersson, Matts; Odén, Agneta; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2008-08-01

    To determine the reproducibility of digitized dental stone replicas compared to the master model and the reliability of the computer aided analysis. Four master dies, prepared for complete crowns were fabricated in presintered yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Eight vinyl polysiloxane impressions (PROVIL novo; Heraeus Kulzer) were taken of each die and stone replicas were poured in type IV stone (Vel-Mix Stone; Kerr). The master dies and the stone replicas were digitized in a touch-probe scanner (Procera Forte; Nobel Biocare AB), to create triangulated surface-models. The point-cloud from the first of the repeated digitizations of each master die was used as CAD-reference-models (CRM). Discrepancies between the points in the triangulated surface-models and the corresponding CRM were measured by a matching-software (CopyCAD 6.504 SP2; Delcam Plc). The distribution of the discrepancies was analyzed and presented in color-difference-maps. The precision of the measuring method, presented as the repeatability coefficient, ranged between 7 and 16 microm (entire surface), whereas the analysis of the stone replicas revealed a precision (repeatability coefficient) ranging from 19 to 26 microm. The accuracy of the replica to master (the mean discrepancy) ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 microm (95% confidence interval 1.5-2.9 microm). The greatest precision of the measurement was seen in the jacket surface of the die. The size of the stone replicas varied and the repeatability coefficient was on average 15 microm (2-25 microm) greater for the replica-to-master alignment than the repeated digitizations of the master.

  10. Designing A New CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection in High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bakhshayesh Karam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases and lung cancer are among the most dangerous diseases with high mortality in both men and women. Lung nodules are abnormal pulmonary masses and are among major lung symptoms. A Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD system may play an important role in accurate and early detection of lung nodules. This article presents a new CAD system for lung nodule detection from chest computed tomography (CT images.Methods: Twenty-five adult patients with lung nodules in their CT scan images presented to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2011-2012 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned into two experimental (9 female, 6 male, mean age 43±5.63 yrs and control (6 female, 4 male, mean age 39±4.91 yrs groups. A fully-automatic method was developed for detecting lung nodules by employing medical image processing and analysis and statistical pattern recognition algorithms.esults: Using segmentation methods, the lung parenchyma was extracted from 2-D CT images. Then, candidate regions were labeled in pseudo-color images. In the next step, some features of lung nodules were extracted. Finally, an artificial feed forward neural network was used for classification of nodules.Conclusion: Considering the complexity and different shapes of lung nodules and large number of CT images to evaluate, finding lung nodules are difficult and time consuming for physicians and include human error. Experimental results showed the accuracy of the proposed method to be appropriate (P<0.05 for lung nodule detection.

  11. Novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping of next-generation biomedical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand

    An aging population with growing healthcare needs demands multifaceted tools for diagnosis and treatment of health conditions. In the near-future, drug-administration devices, implantable devices/sensors, enhanced prosthesis, artificial and unique functional tissue constructs will become increasingly significant. Conventional technologies for mass-produced implants do not adequately take individual patient anatomy into consideration. Development of novel CAD/CAM rapid prototyping techniques may significantly accelerate progress of these devices for next-generation patient-care. In this dissertation, several novel rapid prototyping techniques have been introduced for next-generation biomedical applications. Two-photon polymerization was developed to microfabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering, microneedles for drug-delivery and ossicular replacement prostheses. Various photoplymers were evaluated for feasibility, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and surface properties. Laser direct write using MDW was utilized for developing microstructures of bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, and viable mammalian osteosarcoma cells. CAD/CAM laser micromachining (CLM) was developed to engineer biointerfaces as surface recognition regions for differential adherence of cells and growth into tissue-like networks. CLM was also developed for engineering multi-cellular vascular networks. Cytotoxic evaluations and growth studies demonstrated VEGF-induced proliferation of HAAE-1 human aortic endothelial cells with inhibition of HA-VSMC human aortic smooth muscle cells. Finally, piiezoelectric inkjet printing was developed for controlled administration of natural and synthetic adhesives to overcome several problems associated with conventional tissue bonding materials, and greatly improve wound-repair in next generation eye repair, fracture fixation, organ fixation, wound closure, tissue engineering, and drug delivery devices.

  12. Comparative in vitro wear resistance of CAD/CAM composite resin and ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Li; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Composite resin is a promising option in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dentistry; however, the wear resistance of composite resin remains a primary concern. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wear resistance of 5 CAD/CAM materials (n=10), consisting of 4 composite resins (3M Lava Ultimate, Kerr experimental composite resin material, Vita Enamic, 3M Paradigm MZ100) and 1 ceramic (Vita Mark II) in contact with natural human enamel cusps. Specimens were loaded into a computer-controlled mastication simulator and subjected to 200000 mechanical cycles (49 N) against natural human enamel simultaneously with 500 thermal cycles (5°C to 50°C to 5°C). The wear resistance was analyzed by measuring the vertical substance loss (the maximum depth of the worn area) in the contact point area of the specimen. The worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the wear patterns. Vita Mark II exhibited the best wear resistance among the tested materials, followed by 3M Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic, and 3M Paradigm MZ100. The Kerr experimental material exhibited the lowest wear resistance, yet its results were not significantly different from those of the 3 other composite resin blocks (P>.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the wear resistance of composite resin blocks in contact with enamel cusps was significantly lower than that of a ceramic block. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gloss and Stain Resistance of Ceramic-Polymer CAD/CAM Restorative Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the gloss and stain resistance of several new ceramic-polymer CAD/CAM blocks Specimens (4 mm) were sectioned from: Enamic (polymer-infused ceramic), LAVA Ultimate (nano-ceramic reinforced polymer), e.max (lithium disilicate), Paradigm C (porcelain), and Paradigm MZ100 (composite). Specimens were wet polished on a polishing wheel to either 320 grit silicon paper (un-polished, N = 8) or 2000 grit silicon carbide papers followed by a 0.05 μm alumina slurry (polished, N = 8). Initial gloss and color (L*a*b*) values were measured. Specimens were stored in a staining solution at 37°C in darkness for 12 days (simulating 1 year). After storage, L*a*b* values re-measured. Change in color was reported as ΔE00 based on the CIEDE2000 formula. Gloss and ΔE00 were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha = .05). Separate one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analyses were performed for both polish conditions and all materials. Two-way ANOVA showed that factors material, polish and their interaction were significant for both gloss and ΔE00 (p < .01). Post-hoc analysis reveals that polished specimens had significantly less color change than un-polished specimens for Paradigm C and LAVA Ultimate. E.max had significantly higher gloss and less color change than all other materials. The composition and polish of CAD/CAM materials affects gloss and stain resistance. Ceramic-polymer hybrid materials can achieve the high gloss required for esthetic restorations. These materials should be polished in order to minimize staining. If polished, all of the tested materials exhibited clinically acceptable color changes at 1 year of simulated staining. (J Esthet Restor Dent 28:S40-S45, 2016). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A two-view ultrasound CAD system for spina bifida detection using Zernike features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Umut; Gürgen, Fikret; Varol, Füsun

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we address a very specific CAD (Computer Aided Detection/Diagnosis) problem and try to detect one of the relatively common birth defects - spina bifida, in the prenatal period. To do this, fetal ultrasound images are used as the input imaging modality, which is the most convenient so far. Our approach is to decide using two particular types of views of the fetal neural tube. Transcerebellar head (i.e. brain) and transverse (axial) spine images are processed to extract features which are then used to classify healthy (normal), suspicious (probably defective) and non-decidable cases. Decisions raised by two independent classifiers may be individually treated, or if desired and data related to both modalities are available, those decisions can be combined to keep matters more secure. Even more security can be attained by using more than two modalities and base the final decision on all those potential classifiers. Our current system relies on feature extraction from images for cases (for particular patients). The first step is image preprocessing and segmentation to get rid of useless image pixels and represent the input in a more compact domain, which is hopefully more representative for good classification performance. Next, a particular type of feature extraction, which uses Zernike moments computed on either B/W or gray-scale image segments, is performed. The aim here is to obtain values for indicative markers that signal the presence of spina bifida. Markers differ depending on the image modality being used. Either shape or texture information captured by moments may propose useful features. Finally, SVM is used to train classifiers to be used as decision makers. Our experimental results show that a promising CAD system can be actualized for the specific purpose. On the other hand, the performance of such a system would highly depend on the qualities of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and comprehensiveness of image data.

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the aspartate transcarbamoylase domain of human CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Lallous, Nada; Grande-García, Araceli; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago

    2013-12-01

    Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the synthesis of N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate in the second step of the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. In prokaryotes, the first three activities of the pathway, namely carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase), ATCase and dihydroorotase (DHOase), are encoded as distinct proteins that function independently or in noncovalent association. In animals, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase are part of a 243 kDa multifunctional polypeptide named CAD. Up-regulation of CAD is essential for normal and tumour cell proliferation. Although the structures of numerous prokaryotic ATCases have been determined, there is no structural information about any eukaryotic ATCase. In fact, the only detailed structural information about CAD is that it self-assembles into hexamers and trimers through interactions of the ATCase domains. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ATCase domain of human CAD is reported. The recombinant protein, which was expressed in bacteria and purified with good yield, formed homotrimers in solution. Crystallization experiments both in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitor PALA yielded small crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals appeared to belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3)22, and Matthews coefficient calculation indicated the presence of one ATCase subunit per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 48%. However, analysis of the intensity statistics suggests a special case of the P21 lattice with pseudo-symmetry and possibly twinning.

  16. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-07-24

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD).The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images.

  17. The influence of FRCs reinforcement on marginal adaptation of CAD/CAM composite resin endocrowns after simulated fatigue loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, G.T.; Sarrati, C.M.; Poncet, A.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the marginal adaptation of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM composite resin endocrowns either with or without reinforcement by fibre reinforced composites (FRCs), used in different configurations. 32 human endodontically treated molars were cut 2 mm over the CEJ. Two

  18. Applying a deep learning based CAD scheme to segment and quantify visceral and subcutaneous fat areas from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Abdominal obesity is strongly associated with a number of diseases and accurately assessment of subtypes of adipose tissue volume plays a significant role in predicting disease risk, diagnosis and prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning models to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral (VFA) fat areas depicting on CT images. A dataset involving CT images from 40 patients were retrospectively collected and equally divided into two independent groups (i.e. training and testing group). The new CAD scheme consisted of two sequential convolutional neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. Selection-CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to automatically select CT slices belonging to abdomen areas and SegmentationCNN was trained using 84,000 fat-pixel patches to classify fat-pixels as belonging to SFA or VFA. Then, data from the testing group was used to evaluate the performance of the optimized CAD scheme. Comparing to manually labelled results, the classification accuracy of CT slices selection generated by Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using Segmentation-CNN yielded 96.8%. Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using deep learning based CAD scheme to recognize human abdominal section from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from CT slices with high agreement compared with subjective segmentation results.

  19. A CAD-CAM prosthodontic option and gingival zenith position for a rotated maxillary right central incisor: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Digital imaging provides an immediate treatment option for the patients. Software also provides an interim aid, for the clinician as well as technician, in the form of two-dimensional photographs. CAD-CAM is entirely a helping instrument against the conservative prosthetic options and gingival zenith position for a rotated central incisor. It helps in patient education and in motivation.

  20. The marginal fit of E.max Press and E.max CAD lithium disilicate restorations: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounajjed, Radek; M Layton, Danielle; Azar, Basel

    2016-12-01

    This critical review aimed to assess the vertical marginal gap that was present when E.max lithium disilicate-based restoration (Press and CAD) are fabricated in-vitro. Published articles reporting vertical marginal gap measurements of in-vitro restorations that had been fabricated from E.Max lithium disilicate were sought with an electronic search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and hand search of selected dental journals. The outcomes were reviewed qualitatively. The majority of studies that compared the marginal fit of E.max press and E.max CAD restorations, found that the E.max lithium disilicate restorations fabricated with the press technique had significantly smaller marginal gaps than those fabricated with CAD technique. This research indicates that E.max lithium disilicate restorations fabricated with the press technique have measurably smaller marginal gaps when compared with those fabricated with CAD techniques within in-vitro environments. The marginal gaps achieved by the restorations across all groups were within a clinically acceptable range.

  1. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    34’ 1C.V r . *F - - I YW COMuts ’ IAC NC CAD CAL CAM I 1919 Niai1oapatew...on the system. This relationship can be described mathematically and once determined, can be used to compute the desired efficiency correction

  2. Impact of different adhesives on work of adhesion between CAD/CAM polymers and resin composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, Christine; Müller-Hahl, Manuel; Eichberger, Marlis; Liebermann, Anja; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2014-09-01

    To determine the impact of pre-treatment of adhesive systems on the work of adhesion (WA) between CAD/CAM polymers and resin composite cements and compare with conventional tests of previous studies. Surface parameters were measured by contact angle measurement (2700 measurements) and WA was calculated. Five CAD/CAM polymers were used for fabrication of specimens (n=75/subgroup): artBloc Temp (A), Telio CAD (B), Nano Composite CFI-C (C), exp. CAD/CAM nanohybrid composite (D), and LAVA Ultimate (E). Then, air-abraded specimens were pre-treated (n=15 per group): Ambarino P60 (I), Monobond Plus/Heliobond (II), visio.link (III), VP connect (IV), and no pre-treatment (V). Resin composite cement specimens (n=75) were smoothed out homogeneously on a glass plate (n=15/group): RelyX ARC (RXA), Variolink II (VAR), Panavia F2.0 (PAN), RelyX Unicem (RXU), and Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Contact angles were determined with 3 drops of distilled water and diiodomethane each. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis-H test and Spearman-Rho correlation (p<0.05). CAD/CAM materials (B), (A), and (C) showed higher WA compared to (D) and (E). (II) and (IV) resulted in higher WA than (I), (III) and (V). VAR had the significantly lowest WA, followed by RXU, RXA, CSA and PAN. No correlation occurred between WA and TBS/SBS whereas polar component of surface free energy of CAD/CAM resin and spreading coefficient showed significant positive correlation with TBS/SBS. Determination of WA is not a proper method to draw conclusions about the bond between resin materials. Destructive test methods are not dispensable. The successful outcome of fixed dental restorations depends, among others, on the quality of bonding between the tooth and the restoration. Additional pre-treatment of the dental CAD/CAM resin restoration by bonding systems can be recommended for clinical use. Pre-treatment showed a significant impact on the surface properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  4. Flexural strength and microstructure of two lithium disilicate glass ceramics for CAD/CAM restoration in the dental clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Ho Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives There has been a growing interest in glass ceramic systems with good esthetics, high fracture resistance and bonding durability, and simplified fabrication techniques using CAD/CAM. The aim of this study is to compare flexural strength before and after heat treatment of two lithium disilicate CAD/CAM blocks, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent and Rosetta SM (Hass, and to observe their crystalline structures. Materials and Methods Biaxial flexural strength was tested according to ISO 6872 with 20 disc form specimens sliced from each block before and after heat treatment. Also, the crystalline structures were observed using field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM, Hitachi and x-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku analysis. The mean values of the biaxial flexural strength were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results There were no statistically significant differences in flexural strength between IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM either before heat treatment or after heat treatment. For both ceramics, the initial flexural strength greatly increased after heat treatment, with significant differences (p < 0.05. The FE-SEM images presented similar patterns of crystalline structure in the two ceramics. In the XRD analysis, they also had similar patterns, presenting high peak positions corresponding to the standard lithium metasilicate and lithium disilicate at each stage of heat treatment. Conclusions IPS e.max CAD and Rosetta SM showed no significant differences in flexural strength. They had a similar crystalline pattern and molecular composition.

  5. The association of sleep disordered breathing with left ventricular remodeling in CAD patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonderis, Audrius; Raskauskiene, Nijole; Gelziniene, Vaidute; Mickuviene, Narseta; Brozaitiene, Julija

    2017-09-18

    There is still insufficient knowledge on the potential effect of mild to moderate sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) that is widely prevalent, often asymptomatic, and largely undiagnosed in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). SDB affects 34% of men and 17% of women aged between 30 and 70. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between SDB and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as structural remodeling in stable CAD patients. The study was based on a cross-sectional design. Echocardiography and polysomnography was performed in 772 patients with CAD and with untreated sleep apnea. All study participants underwent testing by Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Their mean age, NYHA and left ventricular ejection fraction were, respectively: 57 ± 9 years, 2.1 ± 0.5 and 51 ± 8%, and 76% were men. Sleep apnea (SA) was defined as an apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI) ≥5 events/h, and, non-SA, as an AHI CAD patients with SA. The patients with SA had significantly higher values of both interventricular septal thickness and posterior wall thickness. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that even mild sleep apnea was an independent predictor for LVH by wall thickness criteria and concentric LVH (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.04-2.2 and OR = 1.9; 1.3-2.9 respectively). We concluded that unrecognized sleep apnea was highly prevalent among patients with stable CAD, and the majority of those patients did not report daytime sleepiness. Mild to moderate sleep apnea was associated with increased LV wall thickness, LV mass, and with higher prevalence of concentric LV hypertrophy independently of coexisting obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or advancing age.

  6. The glutathione-deficient, cadmium-sensitive mutant, cad2-1, of Arabidopsis thaliana is deficient in gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, C S; May, M J; Howden, R; Rolls, B

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports that the glutathione (GSH)-deficient mutant, cad2-1, of Arabidopsis is deficient in the first enzyme in the pathway of GSH biosynthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS). The mutant accumulates a substrate of GCS, cysteine, and is deficient in the product, gamma-glutamylcysteine. In vitro enzyme assays showed that the cad2-1 mutant has 40% of wild-type levels of GCS activity but is unchanged in the activity of the second enzyme in the pathway, GSH synthetase. The CAD2 locus maps to chromosome 4 and is tightly linked to a gene, GSHA, identified by a previously isolated cDNA. A genomic clone of GSHA complements both the phenotypic and biochemical deficiencies of the cad2-1 mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the gene has been determined and, in the mutant, this gene contains a 6 bp deletion within an exon. These data demonstrate that the CAD2 gene encodes GCS. The cad2-1 mutation is close to the conserved cysteine which is believed to bind the substrate glutamate and the specific inhibitor L-buthionine-[S,R] sulfoximine (BSO). Both root growth and GCS activity of the cad2-1 mutant was less sensitive than the wild-type to inhibition by BSO, indicating that the mutation may alter the affinity of the inhibitor binding site.

  7. Fatigue resistance of ultrathin CAD/CAM complete crowns with a simplified cementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Carvalho, Adriana O; Bruzi, Greciana; Giannini, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    Traditional tooth preparation for complete crowns requires a substantial amount of hard tissue reduction. This is in contrast with the principles of minimally invasive dentistry. An ultrathin complete crown preparation is proposed instead. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the fatigue resistance and failure mode of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ultrathin complete molar crowns placed with self-adhesive cement. Different restorative materials (resin nanoceramic [RNC], feldspathic ceramic [FEL], and lithium disilicate [LD]) were compared. Forty-five extracted molars with a standardized crown preparation were restored with the Cerec 3 CAD/CAM system using FEL, LD, or RNC (n=15). FEL and LD restorations were etched with hydrofluoric acid and silanated. RNC restorations and all preparations were treated with airborne-particle abrasion. All restorations (thickness=0.7 mm) were cemented with RelyX Unicem II Automix cement and submitted to cyclic isometric loading, beginning with a load of 200 N (5000 cycles) and followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30 000 cycles each. The specimens were loaded until failure or for a maximum of 185 000 cycles. The failure mode was categorized as "catastrophic," "possibly reparable," or "reparable." The groups were compared using life table survival analysis (log rank test at α=.05). Previously published data from the same authors about traditional complete crowns (thickness 1.5 mm) using the same experimental design were included for comparison. All specimens survived the fatigue test until the 600 N step. RNC, LD, and FEL failed at an average load of 1014 N (1 survival), 1123 N (2 survivals), and 987 N (no survivals), and no difference in survival rate was found. No catastrophic failures were reported after the fatigue test. Comparison with previously published data showed that 1.5-mm thick complete crowns demonstrated higher survival rates than

  8. Effect of CAD-CAM porcelain veneers thickness on their cemented color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Hanan; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar; Khan, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of thickness of porcelain veneers constructed from CAD-CAM on their final color when two resin cements were used. Buccal surfaces of extracted sound human molars with shade 3M2 [verified using digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade-Vident)] were reduced to expose flat enamel surfaces. CAD-CAM blocks (Vitablokcs Mark II) of the same shade were sectioned into three groups of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mm thickness. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups; one subgroup was cemented to enamel using an etch-and-rinse resin cement (Calibra/Prime and bond-NT, Dentsply) and the other was cemented to enamel using a self-etching resin cement (Panavia-F, Kuraray). The shade of the two resin cements was "light". Change in color (ΔE) between the selected shade (3M2) and the resulted shade was measured for each specimen using a digital spectrophotometer (Vita Easyshade-Vident). Means and SDs were calculated and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc tukey's. Change in color (ΔE) between the selected and the produced shade for the Calibra subgroups was 2.8 (0.3) for the 0.3mm, 1.67 (0.2) for the 0.5mm thick specimens and 1.26 (0.3) for the 0.7mm. Panavia F subgroups showed ΔE of 2 (0.4) for the 0.3mm, 1.13 (0.23) for the 0.5mm thick specimens and 1.21 (0.31) for the 0.7mm. The 0.7mm subgroups showed no significant difference in color change among the two cements (P>.05), however, Calibra resulted in significantly higher change in color values for the 0.5mm thick specimens (Pveneer thickness from 0.5 to 0.7mm did not significantly affect the final color of cemented veneers. Whilst the color was significantly affected at the thickness of 0.3mm. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of brushing and thermocycling on the shade and surface roughness of CAD-CAM ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Wee, Alvin G; Alfaro, Maria F; Afshari, Fatemeh S; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2017-09-29

    The effects of toothbrushing (B) and thermocycling (TC) on the surface texture of different materials with various fabrication processes have been investigated. However, studies of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) ceramic restorations are limited. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of B and TC on the color stability and surface roughness of extrinsically characterized and glazed CAD-CAM ceramic restorations. Lithium disilicate CAD ceramic (n=90) and zirconia ceramic (n=90) were studied. All specimens were crystallized/sintered, characterized, and glazed following the manufacturer's recommendation. The specimens were divided into 9 different groups: B, TC, and a combination of B plus TC (B+TC). Brushing was performed at 50 000, 100 000, and 150 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Thermocycling was performed at 6000, 12 000, and 18 000 cycles, simulating an oral environment of 5, 10, and 15 years. Brushing plus TC was performed with the combination of the 50 000 cycles of B, then 6000 cycles of TC, and 10 000 cycles of B, then 12 000 cycles of TC, and 15 000 cycles of B, then 18 000 cycles of TC. The color and surface roughness of each specimen were measured before and after all interventions with simulated cycles. Color differences (ΔE) and surface roughness (ΔR a ) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, followed by the least significant difference test (α=.05). The correlation between ΔE and ΔR a was statistically analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis. Within the lithium disilicate CAD groups, intervention did not result in any significant differences in color change (P>.05). Within the zirconia groups, a 15-year clinical simulation revealed significantly higher ΔE values than a simulated 5-year exposure (P=.017). Increased simulated cycles showed significantly higher R a values for all groups. Within the zirconia groups, B revealed

  10. Marginal fit and photoelastic stress analysis of CAD-CAM and overcast 3-unit implant-supported frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, Anna Gabriella Camacho; Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown the superiority of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology compared with conventional casting. However, an advanced technology exists for casting procedures (the overcasting technique), which may serve as an acceptable and affordable alternative to CAD-CAM technology for fabricating 3-unit implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using quantitative photoelastic analysis, the effect of the prosthetic framework fabrication method (CAD-CAM and overcasting) on the marginal fit and stress transmitted to implants. The correlation between marginal fit and stress was also investigated. Three-unit implant-supported FDP frameworks were made using the CAD-CAM (n=10) and overcasting (n=10) methods. The frameworks were waxed to simulate a mandibular first premolar (PM region) to first molar (M region) FDP using overcast mini-abutment cylinders. The wax patterns were overcast (overcast experimental group) or scanned to obtain the frameworks (CAD-CAM control group). All frameworks were fabricated from cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy. The marginal fit was analyzed according to the single-screw test protocol, obtaining an average value for each region (M and PM) and each framework. The frameworks were tightened for the photoelastic model with standardized 10-Ncm torque. Stress was measured by quantitative photoelastic analysis. The results were submitted to the Student t test, 2-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation test (α=.05). The framework fabrication method (FM) and evaluation site (ES; M and PM regions) did not affect the marginal fit values (P=.559 for FM and P=.065 for ES) and stress (P=.685 for FM and P=.468 for ES) in the implant-supported system. Positive correlations between marginal fit and stress were observed (CAD-CAM: r=0.922; PCAD-CAM and overcasting methods present similar marginal fit and stress values for 3-unit FDP frameworks. The

  11. 3D correction of AIS in braces designed using CAD/CAM and FEM: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobetto, Nikita; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Parent, Stefan; Barchi, Soraya; Turgeon, Isabelle; Labelle, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies showed that finite element model (FEM) combined to CAD/CAM improves the design of braces for the conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), using 2D measurements from in-brace radiographs. We aim to assess the immediate effectiveness on curve correction in all three planes of braces designed using CAD/CAM and numerical simulation compared to braces designed with CAD/CAM only. SRS standardized criteria for bracing were followed to recruit 48 AIS patients who were randomized into two groups. For both groups, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso, respectively built from bi-planar radiographs and surface topography, were obtained and braces were designed using the CAD/CAM approach. For the test group, 3D reconstructions of the spine and patient's torso were additionally used to generate a personalized FEM to simulate and iteratively improve the brace design with the objective of curve correction maximization in three planes and brace material minimization. For the control group (CtrlBraces), average Cobb angle prior to bracing was 29° (thoracic, T) and 25° (lumbar, L) with the planes of maximal curvature (PMC) respectively oriented at 63° and 57° on average with respect to the sagittal plane. Average apical axial rotation prior to bracing was 7° (T) and 9° (L). For the test group (FEMBraces), initial Cobb angles were 33° (T) and 28° (L) with the PMC at 68° (T) and 56° (L) and average apical axial rotation prior to bracing at 9° (T and L). On average, FEMBraces were 50% thinner and had 20% less covering surface than CtrlBraces while reducing T and L curves by 47 and 48%, respectively, compared to 25 and 26% for CtrlBraces. FEMBraces corrected apical axial rotation by 46% compared to 30% for CtrlBraces. The combination of numerical simulation and CAD/CAM approach allowed designing more efficient braces in all three planes, with the advantages of being lighter than standard CAD/CAM braces. Bracing in AIS may

  12. Apoptotic DNA Degradation into Oligonucleosomal Fragments, but Not Apoptotic Nuclear Morphology, Relies on a Cytosolic Pool of DFF40/CAD Endonuclease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Gil-Guiñon, Estel; Gabernet, Gisela; García-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez-Osuna, María; Casanelles, Elisenda; Comella, Joan X.; Yuste, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is characterized by nuclear fragmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA degradation, mediated by the caspase-dependent specific activation of DFF40/CAD endonuclease. Here, we describe how, upon apoptotic stimuli, SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma-derived cells show apoptotic nuclear morphology without displaying concomitant internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cytotoxicity afforded after staurosporine treatment is comparable with that obtained in SH-SY5Y cells, which exhibit a complete apoptotic phenotype. SK-N-AS cell death is a caspase-dependent process that can be impaired by the pan-caspase inhibitor q-VD-OPh. The endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD, ICAD, is correctly processed, and dff40/cad cDNA sequence does not reveal mutations altering its amino acid composition. Biochemical approaches show that both SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS resting cells express comparable levels of DFF40/CAD. However, the endonuclease is poorly expressed in the cytosolic fraction of healthy SK-N-AS cells. Despite this differential subcellular distribution of DFF40/CAD, we find no differences in the subcellular localization of both pro-caspase-3 and ICAD between the analyzed cell lines. After staurosporine treatment, the preferential processing of ICAD in the cytosolic fraction allows the translocation of DFF40/CAD from this fraction to a chromatin-enriched one. Therefore, the low levels of cytosolic DFF40/CAD detected in SK-N-AS cells determine the absence of DNA laddering after staurosporine treatment. In these cells DFF40/CAD cytosolic levels can be restored by the overexpression of their own endonuclease, which is sufficient to make them proficient at degrading their chromatin into oligonucleosome-size fragments after staurosporine treatment. Altogether, the cytosolic levels of DFF40/CAD are determinants in achieving a complete apoptotic phenotype, including oligonucleosomal DNA degradation. PMID:22253444

  13. MicroRNAs 9 and 370 Association with Biochemical Markers in T2D and CAD Complication of T2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motawae, Tarek M; Ismail, Manal F; Shabayek, Marwa I; Seleem, Mae M

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non coding RNAs with essential roles, of which any alteration leads to several conditions. Their roles in diabetes (DM) and its vascular complications have not been completely assessed. to study the association of two miRNAs; 9 and 370, with biochemical parameters of type 2 diabetic (T2D), dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of both genders, in the Outpatient clinic of Al Qasr El-Einy teaching hospitals, in which levels of both miRNAs (using real time PCR) and routine parameters were measured. Subjects were divided over four groups, 50 in each group as follows; patients with T2D, patients with CAD, patients with T2D and CAD, and healthy control subjects. miRNA 9 levels were expected to be over expressed in diabetic patients, while miRNA 370 levels were expected to be over expressed in those suffering from CAD and their association with CAD complication of T2D. miRNA 9 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients and T2D patients with CAD, (1.18±0.07, and 1.31±0.08 respectively), while miRNA 370 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients, CAD patients, and T2D patients with CAD (0.59±0.05, 1.00±0.05, and 1.20±0.06 respectively), compared to control group at p = 0.000. In addition both miRNAs were still significantly associated with each other even after conducting multiple regression analysis. This study associates the possible role of miRNAs in the diagnosis/prognosis of CAD complication of T2D.

  14. MicroRNAs 9 and 370 Association with Biochemical Markers in T2D and CAD Complication of T2D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M Motawae

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non coding RNAs with essential roles, of which any alteration leads to several conditions. Their roles in diabetes (DM and its vascular complications have not been completely assessed.to study the association of two miRNAs; 9 and 370, with biochemical parameters of type 2 diabetic (T2D, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD.Blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of both genders, in the Outpatient clinic of Al Qasr El-Einy teaching hospitals, in which levels of both miRNAs (using real time PCR and routine parameters were measured. Subjects were divided over four groups, 50 in each group as follows; patients with T2D, patients with CAD, patients with T2D and CAD, and healthy control subjects.miRNA 9 levels were expected to be over expressed in diabetic patients, while miRNA 370 levels were expected to be over expressed in those suffering from CAD and their association with CAD complication of T2D.miRNA 9 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients and T2D patients with CAD, (1.18±0.07, and 1.31±0.08 respectively, while miRNA 370 levels were significantly higher in T2D patients, CAD patients, and T2D patients with CAD (0.59±0.05, 1.00±0.05, and 1.20±0.06 respectively, compared to control group at p = 0.000. In addition both miRNAs were still significantly associated with each other even after conducting multiple regression analysis.This study associates the possible role of miRNAs in the diagnosis/prognosis of CAD complication of T2D.

  15. Type A Behavior and Risk of All-Cause Mortality, CAD, and CAD-Related Mortality in a Type 1 Diabetic Population: 22 Years of Follow-up in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickley, Catherine E.; Lloyd, Cathy E.; Costacou, Tina; Miller, Rachel G.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether type A behavior predicts all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease (CAD) in a type 1 diabetic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Follow-up data (22 years) from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes were analyzed for the 506 participants who completed the Bortner Rating Scale (measuring type A behavior) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline (1986–1988). CAD comprised myocardial infarction as determined by hospital records/Q waves on electrocardiogram (ECG), CAD death (determined by a mortality classification committee), angiographic stenosis, ischemic ECG, and angina. RESULTS There were 128 deaths (25.3%) during follow-up. Univariate analysis showed an inverse relationship between Bortner scores and all-cause mortality (P = 0.01), which remained significant after allowing for age, sex, duration, HbA1c, education, smoking, BMI, and physical activity (P = 0.03). However, the addition of BDI scores attenuated the relationship (P = 0.11) with a significant interaction (P = 0.03) such that any protective effect against mortality was limited among individuals with lower BDI scores (bottom three quintiles) (P = 0.07), whereas no effect was seen in those with higher BDI scores (P = 0.97). Bortner scores showed only a borderline association with incident CAD (P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS Those with higher type A behavior have lower all-cause mortality in our type 1 diabetic population, an effect that interacts with depressive symptomatology such that it is only operative in those with low BDI scores. Further research should focus on understanding this interaction. PMID:23835685

  16. Rappresentazioni digitali al tratto: tecniche visuali per un utilizzo avanzato del CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Garagnani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Il vasto panorama esistente di prodotti software destinati al mondo del disegno architettonico, rischia di compromettere quell'individualità che distingue lo stile di rappresentazione del progettista puro. La consuetudine moderna alla rappresentazione tridimensionale fotorealistica a tutti i costi, dove tessiture di materiali e contrasti di luci ed ombre sono a volte talmente esasperati da avere ben poco del fotografico, ha condotto a trascurare le più tradizionali visualizzazioni al tratto, ancora importanti per la loro intrinseca chiarezza esplicativa e visuale delle forme. Non sono pochi infatti i software di nuova produzione che implementano con discutibile disinvoltura motori di rendering più o meno realistici, ma che non sono in grado di presentare disegni prospettici od assonometrici formalmente corretti e gradevoli. Il tracciamento assistito tuttavia può essere un valido strumento di sviluppo anche per tecniche visuali più classiche; in questo breve scritto verranno analizzati due metodi per ottenere questo tipo di elaborati con un pacchetto di disegno digitale standard come AutoCAD.

  17. A Preprocessing Algorithm for the CAD System of Mammograms Using the Active Contour Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan AKRAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital mammogram images can have different kinds of artifacts that affect the accuracy of the detection of tumor tissues in the automated computer-aided detection (CAD system for mammograms. Preprocessing to remove such artifacts is an important step. In this paper, a preprocessing technique for digital mammograms is devised which removes labels, scanning artifacts and the pectoral muscle. First, it removes hurdles like labels, scanning and taping artifacts using an automated algorithm based on thresholding. Then, using the active contours and the proposed stopping algorithm it obtains the contour which contains the boundary of the pectoral muscle. Later, it extracts the pectoral muscle binary image from the contour. Finally, using the pectoral muscle binary image and the original mammogram image it obtains the desired image without any artifacts and the pectoral muscle. We tested the proposed algorithm on the mammograms from the mini-MIAS database and it worked very efficiently. It provided very effective and accurate results for pectoral muscle segmentation. It provided up to 97.84% accuracy, computed from well segmented results.

  18. CAD Design of Human Male Body for Mass–Inertial Characteristics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Gergana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to present a 16-segmental biomechanical model of the Bulgarian male to determine the mass-inertial characteristics of the body of the Bulgarian male based on parameters available in the literature and its 3D generation within SolidWorks software. The motivation of the research is to support mainly sport, rehabilitation, wearable robots and furniture design users. The proposed CAD model of the human body of men is verified against the analytical results from our previous investigation, as well as through comparison with data available in the provided references. In this paper we model two basic human body positions: standing position and sitting with thighs elevated. The comparison performed between our model results and data reported in literature gives us confidence that this model can be reliably used to calculate the mass-inertial characteristics of male body at any postures of the body that is of interest. Therefore, our model can be used to obtain data for positions which the human body has to take in everyday live, in sport, leisure, including space exploration, for investigating criminology cases – body fall, car crash, etc. The model is suitable for performing computer simulation in robotics, medicine, sport and other areas.

  19. CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection Using Gabor Filtering and Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Nitta, Norihisa; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    This paper aims at developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system used for the detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography (CT) images. These lung nodules include both solid nodules and Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) nodules. In our scheme, we apply Gabor filter on the CT image in order to enhance the detection process. After this we perform some morphological operations including threshold process and labeling to extract all the objects inside the lung area. Then, some feature analysis is used to examine these objects to decide which of them are likely to be potential cancer candidates. Following the feature examination, a template matching between the potential cancer candidates and some Gaussian reference models is performed to determine the similarity between them. The algorithm was applied on 715 slices containing 25 GGO nodules and 82 solid nodules and achieved detection sensitivity of 92% for GGO nodules and 95% for solid nodules with False Positive (FP) rate of 0.75 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 2.32 FP/slice for solid nodules. Finally, we used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reduce the number of FP findings. After using ANN, we were able to reduce the FP rate to 0.25 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 1.62 FP/slice for solid nodules but at the expense of detection sensitivity, which became 84 % for GGO nodules and 91% for solid nodules.

  20. Influence of dentist experience with scan spray systems used in direct CAD/CAM impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehurtevent, Marion; Robberecht, Lieven; Béhin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Direct optical impression systems requiring powder opacification are widely used in prosthodontics, but little information is available about the influence of the dentist on the quality of scan sprays used for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) impressions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of operator experience on scan spray homogeneity and thickness on tooth surfaces before direct optical impressions are made. A total of 36 crown-prepared acrylic resin teeth were coated (Optispray) for direct optical impressions by 3 experienced dentists and 3 inexperienced dentists (n=18 teeth per group). The teeth were visually scored for coating homogeneity (1, heterogeneous; 2, average; 3, homogeneous). To determine the coating thickness (μm), the teeth were resin-embedded, cut, and polished. A stereomicroscope (×100 magnification) was used to examine 148 areas per tooth. The results were statistically analyzed with the nonparametric Spearman and Mann-Whitney tests (α=.05). Coating homogeneity was significantly higher (Pdentists achieved greater homogeneity and thinner coatings on crown-preparation surfaces than inexperienced dentists. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.