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Sample records for cad-deficient pine final

  1. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  2. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  4. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  5. Soil Compaction and Recovery after Mechanized Final Felling of Italian Coastal Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Kleibl, Miroslav; Klvač, Radomir; Lombardini, Carolina; Porhaly, Josef; Spinelli, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    This study gauged the severity and permanence of soil compaction associated with mechanized clear felling of umbrella pine plantations. We tested three treatments: not harvested, harvested one year earlier and harvested six years earlier. Each treatment was replicated eight times in randomly distributed 0.5 ha plots, on the same soil type. Soil compaction was assessed by gauging soil bulk density, penetration resistance, deflection under impact and CO2 concentration. These parameters were mea...

  6. Nursery Cultural Practices and Morphological Attributes of Longleaf Pine Bare-Root Stock as Indicators of Early Field Performance; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large study of morphological attributes of longleaf pine nursery stock at the Savannah River site of the various attributes measured, only number of lateral roots and seedling diameters were related to performance. Lateral root pruning in the nursery also improved performance. Both survival and growth during the first two years were strongly correlated with larger stem diameter and larger root system development

  7. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  8. Carbon Isotopic Studies of Assimilated and Ecosystem Respired CO2 in a Southeastern Pine Forest. Final Report and Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Maureen H

    2008-04-10

    Carbon dioxide is the major “greenhouse” gas responsible for global warming. Southeastern pine forests appear to be among the largest terrestrial sinks of carbon dioxide in the US. This collaborative study specifically addressed the isotopic signatures of the large fluxes of carbon taken up by photosynthesis and given off by respiration in this ecosystem. By measuring these isotopic signatures at the ecosystem level, we have provided data that will help to more accurately quantify the magnitude of carbon fluxes on the regional scale and how these fluxes vary in response to climatic parameters such as rainfall and air temperature. The focus of the MBL subcontract was to evaluate how processes operating at the physiological and ecosystem scales affects the resultant isotopic signature of plant waxes that are emitted as aerosols into the convective boundary layer. These wax aerosols provide a large-spatial scale integrative signal of isotopic discrimination of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial photosynthesis (Conte and Weber 2002). The ecosystem studies have greatly expanded of knowledge of wax biosynthetic controls on their isootpic signature The wax aerosol data products produced under this grant are directly applicable as input for global carbon modeling studies that use variations in the concentration and carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide to quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of carbon uptake on the global scale.

  9. Control of Growth Efficiency in Young Plantation Loblolly Pine and Sweetgum through Irrigation and Fertigation Enhancement of Leaf Carbon Gain; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this study was to determine if growth efficiency of young plantation loblolly pine and sweetgum can be maintained by intensive forest management and whether increased carbon gain is the mechanism controlling growth efficiency response to resource augmentation. Key leaf physiological processes were examined over two growing seasons in response to irrigation, fertigation (irrigation with a fertilizer solution), and fertigation plus pest control (pine only). Although irrigation improved leaf net photosynthesis in pine and decreased stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit in sweetgum, no consistent physiological responses to fertigation were detected in either species. After 4 years of treatment, a 3-fold increase in woody net primary productivity was observed in both species in response to fertigation. Trees supplemented with fertigation and fertigation plus pest control exhibited the largest increases in growth and biomass. Furthermore, growth efficiency was maintained by fertigation and fertigation plus pest control, despite large increases in crown development and self-shading. Greater growth in response to intensive culture was facilitated by significant gains in leaf mass and whole tree carbon gain rather than detectable increases in leaf level processes. Growth efficiency was not maintained by significant increases in leaf level carbon gain but was possibly influenced by changes in carbon allocation to root versus shoot processes

  10. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.

    2001-03-01

    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  11. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  12. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  13. Jack Pines and Walleyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Glendon

    1982-01-01

    Secondary school students in Pine River, Minnesota, need enough common knowledge to compete with graduates of other schools, but educators must keep in mind--as they move toward a more uniform curriculum--that each community is unique. (Author/RW)

  14. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    A great concern in forestry today is whether whole-tree harvesting influence site productivity and whether it is consistent with the principle of sustainable use of forest resources. To evaluate this a randomised field experiment established 24 years ago in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Sweden was used. The field experiment was established in fall 1975 as a naturally regenerated mixed forest with Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with a growing stock of 305 m{sup 3}/ha was clear-cut near Kosta (56 deg 52' N, 15 deg 50' E, 240 m.a.s.l.). The site was a mesic dwarf-shrub type of medium fertility, with an average precipitation of 600 mm yr-1 and the soil was an orthic podzol. Treatments were conventional stem harvest (CH), whole-tree harvest (WTH), and branch and stem harvest (BSH). Scots pine seedlings of local provenance were planted in spring 1977 at the beginning of the second growing season following the harvest. The seedlings were planted in exposed mineral soil in manually scarified patches (40 x 40 cm) at 1.7 m spacing (144 seedlings per assessment plot, i.e. 3 600 seedlings/ha). Based on calliper data, the diameter for the mean basal area per tree (db) was calculated for each plot after 24 years using the formula: db = ({sigma} b{sup 3}/{sigma} b{sup 2}), where b is basal area at breast height for each tree. Three undamaged sample trees with a diameter equal or close to the diameter of the mean basal area per tree were selected on each plot giving 36 stems that were felled for destructive measurements in 2000. Total tree height ({+-} 0.01 m) was measured on every tree felled. Stem biomass was estimated by sampling of stem discs, 2 cm thick, at stump height (1 % of tree height), breast height (1.3 m), and at every meter along the bole. Crown biomass was estimated by sampling live and dead branches on the felled trees. From every whorl of branches one living branch was sampled and all branches were counted. Stem

  15. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Schelhas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources.

  16. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. PMID:26471643

  17. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Part 1: Course of an Infectation

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Walter E; Amman, Gene D

    1980-01-01

    Much of this work is original research by the authors. However, published literature on the mountain pine beetle is reviewed with particular reference to epidemic infestations in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle and lodgepole pine have evolved into an intensive and highly compatible relationship. Consequently, stand dynamics of lodgepole pine is a primary factor in the development of beetle epidemics. the diameter-growth relationship and the effects of environmental factors on...

  19. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  20. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  1. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Whitebark Pine Along the Pacific Crest Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Nguyen, A.; Gill, N.; Kannan, S.; Patadia, N.; Meyer, M.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), one of eight National Scenic Trails, stretches 2,650 miles from Mexico to the Canadian border. At high elevations along this trail, within Inyo and Sierra National Forests, populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) have been diminishing due to infestation of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and are threatened due to a changing climate. Understanding the current and future condition of whitebark pine is a primary goal of forest managers due to its high ecological and economic importance, and it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Using satellite imagery, we analyzed the rate and spatial extent of whitebark pine tree mortality from 1984 to 2011 using the Landsat-based Detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery (LandTrendr) program. Climate data, soil properties, and biological features of the whitebark pine were incorporated in the Physiological Principles to Predict Growth (3-PG) model to predict future rates of growth and assess its applicability in modeling natural whitebark pine processes. Finally, the Random Forest algorithm was used with topographic data alongside recent and future climate data from the IPCC A2 and B1 climate scenarios for the years 2030, 2060, and 2090 to model the future distribution of whitebark pine. LandTrendr results indicate beetle related mortality covering 14,940 km2 of forest, 2,880 km2 of which are within whitebark pine forest. By 2090, our results show that under the A2 climate scenario, whitebark pine suitable habitat may be reduced by as much as 99.97% by the year 2090 within our study area. Under the B1 climate scenario, which has decreased CO2 emissions, 13.54% more habitat would be preserved in 2090.

  2. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  4. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Qingwen; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine peroxiredoxin (BxPrx), was elevated in B. xylophilus following the H2O2 treatments. Recombinant BxPrx, a thermal stabile and pH tolerant enzyme, exhibited high level of antioxidant activity against H2O2, suggesting that it is capable of protecting cells from free radical attacks. Immunohistochemical localization study showed that BxPrx was broadly expressed across different tissues and could be secreted outside the nematode. Finally, the number of BxPrx homologs in both dauer-like and fungi-feeding B. xylophilus were comparable based on bioinformatics analysis of existing EST libraries, indicating a potential role of BxPrx in both propagative and dispersal nematodes. These combined results suggest that BxPrx is a key genetic factor facilitating the infestation and distribution of B. xylophilus within pine hosts, and consequently the spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27271000

  5. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  6. Phytotoxic evaluation of whole pine tree substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased availability and increased cost of quality substrates are issues facing many horticulture crop producers. Peat moss and pine bark are the most widely used substrate components, yet producers have become more aware of acceptable alternative components. Processed whole pine trees have been i...

  7. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  8. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  9. Effect of damaged pine needles on growth and development of pine caterpillar larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lili; LI Zhenyu; LI Hailin; HAN Ruidong; ZHAO Yongli

    2006-01-01

    Chinese pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis)larvae were fed with pine needles of different degrees of damage to evaluate the effects of pine needles on the growth and development of larvae.The results showed that the nutritional index of the larvae declines after feeding on the damaged pine needlings.The lowest amount of food ingested and voided feces,the lowest nutritional index,slowest development,lightest pupae and most mortality were found in those pine caterpillar larvae fed with pine needles which were 50% damaged.The damaged pine needles significantly affected the population dynamics of Chinese pine caterpillars.The nutritional indices of larvae fed with 25% and 75% damaged pine needles were similar.The nutritional index of the dark morphs was higher than that of the tinted morphs,however,their mortality was lower than that of the tinted morphs.This phenomenon was reversed at the later stage of development when the larvae were fed on 50% damaged pine needles.

  10. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón Francisco R; Ordás Ricardo; Soto Álvaro; Cervera M Teresa; Collada Carmen; Perdiguero Pedro; Guevara M Ángeles; Flores-Monterroso Arantxa; Bautista Rocío; Díaz-Moreno Sara M; Villalobos David P; Guerrero-Fernández Darío; Canales Javier; Fernández-Pozo Noé; Avila Concepción

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it...

  11. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M. A.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids f...

  12. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  13. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  14. Quantification of acetone emission from pine plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; (邵敏); Jürgen; Wildt

    2002-01-01

    Acetone emission from pine plants (pinus sylvestris) is measured by continuously stirred tank reactor. Under a constant light intensity, acetone emission rates increase exponentially with leaf temperature. When leaf temperature is kept constant, acetone emission increases with light intensity. And acetone emission in darkness is also detected. Acetone emitted from pine is quickly labeled by 13C when the plants are exposed to air with 630 mg/m3 13CO2. However, no more than 20% of acetone is 13C labeled. Acetone emission from pine may be due to both leaf temperature- controlled process and light intensity-controlled process. Based on these understandings, an algorithm is used to describe the short term acetone emission rates from pine.

  15. Determination of volatile compounds of pine honeys

    OpenAIRE

    SİLİCİ, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds of 13 Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) honey samples were characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 42 volatile compounds were identified, but volatile compounds such as nonana1, benzene, 4-hexen-3-ol, alpha-pinene, and 2-heptanone were recognized to be specific floral origin markers of the pine honey. The SPME extraction method was proposed as an alternative way to carry o...

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of pine cone shell and its use as biosorbent and fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, A I; Martín-Lara, M A; Ronda, A; Pérez, A; Blázquez, G; Calero, M

    2015-11-01

    Physico-chemical properties of pine cone shell have been determined. Results of characterization study showed that pine cone shell could be used as biosorbent of nickel from aqueous solutions in a fixed-bed column and later as input material in thermochemical processes. To study the behavior of Ni-loaded pine cone shell as fuel, non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests were performed. These tests showed that, in nitrogen atmosphere, the main decomposition occurs from 200°C to 500°C and, in oxidant atmosphere, the behavior is of type "combustion+pyrolysis" (at higher temperatures there is a clear decomposition of residue formed during the initial steps). Finally, the effect of the presence of Ni was analyzed. Thermogravimetric curves did not change their profile and the total amount of nickel was detected in char-ash fraction and not in flue gases. These results suggest that nickel does not form volatile compounds at considered operational conditions. PMID:26263003

  17. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  18. Response of pine forest to disturbance of pine wood nematode with interpretative structural model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan SHI; Youqing LUO; Xiaosu YAN; Weiping CHEN; Ping JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus,and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore,the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine's ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests' ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience,it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology,surrounding species provenance and biological character-istics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements,the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improve-ment of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.

  19. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Вадим Иванович Маркин; Марина Юрьевна Чепрасова; Наталья Григорьевна Базарнова; Евгения Олеговна Фролова

    2013-01-01

    Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W) ...

  20. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period. Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5-25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  1. Effect of pine mistletoe on radial growth of Crimean pine (Pinus nigra) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Yilmaz; Carus, Serdar

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the influence of infection by pine mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Volmann) on the radial growth of crimean pine (Pinus nigra Amold) in Turkey was investigated. We built local residual tree-ring-width chronologies using dendrochronogical techniques. Tree ring chronologies of uninfected (control) crimean pine were used to estimate potential radial growth characteristics in the "infected" crimean pine (light, moderate and severe infection groups). In 2005, increment cores were collected from 26 infected and 19 control dominant or co-dominant trees and annual radial growth indices from 1930-2005 were calculated for each infection group in a 14 point sampling. We compared radial growth in the uninfected trees with mean regional chronology. We found a strong decrease in radial growth in during the 1998-2005 period. The periodic average radial growth reduction (in %) from 1998 to 2005, respectively, were 0 for control, 26 for light, 39 for moderate and 63 for severe infection groups. It can be especially concluded that a severe degree of pine mistletoe attack has a negative effect on radial growth of the infected crimean pine trees. PMID:22167935

  2. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  4. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AT PINE RIDGE RESERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pine Ridge Reservation, located in rural South Dakota is plagued with deteriorating infrastructure, poverty, lack of local employment, and high utility bills. Many of the residents, the Oglala Lakota Nation, live in mobile homes or substandard housing and spend nearly 25% of...

  5. Limited Growth Recovery after Drought-Induced Forest Dieback in Very Defoliated Trees of Two Pine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guada, Guillermo; Camarero, J Julio; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Cerrillo, Rafael M Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean pine forests display high resilience after extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. However, recent dry spells causing growth decline and triggering forest dieback challenge the capacity of some forests to recover following major disturbances. To describe how resilient the responses of forests to drought can be, we quantified growth dynamics in plantations of two pine species (Scots pine, black pine) located in south-eastern Spain and showing drought-triggered dieback. Radial growth was characterized at inter- (tree-ring width) and intra-annual (xylogenesis) scales in three defoliation levels. It was assumed that the higher defoliation the more negative the impact of drought on tree growth. Tree-ring width chronologies were built and xylogenesis was characterized 3 years after the last severe drought occurred. Annual growth data and the number of tracheids produced in different stages of xylem formation were related to climate data at several time scales. Drought negatively impacted growth of the most defoliated trees in both pine species. In Scots pine, xylem formation started earlier in the non-defoliated than in the most defoliated trees. Defoliated trees presented the shortest duration of the radial-enlargement phase in both species. On average the most defoliated trees formed 60% of the number of mature tracheids formed by the non-defoliated trees in both species. Since radial enlargement is the xylogenesis phase most tightly related to final growth, this explains why the most defoliated trees grew the least due to their altered xylogenesis phases. Our findings indicate a very limited resilience capacity of drought-defoliated Scots and black pines. Moreover, droughts produce legacy effects on xylogenesis of highly defoliated trees which could not recover previous growth rates and are thus more prone to die. PMID:27066053

  6. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  7. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible. PMID:15499414

  8. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0 and...... included. The concentrations of radiocesium are highest in the endshoots of the pine trees, and lowest in the hardwood. There are indications that the Chernobyl cesium is mainly distributed in the parts of the tres that have been formed since 1986. Observed Ratios (OR) were used to characterize the ability...... 2%. Cesium from Chernobyl is still totally in the upper 5 cm, while almost half of the fallout cesium has penetrated to depths lower than 5 cm. More than 95% of the total amount of Cs-137 is in the soil compartment. The rest is mainly in the trees (3.4%) and vegetation (0.4%), moss and lichen...

  9. Thermal Diffusion in Masson Pine Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Zhang Bi-guang; Li Wen-jun

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on moisture movement during the highly intensive microwave-vacuum drying, thermal diffusion of Masson pine wood was studied. Internal distribution of temperature and moisture in Masson pine samples sealed by epoxy resin and aluminum foil was measured, the magnitude of thermal diffusion was calculated and the influencing factors of thermal diffusion were discussed. Results showed that with the transfer of moisture toward the low temperature in wood, opposite temperature and moisture gradient occurred. The initial moisture content (MC), temperature and time are important factors affecting this process; the thermal diffusion is in proportion to wood temperature, its initial moisture and time. The temperature and distance from hot surface is strongly linearly correlated, and the relationship between MCs at different locations and distance from the hot end surface changes from logarithmically form to exponentially form with the increase in experimental time.

  10. PREPARED POTASSIUM SALT OF CARBOXYMETHYL PINE WOOD IN A MICROWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вадим Иванович Маркин

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave radiation to intensify the process of carboxymethylation of pine wood without prior separation of the individual components is proposed to use . Carboxymethylated pine wood in the form of the potassium salt obtained by treating the pine potassium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid in 2-propanol . Composition and properties of the products were investigated . Carboxymethylcellulose isolated from carboxymethylated pine wood. Increasing the power of microwave radiation (210 to 700 W and the duration of the first and second stages of the process of carboxymethylation (20-30 sec increases the content of carboxymethyl groups (18,3-25,6 %. Abnormally low solubility of the potassium salts of carboxymethylated pine wood (10–18% compared to the sodium salt with a comparable content of carboxymethyl groups was detected. Study viscosity of aqueous solutions carboxymethylated pine and carboxymethylcellulose derived from it was performed. It is shown that the samples obtained at microwave power of 210 W have abnormal flow curves.

  11. Extraction of Scots Pine by Polar Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, YUANLIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study, isolate, and analyze the extractives from pine chips, saw dust, root chips, and root barks by polar solvent such as water, acetone, and ethanol. The methods used in the extraction were boiling flask or rotation reactor. The different extraction time of 2 or 4 hour was also investigated. The obtained extraction solution were analyzed by gas chromatography. In order to understand the experimental work theoretically, the wood chemistry, especially, pheno...

  12. Molar Malocclusions in Pine Voles (Microtus pinetorum)

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Stephen B.; Alworth, Leanne C; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe 5 cases of molar malocclusions in adult pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) used for behavioral endocrinology studies. This species belongs to the subfamily Microtinae, which possess aradicular hypsodont molars. The abnormal molars identified caused apparent difficulty in mastication, resulting in poor body condition necessitating euthanasia. Postmortem examination of the oral cavity revealed grossly elongated mandibular and maxillary molars with abnormal wear at occlusal surface...

  13. [Testate amoebas of pine forests in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A A; Krasil'nikov, P A

    2011-01-01

    The population of testate amoebas in the soils of pine forests in Mexico has been studied. In total, 68 species, varieties, and types of testate amoebas with cosmopolite distribution were found. The species diversity of the testate population includes hygrophilous species that differ from hygrophilous species with luvisols in higher andosols. Comparative analysis using the results of one available study of soil testate amoebas from Mexico has been carried out [Bonnet, 1977]. PMID:21870497

  14. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  15. Modeling Mortality of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of mortality is an important component of forest growth and yield prediction systems, yet mortality remains one of the least understood components of the system. Whole-stand and individual-tree mortality models were developed for loblolly pine plantations throughout its geographic range in the United States. The model for predicting stand mortality were developed using stand characteristics and biophysical variables. The models were constructed using two modeling approache...

  16. Whitebark Pine Assessment and Restoration in Central Rockies National Parks

    OpenAIRE

    McCloskey, Kelly; Bockino, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    White pine blister rust and mountain pine beetle are having profound effects on the whitebark pine in the National Parks of the Central Rockies. The importance of this species for ecosystem services including water retention at high elevations, slope stabilization, and providing a highly nutritional food source for grizzly bears and other wildlife species, has been recognized by National Park Service managers for several decades. Analysis of monitoring activities conducted from the 1990ís, an...

  17. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  18. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. POP; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  19. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  20. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  1. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  2. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  3. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  4. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  5. Assessment of Forest Road Network Alternatives for Pine Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pine resin, one type of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, is important for Indonesia.   In addition to its high economic value, pine resin also has bright domestic and international market prospects.  Utilization of commercial pine resin has been carried out in Indonesia, but the forest road network required for extracting pine resin has not been specifically planned. To date, the planning and selection of forest road network  in  forest management in Indonesia are intended only for the extraction of  timber products and have not been integrated with the use of NTFPs; also,  they have not considered the economic, ecological, and social aspects a whole. Planning and selection of forest road network have focused more on economic aspects only. This study aimed at planning and assessing the forest road network for extracting pine resin by considering the economic, ecological, and social criteria.  Decision-making method used  to select the best  forest road network was utility analysis.  Indicator used  included road length, road density, a correction factor for manual carrying of pine resin, pine resin carrying distance, road construction cost, and productivity of carrying and extracting pine resin. The result of  the utility analysis indicates that an alternative of forest road network for extracting pine resin has no the whole best indicators, but it has the highest utility value.  This study suggested that the use of the utility analysis help the decision makers to selects process for forest  road network alternative easily and rapidly.Keywords: pine  resin,  forest  road network, utility analysis, non-timber  forest products  (NTFPs

  6. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... Pines Wind Farm Project on National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Huron-Manistee National... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines...

  7. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... of the Secretary Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine...) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center located at 15710 Highway 385... of the proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center, and...

  8. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  9. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  10. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine. PMID:23955061

  11. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S.; Cooke, Barry J.; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utilit...

  12. Culture independent analysis of microbiota in the gut of pine weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Ölander, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the pine weevil causes damages for several hundreds of millions kronor annually. The discouraged use of insecticides has resulted in that other methods to prevent pine weevil feeding needs to be found. Antifeedants found in the pine weevil own feces is one such alternative. The source of the most active antifeedants in the feces is probably from bacterial or fungal lignin degrading symbionts in the pine weevil gut. The aim of the project was to analyze the pine weevil gut microbiot...

  13. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137Cs and 90Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137CS and 90Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137Cs and I.5% of the 90Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137Cs and 4.5% of the 90Sr. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137Cs and 90Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  14. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  15. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  16. A New Flavonoid in Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-yan; SHI Xiao-feng; WANG Dong-dong; MA Qu-huan; ZHANG Jun-min; LI Chong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of flavonoids in pine needles of Cedrus deodara.Methods Flavonoids were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20.Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.Results Five flavonoids were isolated and purified.Their structures were identified as cedrusone A(1),myricetin(2),2R,3R-dihydromyricetin(3),quercctin(4),and 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin(5).Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound.Compounds 2-5 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  17. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  18. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200 {micro}g N g soil{sup -1}) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO{sub 2} with the highest biomass at the middle CO{sub 2} level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO{sub 2} levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO{sub 2} levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient

  19. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in pine needles from Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J.; Bochentin, I. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Gdansk (Poland); Hanari, N.; Wyrzykowska, B.; Yamashita, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of 75 compounds, which have been commercially produced and used in a wide range of industrial applications for the sake of their specific chemical properties. They are recognized as good electrical insulators and also as water and flame resistant materials. Technical PCNs formulations were mainly used as capacitor dielectrics, engine oil additives, electroplating stop-off compounds, in wire insulations and as paper, wood and fabric preservatives. Moreover, they have been formed during production of PCBs formulations. Although recently most countries have stopped synthesis of PCNs, they still are widely distributed in the environment. Nowadays the principal sources of these compounds are municipal solid wastes incineration, metallurgical and chloro-alkali processes. In last years PCNs concentrations in the environment have posed the cynosure of big group of scientists in the whole world. The relatively high concentrations are regarded as an environmental problem. Because they are persistent, toxic and lipophilic they might be bioaccumulated in living organisms and generate the danger for animals and humans. It is essentially to monitor their levels in air, regional transport, as well as estimate specific sources. It is possible by using as a biomonitors pine tree needles. These trees are considered as the very suitable passive indicators for monitoring of PCNs concentrations in the troposphere. This is because the surface wax layer of the needles poses an ability to absorb these lipophilic compounds from the surrounding air. In the current study pine needles were employed as biomonitors of PCNs concentrations in the ambient air of Poland. This country with its past history of production and use of different applications including these compounds, as well as with its location in the centre of Europe, presents the interesting region to these researches.

  20. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  1. The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine and God's Country

    OpenAIRE

    Urdrian Jr, William Allen

    2015-01-01

    The Boneyard Episode One: Young Pine is supernatural crime drama that deals with connection between twins. God's Country is a suspense drama about an undercover agent that must infiltrate a growing militia hell bent sussing from the United States.

  2. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  3. Preparation and Properties of HBS Lignin from Masson Pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xian-su; CHEN Wei-jian; CHEN Yun-ping; CHEN Yue-xian; LI Mian-jun; FANG Hua-shu

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish a new method for making cellulose and lignin from Masson pine, a high boiling solvent (HBS) pulping process with an aqueous solvent of 1,4-butanediol was investigated. Masson pine chips were pulped with a 70%-90% aqueous solution of 1,4-butanediol containing a small amount of a catalyst at 200-220 ℃ for 60-180 min. HBS Masson pine cellulose is suitable for making paper. Water-insoluble HBS lignin was separated from the liquor reaction mixture by water precipitation. The recovered high boiling solvent (RHBS) is able to be recycled as a pulping solvent, indicating that the HBS method is a pulping process of Masson pine which is energy saving, resources saving and pollution free. HBS lignin has a better chemical reactivity and a lower ash content than lignin sulfonate.

  4. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  5. Spring diet of the pine marten in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardini, M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a carnivore’s foraging behaviour is essential to understand its ecology. The pine marten Martes martes is commonly defined as an opportunistic generalist predator since its diet in Europe includes mammals, fruits, birds and invertebrates. Based on faecal analyses, we evaluated spring feeding habits and trophic niche breadth of the pine marten in a Mediterranean landscape on the island of Sardinia (Central Italy. The most important source of food for the pine marten was small mammals (mainly Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus musculus and Eliomys quercinus, accounting for 52% of the percent mean volume. Important secondary foods were invertebrates (mainly beetles and insect larvae and birds (almost exclusively passerines, whereas large mammals, lagomorphs, reptiles and fruits made little contribution to the diet. The diet composition and the Levins’ index value suggest that the pine marten in Sardinia behaves as a facultative specialist predator, with a specialization towards small mammals.

  6. PineSAP—sequence alignment and SNP identification pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L Wegrzyn; Lee, Jennifer M.; Liechty, John; Neale, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The Pine Alignment and SNP Identification Pipeline (PineSAP) provides a high-throughput solution to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) prediction using multiple sequence alignments from re-sequencing data. This pipeline integrates a hybrid of customized scripting, existing utilities and machine learning in order to increase the speed and accuracy of SNP calls. The implementation of this pipeline results in significantly improved multiple sequence alignments and SNP identifications ...

  7. Loblolly pine response to drainage and fertilization of hydric soils

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Lisa M.

    1993-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) productivity on wet flats of the lower coastal plain of Virginia is largely affected by the presence of high water tables and infertile soil. Site preparation by bedding and ditching can alleviate high water tables and increase aerated soil rooting volume, enhancing pine productivity. Fertilizing and liming may improve soil fertility by increasing available nutrients and soil pH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two widely used ...

  8. Interference interactions in experimental pine-hardwood stands

    OpenAIRE

    Fredericksen, Todd Simon

    1991-01-01

    Competition for resources and other interference from non-crop vegetation often limits the productivity of pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in the southern United States. However, forest researchers have yet to fully quantify the effect of this interference on forest tree yield and there is an incomplete understanding of the biological mechanisms of interference. To better quantify the effects of interference interactions and elucidate their mechanisms, a field replacement series experime...

  9. Flows of Chemical Substances in Latvian Pine Forests Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tērauda, Evija

    2008-01-01

    FLOWS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN LATVIAN PINE FORESTS ECOSYSTEMS Annotation As a basis of the study, data from integrated monitoring stations of Latvia have been used. The objective of the study is to study turnover of substances in ecosystems of pine forests in the boreo-nemoral zone. The results of the study showed that the mean concentration of studied elements (except Pb) increased in the order: bulk precipitation

  10. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  11. Importance of residual trees to birds in regenerating pine plantations

    OpenAIRE

    JC Jones; Demarais S; Hanberry P; Hanberry BB

    2012-01-01

    Pine plantation establishment methods can alter vegetation composition and structure, thus affecting habitat important characteristics for declining early successional bird species. We evaluated eight vegetation characteristics, which varied due to a range of pine plantation establishment methods, to identify vegetation most closely associated with spring bird abundance in the Lower Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi, USA. Presence of residual trees and snags was positively related to rela...

  12. Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, W. Wallace; Fule, Peter Z; Moore, Margaret M.; Hart, Stephen C.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Mast, Joy N; Sackett, Stephen S; Wagner, Michael R

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has established that presettlement ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern USA were much more open. After Euro-American settlement, heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, logging and climatic events favored dense pine regeneration. Studies were established within the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, near Flagstaff, Arizona, to determine: how the structure (by biomass component) and nutrient storage changed over the last century of fire exclusion in a...

  13. Experiences with the use of remote-sensing data with regard to pine trees. Erfahrungen beim Einsatz von Fernerkundungsdaten an der Baumart Kiefer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, K.; Ammer, U.; Franken, W. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftstechnik); Reinhartz, P. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik)

    1990-11-01

    At the test site 'Haunstetter Wald' near the city of Augsburg investigations with remotely sensed pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) were carried out. The first point in the study dealt with the question of true interpretation of vitality, especially when comparing features on the ground and from the air. We found evident differences between the two interpretation methods. In a further step scanner data collected during low-level flights were analyzed to look for spectral reflection differences between pine and other tree species. Actually there were differences between various species and between damage classes like needle loss and chlorosis. Finally, a pine stand slightly differing from its environment could automatically be classified using a data set from 1000 m flight altitude. The results corresponded satisfactorily with those obtained from true color and CIR-images. (orig.).

  14. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH and double ETOH injections to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say, Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM and vitality (PIabs were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.

  15. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  16. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  17. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pec, Gregory J.; Justine Karst; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Nadir Erbilgin; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks ar...

  18. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  19. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds. PMID:15666752

  20. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing varia...

  1. Regional geology of the Pine Creek Geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline comprises about 14km of chronostratigraphic mainly pelitic and psammitic Lower Proterozoic sediments with interlayered tuff units, resting on granitic late Archaean complexes exposed as three small domes. Sedimentation took place in one basin, and most stratigraphic units are represented throughout the basin. The sediments were regionally deformed and metamorphosed at 1800Ma. Tightly folded greenschist facies strata in the centre grade into isoclinally deformed amphibolite facies metamorphics in the west and northeast. Pre and post-orogenic continental tholeiites, and post-orogenic granite diapirs intrude the Lower Proterozoic metasediments, and the granites are surrounded by hornfels zones up to 10km wide in the greenschist facies terrane. Cover rocks of Carpentarian (Middle Proterozoic) and younger ages rest on all these rocks unconformably and conceal the original basin margins. The Lower Proterozoic metasediments are mainly pelites (about 75 percent) which are commonly carbonaceous, lesser psammites and carbonates (about 10 percent each), and minor rudites (about 5 percent). Volcanic rocks make up about 10 percent of the total sequence. The environment of deposition ranges from shallow-marine to supratidal and fluviatile for most of the sequence, and to flysch in the topmost part. Poor exposure and deep weathering over much of the area hampers correlation of rock units; the correlation preferred by the authors is presented, and possible alternatives are discussed. Regional geological observations pertinent to uranium ore genesis are described. (author)

  2. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  4. 三松充气牛轧糖的工艺研制%A Research on the Processing of Pine Needle, Pine Pollen and Pine Nut Nougat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宁; 王立江

    2015-01-01

    以松针、松花粉、松子为主要原料,按不同配比添加原料中,通过单因素和正交试验,制作的牛轧糖原料添加的最佳配比是:即白糖与糖浆1∶2制成糖液,糖液添加量为70.6%,黄油添加量为11.7%,蛋白添加量为4.1%,松针粉添加量为11.7%,生产的牛轧糖风味、口感和营养价值比较高。%In the present research, pine needle, pine pollen, pine nuare used as the primary materials, and the optimum formula for the nougat was confirmed by the single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the amount of sugar solution was 70.6%, which was made of the sugar and syrup———the ratio of the two elements was 1∶2;the amount of butter was 11.7%;the amount of albumen was 4.1%;the amount of pine neelde powder was 11.7%.

  5. Collins pine/BCI biomass to ethanol project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    California has abundant biomass resources and a growing transportation fuels market. These two facts have helped to create an opportunity for biomass to ethanol projects within the state. One such project under development is the Collins Pine/BCI Project. Collins Pine Company and BC International (BCI) have teamed up to develop a forest biomass to ethanol facility to be collocated with Collins Pine's 12 MW, biomass-fueled electric generator in Chester, California. The Collins Pine Company (headquartered in Portland, Oregon) is an environmentally progressive lumber company that has owned and operated timberlands near Chester, California since the turn of the century. Collins manages 100,000 acres of timberland in the immediate area of the project. BCI (Dedham, Massachusetts) holds an exclusive license to a new, patented biotechnological process to convert lignocellulosic materials into ethanol and other specially chemicals with significant cost savings and environmental benefits. The project has received a California Energy Commission PIER program award to continue the developmental work done in the Quincy Library Group's Northeastern California Ethanol Manufacturing Feasibility Study (November 1997). This paper provides (1) a brief overview of the biomass and transportation fuels market in California; (2) the current status of the Collins Pine/BCI biomass ethanol project; and (3) future prospects and hurdles for the project to overcome. (author)

  6. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  7. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in response to oxidative stress in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Li; Qingwen Zhang; Xuguo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease that has devastated pine forests in Asia. Parasitic nematodes are known to have evolved antioxidant stress responses that defend against host plant defenses. In this study, the infestation of whitebark pine, Pinus bungean, with B. xylophilus led to a significant increase in plant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and salicylic acid levels. Correspondingly, the expression of an antioxidative enzyme, 2-Cysteine ...

  8. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, William D.; Hugh Finn; Jackson Parker; Ken Dods

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025...

  9. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  10. Tritium concentrations in pine needle, litter and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pine needle, litter and soil samples collected in/around Akita City and Rokkasho Village in 1989 were analyzed for both free water 3H (FWT) and organically-bound 3H (OBT). The FWT concentrations decrease in the order, litter or soil>pine needle. FWT concentrations in soil depend on the moisture content, and tend to increase with decreasing soil moisture content. This relationship is consistent with the observation that FWT in the soil increases with oxidation of atmospheric tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and decreases with rainwater dilution. The OBT concentrations increase in the order pine needle3H concentrations may be reflected as high OBT concentrations in soils of the present. (author)

  11. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  12. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... density of trees in these stands range from sparse to a dense stocking basal area of 160 square feet per... naturally growing desirable native shortleaf pine, pitch pine, oak, American chestnut and hickory... (BA) of 30-40 ft\\2\\/acre. All oak, hickory, and shortleaf pine would be left where the BA is...

  13. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  14. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  15. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...... were obtained. In spite of the distinct differences in morphology, the pine specimens were generally quite similar. The specimens were also studied by other wood scientists, but a combined evaluation with the present results is not really possible without a deeper understanding of the wood...

  16. Assessing the effects of changing climate on mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.A.; Bentz, B.J. [Forest Service, Logan, UT (United States). Intermountain Research Station; Bolstad, P.V. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Perkins, D.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources

    1995-12-31

    In general terms, global climate warming will result in exacerbated insect pest problems. This is not to say, however, that the effects of every current pest species will increase under global warming. Projections regarding a particular pest species need to be made on a case-by-case basis. For example, mountain pine beetle (MPB) populations (Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins), would benefit from global warming due to reduced winter mortality. Conversely, global warming may interfere with the maintaining of an appropriate seasonality for this non-diapausing species. Addressing such species response to modification of a basic ecological driving variable such as climate is a complex issue. Difficulty in dealing with this issue is further compounded by the fact that direct evidence is lacking and system level experimental manipulation is prohibitively expensive. The authors first describe in general terms the climatic adapted ecology of MPB and a computer model designed to represent important aspects of that ecology. Next they describe the important habitat component of mountain weather on MPB population performance and a landscape-level approach to modeling this critical driving variable. Finally, they describe a research application that uses these models to evaluate the potential of MPB outbreaks as an indication of forest health in high-elevation pine forests.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  18. Development of merchantable volume equations for natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of stem standing volume is very useful for both sustainable management of timber resources and practical purposes in forestry. Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten. and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. are important raw material of forest products industry of Turkey. With ever changing market conditions, there is a need to accurately estimate tree volumes utilizing multiple upper stem merchantability limits. This is not currently possible with the existing total stem volume tables for these three species. Nowadays, taper equations are the best way to estimate volume for saw timber and biomass purposes. In this study, variable exponent taper equations evaluated and fitted to data come from 253 destructively sampled trees which were collected in natural brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir district. For this aim, the taper equations of Lee et al. (2003, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004 were used. A second-order continuous-time autoregressive error structure was used to correct the inherent autocorrelation in the hierarchical data. The proposed models generally performed better for Merchantable tree volume. Results show that the Kozak (2004 taper equation was superior to the other equations in predicting diameter and merchantable height, while The Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model provided the best predictions for merchantable volume than the other models. The one of the important results of this study, the importance of checking fit statistics of taper equations for both diameters and volume estimations.As a results, Sharma and Zhang (2004 taper model recommended for estimating diameter at a specific height, height to a specific diameter along the stem, and merchantable volume for brutian pine and black pine stands in Eğirdir analyzed

  19. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  20. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  1. Virulence of, and interactions among mountain pine beetle associated blue-stain fungi on two pine species and their hybrids in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, A V; M.N. Thormann; Langor, D W

    2007-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB) is the most serious pest of lodgepole pine in western Canada, and it is predicted to spread into boreal jack pine within the next few years. Colonization of host trees by MPB-associated blue-stain fungi appears to be required for successful beetle reproduction. Three species of blue-stain fungi, Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer, and Wingfield (≡ Ophiostoma clavigerum (Robinson-Jeffery and Davidson) Harrington), Ophiostoma montium ...

  2. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Małecka Monika; Hilszczańska Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the e...

  3. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  4. Root growth potential and weed control effects on the first year growth of pitch x loblolly pine (Pinus ridiga x P. taeda L.) and loblolly pine

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    The study was initiated to determine the effects of RGP and three levels on weed control: no weed control (control), herbaceous weed control (Oust), and woody and herbaceous weed control (Oust-Garlon) on three pine seedlots: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (pxL-F2), Virginia Department of Forestry loblolly pine (VDF-Iob), and westvaco loblolly pine (WCO-Iob). Lateral roots had the greatest response to the Oust treatment compared to all other seedling parts. All seedlot and treatment interacti...

  5. Radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes in woodchips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation sensitivity of pine wood nematodes has been tested over a range of dose values with a cesium-137 irradiator. Lethal doses were found to lie in a range above 6-8 kGy, too high to make this an economically attractive means of deinfestation for commercial woodchips. (author)

  6. Research at the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Scott; Bindschadler, Robert; Stanton, Timothy; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) Research Team: Robert Bindschadler (NASA Emeritus) Timothy Stanton (Naval Postgraduate School) Sridhar Anandakrishnan (Penn State University) Alberto Behar (Arizona State University & JPL) David Holland (New York University) Miles McPhee (McPhee Research Company) Martin Truffer (University of Alaska)

  7. Stem Cutting Propagation in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based substrates have been identified as substitutes for pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) in container production of ornamental crops. Ideally, these substrates would be used for the propagation and production of such crops. An experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of processe...

  8. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence t

  9. Soil water regime under homogeneous eucalyptus and pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of precipitation and monthly soil water content during two consecutive years, in 6-year old plantations of eucalypt and pine, and also in an open plot containing natural herbaceous vegetation, were used to compare the soil water regime of these vegetation covers. Precipitation was measured in the open plot with a recording and a non-recording rain gage. Soil water was assessed by the neutron scattering technique to a depth of 1,80 meters. Results indicate that there was, in general, water available in the soil over the entire period of study in all three vegetation conditions. The annual range of soil water in eucalypt, pine, and in natural herbaceous vegetation was essentially similar. The analysis of the average soil water regime showed that the soil under herbaceous vegetation was, generally, more umid than the soil under eucalypt and pine during the period of soil water recharge (September through February); during the period of soil water depletion, the opposite was true. Collectively, the results permit the conclusion that there were no adverse effects on the soil water regime which could be ascribed to reflorestation with eucalypt or pine, as compared with that observed for the natural herbaceous vegetation

  10. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Bonamonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom.

  11. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  12. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  13. DISTRIBUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ON BIOMASS AND NUTRIENT ELEMENTS OF PINE-OAK FOREST BELT IN MT.QINLING%秦岭松栎林带生物量及其营养元素分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广全; 赵士洞; 等

    2001-01-01

    秦岭锐齿栎林、油松林和华山松林(包括0~60cm 土 层)营养元素总贮量达29.2500~390.1739t.hm-2,其大小为锐齿栎林>华山松> 油 松林,土壤中营养现贮量占系统总量的93.10%~99.39%,植被层和凋落物层仅占0.57%~ 3 .00%和0.10%~1.99%;3林分乔木层生物量、木材蓄积量和营养元素积累量平均值分别为 1 20.483t.hm-2、129.384m3.hm-2和1226.9kg.hm-2,锐 齿栎林>油松林>华山松林。3林分林下植被层生物量现存量和营养元素积累量平均值分别为1 .553t.hm-2和53.1kg.hm-2,锐齿栎林最大,华山松林最小。林下凋 落物现存量和营养元素积累量平均值分别为17.475t.hm-2和502.5kg.hm -2,3林分凋落物现存量、营养元素含量及其积累量都存在明显的差异。锐齿栎林、油松 林 和华山松林营养元素年吸收量、归还量、存留量和平均归还率分别为334.4、147.2和264 .3,195.5、66.9和84.1,138.8、80.4和180.2kg.hm-2和0.585、0.454 和 0.318, 3林分各营养元素的年吸收量、归还量和存留量也存在一定的差异。锐齿栎林干和 皮中Ca和Mg含量远远高于油松林和华山松林的,锐齿栎林多代连作势必导致营养元素的大量 流失,特别是Ca和Mg,会破坏土壤原有离子动态平衡,引起林地土壤理化性质改变,林地生 产潜力逐渐下降。%The forest ecosystems of sharptooth oak (Quercus alien a var.acuteserrata Maxim.),Chinese pine(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)and Armand pine(P.armandi Franch) in Mt. Qinling including soil layer 0~60cm contained total nutrient elements 29.2500~390.1739t.hm-2,which put i n ord e r sharptooth oak>Chinese pine>Armand pine stand,with percentage of soil 93.10% ~ 99.39% and of vegetation 0.57%~3.00% and of litter 0.10%~1.99%.The total n utri ent accumulation contents of the ecosystems were Mg>Ca>K>N>P in the sharptooth o ak stand,Ca>N>K>Mg>P in the Chinese pine stand and K>N>P>Ca>Mg in the

  14. Above-ground biomass functions for Scots pine in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, Virgilijus; Varnagiryte-Kabasinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, Girionys, LT-53101 Kaunas District (Lithuania); Stupak, Inge [Forest and Landscape Denmark, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Kukkola, Mikko [The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, Vantaa Unit, PL 18, 01301 Vantaa (Finland); Wojcik, Josef [Forest Research Institute, Sekocin-Las, 05-090 Raszyn (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This study presents biomass functions applicable to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on Arenosols in Lithuania, and exemplifies the potential biomass removal from Scots pine stands during thinnings. Scots pine is the most common tree species on Arenosols in Lithuania. Stands of ages 10, 20, 40, 50 and 65 years were chosen for the biomass study. We sampled 5 Scots pine trees per plot (in total 25 trees) that were stratified according to the basal area. The sampling was performed in April 2003, before the vegetative period. The following components of each tree were sampled for the above-ground biomass measurements: (1) 5 stem discs, (2) 1 branch with needles from each whorl and (3) 1 dead branch per tree. Observed biomasses of above-ground components were examined using a non-linear regression model, using stem diameter (D), tree height (H) and D{sup 2}H as independent variables. For stemwood biomass, the best approximation was D{sup 2}H. However, D{sup 2}H was not the best parameter for crown biomass because it does not allow evaluation of the opposite effects of diameter and height on crown biomass. The calculations at stand level showed that crown biomass changed insignificantly with the increase in stand age. However, the total stand biomass increased with age due to the growth of the stem. The removal of all logging residues from the Scots pine stand over a 100-year rotation could increase extraction of forest fuel by 15-20% compared with conventional harvesting. (author)

  15. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  16. Stage-by-Stage Certification of Trees in Plantations of Scots Pine Genetic Breeding Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Tarakanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In Altai territory in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. clonal plantations, that include nearly 1.5 thousand trees of 118 clones, the stage-by-stage certification of trees was carried out. Certification process included 3 stages: 1 forestry stage (preliminary, 2 phenetic stage (basic, 3 genetical stage (précising. Accuracy of phenetic certification was 97.1 %. The final stage of certification was carried out taking into account of revealed «phenetic clusters» within of clones. One-ramet and many-ramets («mixed» samples were compared within clusters and these must show identical results if all ramets are truly marked. The stage-by-stage certification method allows less expensive molecular genetics testing in some cases.

  17. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

  18. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  19. Final Report to DOE’s Office of Science (BER) submitted by Ram Oren (PI) of DE-FG02-00ER63015 (ended on 09/14/2009) entitled “Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, & a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic & Edaphic Conditions”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, Ram; Oishi, AC; Palmroth, Sari; Butnor, JR; Johnsen, KH

    2014-03-17

    The project yielded papers on fluxes (energy, water and carbon dioxide)between each ecosystem and the atmosphere, and explained the temporal dynamics of fluxes based on intrinsic (physiology, canopy leaf area and structure) and extrinsic (atmospheric and edaphic conditions). Comparisons between any two of the ecosystems, and among all three followed, attributing differences in behavior to different patterns of phenology and differential sensitivities to soil and atmospheric humidity. Finally, data from one-to-three of the ecosystems (incorporated into FluxNet data archive) were used in syntheses across AmeriFlux sites and even more broadly across FluxNet sites.

  20. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  1. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  2. Suggestions on management measures of pine forest ecosystems invaded by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Juan; LUO You-qing; XIA Nai-bin; WU Hai-wei; SONG Ji-ying

    2008-01-01

    Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle is an important invasive alien species in forests of China and has become one of the most destructive forest diseases. In order to improve the resistance and resilience of pine forest ecosystems against B. xylophilus invasion and make the pine forest ecosystem more timely responsive to PWN invasion,we made some recommendations based on five years of intensive observations. We advocate a set of management measures with the theme "Prevention is priority, but integrated with curative techniques and ecological resilience" on the pine forest ecosystem invaded by B. xylophilus; details of accurate measures are proposed. The aim is to discover the underlying problems of present pine forest ecosystems and to take, correspondingly, administrative measures and strategies, which will encourage the pine forest ecosystem to develop in a benign way.

  3. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  4. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring

  5. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions. PMID:26843929

  6. Exome capture from the spruce and pine giga-genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suren, H; Hodgins, K A; Yeaman, S; Nurkowski, K A; Smets, P; Rieseberg, L H; Aitken, S N; Holliday, J A

    2016-09-01

    Sequence capture is a flexible tool for generating reduced representation libraries, particularly in species with massive genomes. We used an exome capture approach to sequence the gene space of two of the dominant species in Canadian boreal and montane forests - interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmanii) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Transcriptome data generated with RNA-seq were coupled with draft genome sequences to design baits corresponding to 26 824 genes from pine and 28 649 genes from spruce. A total of 579 samples for spruce and 631 samples for pine were included, as well as two pine congeners and six spruce congeners. More than 50% of targeted regions were sequenced at >10× depth in each species, while ~12% captured near-target regions within 500 bp of a bait position were sequenced to a depth >10×. Much of our read data arose from off-target regions, which was likely due to the fragmented and incomplete nature of the draft genome assemblies. Capture in general was successful for the related species, suggesting that baits designed for a single species are likely to successfully capture sequences from congeners. From these data, we called approximately 10 million SNPs and INDELs in each species from coding regions, introns, untranslated and flanking regions, as well as from the intergenic space. Our study demonstrates the utility of sequence capture for resequencing in complex conifer genomes, suggests guidelines for improving capture efficiency and provides a rich resource of genetic variants for studies of selection and local adaptation in these species. PMID:27428061

  7. PLYWOOD MANUFACTURE FROM FIVE SPECIES OF TROPICAL PINE

    OpenAIRE

    Setsuo Iwakiri; Danielle Previdi Olandoski; Gabriela Leonhardt; Martha Andreia Brand

    2010-01-01

    This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with urea-formaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species st...

  8. Litter decomposition in burned corsican pine stands in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Küçük, Mehmet; Sağlam, Bülent; Dinç, Musa; Duman, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of forest fire on litter decomposition in Corsican pine (P. nigra) stands. The study is located in Vezirkopru Forest area in Samsun, Turkey. We made measurements of litter decomposition in 80 to 100 years old stands subjected to prescribed burning. Measurements were made between November, 2013 and October, 2014. 20x20 cm litter bags were placed on soil surface and collected in July and October. Sampling time had significant effect on litter...

  9. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence the successional pathways after fire. Fuel load and fuel moisture determine the intensity of forest fire and thus the degree of humus consumption. In a controlled laboratory' experiment humus consum...

  10. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  11. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  12. Studies on the blue-staining fungi of pine wood

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelczyk, A; Lamprecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this was were to examine associations of bule-staining fungi which occur on pine wood to determine the interactions between fungi and to check the suscebility of these fungi to commonly used fungieides. The stron antagonism of members of the Trichoderma genus against the blue-staining fungi was demonstrated, Members of genera Pullularia, Hormiscium and Hormodendrum were strongy inhibited by stains of Trichoderma Ophiostoma strains were less susceptible to inhibition by this antagon...

  13. Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil microbial communities of postpyrogenic pine forests (case study in Russia) Ekaterina Maksimova Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Applied Ecology, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation Institute of Ecology of Volga basin, Togljatty city, Russian Federation Soils, affected by catastrophic wildfires in 2010, were investigated in pine woods of Togljatty city, Samara region with the special reference to soil biological parameters. The analysis of microbial community of pine wood soils was carried out. It was revealed that wildfires have a negative impact on structure and functional activity of the microbial community postpyrogenic soils. In particular, they influence on values of eukaryotes-prokaryotes ratios, on CO2 emission intensity and on microorganisms functional state (as it was determined by microbial metabolic quotient) after wildfires. It has been revealed that microbial biomass values and basal respiration rate shows the trend to decrease in case of postfire sites compared with control (in 6.5 and 3.4 times respectively). The microbial biomass and basal respiration values have annual natural variability that testifies to a correlation of this process with soil hydrothermal conditions. However, it was also noted that wildfires don't affect on measured microbiological parameters in layers situated deeper than top 10 cm of soil. An increasing of the values, mentioned above, was observed 2-3 years after wildfires. Zone of microorganisms' activity has been moved to the lowermost soil layers. A disturbance of soil microbial communities' ecophysiological status after the fire is diagnosed by an increase of microbial metabolic quotient value. The metabolic activity of the microbial community decreases in a row: control→crown fire→ground fire. That testifies to certain intensive changes in the microbial community. High-temperature influence on microbial community has a significant effect on a total amount of bacteria, on a length of actinomycetes

  14. Comparison of Methods for Protein Extraction from Pine Needles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from pine needles for proteomic analysis has long been a challenge for scientists. We compared three different protein extraction methods including sucrose, Tris-HCl and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone (TCA method) to determine their efficiency in separating pine needle proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional PAGE (2D-PAGE). Proteins were then separated by SDS-PAGE. Among three methods the method using sucrose extraction buffer showed the highest efficiency and highest quality in separating proteins. In addition, clearer and more stable strips were detected by SDS-PAGE using sucrose extraction buffer. When the proteins extracted using sucrose extraction buffer were separated by 2D-PAGE, more than 300 protein spots, with isoelectric points (PI) ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 and molecular weights (MW) from 6.5 to 97.4 kD, were observed. This confirmed that the method with sucrose extraction buffer was an efficient and reliable method for extracting proteins from pine needles.

  15. NATURAL DURABILITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN DRIED SCOTS PINE HEARTWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Sehlstedt-Persson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The durability of Scots pine heartwood has previously been shown to be affected by the industrial drying process of sawn lumber. The durability of heartwood from boards dried at temperatures between 20°C-110°C was studied by measuring the mass loss in a decay test with a brown rot fungus (Coniophora puteana, and the concentration of total phenolics was measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC assay. The relation between mass loss and phenolics in dried heartwood showed a weaker negative correlation at lower levels of phenolics as compared to the strong relationship found in a study on heartwood from standing Scots pine trees. Mass loss in dried heartwood showed a weak negative correlation to density. Heating of extractives-rich green sawdust under moist conditions resulted in a reduction of phenolics with temperature up to 180 oC and with increasing time. The concentration of phenolics in heated, green sawdust was higher in extractives-rich pine heartwood than in heartwood with a normal extractives content.

  16. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  17. From biology to management of Savi's pine vole (Microtus savii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchelli, Elisa; Barfknecht, Ralf; Capizzi, Dario; Riga, Francesco; Mazza, Valeria; Dell'Agnello, Filippo; Zaccaroni, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Savi's pine vole (Microtus savii) is a rodent species of the Cricetidae family, inhabiting southern European agroecosystems. It is considered to be the main cause of rodent-attributed damage in Italy. To achieve an effective management, detailed knowledge of this species is needed. However, the available information about this species is fragmentary and incomplete. In this paper, the existing knowledge of Savi's pine vole taxonomy, reproduction, population dynamics, habitat and food preferences is reviewed in order to organise available information and identify priority areas of future research. Some of the changes in farming practices that have occurred in recent decades may have increased the impact of Savi's pine vole populations in crop fields. To manage this pest species effectively, an integrated strategy is recommended (involving habitat management, trapping and, when appropriate, the use of rodenticides). The apparent lack of cyclical population outbreaks and the relatively small litter size and long gestation and interpartum period of this species suggest that it could be more manageable than other vole species, while its strict herbivorous diet, stable population size in open habitats and wide distribution seem to indicate it as an ideal model species for risk assessment studies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26694699

  18. Critical Assessment of Risk Classification Systems for the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Bentz, B J; Amman, G D; J. A. Logan

    1993-01-01

    Hazard/risk systems developed for mountain pine beetle management traditionally have attempted to describe the potential for timber loss in pine stands due to outbreak phase populations. A variety of stand and site characteristics, as well as climatic conditions, have been used. In this study, four hazard/risk systems were evaluated using data from 105 stands in northern Montana. None of the systems evaluated were found to predict adequately mountain pine beetle induced mortality which occurr...

  19. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Debkov; A. M. Danchenko

    2014-01-01

    A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of n...

  20. Characterization of Fungal Pathogens Associated with White Pine Needle Damage (WPND) in Northeastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Broders; Isabel Munck; Stephen Wyka; Gloria Iriarte; Eric Beaudoin

    2015-01-01

    Eastern white pine is a crucial ecological and economic component of forests in the northern USA and eastern Canada, and is now facing an emerging problem in white pine needle damage (WPND). It is still unclear whether WPND results from one, or the combination of several fungal pathogens. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to characterize the fungi associated with WPND in the northeastern United States and document the damage being done to mature eastern white pine as a result ...

  1. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduct...

  2. Influence of Anthropogenic Activity on Vital State and Productivity of Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    Torlopova, Nadezhda; Ilchukov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare the data on the vital state and timber volume of primary weakly disturbed pine forests and of secondary pine forests formed under different kinds of anthropogenic impact, such as: selection cutting, clear cutting, aerotechnogenic pollution by wastes of timber, pulp and paper works. Objects were 137 permanent sample plots were launched in pine phytocenosises of different types (lichen, green-mossy) growing in taiga zone of the Komi Republ...

  3. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah; Ulfah Juniarti Siregar; Noor Farikhah Haneda; Dodi Nandika; Purnama Hidayat

    2012-01-01

    Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native...

  4. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  5. Modeling Blister Rust Incidence in Whitebark Pine at Northern Rocky Mountain Alpine Treelines: A Geospatial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emily Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The status of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a foundation and keystone species and a pioneer establisher at alpine treeline, is threatened by the invasive and exotic fungal pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) that causes white pine blister rust in five-needled pines. Originally thought to be limited to moderate environments, the disease is now found extensively throughout colder and dryer regions east of the Continental Divide, including alpine treeline. My research objective was to determine ...

  6. Investigating Differences in Douglas-fir and Southern Yellow Pine Bonding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabile, Kyle Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Differences in southern yellow pine (represented by Pinus taeda) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mature and juvenile wood were examined in terms of density, chemical composition, surface energy, shear stress, % wood failure, and delamination. Density was measured using a QTRS density scanner. Loblolly pine contained a higher average density. Chemical composition was measured using the NREL standard for identifying the chemical composition of biomass. Southern yellow pine contained a h...

  7. Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of Lodgepole Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Keith N; Arocena, Joselito; Green, Scott; Kennedy, Nabla; Massicotte, Hugues; Scholefield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The ecological disturbance from wildfire (2004) on ~ 10,000 hectares of forests near the Kenny Dam presented a unique opportunity to study the natural and artificial regeneration in burned mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested stands in north-central British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been documented as a natural disturbance agent that may precede wildfire in lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). The objectives of this study were to i)...

  8. Can we use shelterwoods in Mediterranean pine forests to promote oak seedling development?

    OpenAIRE

    Prévosto, Bernard; Monnier, Yogan; Ripert, Christian; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The use of shelterwoods to favour the development of natural or underplanted seedlings is common in temperate forests but rare in the pine forests of the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to assess the use of shelterwoods in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) woodlands in southern France to promote the survival and growth of two co-occurring oak species: the deciduous Quercus pubescens and the evergreen Quercus ilex. Twelve Aleppo pine stands were selected and differentially thinned to create a lig...

  9. Hardwood seedling establishment below Aleppo pine depends on thinning intensity in two Mediterranean sites

    OpenAIRE

    Gavinet, J.; Vilagrosa, A.; Chirino, E.; Granados, M.E.; Vallejo, V.R.; Prévosto, B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Developing silvicultural methods to help Mediterranean forests adapt to climate change is of high importance. Introducing resprouting hardwood species below pine stands is expected to promote diversity and resilience of these stands, particularly to forest fires. Aims: To examine how the intensity of pine thinning influences understory micro environment and the establishment of various hardwood seedlings in two Mediterranean sites. Methods: Aleppo pine stands were thinned dow...

  10. Determination of Terpenoid Content in Pine by Organic Solvent Extraction and Fast-GC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harman-Ware, Anne E; Sykes, Robert; Gary F. Peter; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and ...

  11. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Debkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  12. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence. PMID:27056916

  13. Large outbreaks of Ips acuminatus in Scots pine stands of the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ambros E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, many Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris stands have been severely attacked by the bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae. In the outbreak area of San Vito di Cadore (Eastern Dolomites, the number of attacked trees since 2005 and both the emergence of bark beetles and natural enemies have been assessed. The investigated forests showed dozens of easily recognizable infestation spots with size ranging from about 20-30 trees (small spots up to 300 trees (large spots. These infested spots evolved quickly, while new ones appeared within a radius of few hundreds of meters. During the last 5 years (2006-2010 we sampled branches from small and large spots and lodged them into emergence cages: adults of I. acuminatus as well as natural enemies were collected weekly, identified and counted. At the same time, a monitoring program of the surveyed pine stands was carried out to check the enlargement of old spots and the appearance of new ones. Voltinism and phenology of I. acuminatus were investigated by pheromone traps baited with different lures (Austrian vs. Spanish lures. The effects of a sanitation felling of about 4500 infested trees, carried out by the Regional Forest Service in autumn 2007 on I. acuminatus population were also assessed. Throughout the whole sampling area I. acuminatus resulted bivoltine, with the highest density attained during the first generation. However, a part of the population still evidenced a monovoltine behaviour. The realized sanitation felling strongly reduced both breeding sites and the number of infested trees observed during the following year. Moreover the pheromone-baited traps gave useful information about changes in bark beetle population density; the trapping efficiency of Spanish lure resulted clearly higher than the Austrian one. Finally, the recorded parasitism may have a role in outbreak dynamics as it was significantly higher during the second host generation, in both small

  14. Effects of snow condition on microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Masataka; Domisch, Timo; Dannoura, Masako; Ataka, Mioko; Finér, Leena; Repo, Tapani; Osawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Climate warming scenarios predict decreasing snow depths and increasing winter precipitation in boreal forests ("rain on snow"). I These conditions may affect the decomposition and the microbial respiration of leaf litter, contributing a major part of tree litters, To understand how different snow conditions during winter would affect the microbial respiration of Scots pine needle litter in a boreal forest, we conducted a laboratory experiment using needle litter of two age classes (newly dropped and older litter). The experiment simulated four different winter treatments, followed by spring and early summer : (1) ambient snow cover (SNOW), (2) Compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), (3) frozen flood (FLOOD) and (4) no snow cover at all (NO SNOW). The experiment was carried out in four walk-in dasotrons (n=3) with soil temperatures of -2° C and air temperatures of 2° C during winter and increased to 15° C and 20° C during spring, respectively . Needle litter samples were collected three times (prior to the winter, just after winter and at the end of the experiment). We evaluated the microbial respiration from the litter at several temperatures (-5° C, 0° C, 5° C and 12° C), the SIR index (an index estimating the microbial biomass), and the C/N ratio .And we calculated Q10 value (index of microbial respiration activity) using microbial respiration data. We found significant differences in microbial respiration between the newly dropped and older litter at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences in Q10 value and the SIR (index of microbial biomass) between the different winter treatments. All samples showed decrease of microbial activity with time. Finally, we conclude that the winter snow conditions with mild air temperatures as used in our experiment, are not detrimentally affecting the Scots pine needle litter decomposition and its respiration.

  15. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. PMID:26358548

  16. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  17. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  18. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  19. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Farr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  20. Evaluating Evapotranspiration of Pine Forest, Switchgrass, and Pine- Switchgrass Intercroppings using Remote Sensing and Ground-based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, D. M.; Panda, S.; Chescheir, G. M.; Nettles, J. E.; Appelboom, T.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Vast areas of the land in the Southeastern United States are under pine forests managed primarily for timber and related byproducts. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major loss in the water balance of this forest ecosystem. A long-term (1988-2008) study to evaluate hydrologic and nutrient balance during a life cycle of a pine stand was just completed. The study used both monitoring and modeling approaches to evaluate hydrologic and water quality effects of silvicultural and water management treatments on three 25 ha experimental watersheds in eastern North Carolina (NC). The research was extended in 2009 to include a dedicated energy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), by adding an adjacent 25 ha watershed. These multiple watersheds are being used to evaluate the hydrologic and water quality effects of switchgrass alone, young pine with natural understory, and young pine with switchgrass intercropping compared to the control (pine stand with a natural understory). The biofuels study has been further expanded to two other southern states, Alabama (AL) and Mississippi (MS). Each has five small watersheds (PVI) will be developed using the R and NIR bands, vegetation density, and background soil reflectance as necessary. Landsat and high resolution aerial imageries of vegetation and soils will be used. IDRISI Taiga software will be used for the indices development. The forested vegetation health will be correlated to the leaf chlorophyll content for determining the vegetation health with a subsequent derivation of available plant water for radiation. Models will be developed to correlate the plant and soil available water to different vegetation indices. Correlation models will also be developed to obtain information on climatic parameters like surface air temperature, net radiation, albedo, soil moisture content, and stomatal water availability from Landsat imageries. On-site weather parameters used for the PET estimates will be combined with other vegetation

  1. Effects of planted European beech on the understory in Scots pine forests of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marozas V

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the planting of non-native species impacts native vegetation is of most importance for forest management, as introduced species may alter environmental conditions with respect to soil composition, light intensity, and species composition. Here, we compared the stand structure, understory vegetation and site properties of a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as the second tree layer. We recorded saplings and species and their abundance in the understory vegetation, the thicknesses of organic (O and humus (A soil layers, soil pH and light indexes in nine Scots pine stands with a second tree layer of beech and in nine control pine stands with a second tree layer of spruce. An ordination method was used to analyze all the data together and ANOVA to determine whether there were differences between stands. We found that species diversity in pine stands with planted beech as the second layer was lower than in pine stands with spruce as the second layer. In pine stands with beech as the second tree layer, shrub, herb and moss cover was significantly lower, and the soil humus layer and organic soil layer were thicker and thinner, respectively. Stand parameters such as mean volume and mean annual increment of the second tree layer were significantly higher in pine stands with planted beech as the second tree layer than in pine stand with spruce as the second tree layer. The mean volume and the mean annual increment of the first tree layer dominated by Scots pine did not differ significantly between stands with planted beech and those with natural spruce. Scots pine stands with a beech second layer had negative effects on understory species richness and abundance. This effect was most likely due to the lower light transmittance and poor physical properties of the forest-floor litter in the Scots pine stands with planted beech.

  2. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  3. Divergences on the environmental impact associated to the production of maritime pine wood in Europe: French and Portuguese case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Arroja, Luis

    2014-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of forest systems in recent years. This study aims to estimate the environmental profile associated with maritime pine wood production in two representative European countries: Portugal and France. Different forest management regimes based on low and high intensive conditions were evaluated and differences in logging equipment, biomass yield and lifespan were also reported. The study was completed with a sensitivity analysis based on two allocation approaches (economic and volumetric) since biomass from thinning processes is harvested and can be used as a co-product. The production of maritime pine in Portugal under low intensity conditions should present the best environmental results with reductions of 50-94% in comparison with the worst scenario. It is mainly associated with the absence of forest activities in periods previous to the logging stage. French intensive forest scenario ranks as the second best alternative of pine wood production. The remaining scenarios reported worse results in terms of environmental impacts mostly due to the remarkable repetition of a selection of those forest activities with large fuel requirement (mainly on site preparation and stand establishment and tending). Regardless of the scenario, logging related activities such as final cutting and forwarding were identified as the hotspots mainly due to the fuel requirements. Fertilizer production (if required), thinning and cleaning processes reported also remarkable contributions to the categories under assessment. In addition, an economic estimation for each forest management scenario has been performed mainly considering fuel, machinery and labor costs. According to the results, the Portuguese low intensive scenario is the best choice together with the French intensive scenario under an economic point of view because of the lowest production costs per functional unit. Activities

  4. Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garnier-Géré Pauline

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted or genome-wide selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential of highly-multiplexed SNP genotyping for genetic mapping in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait., the main conifer used for commercial plantation in southwestern Europe. Results We designed a custom GoldenGate assay for 1,536 SNPs detected through the resequencing of gene fragments (707 in vitro SNPs/Indels and from Sanger-derived Expressed Sequenced Tags assembled into a unigene set (829 in silico SNPs/Indels. Offspring from three-generation outbred (G2 and inbred (F2 pedigrees were genotyped. The success rate of the assay was 63.6% and 74.8% for in silico and in vitro SNPs, respectively. A genotyping error rate of 0.4% was further estimated from segregating data of SNPs belonging to the same gene. Overall, 394 SNPs were available for mapping. A total of 287 SNPs were integrated with previously mapped markers in the G2 parental maps, while 179 SNPs were localized on the map generated from the analysis of the F2 progeny. Based on 98 markers segregating in both pedigrees, we were able to generate a consensus map comprising 357 SNPs from 292 different loci. Finally, the analysis of sequence homology between mapped markers and their orthologs in a Pinus taeda linkage map, made it possible to align the 12 linkage groups of both species. Conclusions Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in maritime pine, a conifer species that has a genome seven times the size of the human genome. This SNP-array will be extended thanks to recent sequencing effort using

  5. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  6. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Diana F Tomback; Lynn M. Resler; Keane, Robert E.; Elizabeth R. Pansing; Andrew J. Andrade; Aaron C. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus) in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz con...

  7. Carbon respiration and nitrogen dynamics in Corsican pine litter amended with aluminium and tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kraal; K.G.J. Nierop; J. Kaal; A. Tietema

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the carbon (C) mineralisation and nitrogen (N) dynamics in litter from a Corsican pine forest in response to individual and combined additions of aluminium (M), condensed tannin (extracted from fresh Corsican pine needles) and hydrolysable tannin (commercial tannic acid). Production

  8. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-05-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  9. Factors Influencing Formation of the Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Northern Taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sedykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of formation of seed productive Siberian stone pine stands near settlements, due to the total destruction of the living ground cover and forest litter, providing heat influx in the root-inhabited zone of the Siberian stone pine trees is discussed in the paper.

  10. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Stock

    Full Text Available Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1 over a large area (c. 15,000 ha. Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  11. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha−1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413

  12. THE DAMAGE, BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF PINE MISTLETOES (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman)

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Beşir; AKBULUT, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    Although mistletoes are known as parasitic plants on coniferous forest of Turkey, their control is still an important problem for Forest Service. In this paper, the information on the characteristics of pine mistletoe (biology, damage, and control methods) were gathered from different sources and observations. Possible control methods and damage ratings of mistletoe were discussed. Keywords: Mistletoes, Parasite plant, Pine

  13. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., 2010, in FR/Vol. 75, No. 44, on page 10459, in the second column, correct the ``Reforestation... Acres In stands where reforestation by planting is proposed, native shortleaf pine would be planted on a... off-site loblolly pine plantations and restoring native vegetation on portions of the Andrew...

  14. Effect of biomass ash in catalytic fast pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, G.; Ronsse, F.; Venderbosch, R.H.; Duren, van R.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Prins, W.

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of pine wood have been performed in a continuously operated mechanically stirred bed reactor at 500 °C. The effects of the pine wood ash were studied by comparing non-catalytic and catalytic experiments (using a ZSM-5 based catalyst) with their ash-added counterparts. To s

  15. Cutting Propagation of Two Perennial Species in While Pine Tree Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-based materials, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), have been identified as possible substitutions or replacements for peat moss (P) and pine bark (PB) in container substrates. Although wood-based substrates can be successfully used for crop production, limited information exists for ste...

  16. Pine needle activity and the washing effect as a measure of fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout and natural radionuclides in pine needles are measured by Ge(Li) detector coupled with a multichannel analyser. Washing effect on pine needle activity is also measured by washing the samples with water and other chemicals. High extents of washing-out of activity were observed in case of running water and hydrochloric acid. (author)

  17. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic,both in China and at abroad,but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods.Under the framework of evaluation criteria to be implemented for forest ecosystem services,years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Ecological Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network(CFERN),forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China.The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion(1.1449640×10 12 )RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan(1996―2000),and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year,respectively,during the 10th Five-year Plan(2001―2005).For Chinese pine forests,water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually,soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually,production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×10 20 , absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests,the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province;while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  18. Evaluation of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; WANG Bing; MA XiangQian; ZHAO GuangDong; LI ShaoNing

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of forest ecosystem services is a hot topic, both in China and at abroad, but it has not yet obtained a consistency of evaluation indicator systems and evaluation methods. Under the framework of evaluation criteda to be implemented for forest ecosystem services, years of consecutive observation data from Long Term Eco-logical Research Stations affiliated to Chinese Forest Ecosystem Research Network (CFERN), forest resource inventory and public data were applied to carry out a detailed and dynamic evaluation on the physical quantity and value of ecosystem services of Chinese pine forests in China. The results showed that the above services had the total value and unit value of 1144.9640 billion (1.1449640×1012) RMB and 52.074 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively during the 9th Five-year Plan (1996-2000), and of 1190.5461 billion RMB and 52.101 thousand RMB per hectare per year, respectively, during the 10th Five-year Plan (2001-2005). For Chinese pine forests, water conservation was 40.40 hundred million cubic meters annually, soil conservation was 67 million tons and C fixation 9 million tons annually, production of healthful negative ions was 1.96×1020, absorption of SO2 was 5.02 hundred million kilograms and dust-catching was 759.10 hundred million kilograms. Among the 15 provinces of China with Chinese pine forests, the biggest beneficiary from ecosystem services was Liaoning Province; while Hunan Province was the smallest beneficiary between the 9th Five-year Plan.

  19. 77 FR 58979 - Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and... boundary of the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic Rivers to Congress. FOR.... 8756. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and...

  20. Ethanol Production from SPORL-pretreated Lodgepole Pine: Preliminary Evaluation of Mass Balance and Process Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 liters (73 gallons) per ton of wood or 72% of theoretical. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subject to the sulfite pretreatment to ...

  1. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  2. Biomass accumulation in rapidly growing loblolly pine and sweetgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas M.; Gresham, Charles A. [Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees, growing in International Paper Company's study of intensive management on marginal agricultural land near Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. All trees were single family blocks of genetically superior trees planted 2.5m apart on sub-soiled rows 3.6m apart and grown with complete competition control. Management treatments were: control, irrigation, irrigation plus fertilization, and irrigation plus fertilization plus pest control. Tree measures were basal diameter, DBH, height of live crown, diameter at base of live crown, and total height. Twenty trees of each species were destructively sampled. Stems were sectioned at 1m intervals, stem diameter determined at each end and sections were weighed green. Branches were removed and height, basal diameter, and length were measured on each branch. Branches were separated into foliated and unfoliated segments and weighed green. A stem disk and branch from each meter were returned to the lab to determine dry weight: green weight ratio. Foliated limb: foliage ratios were also determined from sub-sampled branches. Intensive culture resulted in larger growth differences for sweetgum (most intensive treatment 9.5m tall, 13.1cm DBH; control trees 5.0m tall, 6.3cm DBH) than in pine (most intensive treatment 10.3m tall, 17.7cm DBH; control, 7.6m tall, 13.4cm DBH). The pipe model of tree development explained dimensions of the upper 5m of crown with leaf biomass highly correlated to branch basal area (r{sup 2} from 0.697 to 0.947). There was a constant ratio of leaf biomass to branch basal area (50gm/cm{sup 2} for pine, 30gm/cm{sup 2} for sweetgum). We also found a constant ratio of bole basal area to cumulative branch basal area throughout the crowns. Rapidly growing pines produced about 49Mgha{sup -1} of stem biomass, 11Mgha{sup -1} of dead branch biomass, and 17Mgha{sup -1} of unfoliated branch biomass at

  3. Biomass functions for young scots pine-dominated forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund Ulvcrona, K. (Vindeln Experimental Forests, Svartberet Research Station, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Vindeln (Sweden)), e-mail: Kristina.ulvcrona@esf.slu.se; Nilsson, U. (Southern Swedish Forest Research centre, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Alnarp (Sweden)); Lundmark, T. (Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to develop predictive biomass functions for young stands of Scots pine-dominated forests in northern Sweden. Above ground biomass was destructively sampled, and biomass functions for all tree fractions (e.g. stem including bark, branch and foliage) were developed, based on independent variables. Functions to estimate dry weight of the whole tree were also developed. No significant regressions could be found for the dead branch fraction. DBH for sampled trees in this study was in the range of 11 - 136 mm (Pinus sylvestris), 10 - 121 mm (Picea abies L. Karst) and 9 - 113 mm (Betula spp.)

  4. Forest floor respiration of tuczno scots pine stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbaniak, M.; Pavelka, Marian; Heronim Chojnicky, B.; Juszczak, R.; Dařenová, Eva; Baran, M.; Danielewska, A.; Ziemblinska, K.; Olejnik, Janusz

    Brno: Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 212-217 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pine stand * forest floor * tuczno scots Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Germination of pine seed in weightlessness (investigation in Kosmos 782)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the orientation of aboveground and underground organs of pine plants grown from seed in weightlessness. Orientation was found to be caused by the position of the seeds relative to the substrate surface. Normal growth was manifest only for the plants grown from seed oriented with embryo toward the substrate. Differences were noted between experiment and control as to the quantitative content of nucleoli in the meristematic cells of the rootlets and the shape of cells in the cotyledonous leaflets. No complete agreement was found between data obtained in weightlessness and when gravity was compensated (clinostat treatment with horizontal rotation).

  6. [Microsporogenesis and pollen formation in Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskova, N E; Tret'iakova, I N; Muratova, E N

    2009-01-01

    The prolongation of a warm season during autumn, typical for the Siberia in recent 5-6 years, caused changes in the terms of reproductive processes in microsporangia of Scotch pine in the Krasnoyarsk region. The meiosis started in the autumn of the year, preceding the pollination, and comes to the end in next spring, whereas usually this process occurs in the spring of the year of pollination. In such conditions the division of microsporocytes accompanied with different abnormalities, causing various anomalies and the incomplete development of pollen grains. PMID:19548623

  7. Autochthonous microbial community associated with pine needle forest litterfall influences its degradation under natural environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rishi; Nikitina, Anna; Litti, Yury; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-07-01

    The slow natural degradation of chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) needle litterfall and its accumulation on forest floors have been attributed to its lignocellulosic complexities of the biomass. The present study offers a microbiological insight into the role of autochthonous microflora associated with pine needle litterfall in its natural degradation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting indicated actinomycetes (Saccharomonospora sp., Glycomyces sp., Agrococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Blastocatella sp., and Microbacterium sp.) as a dominant microbial community associated with pine needle litterfall with the absence of fungal decomposers. On exclusion of associated autochthonous microflora from pine litterfall resulted in colonization by decomposer fungi identified as Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus sp., which otherwise failed to colonize the litterfall under natural conditions. The results, therefore, indicated that the autochthonous microbial community of pine needle litterfall (dominated by actinomycetes) obstructs the colonization of litter-degrading fungi and subsequently hinders the overall process of natural degradation of litterfall. PMID:27317052

  8. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal. PMID:27136611

  9. Pine transcriptomics — RNA-Seq data analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings subjected to a wounding experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    The stilbene biosynthetic pathway yielding products pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether has been implicated in Scots pine’s (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood constitutive resistance to decay. This trait, which is very valuable in forest economies has been suggested to be genetically controlled. The molecular basis for this control is not known. Wounding by drilling in stems of Scots pine seedlings have been suggested to induce production of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether in xy...

  10. Biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. II. Deposition types and impact levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 273 pine bark samples collected from various pine stands in Central and East Germany, South Norway, Poland, and Russia was analyzed with respect to 20 inorganic and organic substances (sulphate, nitrate, ammonia, calcium, 3 PAHs, 5 heavy metals, 9 other elements). Multivariate statistics were applied to characterize the multiple exposure of airborne pollutants in terms of major sources, deposition types and impact levels. The former was studied with factor analysis, whilst the latter two were addressed by applying cluster and discrimination analysis. Factor analysis of the concentration values suggest separation into three factors with the following characteristics: Factor 1 shows higher contributions from sulphate and calcium, factor 2 from fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene as well as from pyrene, and factor 3 from nitrate and ammonia, respectively. According to results from the cluster analysis, three major deposition types can be identified: 'Industry and House heating', 'Motor traffic', and 'Agriculture'. The first deposition type is characterized by high contents of sulphate and calcium. The other two deposition types contain specific composition profiles for nitrogen-containing components and PAHs. Impact levels are separately classified with the characteristic variables of main deposition types. Finally, discriminant analysis is used to allocate new bark samples to the classified deposition types and impact levels. The results demonstrate the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques to characterize and evaluate multiple exposure patterns of airborne pollutants in forest ecosystems. (author)

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SIZE FRACTION ON THE COMPRESSIBILITY OF PINE SAWDUST AND THE EFFECTIVENESS CRITERION FOR DENSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Matúš

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter from biomass, e.g. wood sawdust, is very diverse. The basic parameter describing the densification process of particulate matter is its compressibility, quantified by the coefficient of compressibility. Knowing this coefficient for a specific material is a basic prerequisite for the application of compressibility equations describing the densification process, and for calculating the workload in the production process of high-grade solid biofuel. This paper deals with a methodology for determining the compressibility factor for sawdust on the basis of experiments to quantify pine sawdust. The experiments were performed in two stages. The first stage was an experimental investigation of the influence of size fraction on the final compressibility of pine sawdust. The results show the behaviour of the pressure load when the parameters of the particulate matter are changed. In the second stage, the experiments are evaluated and optimized to achieve minimum energy input of the process and a maximum degree of densification. The research results will be used to develop new technologies and machinery for biomass densification to achieve a high-grade solid biofuel.

  12. Warm summer nights and the growth decline of shore pine in Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Mulvey, Robin L.; Brownlee, Annalis H.; Barrett, Tara M.; Pattison, Robert R.

    2015-12-01

    Shore pine, which is a subspecies of lodgepole pine, was a widespread and dominant tree species in Southeast Alaska during the early Holocene. At present, the distribution of shore pine in Alaska is restricted to coastal bogs and fens, likely by competition with Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. Monitoring of permanent plots as part of the United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program identified a recent loss of shore pine biomass in Southeast Alaska. The apparent loss of shore pine is concerning, because its presence adds a vertical dimension to coastal wetlands, which are the richest plant communities of the coastal temperate rainforest in Alaska. In this study, we examined the shore pine tree-ring record from a newly established plot network throughout Southeast Alaska and explored climate-growth relationships. We found a steep decline in shore pine growth from the early 1960s to the present. Random Forest regression revealed a strong correlation between the decline in shore pine growth and the rise in growing season diurnal minimum air temperature. Warm summer nights, cool daytime temperatures and a reduced diurnal temperature range are associated with greater cloud cover in Southeast Alaska. This suite of conditions could lead to unfavorable tree carbon budgets (reduced daytime photosynthesis and greater nighttime respiration) and/or favor infection by foliar pathogens, such as Dothistroma needle blight, which has recently caused widespread tree mortality on lodgepole pine plantations in British Columbia. Further field study that includes experimental manipulation (e.g., fungicide application) will be necessary to identify the proximal cause(s) of the growth decline. In the meantime, we anticipate continuation of the shore pine growth decline in Southeast Alaska.

  13. Countervailing effects on pine and oak leaf litter decomposition in human-altered Mediterranean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2015-04-01

    Species affect the dynamics of litter decay through the intrinsic properties of their litter, but also by influencing the environmental conditions imposed by their canopy, roots, and litter layers. We examined how human-induced changes in the relative abundances of two dominant Mediterranean trees-Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos-impact leaf litter decomposition. A reciprocal transplant experiment tested decomposition of pine, oak, and mixed leaf litter in oak woodland and pine forest ecosystems with different relative abundances of pine and oak. Using likelihood methods, we tested the importance and magnitude of the environmental effects of local species abundance, litter layer composition, and soil properties on litter mass loss. Oak litter decomposition was slower than pine, and had an antagonistic effect on mixed litter decay. These results differ from other reported pine-oak associations, and are probably associated with a higher content of tannins and phenols in oak compared to pine litter in our study sites. The environmental effects of the two species were opposite to their litter decomposition dynamics. An increased proportion of pine in the oak woodlands and a higher content of pine needles in the litter layer of pine forests reduced decay rates. The presence of more oak and broadleaf litter in the litter layer accelerated decomposition in pine forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering multidimensional species effects mediated by both chemical and physical properties, and imply that man-made changes in the composition and configuration of plant communities may result in complex unpredicted consequences to ecosystem biogeochemistry. PMID:25680333

  14. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  15. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  16. Impact of fixation/drying conditions on fixation rate, leachability and bioefficacy in CCA-C treated red pine and southern pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosia Ait) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) sapwood blocks were pressure treated with CCA-C at retention of 6.4, 2.0, 1.5 kg?m-3 followed by fixation using 11 post-treatment schedules ranging from 50-70 °C and 5 different relative humidity conditions. The effect of these post-treatment schedules on fixation rate, chemical leachability and decay resistant once were evaluated to better understand the effects of fixation/drying conditions on leachability and biodeterioration. Southern pine blocks fixes slightly slower than red pine. Fixation of CCA at high temperature high humidity, essential initially fixation at high humidity for fixation/drying schedules, resulted in lower leaching of chromium and arsenic elements than high temperature low humidity or initially fixation at the high temperature low humidity conditions. Copper leaching was indicated no significant difference under 11 fixation/drying conditions for both species. Weight losses for southern pine by Chaetomium globosum was lower than red pine by Gloeophyllom trabeum. There were some different capacities of decay resistance for both species under those post treatment conditions.

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Pine Seedling Wood Tissue Sections Inoculated with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Previously Prepared for Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Yasuharu

    2012-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to paraffin-embedded wood sections to study the histopathology of pine seedlings inoculated with the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The sections, which had been previously prepared and observed by light microscopy (LM) on glass slides, were originally obtained from experiments in which pine seedlings had been inoculated with PWN. The cover glass was removed by soaking the glass slide in xylene for 3 to 5 days. The glass slides were cut into small pieces so that each piece contained one wood section. Each piece of the glass slide was attached with double adhesive tape to an aluminum stub. The specimens were sputter-coated with gold and examined with a scanning electron microscope (JEOL-JSM 5200). Compared to LM (as documented in previous reports) SEM provided greater depth of focus and resolution of the damaged wood tissues, nematodes and associated bacteria. SEM made it possible to observe the relationship between bacterial distribution and nematode distribution in wood tissues. SEM observations also suggested the possibility of documenting the death of ray cells and other parenchyma cells in relation to disease development. Finally, the current study of PWN in pine seedlings demonstrated that glass slides prepared for LM observations more than 25 years earlier could be successfully processed for examination by SEM. PMID:23481606

  18. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana. PMID:26122332

  19. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy B. [USFS; Miller, Karl V. [University of Georgia; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  20. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  1. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  2. Relationships between multipolarized radar backscatter and slash pine stand parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized L-band (24.5 cm) aircraft radar data was obtained for a primarily forested area in northern Florida. Based on the results of previous studies by Hoffer and Hussin (1989), a swath of medium incidence angle (35-25 deg) data was defined. Three groups of slash pine stands were located in the data: 4- to 17-year-old plantations, 18- to 48-year-old plantations, and 16- to 53-year-old natural stands. Stand data obtained from the forest-products companies operating in the area include age, tree height, diameter-at-breast height, basal area, volume (cords/acre), and density (trees/acre). Each of these stand parameters were compared to each of the four polarizations (HH, VV, VH, and HV) of the radar data for each group of stands. Statistically significant relationships were found between the radar backscatter and the forest stand parameters only for the 4- to 17-year-old slash pine plantation stands. In general, the cross-polarized radar backscatter was more highly correlated with the various stand parameters than the like-polarized backscatter, and the VV-polarized data were more highly correlated than the HH-polarized data.

  3. Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Linhart, Yan B

    2006-03-01

    1. Intraguild predation occurs when top predators feed upon both intermediate predators and herbivores. Intraguild predators may thus have little net impact on herbivore abundance. Variation among communities in the strength of trophic cascades (the indirect effects of predators on plants) may be due to differing frequencies of intraguild predation. Less is known about the influence of variation within communities in predator-predator interactions upon trophic cascade strength. 2. We compared the effects of a single predator community between two sympatric plants and two herbivore guilds. We excluded insectivorous birds with cages from ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa trees parasitized by dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum. For 3 years we monitored caged and control trees for predatory arthropods that moved between the two plants, foliage-feeding caterpillars and sap-feeding hemipterans that were host-specific, and plant damage and growth. 3. Excluding birds increased the abundance of ant-tended aphids on pine and resulted in an 11% reduction in pine woody growth. Mutualist ants protected pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods, allowing aphid populations to burgeon in cages even though predatory arthropods also increased in cages. By protecting pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods but not birds, mutualist ants created a three-tiered linear food chain where bird effects cascaded to pine growth via aphids. 4. In contrast to the results for tended aphids on pine, bird exclusion had no net effects on untended pine herbivores, the proportion of pine foliage damaged by pine-feeding caterpillars, or the proportion of mistletoe plants damaged by mistletoe-feeding caterpillars. These results suggest that arthropod predators, which were more abundant in cages as compared with control trees, compensated for bird predation of untended pine and mistletoe herbivores. 5. These contrasting effects of bird exclusion support food web theory: where birds were

  4. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  5. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  6. [Sensitivity of parameters in net primary productivity model of broadleaf-Korean pine mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Hua; Hao, Zhan-Qing; He, Hong-Shi; Zhou, Dan-Hui

    2008-05-01

    PnET-II (photosynthesis and evapotranspiration) model is an ecosystem process model, which requires extensive input parameters, including vegetation parameters, soil parameters and climate parameters, to simulate net primary productivity (NPP). This study estimated the total and wood (stem and branch) NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species in Fenglin Natural Reserve, and examined the responses of the NPPs to the variations of the input parameters in PnET-II model. The simulation results indicated that among the vegetation parameters in PnET-II model, the variation of canopy parameters, had greater effects on the simulated NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species, and the response of Korean pine's total NPP to vegetation parameters was larger than that of broadleaf species'. The variation of soil water holding capacity (WHC) had smaller effects on the NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf species, and the response of Korean pine's NPP to the WHC was somewhat smaller than that of broadleaf trees'. In climate scenarios, the variation of air temperature had the greatest effects on the simulated NPP of Korean pine and broadleaf trees, followed by precipitation and radiation. Different climate scenarios had different effects on the predicted results. The total and wood NPPs of Korean pine and broadleaf trees had different responses to the input parameters. PMID:18655573

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis: Structure and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yee S Yap

    Full Text Available The Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis is a rare Southern conifer with striking morphological similarity to fossil pines. A small population of W. nobilis was discovered in 1994 in a remote canyon system in the Wollemi National Park (near Sydney, Australia. This population contains fewer than 100 individuals and is critically endangered. Previous genetic studies of the Wollemi pine have investigated its evolutionary relationship with other pines in the family Araucariaceae, and have suggested that the Wollemi pine genome contains little or no variation. However, these studies were performed prior to the widespread use of genome sequencing, and their conclusions were based on a limited fraction of the Wollemi pine genome. In this study, we address this problem by determining the entire sequence of the W. nobilis chloroplast genome. A detailed analysis of the structure of the genome is presented, and the evolution of the genome is inferred by comparison with the chloroplast sequences of other members of the Araucariaceae and the related family Podocarpaceae. Pairwise alignments of whole genome sequences, and the presence of unique pseudogenes, gene duplications and insertions in W. nobilis and Araucariaceae, indicate that the W. nobilis chloroplast genome is most similar to that of its sister taxon Agathis. However, the W. nobilis genome contains an unusually high number of repetitive sequences, and these could be used in future studies to investigate and conserve any remnant genetic diversity in the Wollemi pine.

  8. Factors controlling natural VOC emissions in a southeastern US pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    A one-year field study was conducted to investigate the control factors of the monoterpene emissions from slash and loblolly pine saplings at the Austin Cary Forest site in Florida. The α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, d-limonene, and β-phellandrene were identified in the emission samples collected from native pine trees. The α-pinene was the principal (>60%) monoterpene emitted by both slash and loblolly pine saplings. Terpene emission rates in spring were the highest and most volatile for slash pine trees, possibly due to the influences of bud formation and elongation. Loblolly pine emissions, under a similar environmental temperature range, revealed different seasonal patterns of emissions when compared to those for slash pines. Emission rates of monoterpenes from slash and loblolly pine trees were found to depend on temperature, season's change (e.g., bud emissions), tree age, needle surface wetness, and rough handling. It is suggested that the emission control factors besides the environmental temperature should also be taken into account in assessing regional biogenic emissions for compling a worldwide hydrocarbon emission inventory. It is also found that monoterpene emission rates could easily change over a long period of time (e.g., years), and so it is desirable to analyze the emission data based on the short term (e.g., season, month) for reasonable temperature-emission algorithm.

  9. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Impact on Stand-level Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J. A.; Woods, S.

    2012-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic has disturbed millions of hectares throughout the Rocky Mountain West. The most persistent effects of MPB infestation on the stand-level water balance are likely concomitant with the grey stage of the disturbance cycle. The grey stage occurs within 3 to 5 years of the initial infestation after the needles of an infected tree have turned red and fallen off due to tree death. Large numbers of grey-stage trees in a stand may remain on the landscape for up to 20 years, until windthrow or another disturbance sends them to the forest floor. The greater temporal persistence of the grey stage over antecedent stages suggested that an examination of the grey stage would best capture long-term effects of MPB disturbance on the forest water balance. In this study we hypothesized that changes to the forest canopy associated with MPB disturbance may affect the stand-level water balance. The needle loss and windthrow that follows MPB disturbance is expected to increase the amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor. Additionally, overstory evapotranspiration (ET) demand is expected to decrease as MPB-induced tree mortality increases within disturbed stands. The expected cumulative effect of MPB disturbance on the stand-level water balance is an increase in soil moisture due to increased precipitation inputs and reduced overstory ET. This study was conducted in Lubrecht Experimental Forest and adjacent Bureau of Land Management areas near Missoula, Montana. Sub-canopy measurements of soil moisture, precipitation (rain and snow water equivalent), overstory transpiration and micro-meteorological data (net radiation, temperature, wind speed, etc.) were collected in three 50 x 50 meter plots. The plots consisted of a uniform stand of grey-stage lodgepole pine, a uniform stand of non-infested lodgepole pine, and a recent clear-cut stand, which served as a control unit. Water balances for each stand were constructed using a mass

  11. Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g−1 un...

  12. Cr(VI) Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Núñez-Delgado; María José Fernández-Sanjurjo; Esperanza Álvarez-Rodríguez; Laura Cutillas-Barreiro; JuanCarlos Nóvoa-Muñoz; Manuel Arias-Estévez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VI)L−1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% a...

  13. Observations on the Morphology of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Yik, Choi-Pheng; Birchfield, W.

    1981-01-01

    Scans of slash pine wood chips infested with pine wood nematodes showed coiled aggregates of 5-10 nematodes in the axial resin canals, and 1-2 nematodes folded in the radial resin canals. Observations of the pine wood nematode by SEM showed the head to be offset with six labial lobes. A smaller circle of six inner lobes surrounded the stoma. A single labial sensillum was observed on each of the two subventral and two subdorsal lobes. The two opposite lobes, without sensilla, bore a pore-like ...

  14. The use of baited hair traps and genetic analysis to determine the presence of Pine marten

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The pine marten (Martes martes) is one of Ireland’s most elusive mammals. Between July 2003 and July 2005, hair tubes attached to trees with adhesive patches inside, were used to detect presence of marten in Portlaw Woods, County Waterford. Screening tests of potential lures to assess attractiveness and suitability were carried out on a variety of substances on free-living and captive pine marten. The use of chicken as a short-term lure was successful in attracting pine marten to the hair tub...

  15. Medicinal properties, in vitro protocols and secondary metabolite analyses of scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is known as an economically important forest tree with a wide distribution throughout the Northern hemisphere. Recently, the species has also become recognized as a novel source of functional food and bioactive compounds with medicinal properties. The present paper provides up-to-date information on protocols for somatic embryogenesis (i.e., the most promising in vitro method for vegetative propagation of Scots pine). Endophyte protocols cover the topics of endophyte isolation, identification and elimination from in vitro cultures. Moreover, the protocols for secondary metabolite analyses are described in order to emphasize the emerging role of Scots pine as a medicinal plant. PMID:19521833

  16. Microclimate buffering of winter temperatures by pine stumps in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    In the presented study we evaluated the role of wood in buffering its inhabitants against winter temperatures. We followed the microscale temperature patterns inside and outside decaying pine stumps during two winter periods. We analyzed the data by extracting the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures for the episodes of snow, frost or no frost. We compared the temperature variation by applying an absolute values calculation (=modulus) for the subsequent measurements. Finally, we tested the buffering effect of the horizontal depth inside the stumps by comparing the pattern for 5 and 15 cm depths. The results show that (1) the minimum temperature was significantly higher inside than outside the stumps, while temperature variation tended to be larger outside than inside, (2) the dynamics of temperature varied between weather episodes, i.e. the periods characterized by the presence/absence of snow and of frost, (3) the minimum temperature inside the stumps increased with the horizontal depth, while temperature variation decreased. The results presented are the first truly microclimatic data on wood buffering and they are important for the understanding of the possible effects of climate change on the thermal relationships at the microscale.

  17. Behaviour Patterns of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams; Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Houri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni is a serious pest of pine trees, especially the wide-spread Pinus brutia. This infestation has a significant economic impact both in the loss of forest wood growth and in medical expenses for treating related human diseases. This paper presents a detailed study of the behaviour patterns of the moth stage in an attempt to identify best control methods. Several key observations are made towards the moth emergence timing and period of nocturnal activity. Specifically, 92% of the moths were found to be most active between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Effects of light traps vs. pheromone traps are analyzed and light traps were found to be 15 times more efficient. In addition, 84% of the captured moths were males and only 16% were females. Several attempts were made to lure females into traps but were mostly unsuccessful. Finally, moth emergence in relevance to various weather conditions was analyzed and a clear relationship was established where rain appeared to motivate moth emergence. This work has been done over the span of two consecutive years. A clear mode of action is deduced for the best methods of moth control.

  18. Monitoring endophyte populations in pine plantations and native oak forests in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Martin-Garcia, J.; Rodriguez-Ceinos, S.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The replacement of native forest with plantations of other species may have important impacts on ecosystems. Some of these impacts have been widely studied, but very little is known about the effects on fungal communities and specifically endo phytic fungi. In this study, endophyte assemblages in pine plantations (Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra and P. pinaster) and native oak forests (Quercus pyrenaica) in the north of the province of Palencia (Spain) were analyzed. For this purpose, samples of needles/leaves and twigs were collected from three trees in each of three plots sampled per host species. The samples were later processed in the laboratory to identify all of the endo phytic species present. In addition, an exhaustive survey was carried out of the twelve sites to collect data on the environmental, crown condition, dendrometric and soil variables that may affect the distribution of the fungi. The endophyte assemblages isolated from P. sylvestris and P. nigra were closely related to each other, but were different from those isolated from P. pinaster. The endophytes isolated from Q. pyrenaica were less closely related to those from the other hosts, and therefore preservation of oak stands is important to prevent the loss of fungal diversity. Finally, the distribution of the endophyte communities was related to some of the environmental variables considered. (Author) 42 refs.

  19. Characterization and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides Obtained from Pine Cones of Pinus koraiensis by Graded Ethanol Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus koraiensis polysaccharides (PKP were extracted by hot water from P. koraiensis pine cones. Five polysaccharide fractions named PKP-A, PKP-B, PKP-C, PKP-D and PKP-E were successfully separated at final ethanol concentrations of 30%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and automatic amino-acid analysis were applied to investigate their chemical characteristics. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that the five fractions were all composed of d-ribose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose, but their molar ratios were quite different. HPLC results revealed that the polysaccharides precipitated by higher concentrations of ethanol solution had lower molecular masses. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the five fractions were studied on the basis of hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging tests. The five graded polysaccharide fractions exhibited good inhibitory power, and MTT tests in vitro showed the IC50 of PKP-A and PKP-E were 1,072.5 and 2,070.0 μg·mL−1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the PKP could be a potential source of natural antioxidants or dietary supplements.

  20. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees. PMID:27396108

  1. Annual cycle of photosynthetically active radiation in maritime pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to model the photosynthesis of an evergreen forest, knowledge of the seasonal variation in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is indispensable. This paper studies the annual cycle of different components of the PAR above and within a maritime pine forest. From measurements of transmitted PAR made on days close to the solstices and the equinoxes, as well as continuous measurements of global and diffuse PAR throughout the year, the annual variation of PAR, within and above the forest was obtained. The relationship between the proportion of diffuse PAR to total PAR was also derived. The PAR reflectance above the canopy varied from 0.035 to 0.07 throughout the year. On clear sky days, roughly 65% of the incident PAR was absorbed by the needles, stems and branches and 20% was reflected; the remaining 15% was absorbed by the understorey. (author)

  2. Responses of Scots pine to waterlogging during growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Tapani; Launiainen, Samuli; Lehto, Tarja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Ruhanen, Hanna; Heiskanen, Juha; Laurén, Ari; Silvennoinen, Raimo; Vapaavuori, Elina; Finér, Leena

    2016-04-01

    For the future management and sustainable use of boreal forests it is crucial to consider the rate and strength of tree responses to an elevated water table and the concurrent oxygen limitations, especially in peatlands. We examined the response dynamics of 7-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to a five-week waterlogging (WL) during a growing season in a root lab experiment. WL took place after shoot elongation had ended whereas growth of the trunk diameter was still in progress. We monitored shoots and roots before, during and after WL treatment. Relations between the shoot and root responses, the latter being the primary target of the WL stress, will be discussed. We hypothesize that root responses, in terms of growth by minirhizotron imaging, will appear with delay as compared with the first symptoms in physiology of above-ground organs.

  3. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  4. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  5. Influence of Metals on Lindane Adsorption onto Pine Bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some persistent pesticides, as organochlorines, are not efficiently removed from usual wastewater treatment plants, unless a tertiary treatment, commonly activated carbon adsorption, is applied. The downside of this practice rests on its high regeneration costs. This fact motivated the research for alternative processes involving the use of natural materials. Pine bark was used in this work, to remove lindane from contaminated waters. The adsorptive capabilities of this material were studied (equilibrium time, adsorption model and saturation of the adsorbent) and the interference of some metals (iron, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead) was also investigated. Results showed an excellent efficiency of adsorption (average 80,65%) and that the presence of the studied metals did not affect both efficiency and the model of the adsorption, within the range of the concentration of the pesticide studied

  6. Endobacteria in some ectomycorrhiza of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-04-01

    The diversity of cultivable endobacteria associated with four different ectomycorrhizal morphotypes (Suillus flavidus, Suillus variegatus, Russula paludosa and Russula sp.) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling of PCR-amplified rDNA intergenic spacer regions and by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes. Ectomycorrhizal root tip surface-sterilization methods were developed and assessed for their efficiencies. Bacterial communities from surface-sterilized ectomycorrhizal root tips were different from those of ectomycorrhizal root tips without surface-sterilization for all the morphotypes studied. Endobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus were isolated from more than one ectomycorrhizal morphotype, whereas species of Rahnella, Janthinobacterium and Rhodococcus were only isolated from the single morphotypes of S. variegatus, R. paludosa and Russula sp., respectively. Some of the isolated endobacteria utilized fungal sugars more readily than typical plant sugars in carbon utilization assays. PMID:16542403

  7. Autothermal fluidized bed pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J.; Beaton, P. [University of the Orient, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Zanzi, R.; Grimm, A. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2006-06-15

    Oxidative pyrolysis of Cuban pine sawdust was investigated using an autothermal fluidized bed reactor. Biomass particles were fed continuously (8.13 Kg/h) in a bed, fluidized by air gas. Experiments were conduced at three different dimensionless air factors 1, 1.5, and 2 (defined as ratio of actual air flow rate to stoichiometric air flow rate). The various physical and chemical characteristics of the pyrolysis products acquired in these conditions were identified. The results indicated that (1) the operating temperature can be correlated with the air factor; (2) the higher air factor promotes high temperature and contributes to the secondary reactions, which lead to less liquid; (3) the physicochemical characterization of the pyrolysis products indicated that the air factor, in the range studied, does not have a notable influence in their properties; (4) the liquid and char products obtained may be a potentially valuable source of chemical feedstocks. (Author)

  8. Stennis hosts Gulf Pine Council's NASA Brownie Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Tori Williams, of Brownie Girl Scout Troop 313, builds her own `stomp rocket' with the help of adult chaperone Pamela Cottrell. The two, of Gulfport, participated in NASA Brownie Day on Oct. 13 at Stennis Space Center. They were among nearly 200 members of Brownie Girl Scout Troops within the Gulf Pines Council who took part in the day of educational activities at SSC. Brownie Day used NASA curriculum support materials to teach about the sun and its significance in our solar system. In addition to building and launching their own model rockets, the girls toured the center's portable Starlab planetarium; viewed demonstrations about living and working in space; played games of `Moon Phasers' that teach about the rotation of the moon around the earth; made bracelets with ultraviolet-sensitive beads; and other activities that celebrated Earth's very own star. They also toured StenniSphere and were able to earn their Earth and Sky and Space Explorer `Try-Its.'

  9. Growth and yield of nine pine species in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristobal Delgado-Matas; Timo Pukkala

    2012-01-01

    A species introduction experiment including several tropical pines and eucalypts was established in 1966/1967 in the Tchianga research station in Angolan Highlands.Despite 27 years of political conflict (1975-2002) and lack of management,the research experiment has remained relatively well conserved.We measured the best conserved plots that were 41 years old in 2007 to obtain information on the growth of different pine species.We calculated stand characteristics including basal area,dominant height,mean diameter,and stand volume for Pinus patula Schiede ex Schiltdl.Et Cham.,Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.,Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon,Pinus devoniana Lindl.,Pinus chiapensis (Martinez) Andresen,Pinus elliottii Engelm.,Pinus greggii Engelm.Ex ParL,Pinus montezumae Lamb.and Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl.The growing stock volume at 41 years was the highest in P.pseudostrobus,1,325 m3·ha-1,followed by P.kesiya with 1,200 m3·ha-1.The widely planted P.patula had a growing stock volume of 892 m3·ha-1.P.oocarpa and P.pseudostrobus had the highest stand basal area,over 80 m2·ha-1.Using increment core analyses we studied the temporal development of stand characteristics.Analysis of the mean annual increment (MAI) showed that rotation lengths of 20-30 years would maximize wood production.With these rotation lengths,the MAI of P.pseudostrobus would be 35 m3·ha-1.Other productive species were P.kesiya,P.oocarpa and P.chiapensis.P.patula had a maximum MAI of 20 m3·ha-1.P.greggii had the lowest mean annual volume production,only about 13 m3·ha-1.

  10. Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of pine needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of the pyrolysis process of pine needles was examined using a thermogravimetric analyser. The weight loss was measured in nitrogen atmosphere at a purge flow rate of 100 ml/min. The samples were heated over a range of temperature of 19°C–600°C with a heating rate of 10°C/min. The results obtained from the thermal decomposition process indicate that there are three main stages: dehydration, active and passive pyrolysis. The kinetic parameters for the different samples, such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor, are obtained by the shrinking core model (reaction-controlled regime, the model-free, and the first-order model. Experimental results showed that the shrinking model is in good agreement and can be successfully used to understand degradation mechanism of loose biomass. The result obtained from the reaction-controlled regime represented actual values of kinetic parameters which are the same for the whole pyrolysis process; whereas the model-free method presented apparent values of kinetic parameters, as they are dependent on the unknown function ϕ(C, on the sum of the parameters of the physical processes, and on the chemical reactions that happen simultaneously during pyrolysis. Experimental results showed that values of kinetic constant from the first-order model and the SCM are in good agreement and can be successfully used to understand the behaviour of loose biomass (pine needles in the presence of inert atmosphere. Using TGA results, the simulating pyrolysis can be done, with the help of computer software, to achieve a comprehensive detail of the devolatilization process of different types of biomasses.

  11. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. PMID:26917705

  12. Pine Island glacier ice shelf melt distributed at kilometre scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dutrieux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available By thinning and accelerating, West Antarctic ice streams are contributing about 10% of the observed global sea level rise. Much of this ice loss is from Pine Island Glacier, which has thinned since at least 1992, driven by changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelf and retreat of the grounding line. Details of the processes driving this change, however, remain largely elusive, hampering our ability to predict the future behaviour of this and similar systems. Here, a Lagrangian methodology is developed to measure oceanic melting of such rapidly advecting ice. High-resolution satellite and airborne observations of ice surface velocity and elevation are used to quantify patterns of basal melt under the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf and the associated adjustments to ice flow. At the broad scale, melt rates of up to 100 m yr−1 occur near the grounding line, reducing to 30 m yr−1 just 20 km downstream. Between 2008 and 2011, basal melting was largely compensated by ice advection, allowing us to estimate an average loss of ice to the ocean of 87 km3 yr−1, in close agreement with 2009 oceanographically constrained estimates. At smaller scales, a network of basal channels typically 500 m to 3 km wide is sculpted by concentrated melt, with kilometre-scale anomalies reaching 50% of the broad-scale basal melt. Basal melting enlarges the channels close to the grounding line, but farther downstream melting tends to diminish them. Kilometre-scale variations in melt are a key component of the complex ice–ocean interaction beneath the ice shelf, implying that greater understanding of their effect, or very high resolution models, are required to predict the sea-level contribution of the region.

  13. Pine Island Glacier ice shelf melt distributed at kilometre scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dutrieux

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By thinning and accelerating, West Antarctic ice streams are contributing about 10% of the observed global sea level rise. Much of this ice loss is from Pine Island Glacier, which has thinned since at least 1992, driven by changes in ocean heat transport beneath its ice shelf and retreat of the grounding line. Details of the processes driving this change, however, remain largely elusive, hampering our ability to predict the future behaviour of this and similar systems. Here, a Lagrangian methodology is developed to measure oceanic melting of such rapidly advecting ice. High-resolution satellite and airborne observations of ice surface velocity and elevation are used to quantify patterns of basal melt under the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf and the associated adjustments to ice flow. At the broad scale, melt rates of up to 100 m yr−1 occur near the grounding line, reducing to 30 m yr−1 just 20 km downstream. Between 2008 and 2011, basal melting was largely compensated by ice advection, allowing us to estimate an average loss of ice to the ocean of 87 km3 yr−1, in close agreement with 2009 oceanographically-constrained estimates. At smaller scales, a network of basal channels typically 500 m to 3 km wide is sculpted by concentrated melt, with kilometre-scale anomalies reaching 50% of the broad-scale basal melt. Basal melting enlarges the channels close to the grounding line, but farther downstream melting tends to diminish them. Kilometre-scale variations in melt are a key component of the complex ice-ocean interaction beneath the ice shelf, implying that greater understanding of their effect, or very high resolution models, are required to predict the sea-level contribution of the region.

  14. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  15. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Pine Island NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model SLAMM report presents a model for projecting the effects of sealevel rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Pine...

  16. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90. ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  17. Simulation of the biomass dynamics of Masson pine forest under different management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-lian; WANG Kai-yun; LIU Xin-wei; PENG Shao-lin

    2006-01-01

    TREE submodel affiliated with TREEDYN was used to simulate biomass dynamics of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest under different managements (including thinning, clear cutting, combining thinning with clear cutting). The purpose was to represent biomass dynamics involved in its development, which can provide scientific arguments for management of Masson pine forest. The results showed the scenario that 10% or 20% of biomass of the previous year was thinned every five years from 15 to 40 years made total biomass of pine forest increase slowly and it took more time to reach a mature community; If clear cutting and thinning were combined, the case C (clear cutting at 20 years of forest age, thinning 50% of remaining biomass at 30 years of forest age, and thinning 50% of remaining biomass again at 40 years of forest age) was the best scenario which can accelerate speed of development of Masson pine forest and gained better economic values.

  18. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier; Hyslop, Michael D.; Brandstrup, Charlotte K.; Makela, Hanna M.; Tian, QinHua; Wilson, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L.......) growing in boreal forest in eastern Finland. Riparian and upland chronologies were compared to examine differences in the pine growth variability and growth response to climatic variation in the two habitats. It was found that the climatic variables showing statistically significant correlations with the...... tree-ring chronologies were related to snow conditions at the start of the growing season. Deeper snowpack led to reduced upland pine growth, possibly due to delayed snowmelt and thus postponed onset of the growing season. Warm late winters were followed by increased riparian pine growth because of...

  19. Storage of pine agaric by irradiation combined with natural low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the storage method of pine agaric by irradiation, pine agarics irradiated with 1, 2 and 2.5 kGy stored in natural low temperature storage room (15±2℃, RH: 80±5%) and the physicochemical properties were investigated during the 15 days of storage. Veil opening rate of pine agaric was 97% after 7 days storage in control, whereas only 5% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. Rotting rate after 7 days storage were 28% in control, 5-8% in 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups. In comparison of weight loss, texture and appearance, 2-2.5 kGy irradiated groups were better than control. Chemical composition of pine agaric was not remarkably changed by the irradiation and storage period except a slight increase in reducing sugar and a decrease in ascorbic acid by the increase of irradiation dose

  20. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  1. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  2. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge: Pine Barrens Treefrog Survey Data Report for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pine Barrens Treefrog (Hyla andersonii Baird) is listed as a threatened species in need of management in South Carolina. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife...

  3. FOREST AMELIORATION OF SANDY SOILS OF TERSKO-KUMSKOYE INTERFLUVE PLAIN WITH PINE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surkhayev I. G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the regularities of the growth and development of the plantations of Crimean and Scotch pine on sandy soils of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain, presents the classification of forest suitability, estimates the forest growing efficiency and prospects of the use of pine species when forest amelioration of soils, suggests the technologies for forestations arrangement. During the past century there had been grown over 60 hectares of pine cultures on sands of Tersko-Kumskoye interfluve plain under the strict conditions of transition zone dry steppe-semidesert. The Achikulakskaya NILOS VNIALMI (N. K. Lalymenko, V. I. Kabalaliyev, N. S. Zyuz managed to plant about 60 hectares of Crimean pine and over 5 hectares of Scotch pine cultures in the 70-80-th of the last century, about 50 % of them are still growing. The study of the said forestations led to the following conclusions. On the thick sands (6-8 m of Bazhigansky forest area the stable growth of Scotch pine continues up to 25-30 years, that of Crimean pine – up to 30-35 years. By the age of 40 the productivity of Crimean pine forestations (170-260 m3/ha exceeds visibly the accumulated reserve of Scotch pine forest stand (60-100 m3/ha. The increment in height decreases sharply starting at the age of 15-20 years for Scotch pine and at 25-30 for Crimean pine plantations. On the clay sands with the level of low-mineralized ground water of 2,5-3,0 m and despite high fall the stable growth of Crimean pine continues up to 35-40 years and more. On the monophase sands of Tersky forest area the Crimean pine grows relatively slowly during the first 10-15 years though more evenly year by year. The thick lamellar deposits and monophase sands with the depth of sweet ground water of 3-5 m provide the best conditions for forest growing. The longevity of Scotch pine plantations of 50-55 years and that of Crimean pine of 60-65 years can be achieved by current planting technologies and

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus pini JCM 16418T, Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Pine Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Oshida, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus pini strain JCM 16418T is a cellulolytic bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of pine trees. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. This genome information will be useful for studies of rhizosphere bacteria.

  5. Prescribed Burn Plan Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge 1998 Pitch Pine Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fire management plan is for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge, a pitch pine stand unit 0569 on the south-central section of the refuge. The plan specifies the...

  6. Scientific Opinion on a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode from the bark of pine trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the appropriateness of a composting method proposed by Portugal as a heat treatment to eliminate pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle......) insufficient evidence on the sampling methodology is provided to determine the reliability of the testing method provided by the Portuguese document to determine freedom from PWN. Although there is potential for development of a composting method as a heat treatment to eliminate PWN from bark of pine trees......, the technical requirements presented in the Portuguese dossier do not adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed composting method as a treatment to ensure freedom of treated pine bark from live PWN...

  7. Biological evaluation of the prototype standing tree debarking system (STDS) used for direct control of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. FRDA report No. 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, H.S.; Safranyik, L.; Moulson, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The standing tree debarking system (STDS) consists of a tree-climbing delimber/debarker machine and a hand-held debarking machine. The tree-climbing machine is powered by a chain saw engine which, through a hydraulic system, operates a delimbing saw on ascent and a debarker on descent. The hand-held machine consists of a debarking head that replaces the cutter on a gasoline-powered brush saw. Prototypes of the STDS have been developed for mechanical removal of bark from standing lodgepole pine trees that have been attacked by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This paper presents results of work conducted to ascertain the potential effectiveness of the STDS (the degree of bark disruption required to prevent mountain pine beetle from producing increased numbers of new beetles in infested trees of various size), the degree of bark disruption by the STDS, and brood survival in patches of bark remaining after STDS treatment.

  8. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  9. Estimation of scots pine defoliation by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) using multi-temporal radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latva-Kayra, Petri T.

    In 1998-2001 Finland suffered the most severe insect outbreak ever recorded, over 500,000 hectares. The outbreak was caused by the common pine sawfly ( Diprion pini L.). The outbreak has continued in the study area, Palokangas, ever since. To find a good method to monitor this type of outbreaks, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of multi-temporal ERS-2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery for estimating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) defoliation. Three methods were tested: unsupervised k-means clustering, supervised linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression. In addition, I assessed if harvested areas could be differentiated from the defoliated forest using the same methods. Two different speckle filters were used to determine the effect of filtering on the SAR imagery and subsequent results. The logistic regression performed best, producing a classification accuracy of 81.6% (kappa 0.62) with two classes (no defoliation, >20% defoliation). LDA accuracy was with two classes at best 77.7% (kappa 0.54) and k-means 72.8 (0.46). In general, the largest speckle filter, 5 x 5 image window, performed best. When additional classes were added the accuracy was usually degraded on a step-by-step basis. The results were good, but because of the restrictions in the study they should be confirmed with independent data, before full conclusions can be made that results are reliable. The restrictions include the small size field data and, thus, the problems with accuracy assessment (no separate testing data) as well as the lack of meteorological data from the imaging dates.

  10. Multinomial logit estimation of a diameter growth matrix model of two Mediterranean pine species in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Ernesto; Pando Fernández, Valentín; Ordóñez, Cristóbal; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Understanding diameter growth of the Mediterranean pine species is fundamental for evaluating and making appropriate strategic decisions in forest management. A matrix diameter growth model for two Mediterranean pine forest ecosystems in Spain has been developed. Methods Multinomial logistic (MNL) regression was employed to estimate the transition probabilities of a matrix growth model. The model combines individual tree and stand attributes and explores the effects of independent va...

  11. Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andersone-Ozola, Una

    2009-01-01

    Physiological basis for multiplication of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using tissue culture The aim of the present study was to create the physiological basis for micropropagation of mature Pinus sylvestris L. in tissue culture. The most suitable time for introduction in vitro of mature P. sylvestris bud tissue was from July to late October. Long cold storage of dormant mature Scots pine buds before introduction in vitro increases their morphogenic competence in tissue cult...

  12. Lipid composition of slash pine tissue cultures grown with lunar and earth soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laseter, J. L.; Weete, J. D.; Baur, P. S.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lipid analyses were conducted on slash pine tissues grown in culture in the presence of lunar (Apollo 15) and earth soils. Significant reductions in the total lipids, fatty acids, and sterol components were found in the tissues grown in contact with each of the soils employed when compared to the control. Tissues grown with lunar soil showed the greatest reductions. These results are discussed with respect to previous ultrastructural studies on similarly treated slash pine tissues and lipid analyses on tobacco tissue cultures.

  13. Characterization and mapping of QTL used in breeding of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Aleksandra; Ukalska, Joanna; Simińska, Joanna; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the construction a map based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic DNA (AFLP) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The main purpose of map construction was its application to quantitative traits loci (QTL) mapping for breeding traits economically important in Scots pine breeding program such as tree height and diameter at breast height, number of needles and their length, width, and area. Genomic DNA of needles and haploid megagamethophytes from seeds originating from a ...

  14. ARSENATE BIOSORPTION BY IRON-MODIFIED PINE SAWDUST IN BATCH SYSTEMS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    María Aranzazú López-Leal,; Raúl Cortés-Martínez; Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva,; Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores; , Consuelo De Jesús Cortés-Penagos

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust chemically modified with iron in batch systems was investigated. The loading process of Fe in this biomaterial was achieved by hydrolysis of two different ferric salts. This modification of sawdust is an attempt to improve As(V) biosorption for practical applications. The kinetics and maximum biosorption capacities of the unmodified and modified pine sawdust were evaluated. It was found that the pseudo-second order model describe...

  15. Distribution of two pine processionary moth species in Turkey evidences a contact zone

    OpenAIRE

    İpekdal, Kahraman; Burban, Christian; Kerdelhue, Carole; ÇAĞLAR, SELİM SÜALP

    2015-01-01

    The pine processionary moths Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. Wilkinsoni are among the most important Mediterranean pine defoliators. Although recent studies suggest that the two species may coexist in Turkey, the relevant literature lacks precise information on the occurrence and exact distribution of the two species in this country. In particular, whether the two sister taxa form a contact zone is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the limits of the ranges of the two species in ...

  16. Genetic divergence, range expansion and possible homoploid hybrid speciation among pine species in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, G-P; Abbott, R J; Zhou, Y-F; Zhang, L-R; Peng, Y-L; Liu, J-Q

    2011-01-01

    Although homoploid hybrid speciation in plants is probably more common than previously realized, there are few well-documented cases of homoploid hybrid origin in conifers. We examined genetic divergence between two currently widespread pines in Northeast China, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Pinus densiflora, and also whether two narrowly distributed pines in the same region, Pinus funebris and Pinus takahasii, might have originated from the two widespread species by homoploid hybrid sp...

  17. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. K.; J. Patokoski; Rantala, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; J. Rinne

    2010-01-01

    Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis in the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass ...

  18. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, R.; Kajos, M. K.; J. Patokoski; Rantala, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; J. Rinne

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectro...

  19. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine tre...

  20. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  1. Resin production in natural Aleppo pine stands in northern Evia, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    K. Spanos; D. Gaitanis; I. Spanos

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the variability in resin yield of Aleppo pines in Evia (Greece) with the aim to exploit this natural resource in a sustainable way. Ten experimental plots were established in natural pine stands for monitoring. Our results revealed significant differences among stands, with high variation among individual trees in each plot. Maximum resin production was achieved in the Livadakia site whereas the minimum was obtained in Kokinomilia. All trees were classified according to their ...

  2. The Bear Facts: Implications of Whitebark Pine Loss for Yellowstone Grizzlies

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Louisa

    2009-01-01

    Whitebark pine is a foundation species, and barometer of the health of high elevation forests ecosystems in the West. It provides food and cover for numerous wildlife species, including the Clark’s nutcracker, crossbill, grosbeak, red squirrel and chipmunk. Whitebark pine is particularly important in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where it provides an essential food source for the imperiled Yellowstone grizzly bear. We will review the current scientific knowledge about the relations...

  3. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Ragonezi; A. Teresa Caldeira; M. Rosário Martins; Cátia Salvador; Celeste Santos-Silva; Elsa Ganhão; Krystyna Klimaszewska; Amely Zavattieri

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collecte...

  4. Persistence of ectomycorrhizas by Thelephora terrestris on outplanted Scots pine seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Hilszczańska; Zbigniew Sierota

    2013-01-01

    Thelephora terrestris (Erhr.) Fr. is a very common ectomycorrhizal symbiont (ECM) in conifer trees, however the role of this ubiquitous fungus in nurseries and Scots pine plantations is still unknown. It is described as tolerant of high nitrogen availability and therefore was taken into consideration as an important ECM partner of seedlings, particularly after replanting on post agricultural land. In laboratory the seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were inoculated with T. terrestr...

  5. An interdisciplinary, outcome-based approach to astmospheric CO2 mitigation with planted southern pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Fox, T.; Peter, G.; Monroe, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation and Adaptation Project ("PINEMAP") was funded by National Institute of Food and Agriculture to produce outcomes of enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in planted southern pine ecosystems. The PINEMAP project leverages a strong group of existing networks to produce synergy and cooperation on applied forestry research in the region. Over the last 50 years, cooperative research on planted southern pine management among southeastern U.S. universities, government agencies, and corporate forest landowners has developed and facilitated the widespread implementation of improved genetic and silvicultural technology. The impact of these regional research cooperatives is difficult to overstate, with current members managing 55% of the privately owned planted pine forestland, and producing 95% of the pine seedlings planted each year. The PINEMAP team includes the eight major forestry cooperative research programs, scientists from eleven land grant institutions, the US Forest Service, and climate modeling and adaptation specialists associated with the multi-state SE Climate Consortium and state climate offices. Our goal is to create and disseminate the knowledge that enables landowners to: harness planted pine forest productivity to mitigate atmospheric CO2; more efficiently use nitrogen and other fertilizer inputs; and adapt their forest management to increase resilience in the face of changing climate. We integrate our team's infrastructure and expertise to: 1) develop breeding, genetic deployment and innovative management systems to increase C sequestration and resilience to changing climate of planted southern pine forests ; 2) understand interactive effects of policy, biology, and climate change on sustainable management; 3) transfer new management and genetic technologies to private industrial and non-industrial landowners; and 4) educate a diverse cross-section of the public about the relevance of forests

  6. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Colin Robertson; Michael A. Wulder; Christopher Bone; White, Joanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the p...

  7. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L....

  8. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas

    OpenAIRE

    John Rex; Stéphane Dubé; Vanessa Foord

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia has covered 18.1 million hectares of forest land showing the potential for exceptionally large-scale disturbance to influence watershed hydrology. Pine stands killed by the epidemic can experience reduced levels of evapotranspiration and precipitation interception, which can translate into an increase in soil moisture as observed by some forest practitioners during salvage logging in the epicenter of the outbreak. They reported the replace...

  9. Regeneration of a Coastal Pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) Forest 11 Years after Thinning, Niigata, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojun Zhu; Yutaka Gonda; Lizhong Yu; Fengqin Li; Qiaoling Yan; Yirong Sun

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The a...

  10. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  11. The Effect of Restoration Treatments on the Spatial Variability of Soil Processes under Longleaf Pine Trees

    OpenAIRE

    John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Mack, Michelle C; Martin Lavoie

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize tree-based spatial patterning of soil properties and understory vegetation in frequently burned (“reference state”) and fire-suppressed longleaf pine forests; and (2) determine how restoration treatments affected patterning. To attain these objectives, we used an experimental manipulation of management types implemented 15 years ago in Florida. We randomly located six mature longleaf pine trees in one reference and four restoration treatme...

  12. Identifying and assessing areas for pine woodland regeneration in the lowland savannas of Southern Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Katsigiannis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Lowland savannas occupy almost 10% of the total land area of Belize, comprising landscapes with high ecological and economical value. The most distinctive tree of the Belizean savanna, the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), is valuable not only as a timber resource, but also in forming natural habitats for the local endangered species. However, degradation by frequent fires, anthropogenic pressures and climate change often convert gallery pine forests and dense tree savannas (s...

  13. Model Predicts a Future Pine Processionary Moth Risk in Artvin and Adjacent Regions

    OpenAIRE

    İPEKDAL, Kahraman; Beton, Damla

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has been receiving a lot of attention from researchers as it is believed to be proceeding at an extraordinary rate during the last 1,300 years and many studies have attempted to document and predict its environmental effects. Eastern winter pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), an economically important pest of pines in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, distributed through almost all coastal regions within Turkey. ...

  14. A Risk Assessment Model on Pine Wood Nematode in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, T.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Robinet, C.; Mourits, Monique; van der Werf, Wopke; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pine wood nematode, B. xylophilus poses a serious threat for the European forest industry. This study applies a quantitative risk assessment to analyze the risk of pine wood nematode in the EU, by estimating the reduction expected within forestry stock available for wood supply and its downstream roundwood market. Spatial analysis is used to join information on climate suitability, host distribution, pest spread and value of assets. Economic impacts are presented spatially on a NUTS-2 scale b...

  15. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon)

    OpenAIRE

    G.D. Sharma; R. R. Mishra; W. R. Lyngdoh

    2014-01-01

    Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower...

  16. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W L; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  17. Evaluating Nitrogen Containing Controlled Release Fertilizers At Stand Establishment In Loblolly Pine.

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, Kevin Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Evaluating Nitrogen Containing Controlled Release Fertilizers At Stand Establishment In Loblolly Pine Kevin Hunter Kyle Abstract The response of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) to fertilization and weed control at stand establishment, using various formulations of conventional and controlled release N fertilizers was evaluated in a greenhouse study and at two field trials in the Virginia Piedmont, in 2002 and 2003. The greenhouse study evaluated five fertilizer treatments; 1) ch...

  18. Tree-species diversification in Sub-Mediterranean pine forests: drivers, consequences and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alcón, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Our results confirm that Sub-Mediterranean pinewoods in the eastern Pyrenees are currently undergoing a process of spontaneous diversification by broadleaved tree species (especially evergreen and marcescent oaks). The establishment of Quercus seedlings under the pine canopy was favored by the current levels of both canopy closure and shrub cover, which in contrast hampered pine recruitment and the established oaks (particularly Q. ilex) to reach more advanced developmental sta...

  19. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall ...

  20. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haria, Atul H.; Price, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and inten...

  1. Micropropagation of a recalcitrant pine (Pinus pinea L.): An overview of the effects of ectomycorrhizal inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonezi, C.; Caldeira, A. T.; Martins, M. R.; Teixeira, D.; Dias, L.S.; Miralto, O.; Ganhão, E.; Klimaszewska, K.; Zavattieri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) is an economically important forest species in some regions of Iberian Peninsula. Portugal and Spain have nearly 500,000 ha of stone pine stands, representing 85% of worldwide distribution. The main use of this species is for the production of seeds (pinion) for food industry. In addition to its enormous profitability as a producer of seeds, it has beneficial impact on soil protection, dunes fixation and is a pioneer species particularly for cork and holm oaks degr...

  2. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Yohan Charbonnier; Luc Barbaro; Amandine Theillout; Hervé Jactel

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumeto...

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  4. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  5. Mutual influences in growth and reproduction between pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and bacteria it carries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Boguang; LIU Yutao; LIN Feng

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between pine wood nematode and three bacterium strains isolated from the nematode,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,which are two strong pathogenic bacterium strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens GcMS-1A and Pseudomonas putida ZpB1-2A and a weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,Pantoea sp.ZM2C,were studied.The result showed that the strong-pathogenic GcM5-1A strain and ZpB 1-2A strain significantly increased fecundity,reproduction rate,and the body volume of the adult nematode.Meanwhile,pine wood nematodes significantly promoted reproduction of the two strong-pathogenic bacterium strains.However,the weak-pathogenic bacterium strain,ZM2C,completely inhibited reproduction of pine wood nematodes.Aseptic pine wood nematodes significantly inhibited reproduction of the strain ZM2C.The results indicated that mutualistic symbiosis exists between pine wood nematodes and the two pathogenic bacteria it carries.The phenomenon showed that the pathogenic bacteria carried by the nematode were not accidentally contaminated,but rather had existed as symbionts of the nematode with which it had coevoluted over a long period.The role of mutualistic symbiosis in the process of pine wilt disease was also discussed.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  8. Distribution of Pine Woolly Adelgids Infestation on Pinus merkusii Plantation in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oemijati Rachmatsyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pine woolly adelgid is a recently found exotic pest attacking seedling up to grown plants of Pinus merkusii plantations forest. Since its discovery, there were not much information about it.  The objectives of this research were to study pine woolly adelgids distribution, symptoms and indicators, and its scale of infestations on Pinus merkusii plantation in Java, to determine the presence of any specific P. merkusii sites invaded by pine woolly adelgids, considering the pests were native to boreal and temperate areas.  Hypothesis was pine woolly adelgids infestation on P. merkusii in Java is consistent with their native distribution.  There were 9 Forest Management Unit (KPH with infested P. merkusii plantations which were located at altitude between 900 to 1,700 m asl. with temperature ranging 16-22 ˚C and air humidity 80-90%. This indicated that Pine Woolly Adelgids required low temperature to survive, which was consistent with their original distribution. Host preference with regard to scale of infestation was closely related to temperature, altitude, and number of trees per hectare. The scale of infestation varied among regions, from light to heavy infested/death of trees.Keywords: pine woolly adelgid, Pinus merkusii, scale of infestation, host preferences

  9. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  10. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v/F m) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO2-/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  11. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: hsakuga@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Cape, J. Neil [Edinburgh Research Station, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jnc@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-06-15

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F {sub v}/F {sub m}) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO{sub 2} {sup -}/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees.

  12. Infection Trace of Pine Wilt Disease Based on Terahertz Spectroscopic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the terahertz spectroscopic features of pine needle infected by pine wilt disease during different infection stages by applying terahertz spectroscopic techniques. We measure the absorption variation of the pine needle samples with infection time by Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS. The absorption intensity in the frequency region of 0-2.5 THz increases gradually with infection time. While the pine wood is infected above four months, the absorption intensity reaches to maximum. However, the calculated relative refractive index compared with the reference signal of PET powder reduces with infection time. The higher frequency measurement by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR doesn’t show the absorption variation of the samples due to huge signal attenuation in the transmission path of the samples. This study demonstrates that the relation of absorption intensity and refractive index of the pine needle sample with the infection time. We can trace the infection extent of the pine wood by measuring its terahertz spectroscopic property

  13. Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex

    OpenAIRE

    Godbout, Julie; Yeh, Francis C.; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having maternal or paternal inheritance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was assessed in allopatric populations of each species and i...

  14. Clark's Nutcracker Seed Harvest Patterns in Glacier National Park and a Novel Method for Monitoring Whitebark Pine Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Monika E.

    2012-01-01

    Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) is the primary seed disperser of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which is in decline throughout its range. There is concern that a decline in whitebark pine will lead to a subsequent decline in local populations of Clark's Nutcracker. Because natural regeneration depends on the presence of Clark's Nutcracker, the process of harvesting whitebark pine seeds needs to be fully understood. In addition, resource managers need a cost-effective method for ...

  15. Effects of Restoration Techniques on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Florida Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Sandhill Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lavoie; Mack, Michelle C; John K. Hiers; Scott Pokswinski; Analie Barnett; Louis Provencher

    2014-01-01

    Historic fire suppression and intensive forest management in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) sandhill forests has resulted in hardwood encroachment and degradation of this fire-dependent ecosystem. Active management is now required to restore native community structure and composition, but little is known about the long-term impacts of typical restoration techniques on ecosystem properties. In 1994, the Longleaf Pine Restoration Project (LPRP) was established in fire-excluded longleaf pine sa...

  16. Effects of Afforestation with Pines on Collembola Diversity in the Limestone hills of Szárhalom (West Hungary)

    OpenAIRE

    TÓTH, Viktória; WINKLER, Dániel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the responses of collembolan communities to pine afforestation in an area formerly characterized by a mosaic of autochthonous downy oak woodland and steppe meadows. Study sites were selected in mixed stands of black pine and Scots pine and control samples were taken from downy oak stands and open steppe meadows. A total of 1884 Collembola specimens belonging to 66 species were collected. Three species, namely Protaphorura pannonica (Onychiuridae), Tomocerus mixtus (Tomoceridae...

  17. Mediterranean pine and oak distribution in southern Spain: Is there a mismatch between regeneration and adult distribution?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Urbieta, Itzíar; Luis V. García; Zavala, Miguel A.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Questions: What is the current distribution of pine and oak species along environmental gradients in southern Spain? Do pine and oak regeneration niches differ from the environmental niches of adults? Is oak species regeneration favoured under the canopy of pine forests? Location: Forest areas of Andalusia ( 87 600km2, southern Spain). Methods: We compiled extensive forest inventory data to explore differences in abundance (basal area, m2 ha 1) patterns of adults (dbh 47.4 c...

  18. On the role of bulk properties and fuel species on the burning dynamics of pine forest litters

    OpenAIRE

    SIMEONI, A.; Bartoli, P.; Torero, J L; Santoni, P.-A.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to characterize pine needles as a fuel for a better understanding of the burning dynamics of forest floor fuels in wildland fires. Three Mediterranean species of pine have been studied: Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus laricio. These species have been chosen because they present close but slightly different physical and chemical properties. The study focuses on the influence of the bulk and particle properties on the burning dynamics of pine needles litters. The perme...

  19. Operation of neat pine oil biofuel in a diesel engine by providing ignition assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined. • Pine oil suffers lower cetane number, which mandates for necessary ignition assistance. • Ignition support is provided by preheating the inlet air and incorporating a glow plug. • At an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, the BTE for pine oil was found to be in par with diesel. • CO and smoke emissions were reduced by 13.2% and 16.8%, respectively, for neat pine oil. - Abstract: The notion to provide ignition support for the effective operation of lower cetane fuels in a diesel engine has been ably adopted in the present study for the sole fuel operation of pine oil biofuel. Having noted that the lower cetane number and higher self-ignition temperature of pine oil biofuel would inhibit its direct use in a diesel engine, combined ignition support in the form of preheating the inlet air and installing a glow plug in the cylinder head has been provided to improve the auto-ignition of pine oil. While, an air preheater, installed in the inlet manifold of the engine, preheated the inlet air so as to provide ignition assistance partially, the incorporation of glow plug in the cylinder head imparted the further required ignition support appropriately. Subsequently, the operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined in a single cylinder diesel engine and the engine test results were analyzed. From the experimental investigation, though the engine performance and emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were noted to be better for pine oil with an inlet air temperature of 40 °C, the engine suffered the setback of knocking due to delayed SOC (start of combustion). However, with the ignition support through glow plug and preheating of inlet air, the engine knocking was prevented and the normal operation of the engine was ensured. Categorically, at an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was found to be in par with diesel, while

  20. Effect of Pine Oil on Antihyperglycemic and Some Biochemical Parameters in serum of Streptozotocin Induced Tip-2 Diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin DEMİR; Yilmaz, Ökkeş

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of pine oil on hyperglycemia and some biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced type- 2 diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three groups: control (C) diabetes (STZ-DM), diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO) grups. Diabetes induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). 1 ml/kg the dose pine oil was intraperitoneally injected twice in a week to the diabetes+pine oil (STZ-DM+PO), plus 1 g/L dose of pure ...

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of pollution with radionuclides of Chernobyl origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of the spectra of laser-induced fluorescence (hereafter-SF) of pine (needles) growing in the conditions of Chernobyl origin radionuclides pollution are presented. A complex analysis of fluorescent, biometric and radiological biochemical parameters of pine needles has been performed. Changes in the impact of incorporated radionuclides '137Cs and 90Sr on certain zones of pine SF needles have been detected. It has been shown that the analysis of different-age pine SF needles can be used as a test-method for detection of pollution with 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides

  2. Cyclic occurrence of fire and its role in carbon dynamics along an edaphic moisture gradient in longleaf pine ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Whelan

    Full Text Available Fire regulates the structure and function of savanna ecosystems, yet we lack understanding of how cyclic fire affects savanna carbon dynamics. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how predicted changes in climate may impact the interaction between fire and carbon cycling in these ecosystems. This study utilizes a novel combination of prescribed fire, eddy covariance (EC and statistical techniques to investigate carbon dynamics in frequently burned longleaf pine savannas along a gradient of soil moisture availability (mesic, intermediate and xeric. This research approach allowed us to investigate the complex interactions between carbon exchange and cyclic fire along the ecological amplitude of longleaf pine. Over three years of EC measurement of net ecosystem exchange (NEE show that the mesic site was a net carbon sink (NEE = -2.48 tonnes C ha(-1, while intermediate and xeric sites were net carbon sources (NEE = 1.57 and 1.46 tonnes C ha(-1, respectively, but when carbon losses due to fuel consumption were taken into account, all three sites were carbon sources (10.78, 7.95 and 9.69 tonnes C ha(-1 at the mesic, intermediate and xeric sites, respectively. Nonetheless, rates of NEE returned to pre-fire levels 1-2 months following fire. Consumption of leaf area by prescribed fire was associated with reduction in NEE post-fire, and the system quickly recovered its carbon uptake capacity 30-60 days post fire. While losses due to fire affected carbon balances on short time scales (instantaneous to a few months, drought conditions over the final two years of the study were a more important driver of net carbon loss on yearly to multi-year time scales. However, longer-term observations over greater environmental variability and additional fire cycles would help to more precisely examine interactions between fire and climate and make future predictions about carbon dynamics in these systems.

  3. Effect of post treatment temperature and humidity conditions on fixation performance of CCA-C treated red pine and southern pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Rates of fixation in chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) treated red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and southern pine (Pinus spp) sapwood specimens using retention of 1.5, 2.0, 6.4 kg·m-3 are compared at temperature (T) ranging from 70 ℃ to 50 ℃ and 5 different relative humidity (RH) conditions. The samples were investigated using the expressate method to follow chromium fixation. Red pine fixes faster than southern pine under all 11 post treatment schedules. The fixation rates for both species are not significantly different while the blocks were fixed under 6 fixation/drying schedules that differed only in the order of T/RH conditions applied. The rate of fixation of all samples in any fixation stage were reduced when the blocks were fixed under lower humidity conditions in spite of no change in chamber temperature. Some of this influence can be attributed to the effect of humidity on heat transfer into the wood and cooling of the wood surface.

  4. Effects of artificial defoliation of pines on the structure and physiology of the soil fungal community of a mixed pine-spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Ken; Raleigh, Christopher; New, Michael H.; Henson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    Loss of photosynthetic area can affect soil microbial communities by altering the availability of fixed carbon. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog filamentous-fungus plates to determine the effects of artificial defoliation of pines in a mixed pine-spruce forest on the composition of the fungal community in a forest soil. As measured by DGGE, two fungal species were affected significantly by the defoliation of pines (P soil fungus increased. The decrease in the amount of Cenococcum organisms may have occurred because of the formation of extensive hyphal networks by species of this genus, which require more of the carbon fixed by their host, or because this fungus is dependent upon quantitative differences in spruce root exudates. The defoliation of pines did not affect the overall composition of the soil fungal community or fungal-species richness (number of species per core). Biolog filamentous-fungus plate assays indicated a significant increase (P soil fungi and the rate at which these substrates were used, which could indicate an increase in fungal-species richness. Thus, either small changes in the soil fungal community give rise to significant increases in physiological capabilities or PCR bias limits the reliability of the DGGE results. These data indicate that combined genetic and physiological assessments of the soil fungal community are needed to accurately assess the effect of disturbance on indigenous microbial systems.

  5. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Barringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae, cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  6. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. PMID:27065410

  7. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurement at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating to the system with a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the input in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were as important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the uptaken N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably.

  8. Quaternized pine sawdust in the treatment of mining wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Anni; Leiviskä, Tiina; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Hormi, Osmo; Tanskanen, Juha

    2016-06-01

    Mining wastewater was treated using quaternized pine sawdust (QPSD) anion exchanger. The wastewater contained heavy metals (e.g. Sb, As, Co, Cr, Ni, V, U), NO3(-), among others, and a high concentration of SO4(2-). A series of column cycles imitating a real treatment process was conducted (three sorption/desorption cycles, a maintenance cycle with HCl and two sorption/desorption cycles). The effects of contact time and temperature (5°C and 23°C) were studied to assess the applicability of QPSD in the treatment of cold mining effluents. At 5°C, 85% of nickel was removed but the sorption was slower than at 23°C (initial Ni concentration was about 39 µg/l). Nickel was also removed in column efficiently (85-100% reduction). Treatment with HCl during the maintenance cycles did not hinder nickel sorption. Nickel was desorbed with both NaCl and HCl. Contrary to expectations, nitrate was not sorbed. QPSD showed selectivity towards nickel. However, uptake of uranium and cobalt was detected in column. Neutron activation analysis was used to detect metals sorbed onto the QPSD, and uptake of several metals was confirmed. PMID:26585709

  9. Carbon and water vapor balance in a subtropical pine plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posse G

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation has been proposed as an effective tool for protecting primary and/or secondary forests and for mitigating atmospheric CO2. However, the dynamics of primary productivity differs between plantations and natural forests. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for carbon storage of a commercial pine plantation by determining its carbon balance. Measurements started when trees were aged 6 and ended when they were older than 8 years. We measured CO2 and water vapor concentrations using the Eddy covariance method. Gross primary productivity in 2010 and 2011 was 4290 ± 473 g C m-2 and 4015 ± 485 g C m-2, respectively. Ecosystem respiration ranged between 7 and 20 g C m-2 d-1, reaching peaks in all Februaries. Of the 30 months monitored, the plantation acted as carbon source for 21 months and as carbon sink for 6 months, while values close to neutrality were obtained during 3 months. The positive balance representing CO2 loss by the system was most likely due to the cut branches left on the ground following pruning activities. The plantation was subjected to pruning in January and September 2008 and to sanitary pruning in October 2010. In all cases, cut branches were not removed but remained on the ground. Residue management seems to have a very important impact on carbon balance.

  10. Spatial and temporal ecology of Scots pine ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Brian J; Genney, David R; Potts, Jacqueline M; Lennon, Jack J; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J

    2010-05-01

    Spatial analysis was used to explore the distribution of individual species in an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community to address: whether mycorrhizas of individual ECM fungal species were patchily distributed, and at what scale; and what the causes of this patchiness might be. Ectomycorrhizas were extracted from spatially explicit samples of the surface organic horizons of a pine plantation. The number of mycorrhizas of each ECM fungal species was recorded using morphotyping combined with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Semivariograms, kriging and cluster analyses were used to determine both the extent and scale of spatial autocorrelation in species abundances, potential interactions between species, and change over time. The mycorrhizas of some, but not all, ECM fungal species were patchily distributed and the size of patches differed between species. The relative abundance of individual ECM fungal species and the position of patches of ectomycorrhizas changed between years. Spatial and temporal analysis revealed a dynamic ECM fungal community with many interspecific interactions taking place, despite the homogeneity of the host community. The spatial pattern of mycorrhizas was influenced by the underlying distribution of fine roots, but local root density was in turn influenced by the presence of specific fungal species. PMID:20202132

  11. Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine cone antitumor substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antitumor substances (Fractions VI and VII) prepared from the NaOH extract of pine cone significantly stimulated the iodination (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, these fractions did not significantly increase the iodination of nonadherent mononuclear cells, red blood cells, other human leukemic cell lines (U-937, THP-1, K-562), human diploid fibroblast (UT20Lu), or mouse cell lines (L-929, J774.1). Iodination of HL-60 cells, which were induced to differentiate by treatment with either retinoic acid or tumor necrosis factor, were stimulated less than untreated cells. The stimulation of iodination of both PMN and HL-60 cells required the continuous presence of these fractions and was almost completely abolished by the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. The stimulation activity of these fractions was generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. Possible mechanisms of extract stimulation of myeloperoxidase-containing cell iodination are discussed

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia turnover in a longleaf pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Joseph J; Mitchell, Robert J; Kuehn, Kevin A; Pecot, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Elucidation of the patterns and controls of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests has been hindered by a poor understanding of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelia (EFM) dynamics. In this study, EFM standing biomass (based on soil ergosterol concentrations), production (based on ergosterol accrual in ingrowth cores), and turnover rate (the quotient of annual production and average standing biomass estimates) were assessed in a 25-yr-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) plantation where C flow was manipulated by foliar scorching and N fertilization for 5 yr before study initiation. In the controls, EFM standing biomass was 30 ± 7 g m(-2) , production was 279 ± 63 g m(-2)  yr(-1) , and turnover rate was 10 ± 3 times yr(-1) . The scorched × fertilized treatment had significantly higher EFM standing biomass (38 ± 8 g m(-2) ), significantly lower production (205 ± 28 g m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a trend of decreased turnover rate (6 ± 1 times yr(-1) ). The EFM turnover estimates, which are among the first reported for natural systems, indicate that EFM are a dynamic component of ecosystems, and that conventional assessments have probably underestimated the role of EFM in C flow and nutrient cycling. PMID:26537020

  13. Pinon Pine power project nears start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatar, G.A. [Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States); Gonzalez, M. [Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Clinton, NJ (United States); Mathur, G.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The IGCC facility being built by Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) at their Tracy Station in Nevada is one of three IGCC facilities being cost-shared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under their Clean Coal Technology Program. The specific technology to be demonstrated in SPPCo`s Round Four Project, known as the Pinon Pine IGCC Project, includes the KRW air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasification process with hot gas cleanup coupled with a combined cycle facility based on a new GE 6FA gas turbine. Construction of the 100 MW IGCC facility began in February 1995 and the first firing of the gas turbine occurred as scheduled on August 15, 1996 with natural gas. Mechanical completion of the gasifier and other outstanding work is due in January 1997. Following the startup of the plant, the project will enter a 42 month operating and testing period during which low sulfur western and high sulfur eastern or midwestern coals will be processed.

  14. PLYWOOD MANUFACTURE FROM FIVE SPECIES OF TROPICAL PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming at evaluating the feasibility of the use of 5 species of tropical pine to plywood manufacture. The following species were studied: Pinus caribaea, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, Pinus tecunumannii and Pinus taeda, being the last used as the referential species. Plywood were manufactured with 5 plies, bonded with urea-formaldheyde and fenol-formaldheyde resin. The results of thickness sweeling and recovering were the same for all species studied, with exception to thickness sweeling for the boards glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin. The boards made from Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa, showed the higher values in modulus of elasticity. The boards  of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa and Pinus taeda, glued with fenol-formaldheyde resin, resulted in higher values of the modulus of rupture, in comparison to other species. For the glue line strength, the boards of Pinus maximinoi, Pinus taeda and Pinus chiapensis, showed the better results. Based on the general results of this research it, could be said that the Pinus maximinoi and Pinus oocarpa present the high potentiality to plywood manufacture.

  15. Modeling Crown Biomass for Four Pine Species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Zou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the main variables affecting crown biomass, we measured crown biomass and a number of variables describing tree size, such as stem diameter at breast height (D, tree height (H, crown width (Cw and crown length (Cl, from 754 sample trees of four pine species in China, specifically, Pinus massoniana, P. yunnanensis, P. tabulaeformis and P. elliottii. In addition, we developed individual tree crown biomass equations and compatible branch and needle biomass equations based on one-, two- and multi-variable models using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and error-in-variable simultaneous equations. The results showed that: (i crown biomass was strongly correlated to D and H, and the new combined variables (D4/H and (D2/H were suitable for modeling two- and multi-variable crown biomass equations, respectively; (ii the four species were ranked as P. yunnanensis, P. massoniana, P. elliottii and P. tabulaeformis from small to large based on estimates from crown biomass equations, and the crown biomass estimate of P. tabulaeformis was about 60% greater than that of P. yunnanensis; (iii the ratio of branch to crown biomass increased with increasing D, and the four species were ranked as P. elliottii, P. tabulaeformis, P. massoniana and P. yunnanensis from small to large by the proportion of the branch to crown biomass; (iv the mean prediction errors (MPE’s of the crown biomass equations for the four species were less than 10%, which could meet precision needs for biomass estimation.

  16. Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought.

    A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

  17. Earth system consequences of a Pine Island Glacier collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mattias; Schmittner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    An intermediate complexity climate model is used to simulate the impact of an accelerated Pine Island Glacier mass loss on the large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Simulations are performed for pre-industrial conditions using hosing levels consistent with present day observation of 3,000 m3 s‑1, at an accelerated rate of 6,000 m3 s‑1, and at a total collapse rate of 100,000 m3 s‑1, and in all experiments the hosing lasted 100 years. It is shown that even a modest input of meltwater from the glacier can introduce an initial cooling over the upper part of the Southern Ocean due to increased stratification and ice cover leading to a reduced upward heat flux from Circumpolar Deep Water. This causes global ocean heat content to increase and global surface air temperatures to decrease. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) increases, presumably due to changes in the density difference between Antarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. Simulations with a simultaneous hosing and increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations show smaller effects of the hosing on global surface air temperature and ocean heat content, which we attribute to the melting of Southern Ocean sea ice. The sensitivity of the AMOC to the hosing is also reduced as the warming by the atmosphere completely dominates the perturbations. Further consequences for oceanic biogeochemical cycles in realistic future warming scenarios are discussed.

  18. Optimum nutrition and nitrogen saturation in Scots pine stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, C.O.; Aronsson, Aron; Flower-Ellis, Jeremy [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. for Production Ecology; Popovic, Budimir [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    Long-term field experiments are described, in which nitrogen and other plant nutrients were added regularly to young Scots pine stands at two sites in Sweden, Lisselbo (1969-1988) and Norrliden (1971-1989; some treatments still in progress). A main aim was to establish a range of needle nitrogen concentration levels, as stable as possible, and to study the effects of these and of other factors (other than nutrients, soil acidity changes, irrigation) on tree growth and tree nutrient status. The results confirmed previous experience that nitrogen supply normally is a growth-limiting factor in boreal forest, but showed that regular nitrogen additions can induce boron and magnesium deficiency, and low internal concentrations in the trees, e.g. of potassium and phosphorus. Other aspects of ecosystem functioning at varied nitrogen supply - biomass production, nutrient balances for several elements, vegetation changes, soil acidity changes, nitrification, studied by ourselves or by cooperating research groups - are reviewed. The importance of long-term field experiments in the study of urgent environmental problems, such as nitrogen saturation and soil acidification, is discussed.

  19. Emissions of BVOC from lodgepole pine in response to mountain pine beetle attack in high and low mortality forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Duhl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this screening study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from intact branches of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta trees were measured from trees at two forested sites that have been impacted differently by the mountain pine beetle (MPB, with one having higher mortality and the other with lower mortality. Differences in the amounts and chemical diversity of BVOC between the two sites and from apparently healthy trees versus trees in different stages of MPB attack are presented, as well as (for one site observed seasonal variability in emissions. A brief comparison is made of geological and climatic characteristics as well as prior disturbances (both natural and man-made at each site. Trees sampled at the site experiencing high MPB-related tree mortality had lower chemodiversity in terms of monoterpene (MT emission profiles, while profiles were more diverse at the lower-mortality site. Also at the higher-mortality site, MPB-infested trees in various stages of decline had lower emissions of sesquiterpenes (SQTs compared to healthy trees, while at the site with lower mortality, MPB-survivors had significantly higher SQT emissions during part of the growing season when compared to both uninfested and newly infested trees. SQT profiles differed between the two sites and, like monoterpene and oxygenated VOC profiles, varied through the season. For the low-mortality site in which repeated measurements were made over the course of the early summer–late fall, higher chemical diversity was observed in early- compared to late-season measurements for all compound classes investigated (MT, oxygenated VOC, and SQT, with the amount of change appearing to correlate to the MPB status of the trees studied. Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO had a distinct seasonal signal but were not much different between healthy or infested trees, except in trees with dead needles, from which emissions of this compound were negligible, and in late

  20. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Modeling Effects of Climate Change and Fire Management on Western White Pine (Pinus monticola in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Keane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to profoundly influence vegetation patterns and community compositions, either directly through increased species mortality and shifts in species distributions or indirectly through disturbance dynamics such as increased wildfire activity and extent, shifting fire regimes, and pathogenesis. Mountainous landscapes have been shown to be particularly sensitive to climate changes and are likely to experience significant impacts under predicted future climate regimes. Western white pine (Pinus monticola, a five-needle pine species that forms the most diverse of the white pine forest cover types in the western United States, is vulnerable to an interacting suite of threats that includes climate change, fire suppression, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae that have already caused major changes in species distribution and abundance. We used the mechanistic simulation model FireBGCv2 to simulate effects of climate change and fire management on western white pines in a mountainous watershed in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Our results suggest that warming temperatures favor increased abundance of western white pine over existing climax and shade tolerant species in the study area, mainly because warmer conditions potentiate fire dynamics, including increased wildfire frequency and extent, which facilitates regeneration. Suppression of wildfires reduced the area dominated by western white pine, but fire suppression was less effective at limiting burned area extent and fire frequency in a warmer and drier climate. Wildfires created canopy gaps that allowed for western white pine regeneration at a high enough rate to escape local extirpation from white pine blister rust. Western white pine appears to be a resilient species even under fairly extreme warming trajectories and shifting fire regimes, and may provide a hedge against vegetation community shifts away

  2. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  3. Monitoring and characterization of compost obtained from household waste and pine sawdust in a facultative reactor by conventional and spectroscopic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Sandro Xavier; Resseti, Rolan Roney; Zittel, Rosimara

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes a new facultative reactor configuration for the treatment of organic household waste and pine sawdust. The process was monitored and the compost characterized by conventional (temperature, moisture, pH, ash content and ratio C/N) conjugated with spectroscopic analyses (ultraviolet (UV)/visible (Vis) and infrared (IR)) and germination index. The spectroscopy results revealed enrichment of carbon-carbon unsaturation structures and a degradation of the aliphatic structures. The results showed that stability of the final product was reached after 90 days and that the compost obtained presents substantial richness of stabilized organic matter and an absence of toxicity, so it may be considered as an organic fertilizer. Finally, this study led to the conclusion that the reactor proposed can be a promising technology for the management of organic household waste and sawdust. PMID:25106532

  4. Genetic diversity in Scots pine populations along a radiation exposure gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A., E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Volkova, Polina Yu.

    2014-10-15

    Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the endosperm and embryos of seeds from Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h led to a significant increase in the rate of enzymatic loci mutations. The main parameters of genetic variability of the affected Scots pine populations had considerably higher values than those from the reference site. Changes in the genetic makeup of Scots pine populations were observed at dose rates greater than 10.4 μGy/h. However, the higher mutation rate had no effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. - Highlights: • Polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes was studied in affected Scots pine populations. • Genetic processes in affected Scots pine populations increase genetic diversity. • Chronic exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h lead to increasing of mutation rates. • Changes in population genetic structure were observed at dose rates from 10.4 μGy/h. • The higher rate of mutations had no effect on antioxidant enzymes activities.

  5. The 226 Ra, 210 Pb and essential elements bioavailability to pines at Urgeirica uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to correlate the uptake of the natural radionuclides 226Ra and 210Pb with the essential elements, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the pines growing at the 'Urgeirica uranium mill tailings. It can be concluded that the potassium, calcium and magnesium mean concentration ratio values are, about two to three orders of magnitude, higher than the values obtained to 226Ra and 210Pb for pines growing on the Urgeirica uranium mill tailings. The concentration ratio values higher than 1 obtained to the potassium, calcium and magnesium elements indicate that pines are behaving as accumulators to these elements. Contrarily, the 226Ra and 210Pb concentration ratio values lower than 1 indicates that pines are behaving as excluders to these radionuclides. So, it can be concluded that this kind of plants is not suitable to a phyto remediation strategy. In general, a marginally significant correlation was observed between the potassium, calcium and magnesium concentrations, the cation-exchange capacity and the ph in the tailings and the 226Ra and 210Pb pines/tailings concentration ratios. (N.C.)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Pine Needles and Coal for Electricity Generation using Carbon Taxation and Emission Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating global climate change via emission control and taxation is promising for strengthening the economic benefits of bioenergy generation and utilization. This study examines the cost effectiveness of pine needles as an alternative fuel for off-grid electricity generation in India. We first examined the changes of prices in coal for electricity generation due to CO2 emission reductions and taxes using experimental data of gasification plants. The time value of money and depreciation scale were used to find out the real levellized cost of electricity generation of gasification plants. Then, the costs of electricity generation fuelled by pine needles and coal were estimated using the cost analysis method. Our results indicate that pine needles would have more competitive edge than coal if emission had taxed at about an emission tax INR 525.15 Mg-1 of CO2 (US$ 8.4, or higher would be needed for pine needles at a yield of 202.176 dry Mg hm-2 yr. The price of coal used for electricity generation would have significantly increased if global CO2 emission had abridged by 20% or more. However, pine needles were found a much better fuel source with an increasing yield of 5.05 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to power generation and 2.335 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to feedstock production.

  7. Ecohydrology of adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems: the consequences of climate change and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe and lodgepole pine forests are two of the most widespread vegetation types in the western United States and they play crucial roles in the hydrologic cycle of these water-limited regions. We used a process-based ecosystem water model to characterize the potential impact of climate change and disturbance (wildfire and beetle mortality) on water cycling in adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems. Despite similar climatic and topographic conditions between these ecosystems at the sites examined, lodgepole pine, and sagebrush exhibited consistent differences in water balance, notably more evaporation and drier summer soils in the sagebrush and greater transpiration and less water yield in lodgepole pine. Canopy disturbances (either fire or beetle) have dramatic impacts on water balance and availability: reducing transpiration while increasing evaporation and water yield. Results suggest that climate change may reduce snowpack, increase evaporation and transpiration, and lengthen the duration of dry soil conditions in the summer, but may have uncertain effects on drainage. Changes in the distribution of sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems as a consequence of climate change and/or altered disturbance regimes will likely alter ecosystem water balance.

  8. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  9. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krznaric, Erik [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Verbruggen, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP242, Bd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wevers, Jan H.L. [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Carleer, Robert [Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Colpaert, Jan V., E-mail: jan.colpaert@uhasselt.b [Environmental Biology Group, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2009-05-15

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  10. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs. PMID:26313953

  11. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J Neil

    2007-06-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO(2)(-)/HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. PMID:17400347

  12. Genetic diversity in Scots pine populations along a radiation exposure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes were studied in the endosperm and embryos of seeds from Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Chronic radiation exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h led to a significant increase in the rate of enzymatic loci mutations. The main parameters of genetic variability of the affected Scots pine populations had considerably higher values than those from the reference site. Changes in the genetic makeup of Scots pine populations were observed at dose rates greater than 10.4 μGy/h. However, the higher mutation rate had no effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. - Highlights: • Polymorphism of antioxidant enzymes was studied in affected Scots pine populations. • Genetic processes in affected Scots pine populations increase genetic diversity. • Chronic exposure at dose rates from 0.8 μGy/h lead to increasing of mutation rates. • Changes in population genetic structure were observed at dose rates from 10.4 μGy/h. • The higher rate of mutations had no effect on antioxidant enzymes activities

  13. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: A fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils. - The evolutionary adaptation for higher Cd tolerance in Suillus luteus, an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is of major importance for the amelioration of Cd toxicity in pine trees exposed to high Cd concentrations.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  15. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  16. Landscape pattern and blister rust infection in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) at alpine treeline, Northern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Lauren Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a foundation and keystone species at alpine treelines of the northern Rocky Mountains and is threatened by the fungus white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This disease affects all five-needled white pines, but has caused particularly widespread mortality in whitebark pine. Objectives of this research were: 1) to characterize the landscape structure of the treeline study sites at Divide Mountain in Glacier National Park and at Wyoming Creek in th...

  17. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arn. ssp. laricio (Poiret) Maire) distribution in the Sila mountain range

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaci A; Travaglini D; Menguzzato G; Nocentini S; Veltri A; Iovino F

    2015-01-01

    The most well-known and vast Calabrian pine forests are in the Sila mountain range, southern Italy. In this paper, present-day distribution of Calabrian pine in the Sila district was analyzed and compared with forest maps dating back to 1935 in order to assess the changes in land use. Main ecological and anthropogenic factors affecting Calabrian pine forest distribution were investigated by logistic regression models to identify the most important predictors of Ca­labrian pine persistence, ex...

  18. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Kløve, B.

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D sandy sediment profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modelling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover) and timing (thickness of the unsaturated zone) of groundwater recharge. Scots pine canopy was parameterized to leaf area index (LAI) using forestry inventory data. Uncertainty in the parameters controlling sediment hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration (ET) was carried over from the Monte Carlo runs to the final recharge estimates. Different mechanisms for lake, soil, and snow evaporation and transpiration were used in the model set-up. Finally, the model output was validated with independent recharge estimates using the water table fluctuation (WTF) method and baseflow estimation. The results indicated that LAI is important in controlling total recharge amount. Soil evaporation (SE) compensated for transpiration for areas with low LAI values, which may be significant in optimal management of forestry and recharge. Different forest management scenarios tested with the model showed differences in annual recharge of up to 100 mm. The uncertainty in recharge estimates arising from the simulation parameters was lower than the interannual variation caused by climate conditions. It proved important to take unsaturated thickness and vegetation cover into account when estimating spatially and temporally distributed recharge in sandy unconfined aquifers.

  19. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems by increasing the availability of reactive nitrogen. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurements at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating in the system, mainly in woody biomass, at a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the inputs in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were equally important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the assimilated N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably, but there are no signs of N saturation. Further research is needed to estimate soil N2 fluxes (emission and fixation, which may amount up to several kg N ha−1 yr−1.

  20. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  1. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  2. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  3. Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G subglutinans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, G. circinata (the cause of pitch canker in pines), and G. subglutinans (avirulent on pine), were found to have limited interfertility in hybrid crosses. MAT idiomorphs, polymorphisms in the histone H3 gene, vegetative compatibili...

  4. 75 FR 65613 - Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for the Pine Mountain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... September 25, 2009 (74 FR 48934). The River Valley Regional Water District, sponsor of the study, has... Statement for the Pine Mountain Dam & Lake Project, AR AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of...) is withdrawing its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Pine...

  5. 9 CFR 72.19 - Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. 72.19 Section 72.19 Animals... Interstate shipments and use of pine straw, grass, litter from quarantined area; prohibited until disinfected. Pine straw, grass, or similar litter collected from tick-infested pastures, ranges, or premises...

  6. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  7. Cr(VI Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Núñez-Delgado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VIŸL−1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% and 66%, respectively. Sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich and Lineal models. In view of the results, both materials can be considered of very limited value to remove Cr from polluted soil and water, which can be of relevance regarding its appropriate use as biosorbents and recycled by-products.

  8. Cr(VI) Sorption/Desorption on Pine Sawdust and Oak Wood Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Nóvoa-Muñoz, JuanCarlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study Cr(VI) sorption/desorption on two by-products from the wood industry: pine sawdust and oak wood ash. The retention/release experiments were carried out using standard batch-type trials. In the sorption-phase experiments, pine sawdust showed 23% sorption when a concentration of 100 mg Cr(VI)ŸL-1 was added, whereas sorption on oak wood ash was 17%. In the desorption-phase, chromium release was clearly higher from pine sawdust than from oak wood ash (98% and 66%, respectively). Sorption curves were well fitted to the Freundlich and Lineal models. In view of the results, both materials can be considered of very limited value to remove Cr from polluted soil and water, which can be of relevance regarding its appropriate use as biosorbents and recycled by-products. PMID:26230705

  9. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  10. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  11. The role of vanillin and p-coumaric acid in the growth of Scotch pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Michniewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It was stated that vanillin and p-coumaric acid used at concentrations 10-8-10-5M stimulated the growth of pine seedlings. Most effective were these substances used at concentration 10-7M. Both phenolic compounds stimulated the elongation, fresh and dry weight in very young seedlings (up to 3-4 weeks and increased the fresh and dry weight only in older ones (7 weeks. The stimulation of growth processes in pine seedlings treated with vanillin and p-coumaric acid coincided with the increase of auxins in roots and with the decrease of free gibberellins in these plant organs. Neither vanillin nor p-coumaric acid influenced the level of ABA-like inhibitor both in the shoots and roots of pine seedlings.

  12. Biomass logistics analysis for large scale biofuel production: case study of loblolly pine and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Withers, Mitch R; Seifkar, Navid; Field, Randall P; Barrett, Steven R H; Herzog, Howard J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the costs, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the biomass supply chain for large scale biofuel production. Two types of energy crop were considered, switchgrass and loblolly pine, as representative of herbaceous and woody biomass. A biomass logistics model has been developed to estimate the feedstock supply system from biomass production through transportation. Biomass in the form of woodchip, bale and pellet was investigated with road, railway and waterway transportation options. Our analysis indicated that the farm or forest gate cost is lowest for loblolly pine whole tree woodchip at $39.7/dry tonne and highest for switchgrass round bale at $72.3/dry tonne. Switchgrass farm gate GHG emissions is approximately 146kgCO2e/dry tonne, about 4 times higher than loblolly pine. The optimum biomass transportation mode and delivered form are determined by the tradeoff between fixed and variable costs for feedstock shipment. PMID:25710677

  13. Growth models and site index table of natural Korean pine forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuwen; Li Shi; Cui Hong; Li Changsheng; Lju Peng; Zhang Junhua

    1999-01-01

    According to the growth characteristics of natural Korean pine (Pinus Koraiensis) forests, 6 equations such as Chapman-Richards equation, Logistic equation, Power equation, and so on were selected to fit for the growth models for Korean pine forest. The growth models were developed based on 208 random trees and 240 dominant trees. Results show that the Chapman-Richards equation is the best model for estimating tree height by age and DBH, while the Parabola equation is fittest for predicting DBH by age or estimating age from DBH The site index table of Korean pine forest was compiled by using the proportional method with the Chapman-Richards equation as the guide curve and validated by accuracy test.

  14. Functional analysis of the cellulose gene of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, using RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H B; Lu, Q; Liang, J; Zhang, X Y

    2011-01-01

    Cellulases are pathogenic substances suspected to be responsible for the development of the early symptoms of nematode disease. The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Parasitaphelenchidae), is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, which kills millions of pine trees. We used RNA interference (RNAi), a reverse genetic tool, to analyze the function of the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene of B. xylophilus, which causes the most serious forest tree disease in China and the rest of eastern Asia. Silencing of this gene was detected through real-time PCR and cellulase activity assays after soaking for 24 h in dsRNA. The cellulase gene silencing effects differed among various siRNAs. The propagation and dispersal ability of these nematodes decreased when the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene was silenced. It is important to select an effective siRNA before performing an RNAi test. PMID:21948755

  15. Investigation of Radionuclide Concentrations in Pine Needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of measurements concentrations in pine needles in Vietnam after the Chernobyl accident. Investigations were made since second half of 1986 to 1988. Increasing of concentration radionuclide levels in 1986 was not significant and was ended at the end of 1987. The concentrations of radionuclide Cs-137 in pine needles were compared with those in precipitations. The pine needles can be recommended as a useful and accessible material for supplementary monitoring of radioactive situation in the environment. The results obtained can contribute to the overall picture of studies on the dynamics of radioactive distribution and global fallouts formed by macro scale nuclear accidents. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of Δ13C in tree-rings of Aleppo pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aim: To study the spatiotemporal variability of Δ13C using a tree-ring network of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, we tried to understand some of the environmental drivers behind changes in Δ13C as well as to decide the most optimal sites to infer paleoclimatic information using such variables. We also try to understand key physiological aspects of P. halepensis. Methods: In order to do that, we have collected biannual Δ13C time series (1950-1998) together with mean annual precipitation (MAP), tree-ring width (TRW) and remote sensing (NDVI) data, for 7 different locations along a precipitation gradient. We assessed how correlations between variables changed along that gradient. In addition to that, we have also looked at how that precipitation gradient changed along the years and thus its relationships with the Δ13C at the spatial level, giving us an idea whether changes in MAP at each site could affect the relationship between these two variables. Results: We found that a log model better explains the relationship between Δ13C and MAP and that it reaches a saturation point at values above 800 mm of MAP. Similarly, we found that, in the drier sites, correlations between Δ13C and precipitation were higher than in wetter ones. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) of Δ13C was a good indicator of the correlation between Δ13C and MAP. Similarly, the mean and the CV of TRW and summer NDVI were good indicators of the level of such correlation between Δ13C and MAP. On the other hand, the inter-site analysis of the data suggested that during dry years exists a stronger relationship between Δ13C and precipitation than in wet years. Discussion: Our results pointed out that the threshold for water limitation for Aleppo pine was around MAP=800 mm, an amount that might be sufficient for the tree to grow during most of the growing season without altering its water use efficiency (WUE) by closing

  18. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

  19. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial...... industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  20. The role of vanillin and p-coumaric acid in the growth of Scotch pine seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Michniewicz; E. Galoch

    2015-01-01

    It was stated that vanillin and p-coumaric acid used at concentrations 10-8-10-5M stimulated the growth of pine seedlings. Most effective were these substances used at concentration 10-7M. Both phenolic compounds stimulated the elongation, fresh and dry weight in very young seedlings (up to 3-4 weeks) and increased the fresh and dry weight only in older ones (7 weeks). The stimulation of growth processes in pine seedlings treated with vanillin and p-coumaric acid coincided with the increase o...

  1. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gharavi; S. Homeni

    1990-01-01

    In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure ) were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out o...

  2. Irradiation on teak and pine agroforestry system and the effect on growth of soybean

    OpenAIRE

    DJOKO PURNOMO; SYUKUR MAKMUR SITOMPUL

    2006-01-01

    Teak and pines are the largest tree forests in Central of Java so that they are very potential to be developed as an argoforestry system. The average Relative Irradiation Fraction (RIF)’s in the teak and pines trees are 50% and 14% respectively. Meanwhile, soybean is sun-loving crop potentially to be cultivated in the agroforestry system. The aim of the research was to study the response of the soybean (Glyicine soya) varieties to the tree canopy pruning. The experiment was conducted at teak ...

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of energy exchange above a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    S. Launiainen

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-years of eddy-covariance measurements conducted above a boreal Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface conductance (gs) and energy partitioning. The gs had distinct annual course, driven by the seasonal cycle of the Scots pine. Low gs (2–3 mm s−1 in April...

  4. Seasonal and inter annual variability of energy exchange above a boreal Scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    S. Launiainen

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-years of eddy-covariance measurements conducted above a boreal Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, were analyzed to assess the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface conductance (gs) and energy partitioning. The gs had distinct annual course, driven by the seasonal cycle of the Scots pine. Low gs (2–3 mm s−1

  5. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Nautiyal; Vir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Oak (Quercus leucotichophora) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potent...

  6. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  7. Swath-bathymetric Mapping of Glacial Landforms in the Central Pine Island Trough, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, J. B.; Nitsche, F. O.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Kirshner, A. E.; Kirchner, N.; O'regan, M. A.; Mohammad, R.; Eriksson, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Pine Island Glacier drains the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Amundsen Sea. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Pine Island Glacier extended nearly 500 km from its present location, across the continental shelf to the shelf break. The Oden-Southern-Ocean 2009/2010 (OSO0910) expedition with Swedish icebreaker Oden carried out swath-bathymetric mapping and chirp sonar profiling of the mid-shelf section of Pine Island Trough. Since the bay was virtually ice free during the 2010 austral summer, the swath-bathymetric mapping could be conducted as a systematic survey which covered a coherent area of 4,140 km^2 of the mid-shelf glacial trough. The swath-bathymetric mapping and chirp sonar profiling were carried out with Oden's hull-mounted Kongsberg 12 kHz EM122 1°x1° multibeam echo sounder and integrated SBP 120 3°x3° chirp sonar. From these data we present new insights into to the glacial dynamics during the deglaciation of the mid-continental shelf since LGM. The landforms imaged in Pine Island Trough indicate stepwise retreat of the Pine Island Ice Stream punctuated by periods of grounding line stability and a minor advance followed by episodes of rapid retreat. Notably, directions of mapped mega scale lineations clearly show that the Pine Island Ice Stream changed its flow path during the advance. This advance followed a massive ice shelf break-up and grounding line retreat inferred from mapped corrugation ridges and iceberg plow ridges previously reported by Jakobsson et al., (2011). The periods of grounding line stability during the deglaciation are marked by sediment accumulations in the form of grounding zone wedges. Some of these wedges are here mapped to their full extents and in sufficient detail to characterize spatial dimensions and to estimate the volume of deposited sediment. Considering a range of sediment flux rates from the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream we estimate that the largest and most clearly defined grounding zone wedge located

  8. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes

  9. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J. Neil

    2007-01-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00–6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitro...

  10. Near infrared spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. B., III; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred carbon in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these materials created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450??C) were studied. Near infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols as determined by titration) were available for 56 different samples (Not all samples charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature and duration of charring. Examination of spectra and correlation plots indicated that changes in the constituents of the materials in question, such as loss of OH groups in carbohydrates, rather than direct determination of typical products produced by charring, such as carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols, were the basis for the spectral changes. Finally, while the spectral changes resulting from charring appeared to be relatively unique to each material, PLS calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols were successfully created (with R2 of 0.991, 0.943, 0.931 and 0.944, respectively) indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific set of charring conditions (i.e. material, temperature and time of heating). ?? IM Publications 2007.

  11. Commercial thinning of mature lodgepole pine to reduce susceptibility to mountain pine beetle. FRDA report No. 224, and FERIC special report No. SR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents results of a study conducted to examine the effect of commercial thinning and fertilizing of lodgepole pine on attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa Hopk.). At three study sites in the Cranbrook and Invermere Forest Districts of British Columbia, the researchers compared three harvesting treatments to an uncut control: a clearcut and commercial thins leaving trees at about 4- or 5-meter spacings. Equipment used included conventional hand-falling plus line skidders and crawler tractors, or mechanical systems including a feller-buncher, grapple-skidder, and excavator-mounted processor. The report documents the productivity and costs of the commercial thinning and clearcut harvesting operations, and compares the productivity of the equipment and practices used during the harvesting phase on each treatment. It also examines the operational feasibility of commercial thinning.

  12. Efficacy of Mospilan 20 SP and Trebon 30 EC in the protection of Scots pine Pinus silvestris L. against the common pine sawfly Diprion pini L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głowacka Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the possibilities to control the common pine sawfly Diprion pini L. with the use of plant protection products Mospilan 20 SP (20% acetamipryd and Trebon 30 EC (300 g etofenprox/l. Aerial insecticide treatments were applied onto experimental plots (100 ha in Scots pine stands, sprayed with approximately 3 l of spray solution/ha. Mospilan 20 SP at a rate 0.20 kg/ha caused 61%-76% mortality of D. pini larvae, whereas at a rate 0.25 kg/ha – 100% larval mortality. Trebon 30 EC aerial treatments at a rate 0.2 l/ha resulted in 100% larval mortality. Study results will be enclosed in the procedure of registration of the plant protection products for use in forestry.

  13. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  14. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  15. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bäck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles.

    Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes.

    Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40–97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum. An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were

  16. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published in...

  17. Carbohydrate accumulation in the needles of Siberian stone pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented is to study effects extracted from biologically active peat substances on carbohydrate accumulationprocesses. The study was carried out on 5-year-old Siberian stone pine seedlings grown in the nursery forest in the southern part of the Tomsk region. These seedlings were treated with a peat preparation, which was created in Tomsk. Four groups of experimental plants were organized on the analog principle. Each group consisted of 30 seedlings of average size and half of these seedlings were control. At the beginning of the vegetative season, a single treatment was applied to experimental plants with water solution peat preparation. The first group of plants was treated with a 0.1% solution; the dose was calculated by dry substance. For the second group, the dose was increased by 25%. For the third and fourth groups, the dose was decreased by 25% relative to the first group. Control plants were sprayed with water. Accumulation of carbohydrates and pigments as well as growth values in the 2-year- old needles were studied by standard methods. Glucose levels in the experimental plants existed within the limits 117-120%. On the whole, simple sugar quantity did not differs between experimental variants.Glucose synthesis was accompanied by changes in quantitative values of fructose. This, connected with glucose being a more stable compound, and compulsory conversion from glucose to labile form fructose was necessary. The amount of fructose in the experimental seedlings had a very wide range. This process was accompanied by shoot elongationin Siberian stone pine in the first year after treatment, with the fructose amount of 14% exceeding control values in the first and fourth group. Shoot growth was accompanied by increased fructose amount to 20% relative to control. A similar situation was observed afterwinter with respect to buds. Experimental plants dominated by number of buds

  18. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  19. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) stands post-Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Kuchma, N.D. (Department of Radiology and Land Restoration, Pripyat Research and Industrial Association, Chernobyl (Ukraine)); Askbrant, S. (National Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)); Pasternak, P.S.; Musica, V.V. (Lyes Research and Industrial Association, Kharykov (Ukraine))

    1994-10-14

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  20. 75 FR 66779 - Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV... to prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Ruby... methods. E-mail: fw8plancomments@fws.gov . Include ``Ruby Lake CCP'' in the subject line of the...

  1. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

  2. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zhang

    Full Text Available Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids.

  3. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elizabeth Harman-Ware

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts from the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β- pinene, camphene and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene and α-bisabolene. Diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic and neoabietic acids.

  4. Cultivation of the Pine Wilt Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Axenic Culture Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Jordan, W

    1982-01-01

    The pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been cultured axenically in vitro on soy peptone/yeast extract or modified Caenorhabditis medium supplemented with cholesterol and hemoglobin. Although growth, development and reproduction were best in soy peptone/yeast extract medium, satisfactory population size increases were observed in the chemically defined Caenorhaditis medium.

  5. Genetic variability of Central-Western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-González, Aritz;

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central–wester...

  6. Natural fibres-based polymers: Part I—Mechanical analysis of Pine needles reinforced biocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kumar Thakur; A S Singha

    2010-06-01

    Lack of resources and increasing environmental pollution has evoked great interest in the research of materials that are friendly to our health and environment. Polymer composites fabricated from natural fibres is currently the most promising area in polymer science. Keeping in view the various advantages of natural fibres, in current series of green composites a study on natural fibre reinforced polymer composites has been made. This paper presents the results of an experimental series designed to assess the possibility of Pine needles as reinforcing material in polymer composites. First of all, urea–formaldehyde resin was synthesized and optimized by evaluating its mechanical properties. Optimized resin was reinforced with employing Pine needles of different dimensions such as particle reinforcement, short fibre reinforcement and long fibre reinforcement. Experimental results obtained shows that mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength and wear resistance of UF resin increases to a considerable extent when reinforced with Pine needles. Further it has been observed that particle reinforcement is more effective as compared to short fibre and long fibre reinforcement. These results suggest that Pine needles can be potential candidates for use in natural fibre reinforced polymer composites. Thermal and morphological studies of these composites have also been carried out.

  7. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, A Teresa; Martins, M Rosário; Salvador, Cátia; Santos-Silva, Celeste; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely

    2013-01-01

    Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization. PMID:24294266

  8. Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ragonezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone pine (Pinus pinea L., like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM, which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop. Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr. S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the characterization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization.

  9. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  10. Sex Pheromone of the Pine False Webworm Acantholyda erythrocephala (Hymenoptera Pamphiliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Females of the pine false webworm Acantholyda erythrocephala (L) produce the sex pheromone (Z)-6,14-pentadecadienal, which attracts flying males in the field. Using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we detected (Z)-6,14-pentadeca...

  11. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  12. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Ansias-Manso, L.; Fernandez Calviño, David; Arias-Estévez, M.; Nóvoa-Muñoz, J.C.; Fernández-Sanjurjo, M.J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99...

  13. Ammonia, total reduced sulfides, and greenhouse gases of pine chip and corn stover bedding packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) when pine wood chips and corn stover were mixed in various...

  14. Can pine trees act as sources for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Pihlatie, M.; Vanhatalo, A.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Aaltonen, H.; Kolari, P.; Aalto, J.; Pumpanen, J.; Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Bäck, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 2013 (2013), s. 362-366. ISBN 952-5027-76-7. ISSN 0784-3496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : methane * nitrous oxide * scots pine * transport Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia has covered 18.1 million hectares of forest land showing the potential for exceptionally large-scale disturbance to influence watershed hydrology. Pine stands killed by the epidemic can experience reduced levels of evapotranspiration and precipitation interception, which can translate into an increase in soil moisture as observed by some forest practitioners during salvage logging in the epicenter of the outbreak. They reported the replacement of summer ground, dry firm soil areas, with winter ground areas identified by having wetter, less firm soils upon which forestry equipment operation is difficult or impossible before winter freeze-up. To decrease the likelihood of soil disturbance from harvesting, a set of hazard indicators was developed to predict wet ground areas in areas heavily infested by the mountain pine beetle. Hazard indicators were based on available GIS data, aerial photographs, and local knowledge. Indicators were selected by an iterative process that began with office-based selection of potential indicators, model development and prediction, field verification, and model refinement to select those indicators that explained most field data variability. Findings indicate that the most effective indicators were lodgepole pine content, understory, drainage density, soil texture, and the topographic index.

  16. ROOT GROWTH AND TURNOVER IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS IN OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of pollution and climate change on soil carbon dynamics are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of information regarding root production and turnover in natural ecosystems. In order to examine how root dynamics change with stand age in ponderosa pine forests (...

  17. [Chinese pine tree ring width chronology and its relations to climatic conditions in Qianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-Ju; Sun, Yu; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Shao, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Zhong-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Yu

    2007-10-01

    Taking Chinese pine in Qianshan Mountains as a sample, the tree ring width chronology including standard, residual, and Arstan chronologies was established. The results showed that the tree ring width of Chinese pine had a higher correlation with the temperature in May - July and in September - November, and significant positive correlations were observed between the tree ring width and the extreme minimum temperature in July and mean minimum temperature in September. The chronology had significant or very significant correlations with the extreme minimum temperature in December and next January, mean minimum temperature in January, annual precipitation, and the precipitation in April, May and last December. Chinese pine had stronger responses to the monthly/yearly water vapor pressure and relative humidity. The yearly and most monthly evaporation had negative effects on the growth, being most significant for the evaporation in April - July. The narrowed tree rings recorded by the chronology demonstrated the 30 times of extreme drought since 1 800. The growth of Chinese pine in Qianshan Mountains was also affected by the climate changes on global and hemisphere scales. There existed 11-, 23- and 50- year- common periodicity between the chronology and solar activity, and 10-, 20- and 45- year- common periodicity between the chronology and geomagnetic activity. PMID:18163297

  18. Ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north Florida's longleaf pine flatwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lubertazzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern North America are not well understood. This study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north Florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. Restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is important to understand how native faunal communities vary with ground cover variation. Using 4 sampling methods, we characterized the ant community and analyzed its within-habitat variation among 12 study sites. We found the highest plot species richness (55 species and within-habitat species richness (72 species ever recorded for North American ants. The ants formed three distinct communities. The low-diversity arboreal and subterranean assemblages varied little across forest stands while the diversity of the species-rich ground foraging ant community was negatively correlated with percent herbaceous cover. The imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (monogyne form, was unexpectedly found to be abundant in high herbaceous cover sites. Floral restoration of the pine flatwoods, which is increasing the proportion of herbaceous cover, is likely to cause an increase in the abundance of the imported fire ant.

  19. Defense Response Characteristics of Suburban Pine Stands of Krasnoyarsk City at Early Stage of Anthropogenous Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Polyakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002–2013, on permanent sample plots (PPs, the condition of suburban middle-aged pine stands of Krasnoyarsk was investigated. Annual assessments of parameters of defense response of stem phloem of the sample trees on the action of extractives from mycelium Ceratocystis laricicola (Redfern & Minter were carried out. The size of a phloem necrosis and its shift along a stem relative to inoculation hole were measured. The pine stands (polluted and conditionally background are convenient for determining condition changes at early stages of damage. These stands are affected by different anthropogenic factors, but don't differ in vigor state as visually estimated on a 6-point scale of Forest Regulation of Russian Federation. PPs have similar forest inventory characteristics, except for PPs on an edge of polluted pine forest where the site class is reduced. Significant shift of necrosis in phloem up on a stem within two years following a year when there was a spring creeping fire is registered. It proves the reversal of normal basipetal transport of assimilates toward crown and feasibility of using necrosis asymmetry for assessment of fire influence on physiological condition of pine stands. The increase of necroses size (decrease of resistance after a fire was noted during later period in comparison with reversal of transport of assimilates in the stem. Influence of a chemical burn of needles on acropetal shift of necrosis was expressed to a lesser extent in comparison with a fire.

  20. An experimental test of dietary enzyme modulation in pine warblers Dendroica pinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, D J; Place, A R; Rey, P J; Martínez Del Rio, C

    1999-01-01

    Modulation of gut function is important in an ecological and evolutionary context because it likely determines what food items an animal can and cannot eat. We examined how diet affects activity of digestive enzymes in an omnivorous bird, the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus). Pine warblers were fed insect-based, fruit-based, and seed-based diets for approximately 54 d. We then measured activity of amylase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, carboxypeptidase B, pancreatic lipase, and carboxyl ester lipase. We predicted that carbohydrase activities would be highest in birds fed the diet highest in carbohydrates (fruit based), protease activities would be highest in those fed the diet highest in protein (insect based), and lipase activities would be highest in those fed the diets highest in lipid (insect based and seed based). Also, we predicted that pine warblers would exhibit greater dietary modulation of enzyme activity than reported for a less omnivorous congener, the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata). All predictions were upheld, supporting the hypothesis that pine warblers modulate the activity of digestive enzymes in proportion to demand from substrates in the diet. PMID:10521325

  1. 75 FR 48550 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pine Mountain, GA (75 FR 28765) Docket No. FAA-2010-0498... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389....

  2. 75 FR 28765 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA...

  3. Micropropagation of loblolly pine by somatic organogenesis and RAPD analysis of regenerated plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐巍

    2000-01-01

    Organogenesis was induced in callus derived from mature zygotic embryos of six families (J-56, S-1003, E-22, E-311, E-440, and Mc) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) within 24 weeks of culture. Elongation of adventitious buds was achieved on TE medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA). The most suitable medium for root formation proved to be TE medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 IBA, 2 mg·L-1 BA , and 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3). 169 regenerated plantlets were transferred to a perlite∶peatmoss∶vermiculite (1:1:1) soil mixture, and 98 plantlets survived in the field. Total DNA was extracted from the needles of the regenerated plantlets of the six families of loblolly pine. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using 20 arbitrary oligonucleotide 10-mers, show that amplification products were monomorphic for all the plantlets of family J-56, S-1003, E-22, E-311, E-440, and Mc of loblolly pine. These results suggested that organogenesis can be used for clonal micropropagation of some families of loblolly pine.

  4. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  5. A Range-Wide Experiment to Investigate Nutrient and Soil Moisture Interactions in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney E. Will

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The future climate of the southeastern USA is predicted to be warmer, drier and more variable in rainfall, which may increase drought frequency and intensity. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda is the most important commercial tree species in the world and is planted on ~11 million ha within its native range in the southeastern USA. A regional study was installed to evaluate effects of decreased rainfall and nutrient additions on loblolly pine plantation productivity and physiology. Four locations were established to capture the range-wide variability of soil and climate. Treatments were initiated in 2012 and consisted of a factorial combination of throughfall reduction (approximate 30% reduction and fertilization (complete suite of nutrients. Tree and stand growth were measured at each site. Results after two growing seasons indicate a positive but variable response of fertilization on stand volume increment at all four sites and a negative effect of throughfall reduction at two sites. Data will be used to produce robust process model parameterizations useful for simulating loblolly pine growth and function under future, novel climate and management scenarios. The resulting improved models will provide support for developing management strategies to increase pine plantation productivity and carbon sequestration under a changing climate.

  6. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production. PMID:27263100

  7. Tänavune Jõulujazz tuleb Olav Ehala ja Courtney Pine'iga / Madli-Liis Parts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Madli-Liis, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Jazzüritustest: rootsi jazzlauljatari Rigmor Gustafssoni kontserdist 8. dets. Estonia kontserdisaalis, inglise saksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Café's, Eesti Raadio ja Jazzkaare heategevuskontserdist "Aita alustada elu" O. Ehala muusikaga, Moskva vokaalkvarteti Cool & Jazzy kontserdist, Hedvig Hansoni kontserdist "Vaikuse kaja" 1. dets. Nigulistes

  8. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Register on June 27, 2007 (72 FR 35254), and extended the comment period in a notice in the Federal Register on April 2, 2008 (73 FR 17991). For more about the refuges, their purposes, and our CCP process... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National...

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in dispersal pattern of an invasive pine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzbergová, Z.; Hadincová, Věroslava; Wild, Jan; Herben, Tomáš; Marešová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2010), s. 2471-2486. ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0430; GA AV ČR IAA600050711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Eastern white pine * species invasion * wind dispersal model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.474, year: 2010

  10. Alternative solutions for the bio-denitrification of landfill leachates using pine bark and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrified leachate may still require an additional bio-denitrification step, which occurs with the addition of often-expensive chemicals as carbon source. This study explores the applicability of low-cost carbon sources such as garden refuse compost and pine bark for the denitrification of high strength landfill leachates. The overall objective is to assess efficiency, kinetics and performance of the substrates in the removal of high nitrate concentrations. Garden refuse and pine bark are currently disposed of in general waste landfills in South Africa, separated from the main waste stream. A secondary objective is to assess the feasibility of re-using green waste as by-product of an integrated waste management system. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests and leaching columns packed with immature compost and pine bark. Biologically treated leachate from a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) with nitrate concentrations of 350, 700 and 1100 mgN/l were used for the trials. Preliminary results suggest that, passed the acclimatization step (40 days for both substrates), full denitrification is achieved in 10-20 days for the pine bark and 30-40 days for the compost.

  11. Alternative solutions for the bio-denitrification of landfill leachates using pine bark and compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Pisano, Giulia [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering. School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Oxarango, Laurent [LTHE (UMR 5564 CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-06-15

    Nitrified leachate may still require an additional bio-denitrification step, which occurs with the addition of often-expensive chemicals as carbon source. This study explores the applicability of low-cost carbon sources such as garden refuse compost and pine bark for the denitrification of high strength landfill leachates. The overall objective is to assess efficiency, kinetics and performance of the substrates in the removal of high nitrate concentrations. Garden refuse and pine bark are currently disposed of in general waste landfills in South Africa, separated from the main waste stream. A secondary objective is to assess the feasibility of re-using green waste as by-product of an integrated waste management system. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests and leaching columns packed with immature compost and pine bark. Biologically treated leachate from a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) with nitrate concentrations of 350, 700 and 1100 mgN/l were used for the trials. Preliminary results suggest that, passed the acclimatization step (40 days for both substrates), full denitrification is achieved in 10-20 days for the pine bark and 30-40 days for the compost.

  12. Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33 orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g−1 under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (R2: 0.9961. Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye.

  13. The internal layering of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, from airborne radar-sounding data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Nanna Bjørnholt; Rippin, David; Vaughan, David; Corr, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of internal layering across Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, as measured from airborne-radar data acquired during a survey conducted by the British Antarctic Survey and the University of Texas in the 2004/05 season. Internal layering is classified according to...

  14. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  15. Planning of Allowable Cut in Working Forest Groups of Calabrian Pine for Timber Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Altay Uğur

    1998-01-01

    Linear programming models were developed and solved according to different interest rates and rotation periods for the planning of allowable cut using data obtained from working forest groups of calabrian pine in the Gazipaşa Forest Enterprise in Antalya. Then, the most suitable rotation period; regeneration and afforestation area; total and annual allowable cut; and present net value were determined.

  16. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  17. Chinese pine tree ring width chronology and its relation to climate conditions in the Qianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenju CHEN; Yu SUN; Xingyuan HE; Wei CHEN; Xuemei SHAO; Huayu ZHANG; Zhongyu WANG; Xiaoyu LIU

    2008-01-01

    Taking Chinese pine in Qianshan Mountains as a sample, the tree ring width chronology including Standard, Residual, and Arstan chronologies was estab-lished. The results show that the tree ring width of Chinese pine is highly correlated with the temperatures from May to July and from September to November. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between tree ring width and the extreme minimum temperatures in July and mean minimum temperatures in September. The chronology was significantly or very significantly correlated with extreme minimum temperatures in December and the following January, with mean min-imum temperatures in January, with annual precipita-tion and with precipitation in April, May and the following December. The Chinese pine responded strongly to the monthly/yearly water vapor pressure and relative humidity. Annual and largely monthly evaporation in April-July had a negative effect on tree growth, and was particularly striking for evaporation in April-July. The narrow tree rings recorded by the chro-nology demonstrated the 30 occasions of extreme drought since 1800. The growth of ChineSe pine in the Qianshan mountains were also affected by climate changes on a hemispheric and global scale. There were 11-, 23-and 50-year-common periodicities between the chronology and solar activity and 10-, 20- and 45-year-common periodicit-ies between the chronology and geomagnetic activity.

  18. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  19. Mismatch between herbivore behavior and demographics contributes to scale-dependence of host susceptibility in two pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylioja, T.; Slone, D.H.; Ayres, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts on forests of tree-killing bark beetles can depend on the species composition of potential host trees. Host susceptibility might be an intrinsic property of tree species, or it might depend on spatial patterning of alternative host species. We compared the susceptibility of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (P. virginiana) to southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) at two hierarchical levels of geographic scale: within beetle infestations in heterospecific stands (extent ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ha), and across a forest landscape (extent 72,500 ha) that was dominated by monospecific stands. In the former, beetles preferentially attacked Virginia pine (tree mortality = 65-100% in Virginia pine versus 0-66% in loblolly pine), but in the latter, loblolly stands were more susceptible than Virginia stands. This hierarchical transition in host susceptibility was predicted from knowledge of (1) a behavioral preference of beetles for attacking loblolly versus Virginia pine, (2) a negative correlation between preference and performance, and (3) a mismatch in the domain of scale between demographics and host selection by individuals. There is value for forest management in understanding the processes that can produce hierarchical transitions in ecological patterns. Copyright ?? 2005 by the Society of American Foresters.

  20. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  1. Beech vs. Pine - how different tree species manage their water demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Dreibrodt, Janek; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    In north-eastern Germany large parts of the landscape are covered by pine trees. Although beech used to be one of the typical species for the region, today it makes up only a small fraction of the forested area. In order to reinstate a more natural forest composition an effort is made to decrease the coniferous forest in the next 30 years from 70% to 40% while increasing the deciduous forest from 20% to 40%. This will have consequences for the forest water balance that we would like to understand better. In an attempt to capture the complete tree water balance for both species we monitored all relevant hydrologic fluxes in four stands of pure beech and pine (both young and old stands) as well as in eight mixed stands (as part of the TERENO observatory). Extensive measurements of throughfall and stemflow were conducted with 35 rain trough systems, 50 stemflow collectors and tipping buckets. Soil moisture was monitored in 70 depth profiles with a total of 450 sensors ranging from 10 cm down to 200 cm. In combination with soil water potential measurements at 5 depths root water uptake from different depths and hydraulic redistribution between depths could be determined. Sapflux sensors recorded tree water use for 16 trees and groundwater level was monitored at 16 locations. We found that soil moisture conditions under beech were more variable than under pine, especially in the upper 100 cm. This was due to the higher influx of water from stemflow on the one hand and to the more intensive/effective use of soil water by the beech on the other hand. Our sap flux measurements show that beech was able to sustain steady rates of sapflux even under extremely dry soil conditions. While annual average sapflow was twice as high for pines compared to beeches, pine trees were less effective in taking up water from the soil and reduced sap flow considerably during dry phases. We still found the upper 100 cm of soil under pine to be generally wetter than under beech and considered

  2. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  3. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  4. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  5. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourav Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I, paddy straw (Group II, pine leaves (Group III, and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV, each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994 requirement. Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference. Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.

  6. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2) in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2) in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1) at ages 40-50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations. PMID:23091632

  7. Growth patterns of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. under the current regional pollution load in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustaitis A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belief that trees have begun growing more rapidly in recent years was examined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests, a dominant forest type in Lithuania. The largest, pre-dominant pine trees, with a diameter at breast height exceeding 50 cm, were selected for analysis in this study; these were growing in three experimental overly-mature stands located in different parts of Lithuania (north-eastern, western and seaside. We hypothesized that if the annual tree increment has increased in recent years, then the largest trees in the stand should regularly demonstrate this characteristic first of all. The data collected for this study confirmed that since the 1980 growing season the annual increment of the pine trees analysed here has increased. The causes of this rapid growth were higher air temperatures during the dormant period and, to a lesser extent, the higher temperatures from May through August. The effect of precipitation was negligible. A 30-year long data set on acidifying pollutants allowed us to detect significant effect of reduced SO2 concentration and sulphur deposition as well as gradually increased ammonia deposition on the increased annual basal area increment of pine trees over the last 30 year long period. Multiple regression analysis indicated that meteorological parameters can explain up to 50% of the observed increase in the growth rate of Scots pine in Lithuania; meanwhile the presence of acidifying species can account for an additional 30%. However, the pollution data set (20-30 years was insufficiently long to be compared with the meteorological data. Therefore we were unable to distinguish whether the recent decrease in pollution or global warming resulted in the increases in tree growth rates more significant.

  8. Conflicting genomic signals affect phylogenetic inference in four species of North American pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralewski, Tomasz E; Mateos, Mariana; Krutovsky, Konstantin V

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive evolutionary processes in plants may be accompanied by episodes of introgression, parallel evolution and incomplete lineage sorting that pose challenges in untangling species evolutionary history. Genus Pinus (pines) is one of the most abundant and most studied groups among gymnosperms, and a good example of a lineage where these phenomena have been observed. Pines are among the most ecologically and economically important plant species. Some, such as the pines of the southeastern USA (southern pines in subsection Australes), are subjects of intensive breeding programmes. Despite numerous published studies, the evolutionary history of Australes remains ambiguous and often controversial. We studied the phylogeny of four major southern pine species: shortleaf (Pinus echinata), slash (P. elliottii), longleaf (P. palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda), using sequences from 11 nuclear loci and maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our analysis encountered resolution difficulties similar to earlier published studies. Although incomplete lineage sorting and introgression are two phenomena presumptively underlying our results, the phylogenetic inferences seem to be also influenced by the genes examined, with certain topologies supported by sets of genes sharing common putative functionalities. For example, genes involved in wood formation supported the clade echinata-taeda, genes linked to plant defence supported the clade echinata-elliottii and genes linked to water management properties supported the clade echinata-palustris The support for these clades was very high and consistent across methods. We discuss the potential factors that could underlie these observations, including incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization and parallel or adaptive evolution. Our results likely reflect the relatively short evolutionary history of the subsection that is thought to have begun during the middle Miocene and has been influenced by climate fluctuations. PMID:27060161

  9. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl. forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojun Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands. We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2 in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2 in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1 at ages 40-50 years is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations.

  10. Effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on pine nuts (Araucaria angustifolia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana, Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). A major problem in implementing this plan is to stand the loss of germination of seeds. The storage conditions of the seeds of species, some time have been the subject of studies by various researchers. Several studies have shown that ionizing radiation can increase the germination rate, to break dormancy and plant production, thus appearing as an alternative method to increase the production of economically important crops. Despite the Hormesis Theory have been confirmed in experiments and observations made over the years, relatively few researchers who are dedicated to the study of this phenomenon. Due to losses of germination of pine nut, the aim of this work was to study the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on pine nut. The seeds were bought locally in the city of Piracicaba and irradiated with 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 10, 12, 5, 15.0 and 17.5 Gy. Subsequently the seeds were planted in a plastic cup containing vermiculite as substrate. Evaluations of the germinated seeds number and measure the size of the plants every 10 days. The results indicated that the dose of 0.25 Gy there was a greater number of plants germinated and irradiation stimulated the growth of these plants. Already a lethal dose of the seeds was 15 Gy. (author)

  11. Evaporation from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris following natural re-colonisation of the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul H. Haria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changing land-use practices in the uplands of Scotland have resulted in increased re-colonisation of wet heath moorland by natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris woodland. The simple semi-empirical water use model, HYLUC, was used to determine the change in water balance with increasing natural pine colonisation. The model worked well for 1996. However, values of soil moisture deficit simulated by HYLUC diverged significantly from measurements in 1997 when rainfall quantity and intensities were less. Measured interception by the forest canopy (interception by the undergrowth was not measured was very different from HYLUC simulated values. By changing interception parameters to those optimised against measured canopy interception, HYLUC simulated changing soil moisture deficits better and gave more confidence in the resulting transpiration values. The results showed that natural pine woodland interception may be similar to plantation stands although the physical structure of the natural and plantation forests are different. Though having fewer storage sites for interception in the canopy, the natural pine woodland had greater ventilation and so evaporation of intercepted rainfall was enhanced, especially during low intensity rainfall. To understand the hydrological changes that would result with changing land-use (an expansion of natural forests into the wet heath land, the modelled outputs of the wet heath and mature forest sites were compared. Evaporation, a combination of transpiration and interception, was 41% greater for the forest site than for the wet heath moorland. This may have significant consequences for the rainfall-runoff relationship and consequently for the hydrological response of the catchment as the natural woodland cover increases Keywords: Evaporation; interception; transpiration; water balance; Scots pine; forest

  12. Soil water repellency and pH soil change under tropical pine plantations compared with native tropical forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lebron, Inma; Robinson, David A; Oatham, Mike; Wuddivira, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    In temperate climates, soil water repellency (SWR) has been documented to develop with land-use change from native forest to pine plantations. In the tropics a sparse evidence base has been documented for the observation of SWR, but no investigation has been conducted to determine the consequences of changing land-use from native forest to pine plantations with regard to SWR. In our research we broaden the evidence base for tropical SWR by comparing the SWR behavior of seven tropical pine pla...

  13. Influence of low temperature on germination and endogenous growth regulator contents in Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopcewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty days-long stratification of Scots pine seeds results in the seeds germinating in similar high percentage in darkness as in light. The period of stratification enough to overcome the "barrier" of light is connected with simultaneous increase of gibberellin contents, especially with the appearance of the new groups of gibberellins qualitatively similar to those occurring in pine tissues under the influence of red and white light. It was also found that seedlings grown from stratificated pine seeds produce the increased amounts of gibberellins.

  14. Effect of laser pretreatment on germination and membrane lipid peroxidation of Chinese pine seeds under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Junlin; GAO Xuehong; ZHANG Sheqi

    2007-01-01

    The germination of laser-irradiated Chinese pine seeds was carried out under drought stress.The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined.Results showed notably increased germination percentage,root length,vitality index and fresh weight.The SOD and POD protective enzyme system activity of the Chinese pine seedlings obviously rose.It can be concluded that the germination and juvenile resistance of Chinese pine seeds under drought stress are enhanced after laser processing.

  15. Water-table contours for the Arikaree aquifer, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Bennett County, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes the water-table contours that were used to create a map of the generalized potentiometric surface of the Arikaree aquifer in the Pine Ridge...

  16. Evidence for recombination and segregation of virulence to pine in a hybrid cross between Gibberella circinata and G. subglutinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Christopher J; Desjardins, Anne E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon C; Gordon, Thomas R

    2007-07-01

    Two species associated with the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, G. circinata (the cause of pitch canker in pines) and G. subglutinans (avirulent on pine), were found to have limited interfertility in hybrid crosses. MAT idiomorphs, polymorphisms in the histone H3 gene, vegetative compatibility, and virulence phenotypes were used to verify recombination. The MAT idiomorphs appeared to be assorting independently, but the histone H3 haplotype was disproportionately represented by that of the G. subglutinans parent. Ninety-eight percent (45/46) of the progeny tested were vegetatively incompatible with both parents. All F(1) progeny were avirulent to pine, but a wide range of virulence was restored through a backcross to the virulent parent (G. circinata). Attempts at hybrid crosses using other isolate combinations were rarely successful (1/26). This limited interfertility supports retention of G. circinata and G. subglutinans as separate species, but offers opportunities to characterize the inheritance of virulence to pine. PMID:17681226

  17. Plant community and white-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity response to intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ethan Jacob

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a cellulosic feedstock for alternative energy production that could grow well between planted pines (Pinus spp.). Southeastern planted pine occupies 15.8 million hectares and thus, switchgrass intercropping could affect biodiversity if broadly implemented. Therefore, I evaluated effects of intercropping switchgrass in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) plantations on plant community diversity, plant biomass production, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) nutritional carrying capacity. In a randomized complete block design, I assigned three treatments (switchgrass intercropped, switchgrass monoculture, and a "control" of traditional pine management) to 4 replicates of 10-ha experimental units in Kemper County, Mississippi during 2014-2015. I detected 246 different plant species. Switchgrass intercropping reduced plant species richness and diversity but maintained evenness. I observed reduced forb and high-use deer forage biomass but only in intercropped alleys (interbeds). Soil micronutrient interactions affected forage protein of deer plants. White-tailed deer nutritional carrying capacity remained unaffected.

  18. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  19. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  20. Growth response and nutrient uptake of blue pine (Pinus wallichiana seedlings inoculated with rhizosphere microorganisms under temperate nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ahangar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants (Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens,Laccaria laccata inoculated either individually or in combinationsignificantly improved the growth and biomass of blue pine seedlings. The ECM fungus Laccaria laccata, when inoculated individually, showed significantly higher plant growth, followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. The combined inoculation of rhizosphere microorganisms showed synergistic growth promoting action and proved superior in enhancing the growth of blue pine than individual inoculation. Co-inoculation of L. laccata with P. fluorescens resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal root colonization. Uptake of nutrients (N, P, K was significantly improved by microbial inoculants, tested individually or in combination. Combined inoculation of L. laccata with T. harzianum and P. fluorescens significantly increased in N, P and K contents in blue pine seedlings as compared to control. Acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of blue pine seedlings was also enhanced by these microorganisms. L. laccata exhibited higher acid phosphatase activity followed by P. fluorescens.

  1. Interactions of coal gangue and pine sawdust during combustion of their blends studied using differential thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Cheng, Fangqin; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-08-01

    The interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust during the combustion process were studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of the blending ratio, oxygen concentration and heating rate on the weight loss (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (TGA) profiles was examined. The TG and DTG curves of the blends were not additives of those of the individual materials, suggesting that interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust had occurred during the combustion, especially in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Kinetic analysis confirmed that the combustion of coal gangue, pine sawdust and their blends was chemical reaction controlled. Further analysis revealed that the interactions between coal gangue and pine sawdust were primarily due to thermal effects rather than structural changes, with the thermal inertia of coal gangue dominating over the behaviour of the blends. The interactions decreased with decreasing the coal gangue ratio in the blend, oxygen concentration and heating rate. PMID:27155794

  2. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  3. Estimation of temporal and spatial variations in groundwater recharge in unconfined sand aquifers using Scots pine inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ala-aho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and land use are rapidly changing the amount and temporal distribution of recharge in northern aquifers. This paper presents a novel method for distributing Monte Carlo simulations of 1-D soil profile spatially to estimate transient recharge in an unconfined esker aquifer. The modeling approach uses data-based estimates for the most important parameters controlling the total amount (canopy cover and timing (depth of the unsaturated zone of groundwater recharge. Scots pine canopy was parameterized to leaf area index (LAI using forestry inventory data. Uncertainty in the parameters controlling soil hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration was carried over from the Monte Carlo runs to the final recharge estimates. Different mechanisms for lake, soil, and snow evaporation and transpiration were used in the model set-up. Finally, the model output was validated with independent recharge estimates using the water table fluctuation method and baseflow estimation. The results indicated that LAI is important in controlling total recharge amount, and the modeling approach successfully reduced model uncertainty by allocating the LAI parameter spatially in the model. Soil evaporation compensated for transpiration for areas with low LAI values, which may be significant in optimal management of forestry and recharge. Different forest management scenarios tested with the model showed differences in annual recharge of up to 100 mm. The uncertainty in recharge estimates arising from the simulation parameters was lower than the interannual variation caused by climate conditions. It proved important to take unsaturated depth and vegetation cover into account when estimating spatially and temporally distributed recharge in sandy unconfined aquifers.

  4. Reproductive capacity of the grey pine aphid and allocation response of Scots pine seedlings across temperature gradients: a test of hypotheses predicting outcomes of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, J. K.; Kainulainen, P. [University of Kuopio, Dept, of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this paper had two objectives. The first objective was to test if Schizolachnus pineti, a pine specialist aphid and a potential defoliator of Scots pine in nursery conditions, could increase reproduction rate and reduce development time on Scots pine seedlings under the moderate increase in temperature expected by the current climatic change scenarios. The second objective was to explore two hypotheses predicting host-plant quality under elevated temperatures. Specifically, the study sought to establish whether increase in temperature will result in higher plant growth and lower concentration of carbon-based secondary metabolites, or alternatively, whether the concentration of total phenolics will remain the same with small temperature increases. Results showed that S. pineti females had the highest number of offsprings at a daytime temperature of 24 degrees C. Rate of population increase and relative growth rates were significantly higher at 26 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Reproductive ability and the intrinsic rate of population increase were significantly affected by temperature and were negatively correlated with total phenolic concentration in needles. Concentration of some individual resin acids in needles and stems were affected by temperature. Concentration of monoterpenes, total phenolics, starch and total nitrogen in needles were not affected by temperature. Greatest biomass growth was shown to occur at 24 degrees C. Overall results supported the protein competition hypothesis, which predicts no changes in the concentration of plant phenolics with small changes in temperature. Reproductive ability of aphids was highest at 26 degree C; this was considered to be the result of the low starch/nitrogen ratio and low phenolic concentration in the host needles. 50 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Effect of attract and kill formulations and application rates on trap catches of European pine shoot moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and shoot damage in Scots pine saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukovata, Lidia; Kolk, Andrzej; Cieślak, Marek

    2004-10-01

    Attract and kill technology was tested for management of European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Denis & Schiffermüller), in 4-6-yr-old Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., plantations managed by Jablonna and Pultusk Forest Districts, Poland. In 2001, two formulations based on ricinoleic acid and hydrocarbon fraction (petroleum jelly) in combination with (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate, the sex pheromone of the pine shoot moth; permethrin as a contact insecticide; and Tinuvin UV absorber were used. In 2002, different formulations and application rates of the attracticide based on petroleum jelly were tested. Significantly reduced trap catches occurred in plots treated with three attracticide formulations [Rhykil-1 (with Tinuvin UV absorber), Rhykil-2 (with a new UV absorber, 3,3'-dihydroxy-2,2'-bipyridyl), and Rhykil-3 (without the insecticide)] at 3,000 droplets per hectare in comparison with those in control plots, suggesting that all formulations were highly effective. Significantly lower catches than in control plots also were observed when Rhykil-1 was applied at 1000, 2,000, and 3,000 droplets per hectare. However, only slight reduction of shoot damage in treated plots was observed in both experiments. The formulation without the insecticide had similar efficacy to that of the formulation combined with the insecticide. In 2003, the Rhykil-2 attracticide was tested at 250, 500, and 1000 droplets per hectare. Although there were no significant differences in trap catches between treated and control plots, shoot damage level was reduced substantially in all treated plots. These results suggest that attract and kill technology may be used at rates lower than 1000 droplets per hectare for management of R. buoliana; however, its "kill" effect should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:15568351

  6. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  7. A Flexible Hybrid Model of Life Cycle Carbon Balance for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Rafael De La Torre; Martin, Timothy A.; Eric J. Jokela

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of silvicultural treatments on carbon (C) budgets in Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) plantations in the southeastern United States. We developed a hybrid model that integrated a widely used growth and yield model for loblolly pine with published allometric and biometric equations to simulate in situ C pools. The model used current values of forest product conversion efficiencies and forest product decay rates to calculate ex situ C pools. Using the model t...

  8. Damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis to seedlings of two native and five introduced tree species in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using introduced species in Swedish forestry in response to climate change, but it is important to assess their resistance to native pests. Thus, we compared the extent of pine weevil feeding on two dominant native conifers, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), the non-host deciduous broadleaf hybrid aspen (Populus x wettsteinii Hamet-Ahti) and four introduced conifers: Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco),...

  9. Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) after oral administration to healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Tanja; Skrabala, Roswitha; Chovanová, Zuzana; Muchová, Jana; Sumegová, Katarína; Liptáková, Anna; Ďuračková, Zdeňka; Högger, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Background Since plant extracts are increasingly used as phytotherapeutics or dietary supplements information on bioavailability, bioefficacy and safety are warranted. We elucidated the plasma kinetics of genuine extract components and metabolites after single and multiple ingestion of the standardized maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol (USP quality) by human volunteers. Methods Eleven volunteers received a single dose of 300 mg pine bark extract, five volunteers ingested 200 mg daily for ...

  10. Physical and Hydrologic Responses of an Intensively Managed Loblolly Pine Plantation to Forest Harvesting and Site Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa, Masato

    1999-01-01

    The Southeastern Lower Coastal Plain wet pine flats include thousands of acres of jurisdictional wetlands that are economically, socially, and environmentally important. These highly productive forests have been intensively managed as pine plantations for the past few decades. More recently, harvesting and site preparation practices have become a concern among natural resource managers because intensive forestry practices may alter soil physical properties and site hydrology. These alterat...

  11. Drought-induced mortality of Scots pines at the southern limits of its distribution in Europe: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Giuggiola A; Kuster TM; Saha S

    2010-01-01

    Several severe drought events have been reported in southern Europe during recent decades. Drought has been found to increase the mortality of the southernmost populations of Scots pine forests in Mediterranean countries and in dry inner-alpine valleys. Therefore the ongoing global climate change is likely to endanger Scots pine in future decades. Carbon starvation might be the main cause of the increasing mortality rate due to less carbon uptake and consequently to high susceptibility to bio...

  12. Mycorriha-like structures during in vitro culture of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). A matter of stress?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zavattieri; Miralto, M.O.; Ragonezi, C.; Klimaszewska, K.; Dias, L. S.; Pereira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dichotomous branching of short lateral roots and the formation of coralloid organs are diagnostic of ectomycorrhizas in many pine species, but the micorrhyzae-like structures found in non mycorrhizated plants of pinus plants show a striking similarity to those of ectomycorrhizas. This phenomenon has been observed previously in other pine species and might be indicative of the long co-evolution of these two kingdoms for millions of years. Therefore, it is possible that in the past mycorrhiza-l...

  13. Conversion of the mature black pine plantations in the Slovenian Karst by planting native broadleaf tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Gajšek, Domen; Jarni, Kristjan; Brus, Robert; Lumbar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of the aging black pine plantations into ecologically more stable broadleaf forests is an important goal in many Mediterranean countries as well as in the sub-Mediterranean part of Slovenia. Six experimental plots, split between the more and the less productive site, were established near Divača in southwestern Slovenia in an area of mostly pure black pine stands. In November 2012 they were planted with six native broadleaf species (Celtis australis L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka)...

  14. Soil Carbon Dioxide Efflux Across Four Age Classes Of Plantation Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)On The Virginia Piedmont

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Phillip Eric

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide efflux resulting from microbial and root respiration is a major component of the forest carbon cycle. We undertook this investigation to better understand the nature of soil carbon dioxide efflux of plantation loblolly pine, an important ecological and economical resource in the southeastern United States. Specifically, we hoped to learn how soil carbon dioxide efflux differs both spatially and temporally for four age classes of plantation loblolly pine on the Virginia p...

  15. An improved species distribution model for Scots pine and downy oak under future climate change in the NW Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Vacchiano, Giorgio; Motta, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Key messageWarming will induce an upward displacement of Scots pine, but this can be partially mitigated by maintaining a more intense land use. Context Scots pine is currently declining in most inner alpine sectors of southern Europe. The relative contribution of climate, land use change, and disturbances on the decline is poorly understood. What will be the future distribution of the species? Is vegetation shifting toward oak-dominated forests? What is the role of extreme drought years?Aims...

  16. Temporal changes in nitrogen acquisition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) associated with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. L. Lopez C.; C. Mizota; ; Y. Nobori; T. Sasaki; T. Yamanaka

    2014-01-01

    The alien woody legume, black locust (Robinia pseudoaca-cia), has invaded Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests located in Japan’s coastal plain and hill regions where gaps are formed in pine forests after nematode infestation. Nitrogen fixation by legumes acceler-ates N cycling in forest ecosystems. We studied temporal change in the annual tree-ring resolution N stable isotope composition (δ15N, a per mil deviation of δ15N/14N ratio, relative to atmospheric N2δ15N=0‰) at two natural locations of Japanese black pine forest with black locust that differed in the time since black locust establishment (Shohnai in north-east and Kita-Kyushu in southwest Japan). Analyzed tree-rings covered the period from 1990/1992 to 2009. N acquisition by Japanese black pine from black locust N input to the soil was evidenced by temporal shifting of N stable isotope composition on the annual pine tree rings. With pro-gressive development of the forest stand,δ15N values of earlier tree-ringsδ15N of -5‰) from black pine associated with black locust shifted to-wards values similar to those of black locustδ15N values nearly to-1‰), which suggests acquisition of N by N2 fixation (Shohnai site). In con-trast, in a forest where black locust had settled for two or three genera-tions, in a black pine stand (Kita-Kyushu site), longer periods of N en-richment in the soil were reflected in the elevated tree-ringδ15N values of newly established black pine trees. Based on tree-ringδ15N data from the Shohnai site, we determined that about 10 years after black locust establishment, soil N had already been enriched by black locust N, this, in turn, contributed to N fertilization of surrounding trees in mixed stands.

  17. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Veronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; De Reffye, P.; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in...

  18. Combustion Properties of Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) Wood Treated with Vegetable Tanning Extracts and Boron Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYSAL, Ergun; YALINKILIC, M. Kemal; ÇOLAK, Mehmet; Göktaş, Osman

    2003-01-01

    Specimens prepared from Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood were treated with borate-supplemented aqueous solutions of Calabrian pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder and gall-nut powder. Then, fire test methods containing flame source, without flame source and glowing stages was performed according to the ASTM E 160-50 American Standard. The results showed that the lowest temperature (323 °C) for the flame source stage was recorded for specimens treated with mixtures of bor...

  19. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini S; Di Fulvio F; Laudati G

    2010-01-01

    Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Cent...

  20. Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Plantation Response to Mechanical Site Preparation in the South Carolina and Georgia Piedmont

    OpenAIRE

    Cerchiaro, Michael Paul

    2003-01-01

    Site preparation is fundamental for establishing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations, but long-term sustainability of plantations established using mechanical treatments is in question because of concerns regarding soil tillage and the removal of harvest residue and soil organic matter. A study was installed in 1981 on 12 locations in northeastern Georgia and west-central South Carolina to evaluate pine plantation response to mechanical site preparation. Site preparation treatments i...

  1. Performance of Planted Herbaceous Species in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Plantations: Overstory Effects of Competition and Needlefall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagley, C.M.

    2001-07-03

    Research to determine the separate effects of above-ground and below-ground competition and needlefall of over-story pines on under-story plant performance. Periodic monitoring of over-story crown closure, soil water content, temperature, and nutrients were conducted. Results indicate competition for light had a more determental effect on performance of herbaceous species in longleaf pine plantations than that resulting from competition for below-ground resources.

  2. FT-IR and UV Raman spectroscopic studies on thermal modification of Scots pine wood and its extractable compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nuopponen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, in some detail, the thermally induced changes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopies. These techniques were also utilised to identify lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from heat-treated and native wood samples. Furthermore, the molecular structures of the extractable compounds characteristic for Scots pine wood were comprehensively studied with UVRR spectroscopy. Spe...

  3. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Wang; Véronique Letort; Qi Lu; Xuefeng Bai; Yan Guo; Philippe de Reffye; Baoguo Li

    2012-01-01

    International audience Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within...

  4. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  5. 4200 years of pine-dominated upland forest dynamics in west-central Mexico: human or natural legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Rangel, Blanca L; Willis, Katherine J; Olvera-Vargas, Miguel

    2008-07-01

    The pine-dominated forests of west-central Mexico are internationally recognized for their high biodiversity, and some areas are protected through various conservation measures including prohibition of human activity. In this region, however, there is evidence for human settlement dating back to ca. AD 1200. It is therefore unclear whether the present forest composition and structure are part of a successional stage following use by indigenous human populations during the past, or due to natural processes, such as climate. We present a study reconstructing the vegetation dynamics of pine-dominated forest over the past 4200 years using paleoecological techniques. Results from fossil pollen and charcoal indicate that, in this region, pine-dominated forests are the native vegetation type and not anthropogenically derived secondary succession. The predominant driving mechanism for the expansion of pine-dominated forest appears to be intervals of aridity and naturally induced burning. A close association is noted between pine abundance and longer-term climatic trends, including intervals of aridity between ca. 4200 and 2500, 1200 and 850, and 500 and 200 cal yr BP and shorter-term trends. Evident periodicity occurs in pine and Poaceae abundance every 80 years. These short-term quasi-periodic oscillations have been recorded in a number of lake and ocean sediments in Mexico and are thought to be linked to solar forcing resulting in drought cycles that occur at approximately the same time intervals. PMID:18705376

  6. Soil water repellency and pH soil change under tropical pine plantations compared with native tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Inma; Robinson, David A.; Oatham, Mike; Wuddivira, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn temperate climates, soil water repellency (SWR) has been documented to develop with land-use change from native forest to pine plantations. In the tropics a sparse evidence base has been documented for the observation of SWR, but no investigation has been conducted to determine the consequences of changing land-use from native forest to pine plantations with regard to SWR. In our research we broaden the evidence base for tropical SWR by comparing the SWR behavior of seven tropical pine plantations in Trinidad with co-located native forest. We found that SWR occurred under both pine and native forest, but was more persistent and less heterogeneous under pine. The SWR was water content dependent with a threshold ˜0.2 m 3 m -3, it showed a linear dependence with litter depth, and it was also found to be higher in more acidic soils. The forest floor pH, contrary to convention for temperate climates, was observed to increase under some pine plantations, as compared with native tropical forest. This only occurred in the very acidic tropical soils (pH soil and water quality.

  7. Observation of Soil Water Repellency and pH soil change under Tropical Pine Plantations Compared with Native Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. A.; Lebron, I.; Oatham, M. P.; Wuddivira, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    In temperate climates, soil water repellency (SWR) has been documented to develop with land-use change from native forest to pine plantations. In the tropics a sparse evidence base has been documented for the observation of SWR, but no investigation has been conducted to determine the consequences of changing land-use from native forest to pine plantations with regard to SWR. In our research we broaden the evidence base for tropical SWR by comparing the SWR behavior of seven tropical pine plantations in Trinidad with co-located native forest. We found that SWR occurred under both pine and native forest, but was more persistent and less heterogeneous under pine. The SWR was water content dependent with a threshold ~0.2 m3m-3, it showed a linear dependence with litter depth, and it was also found to be pH dependent, being higher in more acidic soils. The forest floor pH, contrary to convention for temperate climates, was observed to increase under some pine plantations, as compared with native tropical forest. This only occurred in the very acidic tropical soils (pHsoil and water quality.

  8. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomic responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, A; Sardans, J; Hódar, J A; Garcia-Porta, J; Guenther, A; Oravec, M; Urban, O; Peñuelas, J

    2016-05-01

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at element and molecular levels have focused on the elemental composition or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defence metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and avoid those with higher levels of defence compounds. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, both local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under attack from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing relative concentrations of terpenes and some phenolics. Systemic responses differed between pine subspecies, and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Our results support the hypothesis that foliar nutrient concentrations are not a key factor for plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition, since folivory was not associated with any of the elements analysed. Phenolic compounds generally did not increase in the attacked trees, questioning the suggestion of induction of phenolics following folivory attack and the anti-feeding properties of phenolics. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, in both primary and secondary metabolism, which was less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Local pine responses were similar between pine subspecies, while systemic responses were more distant. PMID:26642818

  9. Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

  10. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  11. Storage dynamics of fallen trees in a mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A study of the storage dynamics in the mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forests was carried out in the Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province, P. R. China. The modifying law of fallen trees was the storage dynamics of the existing fallen trees and the annual input in the mixed broadleaved and Korean pine forest. The current storage of fallen trees was 16.25 t?hm-2 in the initially, but after 100 years, 85% of the storage in dry weight was decomposed, and little material was left after 300 years. The average annual input of fallen trees was 0.6 t?hm-2and it increased with time to 31.0 t?hm-2after 200 years, which was maintained until the climax community ended. The total storage of fallen trees increased in the early stage. The decomposition of fallen trees eventually reached equilibrium with storage being identical with the annual input of fallen trees.

  12. Species-diagnostic and species-specific DNA sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehes-Smith, Melanie; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2010-10-01

    Genome organization in the family Pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. Five RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and one ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for Picea mariana, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, or Pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization of these sequences to spruce and pine chromosomes showed the sequences to be present in high copy number and evenly distributed throughout the genome. The analysis of centromeric and telomeric regions revealed the absence of significant clustering of species-diagnostic and species-specific sequences in all the chromosomes of the four species studied. Both RAPD and ISSR markers showed similar patterns. PMID:20962883

  13. Mist, substrate water potential and cutting water potential influence rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting. PMID:15123454

  14. Resin production in natural Aleppo pine stands in northern Evia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Spanos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variability in resin yield of Aleppo pines in Evia (Greece with the aim to exploit this natural resource in a sustainable way. Ten experimental plots were established in natural pine stands for monitoring. Our results revealed significant differences among stands, with high variation among individual trees in each plot. Maximum resin production was achieved in the Livadakia site whereas the minimum was obtained in Kokinomilia. All trees were classified according to their resin production into five classes ranging from not economically profitable (I to highly profitable (V. From a total of 2483 trees, 1043 (42% were in class I whereas the remaining 58% was classified into economically acceptable classes (II–V. A weak correlation (R2 = 0.315 between resin production and tree size was found suggesting that taller trees produced more resin than smaller trees.

  15. Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single Tree Species: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Schwartz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  16. Detailed basal topography of the floating portion of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Stewart, Craig; Corr, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    In January 2009 the underside of Pine Island glacier's floating ice shelf, in West Antarctica, was imaged along three 30 km tracks using an upward-looking multi-beam echo-sounder mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle. At 4-m resolution with a 300-m wide swath, these observations reveal with unprecedented detail the presence of channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. Many of these channels are characterized by basal crevasses above their apex and successive 200-500 m wide, 10-20m high terraces on their flanks. A near coincident, high resolution airborne radar survey confirm the widespread nature of these features. The oceanographic and glaciological conditions of Pine Island glacier are discussed to shed light on the processes leading to their formation and maintenance. For comparison, observations of terraces in a different setting, but in a similar oceanographic context in Greenland are also presented.

  17. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Study on Longitudinal Gas Permeability of Air-dried Masson Pine Sapwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhuqiang; ZHANG Lifei; GUAN Ning; CHEN Guihua

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of the longitudinal gas permeability was made for air-dried sapwood specimens from Masson pine(Pinus massoniana).Results showed that air-dried Masson pine sapwood was one of the most permeable softwoods.The investigated specimens had an average longitudinal gas permeability of 4.60 ×10-13m3/m.and the permeability ranged from 1.06×10-13 to 1.12 ×10-12m3/m.The Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that,generally,there was no correlation between the longitudinal gas permeability and the trees from which specimens were prepared,and tree height had no significant effect on the longitudinal gas permeability.

  19. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD

    2006-11-30

    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  20. Plant biomass carbon store after water-level drawdown of pine mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Tall-sedge pine fen is the site type most commonly drained in Finland. In their natural undrained condition sites of this type are rather wet with sparse, Scots pine dominated forest growing on hummocks and with large lawns dominated by sedges, usually Carex rostrata and/or C. lasiocarpa. Most of the primary production takes place in the field and ground layers. The major pathway for carbon accumulation in the system is via Sphagna and sedge roots, carbon accumulation by the tree stand being very slow. After drainage the situation changes radically as the sedges die out and the tree stand growth increases considerably. The aim of this study is to produce means of estimating the post-drainage dynamics of the plant biomass carbon store. The study is based on the assumption that sites similar before drainage will change in a similar manner following drainage. (5 refs.)