Sample records for cad-deficient pine final

  1. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel


    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  2. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars. (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus


    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  3. Pine Flat Dam Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restoration, Fresno, California. Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environment Impact Report (SCH #96042044)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...; and reestablishing the historic flood plain and native historic plant and wildlife communities. This final EIS/EIR describes the environment near Pine Flat Dam and Reservoir and along the Lower Kings River in the Pine Flat Dam area...

  4. Chemical induction of resinosis in southern pines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, J.; Outcalt, K.W.


    Research studies in the use of paraquat, a contact herbicide, for lightwood induction; i.e., the accumulation of oleoresin in the boles of living southern pine trees are summarized. The objectives of this research were to determine oleoresin yields as influenced by treatment factors, to estimate treatment costs, to uncover technical problems, both in the field and processng plants, and to assess the problem of bark beetle attacks on treated trees. Two pulp and paper mill trials using paraquat-treated wood were conducted, one with loblolly and one with slash pine. The loblolly trial yielded 40 percent more tall oil, or an extra 27.2 pounds/cord of wood. Due to limited turpentine condenser capacity, no additional turpentine was recovered. However, there is evidence to believe that an additional one gal./cord could have been realized.

  5. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.


    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  6. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.


    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  7. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III


    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  8. Impact of changing acidity on the trophic dynamics of pine barrens plankton communities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.D.


    The physical, chemical, and biological limnology of Oswego Lake (an undisturbed New Jersey Pine Barrens pond), and Nescochague Lake (a pond disturbed by extensive agricultural and residential development) was investigated from June 1981 - May 1983. The impact of disturbance was most evident in pH and nutrients. On all occasions, the pH of Nescochague Lake (mean, based on H(+) concentration = 5.3, range 4.5-7.8) exceeded the pH of Oswego Lake (mean - 4.2, range 3.9-4.6). Concentrations of NO/sup 3/-N and total P were about 50 times greater in Nescochague Lake than in Oswego Lake. The biological response to these differences was most evident among the phytoplankton, which exhibited both greater biomass and productivity. These periodic reductions in pH apparently restricted the zooplankton to a primarily acid tolerant assemblage, thus, explaining the overall similarity between the communities in Oswego and Nescochague Lakes.

  9. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow


    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  10. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit


    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  11. European Pine Shoot Moth (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten


    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  12. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel


    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  14. Development of an integrated chemical process system for utilization of complete Paraquat-treated pine trees. Final report, 1 July 1977-31 March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, D.J.; Bery, M.K.; El-Barbary, I.A.; Kovac, R.J.


    In 1973 it was reported that the treatment of southern pine trees with the herbicide Paraquat could induce lightwood formation with very significant increases in the extractable oleoresins and turpentine fractions. The objectives of this project included the characterization of this phenomenon, development of realistic qualitative and quantitative data on the extent of lightwood formation and the recovery of oleoresin and turpentine fractions. The principal objective was to determine if the yields of oleoresinous products and turpentine justified a stand-alone, economic wood extraction process technology, based on the utilization of whole- or complete-Paraquat-treated pine trees. The application of this technology was considered to be appropriate as a sub-system of an integrated chemical process system wherein ethanol, lignin (or hydrocarbon derivatives), and sugars would be manufactured as co-products. Alternately, such extraction technology could be used as a pre-treatment operation prior to Kraft pulping processing. Yield results tended to be variable. Turpentine increases ranged from 2- to 4-fold on a merchantable bole basis with increases at the site of injection as high as 12-fold. The distribution of the turpentine content in Paraquat-treated trees, as well as for extractives content, decreased to normal background levels at about six feet above the wound site. Oleoresin content increases normally ranged from 2 to 3 fold with a maximum total extractables content (or yield) of about 8% on a dry weight basis. Under current conditions, the phenomenon of lightwood formation in mature trees may best be exploited in pulp process plants.

  15. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens


    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  16. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.


    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  17. Carbon Isotopic Studies of Assimilated and Ecosystem Respired CO2 in a Southeastern Pine Forest. Final Report and Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Maureen H. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.


    Carbon dioxide is the major “greenhouse” gas responsible for global warming. Southeastern pine forests appear to be among the largest terrestrial sinks of carbon dioxide in the US. This collaborative study specifically addressed the isotopic signatures of the large fluxes of carbon taken up by photosynthesis and given off by respiration in this ecosystem. By measuring these isotopic signatures at the ecosystem level, we have provided data that will help to more accurately quantify the magnitude of carbon fluxes on the regional scale and how these fluxes vary in response to climatic parameters such as rainfall and air temperature. The focus of the MBL subcontract was to evaluate how processes operating at the physiological and ecosystem scales affects the resultant isotopic signature of plant waxes that are emitted as aerosols into the convective boundary layer. These wax aerosols provide a large-spatial scale integrative signal of isotopic discrimination of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial photosynthesis (Conte and Weber 2002). The ecosystem studies have greatly expanded of knowledge of wax biosynthetic controls on their isootpic signature The wax aerosol data products produced under this grant are directly applicable as input for global carbon modeling studies that use variations in the concentration and carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide to quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of carbon uptake on the global scale.

  18. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.


    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  19. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson


    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  20. Red Pine Shoot Moth (United States)

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  1. Sugar pine and its hybrids (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch


    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  2. Pinus L. Pine (United States)

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson


    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  3. Jack Pines and Walleyes. (United States)

    Lakes, Glendon


    Secondary school students in Pine River, Minnesota, need enough common knowledge to compete with graduates of other schools, but educators must keep in mind--as they move toward a more uniform curriculum--that each community is unique. (Author/RW)

  4. Freeze injury to southern pine seedlings (United States)

    David B. South


    Freeze injury to roots and shoots of pines is affected by genotype and nursery practices. Local sources of shortleaf pine and Virginia pine that are grown in nurseries in USDA hardiness Zones 6 and 7a are relatively freeze tolerant. However, loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine seedlings have been injured by a number of freeze events (0 to 24 °F) in hardiness...

  5. Loblolly pine SSR markers for shortleaf pine genetics (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; Sedley Josserand; Craig S. Echt; Jeff Koppelman


    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are highly informative DNA-based markers widely used in population genetic and linkage mapping studies. We have been developing PCR primer pairs for amplifying SSR markers for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using loblolly pine DNA and EST sequence data as starting materials. Fifty primer pairs known to reliably amplify...

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine × slash pine) × slash pine BC1 family (United States)

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; C. Dana. Nelson; M. Stine


    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F1 tree (Pinus palustris Mill. × P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree (P. ellottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine × slash pine...

  7. Cronartium ribicola resistance in whitebark pine, southwestern white pine, limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine - preliminary screening results from first tests at Dorena GRC (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; Dave Conklin


    All nine species of white pines (five-needle pines) native to the United States are highly susceptible to Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust. The presence of genetic resistance will be the key to maintaining or restoring white pines in many ecosystems and planning gene conservation activities. Operational genetic...

  8. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) (United States)

    Valli Peacher


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  9. The Austrian x red pine hybrid (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield


    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev


    Full Text Available Successional changes of pine forests were studied in outwash areas characterised by topography with ridges and depressions. The spatial series of pine forests of different stand ages and those that have not experienced the impact of human activities were analyzed. Pine forests in outwash areas form two successional series depending on the different ecotopes. The following successional series occurs at the tops of ridges: boreal green moss pine forest à boreal green moss – dwarf shrub forests à boreo-nemoral pine forest with admixture of birch, oak, spruce à nemoral polydominant spruce broad-leaved forest. Another successional series is formed on gentle ridge slopes: boreal polytric pine forest à boreal bilberry-polytric pine forest à boreo-nemoral pine forest with admixture of birch, oak, spruce à nemoral polydominant spruce broad-leaved forest. We show that ecotope has the leading role in the organisation of cenoses at the early stages of succession: green moss pine forests are formed at high and relatively dry relief sites (ridges and polytric pine forests are formed on relatively wet ridge slopes. The ecotopic mosaic is complicated by the vegetation pattern created by animals (e.g., seed hawkers at the intermediate stages of succession. Zoochoric species appear in the community: Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Convallaria majalis, Sorbus aucuparia and Quercus robur more often take root at the top of ridges; Vaccinium myrtillus, Frangula alnus and Picea abies grow on the slopes. The mosaic created by trees is imposed on a mosaic caused by ecotopes and animals at the final stages of succession: tree-fall gaps appear in the place of old dead trees with tree undergrowth. As a result, a heterogeneous community with a number of asynchronously developing gaps is formed in place of homogeneous pine forest

  11. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products. (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco


    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt


    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  13. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft


    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  14. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks. (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang


    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  15. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site (United States)

    James D. Haywood


    This research was initiated in a 34-year-old, direct-seeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to study how pine straw management practices (harvesting, fire, and fertilization) affected the longleaf pine overstory and pine straw yields. A randomized complete block split-plot design was installed with two main plot treatments...

  16. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley


    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  17. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine. (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D


    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  18. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  19. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests (United States)

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock


    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  20. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman


    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  1. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk? (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin


    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine, we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids, based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  2. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  3. Adaptive evolution of Mediterranean pines. (United States)

    Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C


    Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Climate Change on Whitebark Pine Along the Pacific Crest Trail (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Nguyen, A.; Gill, N.; Kannan, S.; Patadia, N.; Meyer, M.; Schmidt, C.


    The Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), one of eight National Scenic Trails, stretches 2,650 miles from Mexico to the Canadian border. At high elevations along this trail, within Inyo and Sierra National Forests, populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) have been diminishing due to infestation of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and are threatened due to a changing climate. Understanding the current and future condition of whitebark pine is a primary goal of forest managers due to its high ecological and economic importance, and it is currently a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Using satellite imagery, we analyzed the rate and spatial extent of whitebark pine tree mortality from 1984 to 2011 using the Landsat-based Detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery (LandTrendr) program. Climate data, soil properties, and biological features of the whitebark pine were incorporated in the Physiological Principles to Predict Growth (3-PG) model to predict future rates of growth and assess its applicability in modeling natural whitebark pine processes. Finally, the Random Forest algorithm was used with topographic data alongside recent and future climate data from the IPCC A2 and B1 climate scenarios for the years 2030, 2060, and 2090 to model the future distribution of whitebark pine. LandTrendr results indicate beetle related mortality covering 14,940 km2 of forest, 2,880 km2 of which are within whitebark pine forest. By 2090, our results show that under the A2 climate scenario, whitebark pine suitable habitat may be reduced by as much as 99.97% by the year 2090 within our study area. Under the B1 climate scenario, which has decreased CO2 emissions, 13.54% more habitat would be preserved in 2090.

  5. A Loblolly Pine Management Guide: Natural Regeneration of Loblolly Pine (United States)

    M. Boyd Edwards


    For many landowners, low cost makes natural regeneration an attractive alternative to planting when loblolly pine stands are harvested. Clearcutting, seed-tree, shelterwood, and selection methods can be used. Keys to success are a suitable adequate seed supply, sufficient moisture. and freedom from excessive competition.

  6. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  7. Underplanting shortleaf pine at Coldwater Conservation Area in Missouri (United States)

    Jason Jensen; David Gwaze


    Restoring shortleaf pine throughout its native range in the Ozark Highlands is a high priority in Missouri. Restoring shortleaf pine on former pine and oak-pine sites is a longterm strategy for mitigating chronic oak decline (Law et al. 2004). Underplanting or preharvest planting is one method that has potential for restoring shortleaf pine.

  8. Successional trends of six mature shortleaf pine forests in Missouri (United States)

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika


    Many of Missouri's mature oak-shortleaf pine (Quercus-Pinus echinata) forests are in a mid-transition stage characterized by partial pine overstory, limited pine recruitment, and minimal pine regeneration. Restoration of shortleaf pine communities at a large scale necessitates the understanding and management of natural regeneration. To...

  9. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf pine (n=93) and loblolly pine (n=112) trees representing 22 seed sources or 16 physiographic populations were sampled from Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings located in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi. The sampled trees were grown from shortleaf pine and loblolly pine seeds formed in 1951 and 1952, prior to the start of intensive forest...

  10. Participatory genetic improvement: longleaf pine (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; Gwendolyn Boyd; Randall J. Rousseau; Barbara S. Crane; Craig S. Echt; Kurt H. Johnsen


    University-industry-state cooperative tree improvement has been highly successful in the southern United States. Over nearly 60 years, three cooperative programs have led the way in developing and deploying genetically improved planting stocks for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pines. However, much lower levels of success have been achieved...

  11. Pine Ridge Fire summary report (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie. Stidham


    In July 2012, immediately after the Pine Ridge Fire burned outside De Beque, Colorado, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local government officials, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness in order to identify contributors to success and areas for improvement. Although the fire had...

  12. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.


    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  13. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber


    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  14. Species composition influences management outcomes following mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine-dominated forests (United States)

    Kristen Pelz; C. C. Rhoades; R. M. Hubbard; M. A. Battaglia; F. W. Smith


    Mountain pine beetle outbreaks have killed lodgepole pine on more than one million hectares of Colorado and southern Wyoming forest during the last decade and have prompted harvest operations throughout the region. In northern Colorado, lodgepole pine commonly occurs in mixed stands with subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, and aspen. Variation in tree species composition...

  15. Determining fire history from old white pine stumps in an oak-pine forest (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Chris McDonell


    Fire scars on stumps of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) white pine forest near Bracebridge, Ontario, were dated using dendrochronological methods. A chronological record of fires that caused basal scarring is preserved in the remnant white pine stumps, which were estimated to be up to 135 years old...

  16. Shortleaf pine reproduction abundance and growth in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; Doyle Henken; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen; David Gwaze


    We conducted an operational study to evaluate effect of site preparation treatments on pine reproduction density and the impact of overstory basal area and understory density on pine reproduction height and basal diameter in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks. Stands were harvested to or below B-level stocking, but patchiness of the oak decline lead to some plots...

  17. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz


    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  18. Timber management guide for shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. (United States)

    K.A. Brinkman; N.F. Rogers


    Summarizes recommended management practices for the shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. Describes sites and soils, and silvical characteristics of pine; discusses rotations, cutting cycles, stocking levels, growing space requirements, and regeneration techniques; and prescribes treatments for stands with specified characteristics to maximize returns from...

  19. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...


    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K.


    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  1. Recognizing Developmental Stages in Southern Pine Flowers: The Key to Controlled Pollination (United States)

    David L. Bramlett; Claude H. O' Gwynn


    Controlled pollinations are vital in southern pine tree improvement programs. Effective pollinations depend upon three operations. First, female flowers must be enclosed in isolation bags when they are in the proper stage of development. Then, viable pollen must be supplied to the ovules when the female flowers are most receptive. Finally, the developing cones must...

  2. Heat sterilization times of red pine boards (United States)

    William T. Simpson


    The objective of this study was to determine the time required to heat the center of red pine boards to various temperatures for sterilization. This information will serve as a guideline for those concerned with heat sterilizing wood pallets and other wood shipping containers to meet heat treatment requirements for protection against invasive pests. Red pine boards, 4...

  3. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps (United States)

    I. Skrzecz


    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  4. Many ways to manage lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Lucia Solorzano


    Research underway at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest near White Sulphur Springs will provide insights on how to sustain lodgepole pine forests and water flow patterns over large areas. Lodgepole pine dominates a high percentage of forests in the northern Rocky Mountains. including the Bitterroot National Forest. About half the stands at Tenderfoot are two-aged...

  5. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk


    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  6. Financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine. (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; Natalie A. Bolon; James M. Cahill


    A recent lumber recovery study of pruned and unpruned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was used to project the financial return from pruning ponderosa pine in the Medford District of the Bureau of Land Management and in the Ochoco and Deschutes National Forests. The cost of pruning at which the investment would yield an expected 4-...

  7. Ecological Impacts of Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most important biotic disturbance in southern pine forests and causes extensive changes to the forest environment. In this chapter we provide an overview of the ecological impacts of the SPB on forest conditions (the state of the forest) and on forest resources (uses and values associated with the forest). We define ecological...

  8. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.


    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  9. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley


    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  10. High elevation white pines educational website (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski


    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website ( serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  11. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  12. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender


    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  13. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  14. Western yellow pine in Arizona and New Mexico (United States)

    Theodore S. Woolsey


    Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...

  15. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle


    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  16. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike


    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  17. Short communication. Tomography as a method to study umbrella pine (Pinus pinea) cones and nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, A.; Pereira, H.; Tomé, M.; Silva, J.; Fontes, L.


    Aim of the study: Umbrella or stone pine (Pinus pinea) nuts are one of the most valuable and expensive non-wood forest products in Portugal. The increasing market and landowner's interest resulted on a high expansion of plantation areas. This study tests the feasibility of using tomography to characterize pine cones and nuts. Area of study: The research was carried out in pine stand, with nine years, grafted in 2011, on Herdade of Machoqueira do Grou, near Coruche, in Portugal’s central area. Material and Methods: Starting in June 2015, ten pine cones in their final stage of development, were randomly monthly collected, and evaluated with tomography equipment commonly used in clinical medicine, according to Protocol Abdomen Mean. A sequence of images corresponding to 1mm-spaced cross-sections were obtained and reconstructed to produce a 3D model. The segmented images were worked using free image processing software, like RadiAnt Dicom Viewer, Data Viewer and Ctvox. Main results: The cone’s structures were clearly visible on the images, and it was possible to easily identify empty pine nuts. Although expensive, tomography is an easy and quick application technique that allows to assess the internal structures, through the contrast of materials densities, allowing to estimate pine nut’s size and empty nut’s proportion. By analysis of ninety images, it was obtained, an estimated mean value of 25.5 % empty nuts. Research highlights: Results showed the potential of tomography as a screening tool to be used in industry and research areas, for analysis and diagnostic of stone pine cone’s structures. (Author)

  18. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine (United States)

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley


    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  19. Natural hybridization within seed sources of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (United States)

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson


    Shortleaf and loblolly pine trees (n=93 and 102, respectively) from 22 seed sources of the Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings or equivalent origin were evaluated for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation. These sampled trees represent shortleaf pine and loblolly pine, as they existed across their native geographic ranges before...

  20. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle


    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  1. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim


    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  2. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson


    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  3. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at... (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine...) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center located at 15710 Highway 385... of the proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center, and that...

  4. Modeling the Differential Sensitivity of Loblolly Pine to Climatic Change Using Tree Rings (United States)

    Edward R. Cook; Warren L. Nance; Paul J. Krusic; James Grissom


    The Southwide Pine Seed Source Study (SPSSS) was undertaken in 1951 to determine to what extent inherent geographic variation in four southern pine species (loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L.; slash pine, P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii; longleaf pine, P. palutris Mill.; and shortleaf pine,

  5. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type. (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg


    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  6. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  7. Longleaf Pine Survival, Growth, and Recruitment Experiment (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This experiment was to determine mean survivorship, growth rate, and recruitment rate of longleaf pine seedlings planted on different soil types on the refuge. Open...

  8. Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Fred P. Hain; Adrian J. Duehl; Micah J. Gardner; Thomas L. Payne


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a tree killer of southern yellow pines. All life stages—eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults—infest the inner bark or phloem tissue of the host tree. Adult beetles overcome the tree’s defenses through a mass-attack phenomenon. They are attracted to the tree by a pheromone system consisting of volatiles produced by the beetles and the host....

  9. Southern Pine Beetle Population Dynamics in Trees (United States)

    Fred M. Stephen


    Successful mass attack of a pine tree by the southern pine beetle (SPB) results in the tree’s death and provides opportunity for colonization of the new phloem resource and reproduction by a new generation of SPBs plus hundreds of associated species of insects, mites, fungi, and nematodes. The within-tree portions of the SPB life history can be divided into component...

  10. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  11. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang


    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  12. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko


    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  13. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace


    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  14. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler


    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  15. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin


    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  16. An old-growth definition for xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy; Gregory J. Nowacki


    The old-growth characteristics of xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands are summarized from a survey of the available scientific literature. This type occurs throughout the South and is usually found as small inclusions on ridgetops and south-facing slopes in the mountains or on excessively drained, sandy uplands in gentle terrain. Historically, this type has had frequent...

  17. Oleoresin characteristics of progeny of loblolly pines that escaped attack by southern pine beetle (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; L.L. Ingram; G.D.L. Boyd; L.H. Lott


    Oleoresin characteristics of first-generation (F1) progeny of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) that escaped mortality from the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), despite heavy mortality of neighbors, were evaluated and compared to trees from a general (i.e., trees...

  18. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson


    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  19. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David


    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  20. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu


    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  1. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp


    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  2. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback


    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  3. Pine Savannah restoration monitoring –Tammany Holding Tract (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monitor the response of pine flatwood/savannah to restoration and management actions including brush removal, prescribed burning and planting longleaf pine...

  4. The pine-oak rusts: How forest tree species connect (United States)

    D. R. Vogler


    The pine-oak rust fungi, which live out their lives as pathogens on pines and oaks, have multiple spore states and complex life cycles. Because they can be severe pathogens of pines, much of what we know about them depends on how damaging they are to management of pine forests for timber, recreation, and ecosystem values. Widely distributed in North America, they are...

  5. Simulating the impacts of southern pine beetle and fire on the dynamics of xerophytic pine landscapes in the southern Appalachians (United States)

    J.D. Waldron; C.W. Lafon; R.N. Coulson; D.M. Cairns; M.D. Tchakerian; A. Birt; K.D. Klepzig


    Question: Can fire be used to maintain Yellow pine (Pinus subgenus Diploxylon) stands disturbed by periodic outbreaks of southern pine beetle?Location: Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.Methods: We used LANDIS to model vegetation disturbance and succession...

  6. Copper Deficiency in Pine Plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain (United States)

    David B. South; William A. Carey; Donald A. Johnson


    Copper deficiencies have been observed on several intensively managed pine plantations in the Georgia Coastal Plain. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) displayed plagiotropic growth within a year after planting on very acid, sandy soils. Typically, symptoms show...

  7. Top Grafting Loblolly Pine in the Western Gulf Region (United States)

    Geoffrey D. Goading; Floyd E. Bridgwater; David L. Bramlett; William J. Lowe


    Flowering data were collected from top grafts made in 1996 and 1997 at the Mississippi Forestry Commission's Craig Seed Orchard near Lumberton, MS. Scion material from twenty loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) second-generation selections was grafted onto five loblolly pine and five slash pine (P. elliottii) interstocks. All...

  8. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes


    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  9. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson


    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  10. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe (United States)

    Jose Negron


    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  11. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  12. Examining possible causes of mortality in white pine seedlings (United States)

    Elizabeth Gilles; Ronald Reitz; Greg Hoss; David. Gwaze


    White pine (Pinus strobus L.) is one of the most important timber trees in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada (Demeritt and Garrett 1996). White pine is not native to Missouri; it is commonly planted for wind breaks and erosion control and as an ornamental. Unusual mortality of bare-root seedlings of white pine purchased from the...

  13. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss


    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  14. Limber pine conservation strategy: Recommendations for Rocky Mountain National Park (United States)

    Christy M. Cleaver; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; J. Jeff Connor


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis), designated by Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) as a Species of Management Concern, is a keystone species that maintains ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity in the park. In RMNP, limber pine is declining due to the interacting effects of recent severe droughts and the climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle (...

  15. Repeatability for oleoresin yield determinations in southern pines (United States)

    J. H. Roberds; Brian L. Strom


    Flow of constitutive oleoresin is believed to be a major component of tree defense against attack by the southern pine pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann). Pines that exude large quantities of oleoresin are considered to be most capable of preventing or obstructing colonization by this destructive insect herbivore (Hodges et al. 1979;...

  16. A race against beetles: Conservation of limber pine (United States)

    Anna Schoettle; Kelly Burns; Sheryl Costello; Jeff Witcosky; Brian Howell; Jeff Connor


    The Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest Health Management, Rocky Mountain National Park, Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, and the Medicine Bow NF are coordinating efforts to conserve limber pine along the Front Range of the southern Rockies. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) populations are increasing dramatically in the area and killing limber pines in their...

  17. Fire Monitoring: Effects of Scorch in Louisiana's Pine Forests (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Mary Anne Sword; Finis L. Harris


    Frequent growing-season burning is essential for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plant communities to open parklike landscapes. However, fire can be a destructive force, reducing productivity and causing mortality among overstory longleaf pine trees. On two central Louisiana sites, severe crown scorch reduced longleaf pine diameter...

  18. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer


    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  19. Early Results of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Pine in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe


    Despite the presence of more than 500 native tree species in Puerto Rico, many efforts have been made to introduce pine. These attempts have been made because, compared to the native species, pine has a much wider accepted market and has the longer fiber necessary as a component of kraft papers. In addition pine produces higher yields on poor sites, and its...

  20. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šikanja Severin


    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  1. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03) (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  2. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo


    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  3. Historic Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) Abundance and Fire Frequency in a Mixed Oak - Pine Forest (MOFEP, Site 8) (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    Historic and present day shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) abundance was measured and compared using 84 plots along 16 transects in site 8 of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project. Remnant pine stumps were used to estimate historic pine density and to construct a dendrochronological record of fire frequency. There has been a 66-percent...

  4. Growth performance of loblolly shortleaf, and pitch X loblolly pine hybrid growing along the western margin of commercial pine range (United States)

    K.C. Dipesh; Rodney E. Will; Thomas C Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman


    Expansion of the commercial pine range is one of the opportunities to improve forest production and counterbalance the loss of forest land to other uses. The potential genotypes for the purpose are fast-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the slower growing, but more drought tolerant shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.), and the more cold tolerant pitch x loblolly...

  5. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  6. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta


    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  7. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species (United States)

    J. Dunlap


    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  8. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  9. The most important parasitic and saprophytic fungi in Austrian pine and Scots pine plantations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan


    Full Text Available In Austrian pine plantations in Serbia, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Mycosphaerella pini, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Cenangium ferruginosum, Germmeniella abietina (in the mountain regions and occasionally Armillaria spp., Lophodermium spp. (seditiosum, conigenum, pinastri and Cyclaneusma niveum. In Scots pine plantations, the greatest damage is caused by the fungi Heterobasidion annosum (especially in plantations on sandy soils, Armillaria spp, Lophodermium seditiosum, L. pinastri, Cyclaneusma minus and Sphaeropsis sapinea. Damage caused by rust fungi (Coleosporium sennecionis, Melampsora pinitorqua and Cronartium flaccidum occurs less frequently. In mountainous regions in Scots pine plantations, great damage is caused by Phacidium infestans, Lophodermella sulcigena and Gremmeniella abietina.

  10. Whitebark and limber pine restoration and monitoring in Glacier National Park (United States)

    Jennifer M. Asebrook; Joyce Lapp; Tara. Carolin


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are keystone species important to watersheds, grizzly and black bears, squirrels, birds, and other wildlife. Both high elevation five-needled pines have dramatically declined in Glacier National Park primarily due to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and fire exclusion, with mountain pine...

  11. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa


    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.


    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  13. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  14. Soil property changes during loblolly pine production (United States)

    R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya; G.M. Chescheir; Christine D. Blanton


    Three watersheds, each approximately 25 ha, were instrumented to measure and record drainage rate, water table depth, rainfall and meteorological data. Data continuously collected on the site since 1988 include response of hydrologic and water quality variables for nearly all growth stages of a Loblolly pine plantation. Data for drainage outflow rates and water table...

  15. Thermomechanical pulping of loblolly pine juvenile wood (United States)

    Gary C. Myers


    Intensive forest management, with a heavy emphasis on ecosystem management and restoring or maintaining forest health, will result in the removal of smaller diameter materials from the forest. This increases the probability of higher juvenile wood content in the harvested materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of loblolly pine juvenile and...

  16. Factors Affecting Survival of Longleaf Pine Seedlings (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer


    Longleaf pine may be managed most efficiently in large even-aged stands. Past research has shown that the effect of trees surrounding the openings (gaps) or the use of fire is a complicating factor, especially with small openings. Longleaf seedlings are considered more susceptible to fire under and nearer to standing trees, and seedling size, kind of fire, soil type,...

  17. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman


    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  18. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich


    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  19. Artificial ripening of sugar pine seeds (United States)

    Stanley L. Krugman


    Immature sugar pine seeds were collected and ripened either in the cone or in moist vermiculate. Seeds collected before the second week of August could not be artificially ripened and the causes for these failures were investigated. After the second week of August, immature seeds could be brought to maturity. A practical method for a commercial operation should be...

  20. Geographic variation in ponderosa pine leader growth (United States)

    James W. Hanover


    Growth of the shoot apices of 91 trees in a 45-year-old Pinus ponderosa Laws. provenance test was measured periodically with a transit. Analysis of the measurements led to the following conclusions: (1) 19 races of ponderosa pine planted near Priest River, Idaho, showed phenological, morphological, or physiological variation in six characters: date of beginning growth...

  1. Status of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana pine snake) (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Ricky W. Maxey


    Extensive trapping surveys across the historical range of Pituophis ruthveni (Louisiana Pine Snake) suggest that extant populations are extremely small and limited to remnant patches of suitable habitat in a highly fragmented landscape. Evaluation of habitat at all known historical localities of P. ruthveni documents the widespread...

  2. Electromagnetic Treatment of Loblolly Pine Seeds (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Stanley L. Krugman


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed...

  3. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung


    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  4. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape. N S Leela. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 43-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  5. Prescribed burning in southwestern ponderosa pine (United States)

    Stephen S Sackett; Sally M Haase; Michael G Harrington


    Prescribed burning is an effective way of restoring the fire process to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) ecosystems of the Southwest. If used judiciously, fire can provide valuable effects for hazard reduction, natural regeneration, thinning, vegetation revitalization, and in general, better forest health. Relatively short burning...

  6. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  7. Studies in western yellow pine nursery practice (United States)

    Donald R. Brewster; J. A. Larsen


    In 1912 and 1913, when nursery experiments were started under direction of the then "Priest River'' Forest Experiment Station, at Priest River, Idaho, and elsewhere, western yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa) was one of the principal species being planted on a large scale in the northern Rocky Mountain region and millions of plants were being raised each year...

  8. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) (United States)

    S. Little


    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  9. Production of Oleoresin from southern pine trees. (United States)

    T.A. Harrington


    Developments in techniques, methods, and equipment for producing oleoresin from the living pine are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the need for mechanized production methods if this ancient industry is to survive the competition from other sources of rosin and turpentine.

  10. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear


    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  11. Red Rot of Ponderosa Pine (FIDL) (United States)

    Stuart R. Andrews


    Red rot caused by the fungus Polyporus anceps Peck is the most important heart rot of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in the Southwest (in Arizona and New Mexico), the Black Hills of South Dakota, and some localities in Colorado, Montana, and Idaho. It causes only insignificant losses to this species elsewhere in the West. The red rot fungus rarely attacks other...

  12. Growth and yield of shortleaf pine (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy


    A survey of available growth and yield information for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is given. The kinds of studies and data sources that produce this information are also evaluated, and an example of how a growth and yield model can be used to answer management questions is illustrated. Guidelines are given for using growth and yield models, and needs for...

  13. Direct-seedling pines in the south (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann


    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  14. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford


    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  15. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines (United States)

    James P. Barnett


    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  16. Extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. (United States)

    Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R


    Pretreatment is the first step to open up lignocellulose structure in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Extrusion can be a viable pretreatment method due to its ability to simultaneously expose biomass to a range of disruptive conditions in a continuous flow process. Extruder screw speed, barrel temperature, and feedstock moisture content are important factors that can influence sugar recovery from biomass. Hence, the current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of these parameters on extrusion pretreatment of pine wood chips. Pine wood chip at 25, 35, and 45 % wb moisture content were pretreated at various barrel temperatures (100, 140, and 180 °C) and screw speeds (100, 150, and 200 rpm) using a screw with compression ratios of 3:1. The pretreated pine wood chips were subjected to standard enzymatic hydrolysis followed by sugar and byproducts quantification. Statistical analyses revealed the existence of significant differences in sugar recovery due to independent variables based on comparing the mean of main effects and interaction effects. Pine wood chips pretreated at a screw speed of 150 rpm and a barrel temperature of 180 °C with a moisture content of 25 % resulted in a maximum cellulose, hemicellulose, and total sugar recoveries of 65.8, 65.6, and 66.1 %, respectively, which was about 6.7, 7.9, and 6.8 fold higher than the control (unpretreated pine chips). Furthermore, potential fermentation inhibitors such as furfural, hydroxyl methyl furfural, and acetic acid were not found in any of the treatment combinations.

  17. Comparison of stem volume of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. and Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vaněk


    Full Text Available This study deals with mensurational and volumetric characteristics of introduced Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus in comparison with native Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris of the similar age and habitat. Municipal forests of Hradec Králové city (an area with the natural occurrence of Scotch pine and introduced Eastern white pine; east part of Bohemia, altitude from 250 to 280 m a.s.l. belong to typological unit – nutrient-very poor, and acidic sites. There comparative analysis of basic stem variables (stem diameter at the breast-height – DBH, total tree height – H and stem volume – V of dominant trees (10 individuals with the highest DBH of both species in four suitable forest stands of age from 42 to 102 years was done. Statistical analysis showed similar trends in all forests stands. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine reached larger mean DBH (up to 16%. H – values do not have a clear trend across the forest stands and did not show large differences in all cases. Eastern white pine compared to Scotch pine showed also larger mean stem volume (up to 47%. Therefore, introduced Eastern white pine reached higher stem size parameters and wood production compared to native Scotch pine in studied forest district.

  18. NMR analysis of lignins in CAD-deficient plants. Part 1, Incorporation of hydroxycinnamaldehydes and hydroxybenzaldehydes into lignins (United States)

    Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Alain-M. Boudett; John J. MacKay; Ronald R. Sederoff; Takashi Ito; Shingo Kawai; Hideo Ohashi; Takayoshi Higuchi


    Peroxidase/H2O2-mediated radical coupling of 4-hydroxycinnamaldehydes produces 8–O–4-, 8–5-, and 8–8-coupled dehydrodimers as has been documented earlier, as well as the 5-5-coupled dehydrodimer. The 8–5- dehydrodimer is however produced kinetically in its cyclic phenylcoumaran form at neutral pH. Synthetic polymers produced from mixtures of hydroxycinnamaldehydes and...

  19. Fuel composition influences fire characteristics and understorey hardwoods in pine savanna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellair, Darin P; Platt, William J; Austin, Amy


    .... We experimentally manipulated amounts of pine and hickory leaves beneath understorey hickory stems in a pine savanna, measured temperatures during prescribed fires and assessed combustion of fuels...

  20. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto


    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  1. High rate of adaptive evolution in two widespread European pines. (United States)

    Grivet, Delphine; Avia, Komlan; Vaattovaara, Aleksia; Eckert, Andrew J; Neale, David B; Savolainen, Outi; González-Martínez, Santiago C


    Comparing related organisms with differing ecological requirements and evolutionary histories can shed light on the mechanisms and drivers underlying genetic adaptation. Here, by examining a common set of hundreds of loci, we compare patterns of nucleotide diversity and molecular adaptation of two European conifers (Scots pine and maritime pine) living in contrasted environments and characterized by distinct population genetic structure (low and clinal in Scots pine, high and ecotypic in maritime pine) and demographic histories. We found higher nucleotide diversity in Scots pine than in maritime pine, whereas rates of new adaptive substitutions (ωa ), as estimated from the Distribution of Fitness Effects (DFE), were similar across species, and among the highest found in plants. Sample size and population genetic structure did not appear to have resulted in significant bias in estimates of ωa . Moreover, population contraction-expansion dynamics for each species did not differentially affect differentially the rate of adaptive substitution in these two pines. Several methodological and biological factors may underlie the unusually high rate of adaptive evolution of Scots pine and maritime pine. By providing two new case studies with contrasting evolutionary histories, we contribute to disentangling the multiple factors potentially affecting adaptive evolution in natural plant populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts


    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc; Laura Zăpărţan; Laura Stan; Carmen R. Pop; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Ancuţa M. Rotar


    This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w)] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Se...

  3. A stochastic model of tree architecture and biomass partitioning: application to Mongolian Scots pines. (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Kang, Mengzhen; Lu, Qi; Letort, Véronique; Han, Hui; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo


    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal species used for windbreak and sand stabilization in arid and semi-arid areas in northern China. A model-assisted analysis of its canopy architectural development and functions is valuable for better understanding its behaviour and roles in fragile ecosystems. However, due to the intrinsic complexity and variability of trees, the parametric identification of such models is currently a major obstacle to their evaluation and their validation with respect to real data. The aim of this paper was to present the mathematical framework of a stochastic functional-structural model (GL2) and its parameterization for Mongolian Scots pines, taking into account inter-plant variability in terms of topological development and biomass partitioning. In GL2, plant organogenesis is determined by the realization of random variables representing the behaviour of axillary or apical buds. The associated probabilities are calibrated for Mongolian Scots pines using experimental data including means and variances of the numbers of organs per plant in each order-based class. The functional part of the model relies on the principles of source-sink regulation and is parameterized by direct observations of living trees and the inversion method using measured data for organ mass and dimensions. The final calibration accuracy satisfies both organogenetic and morphogenetic processes. Our hypothesis for the number of organs following a binomial distribution is found to be consistent with the real data. Based on the calibrated parameters, stochastic simulations of the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in plantations are generated by the Monte Carlo method, allowing analysis of the inter-individual variability of the number of organs and biomass partitioning. Three-dimensional (3D) architectures of young Mongolian Scots pines were simulated for 4-, 6- and 8-year-old trees. This work provides a new method for characterizing

  4. Modeling Mortality of Loblolly Pine Plantations


    Thapa, Ram


    Accurate prediction of mortality is an important component of forest growth and yield prediction systems, yet mortality remains one of the least understood components of the system. Whole-stand and individual-tree mortality models were developed for loblolly pine plantations throughout its geographic range in the United States. The model for predicting stand mortality were developed using stand characteristics and biophysical variables. The models were constructed using two modeling approache...

  5. Small Hardwoods Reduce Growth of Pine Overstory (United States)

    Charles X. Grano


    Dense understory hardwoods materially decreased the growth of a 53-year-old and a 47-year-old stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines. Over a 14-year period, hardwood eradication with chemicals increased average annual yield from the 53-year-old stand by 14.3 cubic feet, or 123 board-feet per acre. In the 47-year-old stand the average annual treatment advantage was...

  6. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.


    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  7. Results and conclusions of pine treeline advanced project in subarctic Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, G.


    The original project components dealt with seed germination, soil conditions, competition, seedling ecology in and development. Subsequent research into flowering, seed maturation, dispersal and sexual development gained notable interest, as the uninhibited advance of the pine treeline continued. Since then the significant roles of repeated seed years and stand development became evident as stem numbers first increased and thereafter decreased. Improving bio-energy resources and quantifying the increasing CO{sub 2} sink dominated the sup-projects in the final stages. Ultimately the careful age and dry weight measurements and stem inventories prove decisively important in determining what factors were the main prerequisites for the advance of pine on forest-tundra and the development of the new CO{sub 2} sink. During the 20th century the favorable climate has promoted the advance of pine in the far north of Finland, which would appear to support the IPCC message of global warming. A consequence of this climate warming might be that the productive forest area in northernmost Finland will increase rather dramatically during the next century. Considering the longevity of pine, the standing productive forest stock and CO{sub 2} sink capacity would hence increase accordingly. It would therefore seem prudent to recommend the enhancement of conifer seed years and intensified experimentation with genetically tested conifer species throughout the circumpolar treeline regions. Consequently, through sustainable use of new biomass reserves, new areas south of the timberline could be opened to allow for potential ecological forestry practices and alternate energy sources could be developed. At the same time, this will create new employment opportunities for local people in all circumpolar regions.

  8. Fire environment effects on particulate matter emission factors in southeastern U.S. pine-grasslands (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin M.; Hsieh, Yuch P.; Bugna, Glynnis C.


    Particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFPM), which predict particulate emissions per biomass consumed, have a strong influence on event-based and regional PM emission estimates and inventories. PM behavior which might influence combustion reactions, the EFPM2.5 component of emission estimates is typically a constant for the region or general fuel type being assessed. The goal of this study was to use structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify and measure effects of fire environment variables on EFPM2.5 in U.S. pine-grasslands, which contribute disproportionately to total U.S. PM2.5 emissions. A hypothetical model was developed from past literature and tested using 41 prescribed burns in northern Florida and southern Georgia, USA with varying years since previous fire, season of burn, and fire direction of spread. Measurements focused on EFPM2.5 from flaming combustion, although a subset of data considered MCE and smoldering combustion. The final SEM after adjustment showed EFPM2.5 to be higher in burns conducted at higher ambient temperatures, corresponding to later dates during the period from winter to summer and increases in live herbaceous vegetation and ambient humidity, but not total fine fuel moisture content. Percentage of fine fuel composed of pine needles had the strongest positive effect on EFPM2.5, suggesting that pine timber stand volume may significantly influence PM2.5 emissions. Also, percentage of fine fuel composed of grass showed a negative effect on EFPM2.5, consistent with past studies. Results of the study suggest that timber thinning and frequent prescribed fire minimize EFPM2.5 and total PM2.5 emissions on a per burn basis, and that further development of PM emission models should consider adjusting EFPM2.5 as a function of common land use variables, including pine timber stocking, surface vegetation composition, fire frequency, and season of burn.

  9. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest (United States)

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva


    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  10. Whitebark pine diameter growth response to removal of competition (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kathy L. Gray; Laura J. Dickinson


    Silvicultural cutting treatments may be needed to restore whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests, but little is known of the response of this species to removal of competition through prescribed burning or silvicultural cuttings. We analyzed stem cross-sections from 48 whitebark pine trees in Montana around which most of the competing vegetation...

  11. Pine pollen collections dates - annual and geographic variation (United States)

    J. W. Duffield


    Activity in pine breeding has increased throughout the temperate forest regions of the world since the Institute of Forest Genetics issued its first summary of pollen collection dates in 1947. Cooperation between pine breeders has increased at the same time. The information most essential for conducting cooperative breeding operations are the dates of pollen collection...

  12. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt


    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  13. Financial performance of loblolly and longleaf pine plantations (United States)

    Steven D. Mills; Charles T. Stiff


    The financial performance of selected management regimes for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) plantations were compared for four cases, each with low- and high-site productivity levels and each evaluated using 5 and 7 percent real discount rates. In all cases, longleaf pine was considered both with...

  14. Longleaf pine grown in Virginia: a provenance test (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Jerre L. Creighton; Chris A. Maier


    In 2006 the Virginia Department of Forestry established a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) provenance test on three sites near Richmond, VA, near the most northern native range of longleaf pine. Seedlings were grown in containers at the Virginia Department of Forestry New Kent Forestry Center during the 2005 growing season.

  15. Loblolly pine karyotype using FISH and DAPI positive banding (United States)

    M. Nurul Islam-Faridi; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M.V. Gullirmo; V.H. McNamara; S. Ramakrishnan; H.J. Price; D.M. Stelly


    The pines (Pinus, 2n = 2x = 24) include many commercially important timber species. Pinus spp. have 12 pairs of chromosomes, with 10 or 11 pairs of long metacentric chromosomes and one pair of short sub-metacentric chromosomes (Sax and Sax 1933). The pines have been studied extensively with...

  16. Resistance of three interspecific white pine hybrids to blister rust (United States)

    R. Z. Callaham


    Three white pine hybrids exposed to infection by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) since 1946 have inherited the relative resistance of their parental species. The hybrids were produced from controlled pollinations in 1940 and 1941 at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif. Twelve seedlings of each hybrid were...

  17. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (United States)

    Barbara Bentz


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is considered one of the most economically important insect species in coniferous forests of western North America. Adult beetles are capable of successfully reproducing in at least 12 North American species of Pinus (Pineacea) from southern British Columbia to northern Baja Mexico. Mountain pine beetle adults...

  18. Severe burning treatment tested on lowland pine sites (United States)

    S. Little; E. B. Moore


    Since the prescribed use of fire is a fairly new silvicultural technique for preparing seedbeds for pine in the New Jersey pine region, it has been used rather cautiously. Burning treatments have been made in the winter, when periodic light fires can be easily controlled. The treatments have been used almost exclusively on upland sites.

  19. White-pine weevil control with knapsack mistblower (United States)

    Arthur R. Hastings; John H. Risley


    Tests made in New York State in 1956-60 indicate that the portable knapsack mistblower has considerable promise for practical control of the white-pine weevil, now the major insect enemy of white pine in the Northeast. Lindane and malathion, alone and with Aroclor 5460, were the toxicants used in the tests.

  20. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Management of Longleaf Pine (United States)

    Robert S. Farrar; [Editor


    The symposium on the management of longleaf pine leading to these proceedings was held on April 4 through 6, 1989, in Long Beach, MS, at the Gulf Park Conference Center of the University of Southern Mississippi. This conference was attended by approximately 170 land managers, wildlife managers, researchers, educators, students, and others interested in longleaf pine...

  1. Constituent and induced tannin accumulations in roots of loblolly pines (United States)

    Charles H. Walkinshaw


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L [L.]) has become the most important source of wood fiber in the Southern United States. This tree is an excellent competitor and recovers well from a variety of adverse conditions. The author presents a histological study of tannin in pine roots to measure tannin abundance as a primary trait to evaluate root health at the...

  2. Influence of Thinning and Pruning on Southern Pine Veneer Quality (United States)

    Mark D. Gibson; Terry R. Clason; Gary L. Hill; George A. Grozdits


    This paper presents the effects of intensive pine plantation management on veneer yields, veneer grade distribution and veneer MOE as measured by ultrasonic stress wave transmission (Metriguard). Veneer production trials were done at a commercial southern pine plywood plant to elucidate the effects of silvicultural treatments on veneer quality, yield, and modulus of...

  3. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron


    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  4. Population Dynamics of Southern Pine Beetle in Forest Landscapes (United States)

    Andrew Birt


    Southern pine beetle (SPB) is an important pest of Southeastern United States pine forests. Periodic regional outbreaks are characterized by localized areas of tree mortality (infestations) surrounded by areas with little or no damage. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality is driven by the dynamics of SPB populations—more specifically, by rates of...

  5. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton


    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  6. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich


    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  7. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  8. Uneven-aged management for longleaf pine: freedom to choose (United States)

    David Dyson


    Longleaf pine once was present on 90 million acres of the southern landscape, ranging from coastal Virginia to east Texas and from central Florida to the mountains of Alabama. On nearly two-thirds of that area, longleaf pine grew in nearly pure (single-species) stands maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires of both natural and human origin. The remaining...

  9. Interacting genes in the pine-fusiform rust forest pathosystem (United States)

    H.V. Amerson; T.L. Kubisiak; S.A. Garcia; G.C. Kuhlman; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin; B. Li


    Fusiform rust (FR) disease of pines, caused by Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf), is the most destructive disease in pine plantations of the southern U. S. The NCSU fusiform rust program, in conjunction with the USDA-Forest Service in Saucier, MS and Athens, GA, has research underway to elucidate some of the genetic interactions in this...

  10. Longleaf Pine Cone Crops and Climate: A Possible Link (United States)

    Neil Pederson; John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Bayer


    The physiological development of longieaf pine seed extends over three calendar years. The duration of this process may explain the reason for infrequent seed crops. Infrequent crops cause problems for those interested in natural regeneration. Longleaf pine cone crops have been monitored on the Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) in Brewton, AL since 1958. Weather data...

  11. Ecosystem-based management in the whitebark pine zone (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart


    Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating whitebark pine forests....

  12. Forest stand dynamics of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks (United States)

    David R. Larsen


    Much has been written on the management of shortleaf pine in the Ozarks (Brinkman et al. 1965, Brinkman 1967, Brinkman and Smith 1968, Seidel and Rogers 1965, Seidel and Rogers 1966). In large portions of the Ozarks, shortleaf pine does not grow in pure stands but rather in mixes with various oak species. These mixes present unique challenges in finding the set of...

  13. Limber pine conservation in Rocky Mountain National Park (United States)

    Jeff Connor; Anna Schoettle; Kelly Burns; Erin Borgman


    Limber pines are one of the most picturesque trees in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Growing in some of the park's most exposed rocky sites, the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them in winter. Limber pines live to great ages, with some in the park exceeding 1,000 years. An especially photogenic stand of ancient trees...

  14. A comparison of northern and southern table mountain pine stands (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr


    Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens) stands occur throughout the Appalachian Mountains, but ecological research has concentrated on the southern part of this region. In 2006, research was initiated in northern Table Mountain pine stands growing in PA to compare some basic attributes of those stands with previously described ones in TN. Overall, the...

  15. Photosynthesis and growth of selected scotch pine seed sources (United States)

    John C. Gordon; Gordon E. Gatherum


    A number of problems related to the culture of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) arose following the increased planting of this species in Iowa. Therefore, a program of controlled-environment experiments to determine the effects of genetic and environmental factors on physiological processes important to the culture of Scotch pine was begun by the...

  16. The effects of a wildfire on pine seedling recruitment (United States)

    Paula C. Gnehm; Brad Hadley


    We investigated the effects of a single arson wildfire by comparing its impact on pine seedling recruitment with that of both prescribed fire and unburned compartments. Although a t-test detected no significant difference in pine seedling recruitment (p = 0.38), the "wildfire" treatment produced 127 more seedlings than the unburned...

  17. Exploring whitebark pine resilience in the crown of the continent (United States)

    Stacey A. Burke; Michael S. Quinn


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are declining across western North America due to synergies of disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic. Losses at treeline may result in significant changes to the upper subalpine zone, which may result in a regime shift, thus affecting the ecological goods and services whitebark pine systems provide for other species...

  18. Spatial and population genetic structure of microsatellites in white pine (United States)

    Paula E. Marquardt; Bryan K. Epperson


    We evaluated the population genetic structure of seven microsatellite loci for old growth and second growth populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). From each population, located within Hartwick Pines State Park, Grayling, Michigan, USA, 120-122 contiguous trees were sampled for genetic analysis. Within each population, genetic diversity...

  19. Loblolly Pine Growth 16 Years After Four Site Preparation Treatments (United States)

    John C. Adams; Clyde Vidrine


    Thirteen-year growth results of 1-0 planted loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) on differently prepared upland mixed pine-hardwood sites located in north western Louisiana are presented. The study was designed as a randomized complete block consisting of three blocks of four site preparation treatments, which included: chop and burn, windrow,...

  20. Effect of dietary mugwort ( Artemisia vulgaris L.) and pine needle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary mugwort and pine needle powder supplementation on growth performance, serum cholesterol, and meat quality of broilers were evaluated in a 35 days feed trial. 200 one day old broilers were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0, 1 and 2% mugwort or 1 and 2% pine needle powder) with ...

  1. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster


    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  2. Computer simulation of white pine blister rust epidemics (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Raymond J. Hoff; William R. Wykoff


    A simulation of white pine blister rust is described in both word and mathematical models. The objective of this first generation simulation was to organize and analyze the available epidemiological knowledge to produce a foundation for integrated management of this destructive rust of 5-needle pines. Verification procedures and additional research needs are also...

  3. A review of southern pine decline in North America (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Kier D. Klepzig; Frank H. Koch; Lawrence A. Morris; John T. Nowak; Steven W. Oak; William J. Otrosina; William D. Smith; Kamal J.K. Gandhi


    The southeastern United States is among the most productive forested areas in the world. Four endemic southern pine species – loblolly, longleaf, shortleaf, and slash - contribute significantly to the economic and ecological values in the region. A recently described phenomenon known as Southern Pine Decline (SPD) has been reported as having widespread impact in the...

  4. Comparison of Monterey pine stress in urban and natural forests (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride


    Monterey pine street trees within Carmel, California and its immediate vicinity, as well as forest-grown Monterey pine within adjacent natural stands, were sampled with regard to visual stress characteristics, and various environmental and biological variables. Two stress indices were computed, one hypothesized before data collection was based on relative foliage...

  5. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The...

  6. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada...

  7. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in Eureka...

  8. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The...

  9. Straight studs are produced from southern pine cordwood (United States)

    Peter Koch


    A Process for converting southern pine veneer cores into 8-foot 2 by 4's of SPIB Stud grade and better has been developed at the Alexandria, Louisiana, Utilization Laboratory of the Southern Forest Experiment Station. The research leading to this development suggests that a similiar process would be practical for converting 8-foot southern pine cordwood into studs...

  10. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser


    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  11. Recent trends in the afforestation and reforestation of nonindustrial private pine forests in Alabama (United States)

    William H. McWilliams


    A shrinking of Alabama's nonindustrial private pine forest prompted an analysis of recent trends in afforestation and regeneration. There has been an 828,100-acre addition to the nonindustrial pine-site timberland base from nonforest land uses. Planting has replaced natural seeding as the major cause of afforestation to pine. The area of nonindustrial pine-site...

  12. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major


    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  13. Distinguishing features of loblolly and shortleaf pine seeds: implications for monitoring seed production in mixed stands (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain


    Monitoring seed production in mixed loblolly pine - shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L. and Pinus echinata Mill. respectively) stands may require identifying individual seeds by species. Although loblolly pine seeds are on average heavier and larger than those of shortleaf pine, there is considerable overlap in these properties for...

  14. A Common-Pool Resource Approach to Forest Health: The Case of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    John Schelhas; Joseph Molnar


    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is a major threat to pine forest health in the South, and is expected to play an increasingly important role in the future of the South’s pine forests (Ward and Mistretta 2002). Once a forest stand is infected with southern pine beetle (SPB), elimination and isolation of the infested and immediately...

  15. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich


    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  16. Restoration planting options for limber pines in the southern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns


    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine's critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts.

  17. Native ectomycorrhizal fungi of limber and whitebark pine: Necessary for forest sustainability? (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps; Robert K. Antibus


    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are an important component of northern coniferous forests, including those of Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and P. albicaulis (whitebark pine) which are being decimated by white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetles. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to promote seedling establishment, tree health, and may play a role in forest sustainability....

  18. Surfing the Koehler Curve: revisiting a method for the identification of longleaf pine stumps and logs (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Karen G. Reed


    Measurements of pith and second growth ring diameters were used by Koehler in 1932 to separate longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) timbers from those of several southern pines (e.g., loblolly, shortleaf). In the current study, measurements were taken from plantation-grown longleaf, loblolly and shortleaf pine trees, as well as old growth longleaf pine, lightwood, and...

  19. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract) (United States)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  20. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed? (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  1. Heterogeneous nonmarket benefits of managing white pine bluster rust in high-elevation pine forests (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Craig A. Bond


    This article describes a nonmarket valuation study about benefits of managing the invasive disease white pine blister rust in highelevation forests in the Western United States. Results demonstrate that, on average, households in the Western United States are willing to pay $154 to improve the resiliency of these forests. Factor analysis shows that long-run protection...

  2. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar


    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  3. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard


    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  4. Body temperature variations of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) in a longleaf pine ecosystem (United States)

    John G. Himes; Laurence M. Hardy; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf


    The thermal ecology of the Louisiana pine snake, Pituophis ruthveni, was studied from 1993-97 in Louisiana and Texas. All snakes were implanted with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters. Temperatures were recorded from snakes located above ground and underground and were compared between size and sex classes (juveniles, adult males, adult females). Associated air...

  5. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  6. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers tightly linked to a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine (United States)

    Michael E. Devey; Annette Delfino-Mix1; Bohun B. Kinloch; David B. NEALEt


    We have genetically mapped a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fisch.) in sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) by using an approach which relies on three factors: (i) the ability to assay for genetic markers in the haploid stage of the host's life cycle, using...

  7. Distribution and frequency of a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in natural populations of sugar pine (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.


    The gametic frequency of a dominant allcle (R) for resistance to white pine blister rust, a disease caused by an introduced pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), in natural populations of sugar pine was estimated by the kind of leaf symptom expressed after artificial inoculation of wind-pollinated seedlings from susceptible seed-parent...

  8. High-resolution analysis of stem increment and sap flow for loblolly pine trees attacked by southern pine beetle (United States)

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Samuel B. McLaughlin; Matthew P. Ayres


    Manual and automated dendrometers, and thermal dissipation probes were used to measure stem increment and sap flow for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees attacked by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in east Tennessee, USA. Seasonal-long measurements with manual dendrometers indicated linear increases in stem...

  9. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode


    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  10. Soil properties in 35 y old pine and hardwood plantations after conversion from mixed pine-hardwood forest (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Michael G. Messina


    Past management practices have changed much of the native mixed pine-hardwood forests on upland alluvial terraces of the western Gulf Coastal Plain to either pine monocultures or hardwood (angiosperm) stands. Changes in dominant tree species can alter soil chemical, biological, and physical properties and processes, thereby changing soil attributes, and ultimately,...

  11. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron


    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  12. Understory vegetation, resource availability, and litterfall responses to pine thinning and woody vegetation control in longleaf pine plantations (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington; M. Boyd. Edwards


    In six 8- to 11-year-old plantations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) near Aiken, S.C., responses of understory vegetation, light, and soil water availability and litterfall were studied in relation to pine thinning (May 1994), herbicidal treatment of nonpine woody vegetation (1995-1996), or the combined treatments (treatment responses...

  13. Fire and the orgin of the Table Mountain pine - pitch pine communities in the southern Appalachian mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop


    The prevalence of stand-replacing tire in the formation of Table Mountain pine - pitch pine (Pinus pungens Lamb. and Pinus rigida Mill., respectively) communities was investigated with dendrochronological techniques. Nine stands in Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee were analyzed for age structure, species recruitment trends,...

  14. Fire and the origin of Table Mountain pine - pitch pine communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop


    The prevalence of stand-replacing fire in the formation of Table Mountain pine - pitch pine (Pinus pungens Lamb. and Pinus rigida Mill., respectively) communities was investigated with dendrochronological techniques. Nine stands in Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee were analyzed for age structure, species recruitment trends,...

  15. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson


    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  16. Prescribed burning and mastication effects on surface fuels in southern pine beetle-killed loblolly pine plantations (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; Thomas A. Waldrop; G. Geoff Wang


    Surface fuels were characterized in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations severely impacted by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) (SPB) outbreaks in the upper South Carolina Piedmont. Prescribed burning and mastication were then tested as fuel reduction treatments in these areas. Prescribed burning reduced...

  17. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson


    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  18. Integrating management strategies for the mountain pine beetle with multiple-resource management of lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Mark D. McGregor; Dennis M. Cole


    Provides guidelines for integrating practices for managing mountain pine beetle populations with silvicultural practices for enhancing multiple resource values of lodgepole pine forests. Summarizes published and unpublished technical information and recent research on the ecology of pest and host and presents visual and classification criteria for recognizing...

  19. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.


    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains. (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F


    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)


    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  2. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.


    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  3. Enhancing Stand Structure through Snag Creation in Northeastern U.S. Forests: Using Ethanol Injections and Bark Beetle Pheromones to Artificially Stress Red Maple and White Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds


    Full Text Available We investigated two methods to create white pine and red maple snags in a forested setting. The first involved injecting trees with ethanol at two times (single Ethanol (ETOH and double ETOH injections to increase attractiveness to insects and elicit attacks on trees. The second method was unique to white pines and involved both injection treatments in combination with baiting trees with Ips-specific pheromones. Three of five white pines from the double ETOH treatment died in the second year. Species including Ips pini (Say, Ips grandicollis Eichhoff, Orthotomicus caelatus Eichhoff, Crypturgus borealis Swaine and Monochamus notatus (Drury responded more strongly to at least one of the treatments over control trees. However, there were no differences found in individual Scolytinae or Cerambycidae species response to treatments in red maple. Fitness (FV/FM and vitality (PIabs were both significantly reduced in both ETOH treatments compared to controls in white pine. In red maple, fitness was reduced in the double ETOH treated trees but the final mean FV/FM values were within the approximate optimal of health. Ethanol injections, in combination with Ips-specific semiochemicals, show promise for creating standing coarse woody debris (CWD in white pine. Injecting ethanol was not effective for stressing red maple.

  4. Paraquat and pine trees in east Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, R.L.; Toennisson, R.L.


    The Tennessee Valley Authority started a series of 8% Paraquat tests in east Tennessee on loblolly, shortleaf, and Virginia pines in the spring of 1974. In addition to species, we are also testing the effects of season of treatment application and the length of time between the completed treatment and the harvest cut. Wood samples are being analyzed by the Botany Department at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. All three species have shown increased oleoresin production. Season of treatment did not have a significant effect on enhancement nor did length of time between treatment and harvest.

  5. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest? (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L


    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  6. Ice sheet retreat dynamics inferred from glacial morphology of the central Pine Island Bay Trough, West Antarctica (United States)

    Jakobsson, Martin; Anderson, John B.; Nitsche, Frank O.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Kirshner, Alexandra E.; Kirchner, Nina; O'Regan, Matthew; Mohammad, Rezwan; Eriksson, Björn


    Pine Island Glacier drains portions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Amundsen Sea. During the Last Glacial Maximum the glacier extended nearly 500 km from its present location onto the outer continental shelf. Unusually restricted sea-ice cover during the austral summer of 2010 allowed for a systematic multibeam swath-bathymetric and chirp sonar survey of the mid-shelf section of Pine Island Trough. The mapped glacial landforms reveal new information about the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream's dynamic retreat from the mid-shelf area and confirm previous suggestion of a retreat in distinct steps. The periods of grounding line stability during the overall retreat phase are marked by sediment accumulations, i.e. grounding zone wedges. These wedges are here mapped in sufficient detail to characterize spatial dimensions and estimate the volume of deposited sediment. Considering a range of sediment flux rates from the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream we estimate that the largest and most clearly defined grounding zone wedge, located at about 73°S in the surveyed area, took between 600 and 2000 years to form. The ice stream retreated landward of this wedge before 12.3 cal ka BP. The swath-bathymetric imagery of landforms in Pine Island Trough includes glacial features that suggest that retreat between periods of grounding line stability may be associated with episodes of ice shelf break-up. The depths of grounding line wedges decrease in a landward direction, from 740 to 670 m, and record elevation of the grounding line as it stepped landward. In all, the grounding line elevation varied by only ˜80 m over a distance of just over 100 km, implying a low ice sheet profile during retreat. Finally, we revisited seismic reflection profile NB9902, acquired along Pine Island Trough in 1999, in combination with the newly acquired swath-bathymetric imagery from 2010. Together these data show that the ice stream paused during its retreat to form grounding zone wedges at an area

  7. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer


    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  8. Triplet-repeat microsatellites shared among hard and soft pines. (United States)

    Kutil, B L; Williams, C G


    Vascular plant species have shown a low level of microsatellite conservation compared to many animal species. Finding trans-specific microsatellites for plants may be improved by using a priori knowledge of genome organization. Fifteen triplet-repeat microsatellites from hard pine (Pinus taeda L.) were tested for trans-specific amplification across seven hard pines (P. palustris Mill., P. echinata Mill., P. radiata D. Don., P. patula Schiede et Deppe, P. halepensis Mill., P. kesiya Royle), a soft pine (P. strobus L.), and Picea rubens Sargent. Seven of 15 microsatellites had trans-specific amplification in both hard and soft pine subgenera. Two P. taeda microsatellites had conserved flanking regions and repeat motifs in all seven hard pines, soft pine P. strobus, and P. rubens. Perfect triplet-repeat P. taeda microsatellites appear to be better candidates for trans-specific polymorphism than compound microsatellites. Not all perfect triplet-repeat microsatellites were conserved, but all conserved microsatellites had perfect repeat motifs. Persistent microsatellites PtTX2123 and PtTX3020 had highly conserved flanking regions and a conserved repeat motif composition with variable repeat unit numbers. Using trinucleotide microsatellites improved trans-specific microsatellite recovery among hard and soft pine species.

  9. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri


    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  10. Fuel and stand characteristics in p. pine infested with mountain pine beetle, Ips beetle, and southwestern dwarf mistletoe in Colorado's Northern Front Range (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Russell D. Beam; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron


    In the ponderosa pine forests of the northern Front Range of Colorado, downed woody debris amounts, fuel arrangement, and stand characteristics were assessed in areas infested with southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and

  11. Characteristic of composite pine forests on Volga terraces of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Prokhorenko


    Full Text Available The structure of pine forests in various natural areas of European Russia depends on environmental conditions, specifics of soil and underlying parent rock. Types of pine forests are distinguished by such features as their species composition of the lower layers, structure of grass-shrub layer and the nature of its mosaic. The purpose of the study are regional features of the composite pine forests, distributed on ancient terraces of left bank of the Volga River in north-western Tatarstan, considering specifics of their position in the contact zone of coniferous-deciduous forests with steppes. The structure of the communities of the pine forests on such indicators as species richness, quantitative participation of species, their occurrence and horizontal structure of grass cover were analyzed, and detailed description of the stand and of its renewal was given. In addition, ecological and coenotic structure of communities of pine forests was investigated. It was found that group of types of composite pine forests on the slopes and flat sections of high Volga terraces in northwest of Tatarstan are distinguished by age and completeness of the stand, but is characterized by similar composition of dominant species of lower layer and microgroups in grass layer composition. These communities are characterized by high participation of meadow-steppe plants. This feature distinguishes them from composite pine forests that are found in the central part of the European Russia. This is due to the fact that the area of our study takes position of a buffer, with broad invasion of meadow and meadow-steppe species in the communities of pine forests, especially when anthropogenic disturbances take place. The probability of further transformation of pine stands in the direction of their xerophytization has been identified.

  12. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines. (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B


    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  13. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales. (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G


    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.

  14. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy. (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy


    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  15. The Pine Mountain Observatory Outreach Program (United States)

    Bothun, G. D.; Kang, R.


    The Pine Mountain Observatory is located in Central Oregon at an elevation of 6700 feet. Three scopes of size 16, 24 and 32 inches are located there. Throughout the last decade we have run a robust summer visitors program which educates about 3000 people per year. Recently we have finished a Prime Focus CCD system for the 32-inch telescope. This system reads out in 5 seconds and has a shutter that can time as short as 10 milliseconds. The field of view is 36 x 36 arcminutes. We are currently engaged in a number of K12 teacher education projects. The biggest obstacle facing these teachers was their ability to handle FITS data. To solve this problem we have developed a robust JAVA applet for doing image analysis and automatic photometry on FITS data. In this talk we will demonstrate how a teacher can construct an HR diagram for the open cluster M39 where the root data are Blue and Red filter exposures each of duration 10 milliseconds. In such exposures, only the stars that are actually in M39 register on the detector. This flexibility allows Pine Mountain to be a unique resource for teachers as we can take custom data through a variety of filters which can then all be reduced inside a Web browser.

  16. 78 FR 70067 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pan Mine... (United States)


    ... Office, Ely, Nevada, has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Pan Mine...; TAS: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pan Mine Project, White Pine County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  17. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy


    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200 {micro}g N g soil{sup -1}) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO{sub 2} with the highest biomass at the middle CO{sub 2} level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO{sub 2} levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO{sub 2} levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient

  18. Hyphal growth of Phytophtora cinnamomi on pine callus tissue. (United States)

    Jang, J C; Tainter, F H


    A procedure was developed which demonstrates the expression of differential resistance in pine callus tissues to the fungal pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. Callus tissues were maintained on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 10(-5)M 2,4-D and inoculated with hyphae of P. cinnamomi at 26°C in the dark. The number of intracellular hyphae was used as an index of resistance. Loblolly and loblolly × shortleaf pine hybrids were determined to be more resistant to infection and invasion by the fungus than were shortleaf and Virginia pine.

  19. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  20. Ecology of whitebark pine populations in relation to white pine blister rust infection in subalpine forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications for restoration (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Camille E. Jensen; Annette. Delfino Mix


    For over a century, white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., has affected white pine (Subgenus Strobus) individuals, populations, and associated forest communities in North America. We surveyed eight populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) across a range of environmental conditions in...

  1. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan


    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  2. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin


    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  3. Evaluating potential fire behavior in lodgepole pine-dominated forests after a mountain pine beetle epidemic in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Mike A. Battaglia; Daniel R. West; Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron


    A mountain pine beetle outbreak in Colorado lodgepole pine forests has altered stand and fuel characteristics that affect potential fire behavior. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator, potential fire behavior was modeled for uninfested and mountain pine beetle-affected plots 7 years after outbreak initiation and 10 and 80% projected...

  4. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes


    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  5. Effect of a fire retardant on the ignition of pine wood exposed to smoldering particles of pine bark (United States)

    Kasymov, Denis; Paletsky, Alexander


    This paper represents the laboratory research results on the interaction of smoldering pine bark particles with pine wood. Fire retardant treatment "FUKAM" was studied to estimate its effect on the probability of wood ignition. The wind speed and the number and geometric sizes of particles were varied in the experiments. The results have shown that the increase in the wind speed leads to the increase in the probability of wood ignition by the particles of the same size, and fire-retardant treatment significantly increases the protective properties of wood exposed to smoldering pine bark particles.

  6. Effect of a fire retardant on the ignition of pine wood exposed to smoldering particles of pine bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasymov Denis


    Full Text Available This paper represents the laboratory research results on the interaction of smoldering pine bark particles with pine wood. Fire retardant treatment "FUKAM" was studied to estimate its effect on the probability of wood ignition. The wind speed and the number and geometric sizes of particles were varied in the experiments. The results have shown that the increase in the wind speed leads to the increase in the probability of wood ignition by the particles of the same size, and fire-retardant treatment significantly increases the protective properties of wood exposed to smoldering pine bark particles.

  7. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)


    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  8. Examining pine spectral separability using hyperspectral data from an airborne sensor : an extension of field-based results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN


    Full Text Available Three southern USA forestry species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), were previously shown to be spectrally separable (83% accuracy) using data from a full-range spectro...

  9. Interpopulation variability of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary studies (genetic and phytocoenological of 4 populations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold were carried out in western and central Serbia. The obtained results gave the same inter-population arrangement in both methods. Dendograms (NTSYS differentiate at the greatest genetic distance the population of Austrian pine in Šargan compared to other populations: Crni Vrh, Goč and Studenica. Using phytocoenological analysis it was determined that population of Austrian pine in Šargan forms a community Erico-Pinetum gocensis, while the other populations form a community Seslerio rigidae-Pinetum gocensis. Multidisciplinary approach that was demonstrated within this paper presents the first studies of Austrian pine that directly link genotype dependence and environmental conditions manifested through the phytocoenological affiliation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31070

  10. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten. (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej


    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  11. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival. (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith


    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  12. Methanotrophic abundance and community fingerprint in pine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanotrophs) is important to assess the microbial oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soil under different land uses. Soil samples were collected from two plantation plots of pine and tea in southern China. Methanotrophic abundance ...

  13. Chapter 5. Dynamics of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine forests (United States)

    Penelope Morgan


    Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests are ecologically diverse ecosystems. The communities and landscapes in which these trees dominate are variable and often complex. Because of the economic value of resources, people have used these forests extensively.

  14. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  15. Straight studs from southern pine veneer cores and cordwood (United States)

    Peter Koch


    An economically feasible system has been developed for converting southern pine veneer cores into straight 8-foot studs (2). Prototype studs - two per core - were 100 percent SPIB stud grade and better.

  16. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  17. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark


    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  18. Vermicompost enhances germination of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)


    Lazcano, Cristina; Sampedro Pérez, Luis; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Domínguez, Jorge


    We investigated the effect of vermicompost on the germination and early development of six different progenies of the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). We compared the effects of incorporating solid vermicompost into the potting media to those of vermicompost water extract to asses the extent of not physically-mediated positive effects. The incorporation of vermicompost in the growing media of maritime pine increased germination by 16%, and particularly, addition of vermicom...

  19. Evaluation of dimensional stability of tropical pine species


    Trianoski, Rosilani; Matos, Jorge Luis Monteiro de; Iwakiri, Setsuo; Prata, José Guilherme


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the dimensional stability of tropical pine species and establish correlations between shrinkage, anisotropy, and density. Seven species of tropical pines were utilized: Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, Pinus caribaea var. caribaea, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis, Pinus chiapensis, Pinus maximinoi, Pinus oocarpa, and Pinus tecunumanii; Pinus taeda was also used as reference. The samples were from 17 and 18-year-old experimental plantings located i...

  20. Response of Korean pine's functional traits to geography and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Dong

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis functional trait responses to geographic and climatic factors in the eastern region of Northeast China (41°-48°N and the linear relationships among Korean pine functional traits, to explore this species' adaptability and ecological regulation strategies under different environmental conditions. Korean pine samples were collected from eight sites located at different latitudes, and the following factors were determined for each site: geographic factors-latitude, longitude, and altitude; temperature factors-mean annual temperature (MAT, growth season mean temperature (GST, and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCM; and moisture factors-annual precipitation (AP, growth season precipitation (GSP, and potential evapotranspiration (PET. The Korean pine functional traits examined were specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, specific root length (SRL, leaf nitrogen content (LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC, root nitrogen content (RNC, and root phosphorus content (RPC. The results showed that Korean pine functional traits were significantly correlated to latitude, altitude, GST, MTCM, AP, GSP, and PET. Among the Korean pine functional traits, SLA showed significant linear relationships with LT, LDMC, LNC, LPC, and RPC, and LT showed significant linear relationships with LDMC, SRL, LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC; the linear relationships between LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC were also significant. In conclusion, Korean pine functional trait responses to latitude resulted in its adaptation to geographic and climatic factors. The main limiting factors were precipitation and evapotranspiration, followed by altitude, latitude, GST, and MTCM. The impacts of longitude and MAT were not obvious. Changes in precipitation and temperature were most responsible for the close correlation among Korean pine functional traits, reflecting its adaption to habitat

  1. Final Report to DOE’s Office of Science (BER) submitted by Ram Oren (PI) of DE-FG02-00ER63015 (ended on 09/14/2009) entitled “Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, & a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic & Edaphic Conditions”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, Ram; Oishi, AC; Palmroth, Sari; Butnor, JR; Johnsen, KH


    The project yielded papers on fluxes (energy, water and carbon dioxide)between each ecosystem and the atmosphere, and explained the temporal dynamics of fluxes based on intrinsic (physiology, canopy leaf area and structure) and extrinsic (atmospheric and edaphic conditions). Comparisons between any two of the ecosystems, and among all three followed, attributing differences in behavior to different patterns of phenology and differential sensitivities to soil and atmospheric humidity. Finally, data from one-to-three of the ecosystems (incorporated into FluxNet data archive) were used in syntheses across AmeriFlux sites and even more broadly across FluxNet sites.

  2. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry. (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Kespohl, Sabine; Jacobsen, Gitte; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben


    Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms. In a Danish study among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories, we evaluated the workers' asthma and rhinitis status using questionnaires and blood samples collected from 1506 woodworkers and 195 references. Workers with asthma symptoms (N=298), a random study sample (N=399) and a random rhinitis sample (N=100) were evaluated for IgE-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust. The prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was 1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found between woodworkers and references, but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated with the current level of wood dust exposure. No relation was observed between wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Only symptomatic subjects had proteinogenic IgE epitopes to pine. Increased odds ratios for sIgE based on proteinogenic epitopes to beech and respiratory symptoms were found, although they were not statistically significant. Sensitization rates to pine and beech were the same for woodworkers and references but dependent on the current wood dust exposure level. The importance of beech and pine wood sensitization is limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers if the IgE epitopes are proteinogenic.

  3. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.


    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0...... of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of Cs-137 kg-1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m2/kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m2/kg......-natural ecosystems in Denmark....

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake


    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestation: GCxGCTOFMS and GC-MS of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) acetone extractives (United States)

    Roderquita K. Moore; Michael Leitch; Erick Arellano-ruiz; Jonathon Smaglick; Doreen Mann


    The Rocky Mountains and western U.S. forests are impacted by the infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB). MPB outbreak is killing pine and spruce trees at an alarming rate. These trees present a fuel build-up in the forest, which can result in catastrophic wildland fires. MPB carry blue-stain fungi from the genus Ophiostoma and transmit infection by burrowing into...

  6. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine


    Toone, Chelsea


    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  7. Assessment and implications of intraspecific and phenological variability in monoterpenes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) foliage. (United States)

    Thoss, Vera; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne; Iason, Glenn R


    Scots pine populations contain individuals with widely differing amounts and composition of monoterpenes and exist as one of two chemotypes: with or without delta3-carene. We investigated the significance for ecological studies of two types of variation in monoterpenes: (1) the inherent variability in the concentration of monoterpenes or their relative amounts in needles of seedlings, saplings, and mature trees; and (2) phenological variation in developing needles. The relative composition of needle monoterpenes in 5-year-old saplings changed during the needle development period until the final composition was reached upon needle maturity. Changes in composition depended on chemotype. Needles of the "no-delta3-carene" chemotype had higher absolute concentrations of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, camphene, and total monoterpenes than "delta3-carene" chemotype. For the "delta3-carene" chemotype, the relative concentration of delta3-carene during the needle growing season and immediately after emergence of seedlings was higher compared to that reached at needle maturity. Repeated removal of single needles (at weekly intervals during growth) from 5-year-old saplings did not influence the composition of monoterpenes. Within a natural Scots pine dominated woodland, 18% of mature Scots pines (N=574) belonged to the "no-delta3-carene" chemotype. Chemotypic variation within populations means that the statistical power with which differences in monoterpene concentrations can be detected is lower when sampling from the whole population compared to sampling within chemotypes. Reduction of this background variation and accounting for chiral variation if present, would significantly aid efficiency, interpretation, and understanding of processes in chemical and ecological research. One method for achieving this is the screening of plants for chemotypes before the establishment of experiments or field sampling regimes. We present a summary of suitable analytical methods for needle

  8. Snow bending of sugar pine and ponderosa seedlings ... injury not permanent. (United States)

    William W. Oliver


    Sugar pine and ponderosa pine seedlings in the Sierra Nevada, California, with stems bent by heavy snow loads were photographed the next summer and 10 years later. The photographs show that all trees recovered, leaving no permanent stem crook.

  9. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Çöl


    Full Text Available Honey is a sweet food made by bees and some other insects. Pine honey is a type of honey which is produced by honey bees from the sugary secretions made by the some insect species, such as Marchalina hellenica, living on the pine trees. Pine honey is mostly produced in the Mediterranean countries such as Turkey and some regions of Greece. Honey is a highly consumed natural food product and it is associated with numerous health benefits. The knowledge of physiochemical and biological properties of honey as well as its floral origin is very important. Knowing the diversity of pollens, microorganism content of honey or ensuring its GMO (genetically modified organisms status is significant both in terms of health and economy. To obtain such information, one of the most effective ways is to analyze the DNA of pine honey and identify the biological species it contains.  Due to the nature of pine honey such as its viscosity and the presence of inhibitors, there is not a perfect reliable convincing DNA isolation method available to date.  In this study, we collected pine honey samples from Mugla region (Turkey and isolated DNA from the precipitated pollens of the honey using three different DNA isolation approaches. These methods include a modified CTAB method, manual silica dioxide approach and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. DNA extraction protocols were compared in terms of DNA yield and purity. We demonstrate that the use of DNeasy plant kit has given relatively better results under the conditions of the current study for the Pine honey of Muğla.

  11. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber


    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  12. Entrepreneurial orientation of eastern white pine primary producers and secondary manufacturers: A regional phenomenon? (United States)

    Delton Alderman


    Eastern white pine (EWP) and red pine make up nearly 8.5 percent of the total sawtimber volume in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Lake States regions. The majority of white pine growing stock is found in the Mid-Atlantic and Lake State regions; however, the center of eastern white pine production and markets is in New England. EWP is produced in both hardwood...

  13. Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings. (United States)

    Alexou, Maria


    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity.

  14. Seed origin and warming constrain lodgepole pine recruitment, slowing the pace of population range shifts (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew; Veblen, Thomas T.; Smith, Jeremy M.; Moyes, Andrew B.; Kueppers, Lara M.


    Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations. Heating reduced (by 49%) recruitment to the third year of both low- and high-elevation seed sources across the elevation gradient, while watering alleviated some of the negative effects of heating (108% increase in watered plots). Demographic models based on recruitment data from the climate manipulations and long-term observations of adult populations revealed that heating could effectively halt modeled upslope range expansion except when combined with watering. Simulating fire and rapid post-fire forest recovery at lower elevations accelerated lodgepole pine expansion into the alpine, but did not alter final abundance rankings among climate scenarios. Regardless of climate scenario, greater recruitment of low-elevation seeds compensated for longer dispersal distances to treeline, assuming colonization was allowed to proceed over multiple centuries. Our results show that ecotypes from lower elevations within a species’ range could enhance recruitment and facilitate upslope range shifts with climate change.

  15. Seed origin and warming constrain lodgepole pine recruitment, slowing the pace of population range shifts. (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M; Moyes, Andrew B; Kueppers, Lara M


    Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here, we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had more than three-fold greater recruitment to their third year than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations. Heating halved recruitment to the third year of both low- and high-elevation seed sources across the elevation gradient, while watering more than doubled recruitment, alleviating some of the negative effects of heating. Demographic models based on recruitment data from the climate manipulations and long-term observations of adult populations revealed that heating could effectively halt modeled upslope range expansion except when combined with watering. Simulating fire and rapid postfire forest recovery at lower elevations accelerated lodgepole pine expansion into the alpine, but did not alter final abundance rankings among climate scenarios. Regardless of climate scenario, greater recruitment of low-elevation seeds compensated for longer dispersal distances to treeline, assuming colonization was allowed to proceed over multiple centuries. Our results show that ecotypes from lower elevations within a species' range could enhance recruitment and facilitate upslope range shifts with climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Soil Preferences in Germination and Survival of Limber Pine in the Great Basin White Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian V. Smithers


    Full Text Available In the Great Basin, limber pine is a sub-alpine tree species that is colonizing newly available habitat above treeline in greater numbers than treeline-dominating Great Basin bristlecone pine, especially on dolomite soil, where few plants are able to grow and where limber pine adults are rare. To examine the role of soil type on germination and establishment of limber pine, I sowed limber pine seeds in containers of the three main White Mountains soil types in one location while measuring soil moisture and temperature. I found that dolomite soil retains water longer, and has higher soil water content, than quartzite and granite soils and has the coolest maximum growing season temperatures. Limber pine germination and survival were highest in dolomite soil relative to quartzite and granite where limber pine adults are more common. While adult limber pines are rare on dolomite soils, young limber pines appear to prefer them. This indicates that limber pine either has only recently been able to survive in treeline climate on dolomite or that bristlecone pine has some long-term competitive advantage on dolomite making limber pine, a species with 1500 year old individuals, an early succession species in Great Basin sub-alpine forests.

  17. Silvicultural approaches for management of eastern white pine to minimize impacts of damaging agents (United States)

    M.E. Ostry; G. Laflamme; S.A. Katovich


    Since the arrival to North America of Cronartium ribicola, management of eastern white pine has been driven by the need to avoid the actual or, in many areas, the perceived damage caused by white pine blister rust. Although white pine has lost much of its former dominance, it remains a valuable species for biotic diversity, aesthetics, wildlife...

  18. Growth of precommercially thinned loblolly pine 4 years following application of poultry litter (United States)

    Scott D. Roberts; Alex L. Friend; Stephen H. Schoenholtz


    Application of poultry litter to southern pine stands represents a potentially attractive litter disposal option. Many pine stands are nutrient-limited and might respond positively to the added nutrients. However, the ability of pine stands to respond to nutrients contained in the litter, as well as contain the nutrients on site, has not been thoroughly investigated....

  19. Crown expansion following thinning in naturally regenerated and planted longleaf pine (United States)

    Steven B. Jack; Noah A. Jansen; Robert J. Mitchell


    The recent focus on restoration of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests has frequently led to planting longleaf pine on old-field and cutover sites. While many perceptions regarding response of longleaf pine to management are based upon measurements in naturally regenerated stands, it is generally observed that crown development in planted longleaf stands is...

  20. Species comparison of the physical properties of loblolly and slash pine wood and bark (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Joseph Dahlen; Laurence Schimleck


    Composition of the southern pine forest is now predominated by two species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), owing to fire suppression activities, natural regeneration on abandoned agricultural lands, and extensive planting. Comparison of the wood and bark physical properties of these...

  1. Simulating the effects of the southern pine beetle on regional dynamics 60 years into the future (United States)

    Jennifer K. Costanza; Jiri Hulcr; Frank H. Koch; Todd Earnhardt; Alexa J. McKerrow; Rob R. Dunn; Jaime A. Collazo


    We developed a spatially explicit model that simulated future southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) dynamics and pine forest management for a real landscape over 60 years to inform regional forest management. The SPB has a considerable effect on forest dynamics in the Southeastern United States, especially in loblolly pine (...

  2. Introduction to the Red Pine SAF Region V Technical Conference, March 26-27, 2002 (United States)

    Thomas R. Crow


    Research on managing red pine has been ongoing for some time and management guides that incorporate information resulting from this research such as Buckman's (1962) Growth and Yield of Red Pine in Minnesota and Benzie's (1977) Manager's Handbook for Red Pine have been widely applied. Despite this extensive knowledge...

  3. Xylem monoterpenes of some hard pines of Western North America: three studies (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    Monoterpene composition was studied in a number of hard pine species and results were compared with earlier work. (1) Intratree measurements showed strong constancy of composition in both single-stemmed and forked trees of ponderosa, Jeffrey, Coulter, and Jeffrey x ponderosa pines. In grafts of these and other pines, the scion influenced the root stock, but not the...

  4. White pine in the American West: A vanishing species - can we save it? (United States)

    Leon F. Neuenschwander; James W. Byler; Alan E. Harvey; Geral I. McDonald; Denise S. Ortiz; Harold L. Osborne; Gerry C. Snyder; Arthur Zack


    Forest scientists ask that everyone, from the home gardener to the forest manager, help revive western white pine by planting it everywhere, even in nonforest environments such as our neighborhood streets, parks, and backyards. White pine, long ago considered the "King Pine," once dominated the moist inland forests of the Northwest, eventually spawning whole...

  5. The role of cell membranes in the regulation of lignification in pine cells (United States)

    Hendrix, D. L.


    The identity of pine cell membranes bearing PAL enzyme activity, the isolation of a plasma membrane preparation from pine cells for testing as a regulatory barrier in lignification, and the measurement of the geopotential effect in pine stems are presented. A model to describe and predict the interaction of gravity and lignification of higher plants was developed.

  6. A biologically-based individual tree model for managing the longleaf pine ecosystem (United States)

    Rick Smith; Greg Somers


    Duration: 1995-present Objective: Develop a longleaf pine dynamics model and simulation system to define desirable ecosystem management practices in existing and future longleaf pine stands. Methods: Naturally-regenerated longleaf pine trees are being destructively sampled to measure their recent growth and dynamics. Soils and climate data will be combined with the...

  7. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI (United States)


    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines Wind... statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service proposed to prepare an environmental impact statement for the White...

  8. Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz


    Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in...

  9. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin? (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz


    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  10. Cleaning to favor western white pine - its effects upon composition, growth, and potential values (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd


    The management of western white pine (Pinus monticola) requires the production of a high proportion of valuable white pine crop trees in order to defray the costs of protection from blister rust. Current average selling prices of lumber give white pine about $50 per m.b.f. advantage over western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the...

  11. A presettlement fire history in an oak-pine forest near Basin Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    Fire scars from natural remnants of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in an oak-pine forest near Basin Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario, were dated using dendrochronological methods. A fire scar chronology was constructed from 28 dated fire scars on 26 pine remnants found in a 1 km2 area of this forest. From pith and outside ring...

  12. Pre-dispersal seed predator dynamics at the northern limits of limber pine distribution (United States)

    Vernon S. Peters


    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is listed provincially as endangered in the northern part of its geographic range (Alberta) due to the high mortality caused by white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola) and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and limited regeneration opportunities due to fire exclusion. In the case of an endangered species, seed...

  13. Microsatellite DNA in genomic survey sequences and UniGenes of loblolly pine (United States)

    Craig S Echt; Surya Saha; Dennis L Deemer; C Dana Nelson


    Genomic DNA sequence databases are a potential and growing resource for simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker development in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine also has many expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available for microsatellite (SSR) marker development. We compared loblolly pine SSR densities in genome survey sequences (GSSs) to those in non-redundant...

  14. Mapping pine mortality by aerial photography, Umstead State Park, North Carolina (United States)

    Clarence J. DeMars; Garey W. Slaughter; Lnla E. Greene; John H. Ghent


    In 1975-1976, pine trees killed by the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) in a 2l70-hectare (5362-acre) area at the William B. Umstead State Park in central North Carolina, were monitored by sequential color infrared aerial photography. From 1973 through summer 1975, beetles in 350 infestation spots killed more than 20,500 pines on...

  15. Genetic conservation and management of the Californian endemic, Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana Parry) (United States)

    Jill A. Hamilton; Jessica W. Wright; F. Thomas. Ledig


    Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) is one of the rarest pine species in the world. Restricted to one mainland and one island population in California, Torrey pine is a species of conservation concern under threat due to low population sizes, lack of genetic variation, and environmental stochasticity. Previous research points to a lack of within population variation that is...

  16. Distribution of bark beetle attacks after whitebark pine restoration treatments: A case study (United States)

    Kristen M. Waring; Diana L. Six


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), an important component of high elevation ecosystems in the western United States and Canada, is declining due to fire exclusion, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.), and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). This study was...

  17. Influence of elevation on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of northern Arizona (United States)

    Andrew Miller; Kelly Barton; Joel McMillin; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; John Anhold


    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Bark beetles killed more than 20 million ponderosa pine trees in Arizona during 2002-2004. Historically, bark beetle populations remained endemic and ponderosa pine mortality was limited to localized areas in Arizona. Consequently, there is a lack of information on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of...

  18. The concept: Restoring ecological structure and process in ponderosa pine forests (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno


    Elimination of the historic pattern of frequent low-intensity fires in ponderosa pine and pine-mixed conifer forests has resulted in major ecological disruptions. Prior to 1900, open stands of large, long-lived, fire-resistant ponderosa pine were typical. These were accompanied in some areas by other fire-dependent species such as western larch. Today, as a result of...

  19. Growth-differentiation balance: a basis for understanding southern pine beetle - tree interactions (United States)

    Peter L. Lorio


    Interrelationships between the southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) and its host pines are explained in terms of the growth-differentiation balance concept.A general hypothesis is proposed based on growth-differentiation balance in southern pines (radial growth of stems versus synthesis and yield of oleoresin) and seasonal activity of the SPB based...

  20. Evaluating future success of whitebark pine ecosystem restoration under climate change using simulation modeling (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Mary F. Mahalovich; Diana F. Tomback


    Major declines of whitebark pine forests throughout western North America from the combined effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, fire exclusion policies, and the exotic disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) have spurred many restoration actions. However, projected future warming and drying may further exacerbate the species’ decline and...

  1. The historical ecology of fire, climate, and the decline of shortleaf pine in the Missouri Ozarks (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Stephen L. Voelker


    We review studies that have shown reductions in the abundance of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) during the last century in the Ozark Highlands. These studies indicate that pine abundance is currently 15 to 53 percent of the pine abundance levels before major logging activity and fire suppression, activities dating from the mid- to late 19th...

  2. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze


    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  3. Southern pine beetles in central hardwood forests: frequency, spatial extent, and changes to forest structure (United States)

    John Nowak; Kier Klepzig; D R Coyle; William Carothers; Kamal J K Gandhi


    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a major disturbance in pine forests throughout the range of southern yellow pines, and is a significant influence on forests throughout several Central Hardwood Region (CHR) ecoregions...

  4. Estimates of genetic parameters for oleoresin and growth traits in juvenile loblolly pine (United States)

    James H. Roberds; Brian L. Strom; Fred P. Hain; David P. Gwaze; Steven E. McKeand; Larry H. Lott


    In southern pines of the United States, resistance to attack by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is believed to principally involve flow of oleoresin to beetle attack sites. Both environmental and genetic factors are known to affect the quantity of oleoresin flow in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., but little...

  5. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.


    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  6. 78 FR 33966 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL AGENCY... Airspace at Pine Island, FL, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) serving Pine Island Heliport. This action enhances...

  7. Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris ) Stand Dynamics: A Regional Longleaf Growth Study (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer


    Objective: Describe and model temporal changes in longleaf pine stand structure. From 1964-1967, the U.S. Forest Service established a regional longleaf pine growth study (RLGS) in the Gulf States. The original objective was to obtain a database for the development of growth and mortality predictions of naturally regenerated, even- aged longleaf pine stands. The...

  8. Laccase modification of the physical properties of bark and pulp of loblolly pine and spruce pulp (United States)

    William Kenealy; John Klungness; Mandla Tshabalala; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar; Roland Gleisner; Gisela Buschle-Diller


    Pine bark, pine pulp, and spruce pulp were reacted with laccase in the presence of phenolic laccase substrates to modify the fiber surface properties. The acid-base and dispersive characteristics of these modified steam-treated thermomechanical loblolly pine pulps were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Different combinations of substrates with laccase modified...

  9. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen


    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  10. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns


    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  11. Longleaf and loblolly pine seedlings respond differently to soil compaction, water content, and fertilization (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger


    Aims Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is being restored across the U.S. South for a multitude of ecological and economic reasons, but our understanding of longleaf pine’s response to soil physical conditions is poor. On the contrary, our understanding of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) root and...

  12. Phylogeographic analyses and evaluation of shortleaf pine population structure in Missouri (United States)

    Jeff Koppelman; Emily Parsons; Briedi Scott; Jennifer Collantes; Lori S. Eggert; Sedley Josserand; Craig Echt; C. Dana Nelson


    A great expanse of shortleaf pine in Missouri was logged before the mid-20th century, and since that time, seedlings of the species have been planted. Due to large-scale decline in oak trees occupying previous shortleaf pine range, restoration of the shortleaf pine is a priority in Missouri. Restoration can be enhanced through the use of locally adapted trees that have...

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats (United States)

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz


    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  14. The red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree: A very special pine (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Robert H. Johnson


    The adaptation of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has included the development of behaviors that permit the species to use living pines for their cavity trees. Their adaptation to pine ecosystems has also involved a major adjustment in the species' breeding system to cooperative breeding,...

  15. Altered species interactions and implications for natural regeneration in whitebark pine communities (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback; Carl E. Fiedler


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) decline has altered trophic interactions and led to changes in community dynamics in many Rocky Mountain subalpine forests (McKinney and Tomback 2007). Here we discuss how altered species interactions, driven by disproportionate whitebark pine mortality, constrain the capability of whitebark pine forests to contribute genetic material...

  16. Carbon Sequestration in loblolly pine plantations: Methods, limitations, and research needs for estimating storage pools (United States)

    Kurt Johnsen; Bob Teskey; Lisa Samuelson; John Butnor; David Sampson; Felipe Sanchez; Chris Maier; Steve McKeand


    Globally, the species most widely used for plantation forestry is loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Because loblolly pine plantations are so extensive and grow so rapidly, they provide a great potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Because loblolly pine plantations are relatively simple ecosystems and because such a great volume of...

  17. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University


    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  18. Interception loss, throughfall and stemflow chemistry in pine and oak forests in northeastern Mexico. (United States)

    Cantú Silva, I; González Rodríguez, H


    Interception loss, gross precipitation, throughfall and stemflow solution chemistry beneath pine (Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl.), oak (Quercus sp.) and pine-oak natural forest canopies in northeastern Mexico were measured. Coefficients of variation for throughfall were 12% in pine and oak canopies and 17% in the mixed pine-oak canopy. The variability of stemflow averaged 66, 126 and 73% for pine, oak and the mixed pine-oak canopies, respectively. Linear regression analysis of net versus gross precipitation for the three canopies showed highly significant correlations (r = 0.974-0.984). Total precipitation during the experimental period was 974 mm and estimated interception loss was 19.2, 13.6 and 23% for the pine, oak and pine-oak canopies, respectively. Stemflow did not occur following rainfall events of less than 4 mm and, in all canopies, stemflow represented a minimal proportion of gross precipitation (0.60, 0.50 and 0.03% for pine, oak and pine-oak, respectively). Throughfall pH in pine (6.2), oak (6.3) and pine-oak (6.3) canopies was significantly more acidic than gross precipitation (6.6). Stemflow pH ranged from 3.7 (pine) to 6.0 (oak). The pine-oak canopy registered the highest throughfall and stemflow electrical conductivities, 104 and 188 microS cm(-1), respectively. Net nutrient leaching of K, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn and Zn was significantly higher from the pine-oak canopy than from the pure pine and oak canopies. Mean depositions of Ca and Cu in throughfall behaved similarly among the three types of canopies. A greater proportion of Zn in gross precipitation was absorbed by the oak canopy than by the pine and pine-oak canopies. Enrichment factors beneath the pine-oak canopy relative to gross precipitation varied from 1.2 to 3.2 for macro-nutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na) and from 1.4 to 3.1 for micro-nutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). Stemflow depositions of Ca, K, Mg and Cu were higher in the pine-oak canopy, whereas stemflow depositions of Na, Fe, Mn and Zn were higher

  19. Identification of steroleosin in oil bodies of pine megagametophytes. (United States)

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen; Tzen, Jason T C


    Three classes of integral proteins termed oleosin, caleosin and steroleosin have been identified in seed oil bodies of diverse angiosperm species. Recently, two oleosin isoforms and one caleosin were identified in megagametophyte oil bodies of pine (Pinus massoniana), a representative gymnosperm species. In this study, a putative steroleosin of approximately 41 kDa was observed in isolated oil bodies of pine megagametophytes, and its corresponding cDNA fragment was obtained by PCR cloning and further confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that pine steroleosin was evolutionarily more closely-related to steroleosin-B than steroleosin-A found in angiosperm seed oil bodies. As expected, artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin over-expressed in Escherichia coli were less stable and larger than native pine oil bodies. Filipin staining of artificial oil bodies sheltered by recombinant steroleosin with or without its sterol binding domain showed that the sterol binding domain was responsible for the sterol binding capability of steroleosin. Sterol-coupling dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin as well as in purified pine oil bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 13968 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pine Shoot Beetle; Host... (United States)


    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Pine Shoot Beetle; Host Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and... information on regulations for the importation of pine nursery stock and various pine products from Canada..., at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pine Shoot Beetle; Host Material from Canada...

  1. Susceptibility of parent and interspecific Fl hybrid pine trees to tip moth damage in a coastal North Carolina planting (United States)

    Maxine T. Highsmith; John Frampton; David 0' Malley; James Richmond; Martesa Webb


    Tip moth damage arnong families of parent pine species and their interspecific F1 hybrids was quantitatively assessed in a coastal planting in North Carolina. Three slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti Engelm.), two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and four interspecific F1 hybrid pine families were used. The...

  2. Age, size and regeneration of old growth white pine at Dividing Lake Nature Reserve, Algonquin Park, Ontario (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey


    The age, mode of regeneration and diameter growth of white pine were determined in an old growth stand near Dividing Lake, Algonquin Provincial Park. The white pine ranged in age from 267 to 486 years. There was no significant relationship between white pine age and diameter (DBH). The distribution of tree ages indicated that the white pine component in this mixed...

  3. Hibernacula and summer den sites of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in the New Jersey pine barrens (United States)

    Burger, J.; Zappalorti, R.T.; Gochfeld, M.; Boarman, W.I.; Caffrey, M.; Doig, V.; Garber, S.D.; Lauro, B.; Mikovsky, M.; Safina, C.; Saliva, Jorge


    We examined eight summer dens (used only in summer) and seven hibernacula (occupied both in winter and summer) of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, comparing above ground characteristics of hibernacula and summer dens with characteristics at nearby random points. Temperatures at the soil surface and at 10 cm depth were significantly warmer, and there was less leaf cover around the random points compared to the entrances of the hibernacula and summer dens. Hibernacula had significantly more vegetation cover within 5 m, more leaf cover over the burrow entrance, and were closer to trees than were summer dens. Most hibernacula and summer dens were beside old fallen logs (73%), the entrance tunnels following decaying roots into the soil. Excavation of the hibernacula and summer dens indicated that most hibernacula appeared to be dug by the snakes and had an average of eight side chambers and 642 cm of tunnels, compared to less than one side chamber and 122 cm of tunnels for summer dens. Except for hatchlings, most snakes in hibernacula were located in individual chambers off the main tunnel; all snakes were at depths of 50-111 cm (X̄ = 79 cm). Pine snakes may select optimum hibernation sites which reduce winter mortality.

  4. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hari


    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity, using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  5. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana


    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  6. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W


    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  7. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.


    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  8. Canopy processes, fluxes and microclimate in a pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launiainen, S.


    conductance (g{sub s}) and transpiration and, consequently, the vertical source-sink distributions for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water vapor (H{sub 2}O) diverge. Upscaling from a shoot scale to canopy scale was found to be sensitive to chosen stomatal control description. The upscaled canopy level CO{sub 2} fluxes can vary as much as 15 % and H{sub 2}O fluxes 30 % even if the g{sub s} models are calibrated against same leaf-level dataset. A pine forest has distinct overstory and understory layers, which both contribute significantly to canopy scale fluxes. The forest floor vegetation and soil accounted between 18 and 25 % of evapotranspiration and between 10 and 20 % of sensible heat exchange. Forest floor was also an important deposition surface for aerosol particles; between 10 and 35 % of dry deposition of particles within size range 10-30 nm occurred there. Because of the northern latitudes, seasonal cycle of climatic factors strongly influence the surface fluxes. Besides the seasonal constraints, partitioning of available energy to sensible and latent heat depends, through stomatal control, on the physiological state of the vegetation. In spring, available energy is consumed mainly as sensible heat and latent heat flux peaked about two months later, in July-August. On the other hand, annual evapotranspiration remains rather stable over range of environmental conditions and thus any increase of accumulated radiation affects primarily the sensible heat exchange. Finally, autumn temperature had strong effect on ecosystem respiration but its influence on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} uptake was restricted by low radiation levels. Therefore, the projected autumn warming in the coming decades will presumably reduce the positive effects of earlier spring recovery in terms of carbon uptake potential of boreal forests. (orig.)

  9. Pine wood decomposition ability of different Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łakomy


    Full Text Available The ability of Phlebiopsis gigantea isolates, derived from different parts of Europe, to decompose pine wood was investigated. This ability was expressed by the loss of dry weight of pine wood blocks. Pine wood decay caused by the isolates of Ph. gigantea was similar. In addition there were no significant differences the decomposition ability at all the isolates, which were displayed as the loss of dry weight of wood. When the wood decay ability of two isolates were compared there were significant differences only between the less and the most effective isolates. This might be attributed to the low genetic variation among European population of this fungus. The isolates used in Finland and Poland as biopreparation were the most effective.

  10. Interpopulation genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lučić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The genetic-ecological variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Serbia was studied in the populations at five localities in western and south-western Serbia. Three groups of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations were differentiated based on genetic research (seed protein analysis and plant community research. The first group consists of Scots pine populations on Šargan (FMU “Šargan“ and on Tara (FMU “Kaluderske Bare”, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and Austrian pine (Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavlovic 1951. The second group covers the localities Stolovi (FMU “Radocelo-Crepuljnik“ and Zlatar (FMU “Zlatar I“, where the forests belong to the community of Scots pine and spruce (Piceo abietis-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1960. The third group comprises the Scots pine population on Pešter (FMU “Dubocica-Bare“ which belongs to the community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of seed protein data and showed that there are three groups of Scots pine populations. The three populations coincide with plant communities. The community of Scots pine with erica (Erico-Pinetum sylvestris Stefanovic 1963 recorded on Pešter at the locality “Dubocica- Bare“ in the area of FE “Golija“ Ivanjica, is a special Scots pine population displayed at the greatest distance from all other populations in the cluster analysis dendrogram.

  11. The Experience of Introducing the Species of Pine (Pinus in the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruchkov S.N.


    Full Text Available When growing pine plantations in the desert in recent years using a variety of introduced species of pine (Crimea, yellow, Banks which are insufficiently studied in these conditions and require studies of their adaptive capacity. The article is the result of research conducted by the authors in 2004-2015. The collection, analysis of experimental materials, and field experiments were carried out. The article summarizes the authors’ long-term research on the introduction of different types of pines. They generalized the data on growth, conditions, reproductive capacity of pine species (Pinus in natural and artificial plantations for protective afforestation in arid conditions of the Lower Volga region. The experience in breeding pine in the desert proves the prospects of using natural selection to create sustainable biogeocenosis with a wide genetic diversity. A comparative study of pines introduced under the desert conditions is a perspective Crimean pines and yellow, not inferior to the growth of Scotch pine. According to the research, the article reveals the benefits of the Crimean and yellow pines of Scots pine on a number of factors: drought tolerance, resistance to diseases and pests. Consequently, these pine trees are to be used for afforestation in the harsh conditions of the desert.

  12. Characteristics of substrates used for nursery production of Austrian pine and Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratuša Vesna


    Full Text Available This paper discusses research results concerning properties of substrates used for nursery production of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L in the experimental field of the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade There is no doubt that peat is the most favorable substrate for successful massive nursery production of various woody species. Favorable physical, chemical and biochemical properties guarantee nursery production success, on condition that all technical and technological procedures, characteristic for this production, are recognized. Certain shortcomings that may occur with different kinds of peat (inadequate air capacity, nutrient deficiency, excessive acidity, etc may relatively easily be overcome with appropriate materials and procedures. Nevertheless, the main shortcoming of this most widely used nursery substrate, especially when the countries with economies in transition are concerned, is its high price. In order to overcome this problem, it is necessary to use domestic resources for creating a substrate of approximately the same characteristics, but much lower price Research results regarding the substrate – mixture "Goč 1" show that this substrate, comprising 30% silica sand, 20% earthworm manure, and 50% bark humus, is characterised by all necessary starting prerequisites for fulfilling the cited functions. This material represents loamy sand of almost neutral reaction (pHH2O=6.9, pHCaCl2=6.40, and even though its CEC is relatively modest (33.08 cmol(+ x kg–1, it is extremely well supplied with bases (V=94.32%. Also, "Goč 1" is rich in humus (8.94%, with relatively high content of total N (0.47%, and favorable C:N ratio (11.0. It is extremely well supplied with available phosphorus and potassium (>50 cmol(+ x kg–1. Further research regarding stability of this artificial substrate and alterations of its physical, chemical, and biochemical properties in the course of exploitation, together with

  13. White pine blister rust resistance in Pinus monticola and P. albicaulis in the Pacific Northwest U.S. – A tale of two species (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok


    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.) are white pine species with similar latitudinal and longitudinal geographic ranges in Oregon and Washington (figs. 1 and 2). Throughout these areas, whitebark pine generally occurs at higher elevations than western white pine. Both...

  14. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.


    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  15. Species determination of pine nuts in commercial samples causing pine nut syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Aase Æ.; Jessen, Flemming; Ballin, Nicolai Z.


    fatty acids was used together with the diagnostic index and the sum of Δ5-fatty acids as diagnostic parameters. Diagnostic parameters from samples were then compared to reference material and literature data to determine the species. In a limited number of samples, the diagnostic parameters matched...... that other pine species than P. armandii could be involved in PNS as well. This study investigated 18 samples involved in PNS and received at the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration in 2011 through 2012. Samples were subjected to gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids. The content of 11 individual...... neither our reference materials nor literature data. However, the morphology, the fatty acid analysis, and externally obtained DNA sequencing data suggest a P. armandii subspecies or a variety. With these possible P. armandii subspecies, P. armandii was identified in all analyzed samples. The application...

  16. The Microbiome of Endophytic, Wood Colonizing Bacteria from Pine Trees as Affected by Pine Wilt Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proença, Diogo Neves; Francisco, Romeu; Kublik, Susanne


    of the invasion with the pathogen were comparable. Interestingly diversity of wood endophytic bacteria increased with the severity of the diseases, with highest diversity levels observed in in the most affected trees. Our results suggest that in the first stages of the disease, the defence mechanisms of plants......Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a devastating forest disease present worldwide. In this study we analyzed the effects of the invasion of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the major pathogen causing PWD, on the endophytic microbiome of adult P. pinaster trees. Wood samples from trees...... with different degrees of PWD disease were collected at two sites (A and M) in Portugal. Endophytic bacteria were characterized based on directly extracted DNA by fingerprinting and barcoding using the 16S rRNA gene as marker. Furthermore, cultivation-based approaches were used to obtain isolates of the major...

  17. Forest Herbicide Benefits and Developments for Intensive Southern Pine Culture (United States)

    James H. Miller


    Silvicultural treatments that use forest herbicides can accelerate wood production, enhance wildlife and recreational habitats, aid in endangered species recovery, and encourage plants that improve the aesthetics of woodlands. This paper focuses on the benefits of increased wood production derived from competition control for establishing southern pine plantations....

  18. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon


    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  19. Camcore: Thirty-five years of Mesoamerican pine gene conservation (United States)

    J.L. Lopez; W.S. Dvorak; G.R. Hodge


    Camcore is an international tree breeding and conservation program with headquarters at North Carolina State University. Camcore was founded in 1980 as a cooperative, non-profit organization to identify and save the dwindling natural populations of pines in the highland regions of Guatemala in Central America. Funded by the private sector, the program has played an...

  20. Corewood in South African pine: necessity and opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding programmes to date have created sound bases for further wood quality improvement of the various pine species, especially of the corewood zone. Opportunities for success are excellent as large variation in corewood properties still exists within the current breeding populations, combined with operationally ...

  1. Growth of Planted Slash Pine Under Several Thinning Regimes (United States)

    W.F. Mann; Hans G. Enghardt


    Three intensities of thinning, each started at 10, 13, and 16 years, were applied to slash pine planted on a highly productive, cutover site in central Louisiana. Over a 9-year period, early and heavy thinnings increased diameter growth but reduced volume growth. The longer initial thinnings were deferred, the slower was the response in diameter growth. Growth on...

  2. Ten-year growth of planted slash pine after thinnings (United States)

    Hans G. Enghardt; W.F. Mann


    volume growth of slash pine between ages 17 and 27 years was directly related to residual basal area per acre after thinning. Diameter growth was inversely related to stand density, and very heavy cutting was required to attain a rate of 3 inches in 10 years.

  3. High tonnage harvesting and skidding for loblolly pine energy plantations (United States)

    Patrick Jernigan; Tom Gallagher; Dana Mitchell; Mathew Smidt; Larry Teeter


    The southeastern United States has a promising source for renewable energy in the form of woody biomass. To meet the energy needs, energy plantations will likely be utilized. These plantations will contain a high density of small-stem pine trees. Since the stems are relatively small when compared with traditional product removal, the harvesting costs will increase. The...

  4. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing Yang


    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm...

  5. Predicting lodgepole pine site index from climatic parameters in Alberta. (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing. Yang


    We sought to evaluate the impact of climatic variables on site productivity of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) for the province of Alberta. Climatic data were obtained from the Alberta Climate Model, which is based on 30-year normals from the provincial weather station network. Mapping methods were based...

  6. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  7. Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review (United States)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch


    This publication reviews and synthesizes the literature about ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest, with emphasis on the biology, ecology, and conservation of songbirds. Critical bird-habitat management issues related to succession, snags, old growth, fire, logging, grazing, recreation, and landscape scale are addressed. Overviews of the ecology, current use, and...

  8. Ecology of the Pinewood Nematode in Southern Pine Chip Piles (United States)

    L. David Dwinell


    The optimum temperature range for pinewood nematodes in southern pine chips was 35 to 40° C. Nematode populations declined at temperatures of -20°C. at temperatures above 45°C. and in anaerobic environments. Wood moisture content and presence of bluestain fungus also influenced nematode populations.

  9. Sucrose metabolism and growth in transplanted loblolly pine seedlings (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; C.C. Black; Paul P. Kormanik


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling height, root collar diameter, and the specific activities of three sucrose metabolizing enzymes, namely, sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase, and neutral invertase, were measured to assess seedling responses to transplant stress. It was concluded that i) SS was the dominant enzyme for sucrose metabolism in...

  10. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich


    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  11. Harvesting Costs For Mechanized Thinning Systems In Slash Pine Plantations (United States)

    James E. Granskog


    Harvesting costs of four tree harvester systems are estimated for row thinning slash pine plantations. Systems incorporating a full-tree type harvester had lower harvesting costs per cord than shortwood and tree-length harvester systems in 15-year-old plantations.

  12. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo


    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  13. Cobalt removal from wastewater using pine sawdust | Musapatika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the combined effect of low adsorbent dose, high pH and high initial concentration of wastewater resulted in the highest adsorption capacity. The Freundlich isotherm provided a better fit to the experimental data than the Langmuir isotherm. Moreover, pine sawdust showed adsorption capabilities for ...

  14. Lengthened cold stratification improves bulk whitebark pine germination (United States)

    Nathan Robertson; Kent Eggleston; Emily Overton; Marie McLaughlin


    Crucial to the restoration of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems is the ability of forest managers to locate, propagate, and reintroduce viable, disease-resistant populations to these jeopardized systems. Currently, one of the most limiting steps in this process is the slow, labor-in - tensive, and expensive process of producing whitebark seedlings at forest...

  15. Guidelines for Producing Longleaf Pine Seedlings in Containers (United States)

    James P. Barnett; John M. McGilvray


    Although longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects, and disease, and producing high quality solid wood products, it now occupies only about 5 percent of its original range. Regeneration of the species either by natural or artificial methods or by planting of bareroot nursery stock has been difficult...

  16. Altitudinal variation of some morphological characters of Scots pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the altitudinal variation within and between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations in Turkey using 23 morphological characters. Seeds were collected from 149 open-pollinated parents (trees) from five populations sampled from different altitudes in the natural distribution ...

  17. Flail-Delimbing of Loblolly Pine - A Case Study (United States)

    Bryce J. Stokes


    Flail-delimbing was tested in small-diameter loblolly pine. Most of the limbs left on the stems were less than 6 inches long. Over 75 percent of the delimbed stems had three or fewer remaining limbs. The cost was determined by comparing skidding-flailing with skidding only. The cost difference was approximately $6.00 per unit.

  18. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried


    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  19. Common Plants of Longleaf Pine-Bluestem Range (United States)

    Harold E. Grelen; Vinson L. Duvall


    This publication describes many grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, and shrubs that inhabit longleaf pine-bluestem range. The species vary widely in importance; most produce forage palatable to cattle, some are noxious weeds, and others are valuable indicators of trends in range condition. All are abundant enough on certain sites, however, to require identification for...

  20. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams


    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  1. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  2. Improving harvester estimates of bark thickness for radiata pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiata pine bark thickness data from harvested logs and permanent sample plots (PSP) were analysed to determine best-fit coefficients for current and potential future harvester bark thickness models. The most ... Further research will determine if this approach produces acceptable results when optimising bucking.

  3. Seasonal Photosynthesis in Fertilized and Nonfertilized Loblolly Pine (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; Kurt H. Johnsen; David Arthur Sampson


    Net photosynthesis (Pn) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) foliage was monitored monthly in 14 yr old stands under near-ambient conditions over an entire year in upper and lower crowns and in both nonfertilized stands and stands receiving nutrient amendments for six consecutive years. Air temperature, humidity, vapor pressure...

  4. Diplodia Tip Blight and Canker of Pines (Pest Alert) (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    The fungus Diplodia pinea can cause serious damage to Austrian, ponderosa, red, Scots, mugo, jack, and white pine. Although it is considered a weak pathogen, it may successfully attack and kill trees. It may be more serious on trees growing out of their natural range or stressed by adverse climatic conditions or air pollution. Infection can occur as a result of hail...

  5. Radiation and energy balance dynamics over young chir pine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Net short wave and long wave radiative fluxes substantially varied with cloud dynamics, season, rainfall induced surface wetness, and green growth. The study clearly brought out the intimate link of albedo dynamics in chir pine system with dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and changes in understory ...

  6. Genetic recombinational and physical linkage analyses on slash pine (United States)

    Rob Doudrick


    Slash pine is native to the southeastern USA, but is commercially valuable world-wide as a timber-,fiber- and resin-producing species. Breeding objectives emphasize selection for fusiform rust disease resistance. Identification of markers linked to genetic factors conditioning specificity should expand our knowledge of disease development. Towards this end, random...

  7. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas (United States)


    ... Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as... Indiana to the list of quarantined areas following the detection of PSB in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the United...

  8. Fluorescence microscopy for measuring fibril angles in pine tracheids (United States)

    Ralph O. Marts


    Observation and measurement of fibril angles in increment cores or similar small samples from living pine trees was facilitated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Although some autofluorescence was present, brighter images could be obtained by staining the specimens with a 0.1% aqueous solution of a fluorochrome (Calcozine flavine TG extra concentrated, Calcozine...

  9. Drying schedules calculation of Camiyani Black Pine ( Pinus nigra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, computer aided drying schedules were developed for Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra var. pallasiana) lumber for less than 30 mm thick, between 30-60 mm thick and larger than 60 mm. Schedules were calculated on drying gradient basis. In this software (named KILNBRAIN), users can find more then one ...

  10. The effect of SO2 pollution on pine needle structure (United States)

    E. A. Zhitkova; L. L. Novitskaya


    Fall and winter needles from pines growing near the Kostomuksha oredressing mill (KODM) were collected and studied by light microscopy. Fall needles showed symptoms of SO2 influence and no specific seasonal changes in mesophyll. The injury rates of needle surface and mesophyll showed that pollutants penetrate into the needles through stomata and...

  11. Insects Affecting Seed Production of Slash and Longleaf Pines (United States)

    Bernard H. Ebel


    Tree planting rates in the South have rocketed over the past three decades, and the area now leads the nation in plantation establishment. During 1960 over a half-million acres were planted in the states of Georgia and Florida alone. Such extensive planting, mainly of pines, has brought in its train a need for more seed and better seed. Each year the demand...

  12. Shortleaf pine seedling production and seeding trends in Missouri (United States)

    David Gwaze; Greg Hoss; Dena Biram


    The Missouri Department of Conservation operates the only nursery that supplies bare-root shortleaf pine seedlings in Missouri. Seedlings and seed have been sold to landowners since 1935. Prior to 1981 most seed was locally collected wild seed, some was purchased from neighboring states. After 1981, most of the seed for artificial regeneration was improved orchard seed...

  13. Reducing Seed and Seedlings Pathogens Improves Longleaf Pine Seedlings Production (United States)

    James P. Barnett; John M. McGilvray


    The demand for container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) planting stock is increasing across the Lower Gulf Coastal Plain. Poor-quality seeds and seedling losses during nursery culture further constrain a limited seed supply. Improved seed efficiency will be necessary to meet the need for increased seedling production. We evaluated seed...

  14. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards (United States)

    David L. Bramlett


    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  15. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders


    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...

  16. Nutrition challenges of longleaf pine in the southeast (United States)

    M.A. Sword Sayer; L.G. Eckhardt; E.A. Carter


    Low vigor of longleaf pine has been reported at Fort Benning in Georgia, and Eglin Air Force Base in Florida. In an effort to determine the cause of this problem, foliar nutrition was assessed. Results indicated that macro- and micronutrients were generally sufficient regardless of vigor status. Foliar Mn, however, was elevated at both locations. Excess Mn has the...

  17. The pine Pschi4 promoter directs wound-induced transcription (United States)

    Haiguo Wu; Charles H. Michler; Liborio LaRussa; John M. Davis


    Mechanical wounding stimulates the accumulation of Pschi4 transcripts (encoding a putative extracellular chitinase) in pine trees. To gain insight into the transcriptional regulatory region(s) in this gymnosperm defense gene, the 5'-flanking region of Pschi4 was fused to the uidA reporter gene encoding -...

  18. Systemic Activity of Birdrin® in Loblolly Pine Seedlings (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Danny L. Lyon


    Bioassay tests with pales weevils, Hylobius pales (Herbst), indicated that technical Bidrin® had a lox degree of systemic activity when applied as a soil drench around 2-year-old, potted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., seedlings. The results of this experiment will probably preclude future testing of Bidrin® in the studies involving...

  19. Eastern white pine: production, markets, and marketing of primary manufacturers (United States)

    Delton Alderman; Paul Duvall; Robert Smith; Scott Bowe


    Eastern white pine (EWP) production and manufacturing have been a staple of the forest products industry since the arrival of the first settlers in the United States. Current EWP market segments range from cabinets to flooring to log cabins to moulding to toys. Today's EWP producers and manufacturers are faced with unprecedented challenges from substitute products...

  20. Performance of Ponderosa Pine on Bituminous Mine Spoils in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Walter H. Davidson


    Seedlings from 40 seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were planted on a strip-mine spoil in central Pennsylvania in 1969. Survival of seedlings from different sources ranged from 23 to 90 percent after six growing seasons. The average height of the seedlings ranged from 67 to 140 cm for the same period. Eight sources produced...

  1. Fertilization and spacing effects on growth of planted ponderosa pine. (United States)

    P.H. Cochran; R.P. Newman; James W. Barrett


    Fertilizer placed in the planting hole increased height growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) early in the life of the plantation. Later broadcast applications of fertilizer may have had little effect on growth. Wider spacings produced larger trees but less volume per acre than narrower spacings after average tree height...

  2. Lumber recovery from ponderosa pine in western Montana. (United States)

    Marlin E. Plank


    Lumber grade yields and recovery ratios are shown for a sample of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in western Montana. About 9 percent of the lumber produced was in Select grades, 48 percent in Shop grades, and 43 percent in Common grades. Information on log scale and yield is presented in tables by log grade and diameter class....

  3. Are mice eating up all the pine seeds? (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Kerry Foresman; Elizabeth Crone; Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega


    Wildlife, even miniscule mice, can play an important role in forest regeneration and composition by consuming seeds, seedlings, and saplings. Mice can, through sheer numbers, consume a tremendous number of seeds. We wanted to learn if deer mice could affect how ponderosa pine forests regenerate after fire.

  4. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.


    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  5. Southern pine engraver (Ips) Beetles in Your backyard (United States)

    Kamal Gandhi; Daniel R. Miller


    Imagine that you decide to cut down a few pine trees in your yard, possibly because they are leaning a little too close to your house and you are concerned about damage to your house during a severe wind-storm. You cut the trees down in early spring prior to the start of hurricane season. Because of cost and other priorities, you leave...

  6. Forested communities of the pine mountain region, Georgia, USA (United States)

    Robert Floyd; Robert Carter


    Seven landscape scale communities were identified in the Pine Mountain region having a mixture of Appalachian, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain species. The diagnostic environmental variables included elevation, B-horizon depth, A-horizon silt, topographic relative moisture index, and A-horizon potassium (K).

  7. Azole-based antimycotic agents inhibit mold on unseasoned pine (United States)

    Carol. A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang


    Inhibiting the growth of mold fungi on cellulose-based building materials may be achievable through the use of azole-based antimycotics. Azoles were variably effective against mold fungi that are frequently found on wood and wood products. Unseasoned southern yellow pine specimens that were dip-treated with varying concentrations of eight azoles were evaluated for...

  8. Stock size affects early growth of a loblolly pine (United States)

    David B. South; Al Lyons; Russ Pohl


    For decades, forest researchers in the South have known that early gains in survival and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be achieved by planting large-diameter seedlings (South 1993; Wakeley 1949). For P. radiata, increasing size of planting stock also increases early growth of both seedlings (Mason and others 1996) and cuttings (South and others 2005)....

  9. Growth and yield of red pine in the Lake States (United States)

    Robert E. Buckman; Badege Bishaw; T.J. Hanson; Frank A. Benford


    This review examines the entire portfolio of active and inactive red pine growth and yield studies maintained by the USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station and several of its cooperators. The oldest studies date back to the mid-1920s. Available for analysis are 31 experiments and sets of monitoring plots in both planted and natural forests. These contain 3...

  10. Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest vegetation, using cable-yarders on the slopes of Table Mountain, South Africa: management paper ... The forests are currently managed for recreation and are a heavily utilised public amenity. Efforts have ...

  11. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker


    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  12. An improved method for collecting and monitoring pine oleoresin (United States)

    Dick Karsky; Brian Strom; Harold Thistle


    A new method for collecting and monitoring pine oleoresin has been developed through a cooperative project involving the Missoula Technology Development Center (MTDC), Southern Research Station (Brian Strom, research entomologist), and the Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. The new sampling unit (figure 1) is cast from rugged plastic. It provides a closed system...

  13. Variations in the monoterpene composition of ponderosa pine wood oleoresin (United States)

    Richard H. Smith


    A wide range in quantitative composition of the wood oleoresin monoterpenes was found among 64 ponderosa pines in the central Sierra Nevada by gas chromatographic analysis. An inverse relationship was found in the amount of β-pinene and Δ3-carene. Practically no difference in composition could be associated with (a) type of...

  14. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett


    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  15. Restoring the ground layer of longleaf pine ecosystems (United States)

    Joan L. Walker; Andrea M. Silletti


    The longleaf pine ecosystem includes some of the most species-rich plant communities outside of the tropics, and most of that diversity resides in the ground layer vegetation. In addition to harboring many locally endemic and otherwise rare plant species (Peet this volume) and enhancing habitat for the resident fauna (Costa and DeLotelle this volume), the ground layer...

  16. Ultastructure of the hyphae of ecfendomycorrhizal fungus of Scotch pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pachlewski


    Full Text Available The analysis of the transverse septa of the mycelium of an ectendomycorrhizal fungus of the pine (strain MrgX 1 using a transmission electron microscope has shown that the septa contain simple pores, which indicates that the fungus belongs to the Ascomycetes.

  17. Predicting the above-ground biomass of calabrian pine ( Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karaisalý Regional Forestry Management Area. Thirty three sample plots, each of 0.04 ha, were chosen in order to define the biomass equations of calabrian pine, the most common needle leave species in Turkey. A tree which is the most similar ...

  18. Mechanized Red Pine Tree Planting Operation -- A Time Study (United States)

    Joseph B. Sturos; Edwin S. Miyata


    Projected softwood shortages and high costs of mechanized tree planting indicate that more efficient planting equipment and systems are needed. This paper presents cost and productivity data for mechanically planting red pine seelings on a site previously occupied by hardwoods in northern Wisconsin

  19. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc


    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  20. An Old-Growth Definition for Sand Pine Forests (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt


    Sand pine scrub, Society of American Foresters cover type 69 (Eyre 1980), grows on deep, droughty, infertile sands of marine and aeolian origin. Water and wind formed these features as sea levels fluctuated during past glacial and interglacial periods (Kurz 1942, Laessle 1958, Brooks 1972). Because of washing and sorting during transport and deposition, soil parent...

  1. Environmental sustainability of intercropping switchgrass in a loblolly pine forest (United States)

    George Chescheir; Francois Birgand; Mohamed Youssef; Jami Nettles; Devendra Amatya


    A multi-institutional watershed study has been conducted since 2010 to quantify the environmental sustainability of planting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) between wide rows of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The hypothesized advantage of this intercropping system is the production of biofuel feedstock to provide additional...

  2. Dwarf Mistletoe of Ponderosa Pine in the Southwest (FIDL) (United States)

    Paul C. Lightle; Melvyn J. Weiss


    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobuim vaginatum subsp. cryptopodum) occurs essentially throughout the range of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum) from northern Mexico through western Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico into Colorado and central Utah. In Arizona and New Mexico it is present on more than one-third of the commercial forest acreage and is...

  3. A model of ponderosa pine growth response to prescribed burning (United States)

    Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; W. Wallace Covington; Steve Andariese


    Our objective was to model the radial growth response of individual ponderosa pines to prescribed burning in northern Arizona. We sampled 188 trees from two study areas, which were burned in 1976. Within each study area, control and burned trees were of similar age, vigor, height, and competition index. At Chimney Spring, trees were older, less vigorous, and taller and...

  4. Diet of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Josh Pierce; Richard R. Schaefer; Beau Gregory


    The Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) is a large-bodied constrictor endemic to western Louisiana and eastern Texas (Sweet and Parker 1991). Surveys suggest that the species has declined in recent decades and is now restricted to isolated habitat patches (Reichling 1995; Rudolph et al. 2006). Pituophis ruthveni is listed as...

  5. Early height growth of ponderosa pine forecasts dominance in plantations (United States)

    William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers


    Future crown class may be determined well in advance of intertree competition in plantation grown ponderosa pine. Regardless of site quality, dominant trees in 10 California plantations reached breast height ½ year sooner than codominants and 1-½ years sooner than intermediates. Dominant trees on poor sites reached breast height several years earlier than has been...

  6. Soil compaction and initial height growth of planted ponderosa pine. (United States)

    P. H. Cochran; Terry. Brock


    Early height growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings planted in clearcuts in central Oregon was negatively correlated with increasing soil bulk density. Change in bulk density accounted for less than half the total variation in height growth. Although many other factors affect the development of seedlings, compaction...

  7. Productivity of planted shortleaf pine in artificially compacted Clarksville soil (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder


    After 9 years, tree survival was 72, 65, and 70 percent for not compacted, medium compacted, and severely compacted treatments, respectively, for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted in a forest clearcut on the Carr Creek State Forest in Shannon County, Missouri. The study is in one of the USDA Forest Service's Long-term Soil...

  8. Planting trials of 10 Mexican pine species in Hawaii (United States)

    Craig D. Whitesell


    Ten species of Mexican pines were planted on adverse sites at 6450 feet (1970 m) elevation on Maui, and five species on similar sites at 3200 feet (975 m) elevation on Molokai, Hawaii. Initial survival was poor because of the low quality of the planting stock and harsh site conditions, but subsequent mortality was low. Growth and vigor has been satisfactory. Average...

  9. The Virginia pine sawfly in 1960 - a special cooperative report (United States)

    T. McIntyre; R. C. Heller; C. L. Morris


    An outbreak of the pine sawfly, Neodiprion pratti pratti (Dyar), has existed in Maryland since 1955. By 1959 the insect had spread throughout 14 million acres in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of Virginia and into several North Carolina counties. Because egg surveys conducted in the spring of 1960 indicated a continuation of the epidemic, an aerial survey was conducted...

  10. Management intensity and genetics affect loblolly pine crown characteristics (United States)

    B. Landis Herrin; Scott D. Roberts; Randall J. Rousseau


    The development of elite loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L) genotypes may lead to reduced planting densities as a means of reducing establishment costs. However, this can lead to undesirable crown and branch characteristics in some genotypes. Selecting appropriate genetic material, combined with appropriate silvicultural management, is essential to...

  11. Allozyme diversity of selected and natural loblolly pine populations (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling; E. Carroll; T. LaFarge


    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) megagametophytes and embryos were examined electrophoretically to compare the extent and distribution of genetic variability in allozymes of selected and wild populations. Range-wide collections of three different types were investigated in this study. These consisted of seed sampled from (1) a provenance test...

  12. Seed Bank Viability in Disturbed Longleaf Pine Sites (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Richard Braham; Felipe Sanchez


    Some of the most species-rich areas and highest concentrations of threatened and endangered species in the southeastern United States are found in wet savanna and flatwood longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) communities. Where intensive forestry practices have eliminated much of the natural understory of the longleaf ecosystem, the potential for...

  13. History of Piedmont Forests: Implications For Current Pine Management (United States)

    D.H. Van Lear; R.A. Harper; P.R. Kapeluck; W.D. Carroll


    Piedmont forests were maintained for millennia in an open condition by anthropogenic- and lightning-ignited fires. After European settlement, row-crop agriculture caused serious soil erosion, making Piedmont soils less capable of supplying moisture and nutrients during drought periods. Dense stands of pine, both naturally and artificially regenerated over the past 70...

  14. Lodgepole pine in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Robert W. Harris


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) is a major species in northeastern Oregon. The lodgepole type covers nearly 400,000 acres in the Blue and Wallowa Mountains, and individual trees are scattered over many of the remaining six million forested acres in this area (2). The type blankets large areas in watersheds in a region where spring floods and summer...

  15. Molecular dissection of white pine genetic resistance to Cronartium ribicola (United States)

    Jun-Jun Liu; Richard Sniezko


    Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don.) maintains a complex defence system that detects white pine blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch.) and activates resistance responses. A thorough understanding of how it functions at the molecular level would provide us new strategies for creating forest trees with durable disease resistance. Our research focuses on...

  16. 76 FR 16636 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs, Lee County, FL; Final... (United States)


    ... impacts from water quality, quantity, and timing of flows and from climate change and sea level rise...; invasion and spread of exotic, invasive, and nuisance species; climate change impacts; need for long- term... hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education and...

  17. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine; Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.


    In this study the temporal changes in 137Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 +-9 kBq M-2 . Also 137Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 +-2 kBq m-2. Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  18. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains (United States)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.


    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  19. Assessing the virulence of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the pine-infesting weevils to scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak


    Full Text Available The pine-infesting weevils are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. To understand more about fungal virulence of these fungi, inoculation studies were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. Two-year-old seedlings were wound-inoculated with one of eleven ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine-infesting weevils. After 11 weeks, a darkened lesion, extending from the point of inoculation, was observed in all species, except for Ophiostoma cf. abietinum Marm. & Butin, Ophiostoma quercus (Georgev. Nannf., and Sporothrix inflata de Hoog. Seedling mortality was observed in seedlings inoculated with Leptographium truncatum (M.J. Wingf. & Marasas M.J. Wingf., Leptographium lundbergii Lagerb. & Melin, Leptographium procerum (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia radiaticola (J.J. Kim, Seifert & G.H. Kim Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Ophiostoma floccosum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc. Syd. & P. Syd., and Ophiostoma piliferum (Fr. Syd. & P. Syd. Ophiostoma minus and L. truncatum caused the largest lesions and sapwood blue-stain in Scots pine. Grosmannia radiaticola, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch Syd. & P. Syd., O. floccosum, O. piliferum, L. lundbergii,and L. procerum produced significantly smaller lesions and sapwood blue-stain than O. minus and L. truncatum, while O. cf. abietinum, O. quercus and S. inflata did not cause any lesions.

  20. Comparison of three site preparation techniques on growth of planted loblolly pine 6 years after a southern pine beetle epidemic (United States)

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Michael Carr


    Three site preparation treatments: (1) complete removal of woody debris—drum chopped, raked, and disked; (2) drum chopping leaving woody debris; and (3) no site preparation—planting among dead standing trees were compared by evaluating the growth and survival of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) after six growing seasons following a southern...

  1. Cold tolerance of mountain pine beetle among novel eastern pines: A potential for trade-offs in an invaded range? (United States)

    Derek W. Rosenberger; Brian H. Aukema; Robert C. Venette


    Novel hosts may have unforeseen impacts on herbivore life history traits. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America but constrained by cold temperatures in the northern limits of its distribution. In recent years, this insect has spread north and east of its historical...

  2. The red-cockaded woodpecker's role in the southern pine ecosystem, population trends and relationships with southern pine beetles (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Robert N. Coulson


    This study reviews the overall ecological role of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis)in the southern pine ecosystem. It is the only North American woodpecker species to become well adapted to a landscape that was relatively devoid of the substrate typically used by woodpeckers for cavity excavation (i.e. snags and decayed, living hardwoods). Its adaptation...

  3. Composition of the bacterial community in the gut of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coloptera) colonizing red pine (United States)

    Italo Jr. Delalibera; Archana Vasanthakumar; Benjamin J. Burwitz; Patrick D. Schloss; Kier D. Klepzig; Jo Handelsman; Kenneth F. Raffa


    The gut bacterial community of a bark beetle, the pine engraver Ips pini (Say), was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria from individual guts of larvae, pupae and adults were cultured and DNA was extracted from samples of pooled larval guts. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the gut...

  4. Breeding Birds of Late-Rotation Pine Hardwood Stands: Community Characteristics and Similarity to Other Regional Pine Forests (United States)

    Daniel R. Petit; Lisa J. Petit; Thomas E. Martin; others


    The relative abundances of bird species and the ecological characteristics of the overall avian community were quantified within 20 late-rotation pine-hardwood sites in the Ouschitn and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas and Oklahoma during 1992 and 1993. In addition, similarities in species composition and guild representation were compared with those of forest...

  5. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) to natural and artificial hibernation sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. (United States)

    Zappalorti, Robert T; Burger, Joanna; Burkett, David W; Schneider, David W; McCort, Matthew P; Golden, David M


    Environmental managers require information on whether human-made hibernacula are used by rare snakes before constructing large numbers of them as mitigation measures. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) was examined in a 6-year study in the New Jersey Pine Barrens to determine whether they used natural and artificial hibernacula equally. Pine snakes used both artificial (human-made) and natural (snake-adapted) hibernacula. Most natural hibernacula were in abandoned burrows of large mammals. Occupancy rates were similar between natural and artificial hibernacula. Only 6 of 27 radio-tracked snakes did not shift hibernacula between years, whereas 78% shifted sites at least once, and fidelity from one year to the next was 42%. For snakes that switched hibernacula (n = 21), one switched among artificial hibernacula, 14 (65%) switched among natural hibernacula, and 6 (29%) switched from artificial to natural hibernacula. Data indicate that most pine snakes switch among hibernacula, mainly selecting natural hibernacula, suggesting that artificial dens are used, but protecting natural hibernacula should be a higher conservation priority.

  6. Breakdown of major gene resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine at Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest: what are the implications? (United States)

    Jr. Bohun B. Kinloch


    A virulent race of blister rust capable of neutralizing major gene resistance (MGR) in sugar pine made its first appearance nearly two decades ago at a test plantation of resistant sugar pines near Happy Camp, in northern California. Until this year (1996), it had not been found outside the very close neighborhood of this site. Its discovery last summer at Mountain...

  7. Landscape biology of western white pine: implications for conservation of a widely-distributed five-needle pine at its southern range limit (United States)

    Patricia Maloney; Andrew Eckert; Detlev Vogler; Camille Jensen; Annette Delfino Mix; David Neale


    Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics...

  8. Nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone protect individual ponderosa pines from attack by western pine beetle and red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Christopher P. Dabney; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Dezene P.W. Huber


    Nonhost angiosperm volatiles (NAV) and verbenone were tested for their ability to protect individual ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws., from attack by western pine beetle (WPB), Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). A combination of (

  9. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (P-53) (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb


    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We compared the resin composition of trees...

  10. Structural characteristics of late-sucessional pine-hardwood forest following recent infestation by southern pine beetle in the Georgia Piedmont, USA (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington; Mingguang Xu; M. Boyd Edwards


    At Murder Creek Research Natural Area, Georgia, USA, we compared structural characteristics of late-successional pine-hardwood stands two to three years after infestation by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) to those of adjacent noninfested stands. Death of up to eight Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata...

  11. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron


    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  12. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed-conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Daniel R. West; Jennifer S. Briggs; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron


    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that...

  13. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (United States)

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie


    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  14. Irrigation and Fertilization Effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage Levels and Pupal Weight in an Intensively-Managed Pine Plantation (United States)

    David R. Coyle; John T. Nowak; Christopher J. Fettig


    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been...

  15. Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of Colorado lodgepole pine stands: A comparison using historic survey records (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Jeffrey Underhill; Robert M. Hubbard


    The extent and severity of overstory lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) mortality from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management concerns associated with forest regeneration, wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in western North America. Owing to the unprecedented...

  16. Estimating probabilities of infestation and extent of damage by the roundheaded pine beetle in ponderosa pine in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico (United States)

    Jose Negron


    Classification trees and linear regression analysis were used to build models to predict probabilities of infestation and amount of tree mortality in terms of basal area resulting from roundheaded pine beetle, Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford, activity in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. Classification trees were built for...

  17. Large outbreaks of Ips acuminatus in Scots pine stands of the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Ambros E


    Full Text Available In the last years, many Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris stands have been severely attacked by the bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Coleoptera Curculionidae Scolytinae. In the outbreak area of San Vito di Cadore (Eastern Dolomites, the number of attacked trees since 2005 and both the emergence of bark beetles and natural enemies have been assessed. The investigated forests showed dozens of easily recognizable infestation spots with size ranging from about 20-30 trees (small spots up to 300 trees (large spots. These infested spots evolved quickly, while new ones appeared within a radius of few hundreds of meters. During the last 5 years (2006-2010 we sampled branches from small and large spots and lodged them into emergence cages: adults of I. acuminatus as well as natural enemies were collected weekly, identified and counted. At the same time, a monitoring program of the surveyed pine stands was carried out to check the enlargement of old spots and the appearance of new ones. Voltinism and phenology of I. acuminatus were investigated by pheromone traps baited with different lures (Austrian vs. Spanish lures. The effects of a sanitation felling of about 4500 infested trees, carried out by the Regional Forest Service in autumn 2007 on I. acuminatus population were also assessed. Throughout the whole sampling area I. acuminatus resulted bivoltine, with the highest density attained during the first generation. However, a part of the population still evidenced a monovoltine behaviour. The realized sanitation felling strongly reduced both breeding sites and the number of infested trees observed during the following year. Moreover the pheromone-baited traps gave useful information about changes in bark beetle population density; the trapping efficiency of Spanish lure resulted clearly higher than the Austrian one. Finally, the recorded parasitism may have a role in outbreak dynamics as it was significantly higher during the second host generation, in both small

  18. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.


    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  19. Forest Floor, Soil, andVegetation Responses to Sludge Fertilization in Red and White Pine Plantations (United States)

    D.G. Brockway


    An undigested, nutrient-enriched papermill sludge applied to a 40-year-old red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation at rates of 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mg/ha resulted in nitrogen application rates of 282, 565, 1130, and 2260 kg/ha.An anaerobically digested municipal sludge applied to a 36-year-old red pine and white pine (Pinus strobus L....

  20. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines


    Daniel R. West; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi


    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  1. Helicopter spraying with 2,4,5-T to release young white pines (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey


    When forest fires swept over southwestern Maine in 1947, some 130,000 acres of forest land were burned over. This was mostly white pine land--sites too poor to grow good hardwood stands. After the fire, white pine reproduction became established on 5,000 to 6,000 acres of this land. But by 1954 most of the young pine was suppressed or at least was in competition with...

  2. First report of the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, in Arizona (United States)

    M. L. Fairweather; Brian Geils


    White pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., was found on southwestern white pine (Pinus flexilis James var. reflexa Engelm., synonym P. strobiformis Engelm.) near Hawley Lake, Arizona (Apache County, White Mountains, 34.024°N, 109.776°W, elevation 2,357 m) in April 2009. Although white pines in the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) have been...

  3. The Siberian Stone Pine Stands Near Settlements in Tomsk Region. Problems of Sustainable Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Debkov


    Full Text Available A review of the Siberian stone pine stands' formation near settlements in Tomsk region is given in historical aspect. Their current status is described in detail. Age, tree species, and typological structure, as well as productivity and dynamics of forest inventory indices have been identified. Forest management practices in leased and non-leased Siberian stone pine stands have been analyzed. The ways and procedures for an expansion of the existing Siberian stone pine stands and creation of new Siberian stone pine forests near settlements is proposed.

  4. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West


    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  5. From Pine Cones to Read Clouds: Rescaffolding the Megagenome of Sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc W. Crepeau


    Full Text Available We investigate the utility and scalability of new read cloud technologies to improve the draft genome assemblies of the colossal, and largely repetitive, genomes of conifers. Synthetic long read technologies have existed in various forms as a means of reducing complexity and resolving repeats since the outset of genome assembly. Recently, technologies that combine subhaploid pools of high molecular weight DNA with barcoding on a massive scale have brought new efficiencies to sample preparation and data generation. When combined with inexpensive light shotgun sequencing, the resulting data can be used to scaffold large genomes. The protocol is efficient enough to consider routinely for even the largest genomes. Conifers represent the largest reference genome projects executed to date. The largest of these is that of the conifer Pinus lambertiana (sugar pine, with a genome size of 31 billion bp. In this paper, we report on the molecular and computational protocols for scaffolding the P. lambertiana genome using the library technology from 10× Genomics. At 247,000 bp, the NG50 of the existing reference sequence is the highest scaffold contiguity among the currently published conifer assemblies; this new assembly’s NG50 is 1.94 million bp, an eightfold increase.

  6. Removal of cationic dye from water by activated pine cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.


    Full Text Available Adsorption of a cationic phenothyazine dye methylene blueonto activated carbon prepared from pine cones was investigated with the variation in parameters of contact time, dye concentration and pH. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic modelclosely. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 233.1 mg g-1. Adsorption was favored by using a higher solution pH. Textural analysis by nitrogen adsorption was used to determine specific surface area and pore structure of the obtained carbon. Boehm titrations revealed that carboxylic groups are present in the highest degree on the carbon surface. The results indicate that the presented method for activation of pine cones could yield activated carbon with significant porosity, developed surface reactivity and considerable adsorption affinity toward cationic dye methylene blue.

  7. Pre-visual detection of stress in pine forests (United States)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.


    Pre-visual, or early, detection of forest stress with particular reference to detection of attacks by pine bark beetles is discussed. Preliminary efforts to obtain early detection of attacks by pine bark beetles, using MSS data from the ERIM M-7 scanner, were not sufficiently successful to demonstrate an operational capability, but indicate that joint processing of the 0.71 to 0.73, 2.00 to 2.60, and 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer bands holds some promise. Ratio processing of transformed data from the 0.45 to 0.52, 1.55 to 2.60, and 4.5 to 5.5 or 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer regions appears even more promising.

  8. Soil Temperature Triggers the Onset of Photosynthesis in Korean Pine (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie


    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0°C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15°C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios. PMID:23755227

  9. Some metals in aboveground biomass of Scots pine in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene, Iveta; Armolaitis, Kestutis; Stupak, Inge


    The stocks of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and aluminium (Al) in different compartments of the aboveground tree biomass were estimated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Lithuania. Simulated removals of metals due to the forest biomass extraction in a model Scots pine stands...... during a 100-year-long rotation period were compared with metals pools in sandy soil and the fluxes through atmospheric deposition. Applying whole tree harvesting, total removal comprised about 20kgha-1 of each Al and Mn, and 5 times lower amount of each Zn and Fe. The metals were mainly removed...... with stemwood and living branches. However, metal export with aboveground biomass represented relatively small proportion of metals in mineral sandy soil. The annual inputs of Fe and Zn with atmospheric deposition were over 10 times higher than the mean annual removals with total aboveground biomass...

  10. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.


    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts (United States)

    E. T. Howard


    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0, needles 4.0, and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasted when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  12. Old Black Hills ponderosa pines tell a story (United States)

    Matthew J. Bunkers; L. Ronald Johnson; James R. Miller; Carolyn Hull Sieg


    A single ponderosa pine tree found in the central Black Hills of SouthDakota revealed its age of more than 700 years by its tree rings taken from coring in 1992. The purpose of this study was to examine historic climatic patterns from the 13th century through most of the 20th century as inferred from ring widths of this and other nearby trees. The steep, rocky site...

  13. Weather effects on the success of longleaf pine cone crops (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dale G. Brockway; Mary Anne Sword Sayer


    We used National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather data and historical records of cone crops from across the South to relate weather conditions to the yield of cones in 10 longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands. Seed development in this species occurs over a three-year time period and weather conditions during any part of this...

  14. Pine seed predation by mice: an experimental assessment of preference


    Flores–Peredo, R.; Bolívar Cimé, B. S.


    Seed traits are considered an essential factor influencing rodents’ foraging preferences. We evaluated the mouse’s preferences for seeds of four pine species, Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. montezumae, that differ in length, width, nutritional content, and concentrated tannins. In ‘cafeteria experiments’ in the laboratory, we tested six of the nine mice species commonly found in the temperate forest of Southern Mexico. Longer and wider seeds were those of P. teocote and P. ...

  15. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf pines to recover from injury (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes


    Pitch and shortleaf pines often survive severe damage by fires, cutting, rabbits, or deer. Deer may take all but 2 inches of the 6- to 8-inch shoots of seedlings, and still these seedlings may live and develop new shoots. Fires may kill all the foliage and terminal shoots on sapling or pole-size stems, but still these trees may green up and develop new leaders. Many of...

  16. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan


    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  17. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration in the Ouachita National Forest (United States)

    Larry D. Hedrick; George A. Bukenhofer; Warren G. Montague; William F. Pell; James M. Guldin


    The fire-dependent shortleaf pine-bluestem ecological community, once common in the Ouachita Mountains, had all but disappeared by 1970. This absence was due to the cutting of the original forests in the early part of the 20th century followed by effective fire suppression since the late 1930s. With the adoption of Forest Plan amendments in 1994, 1996, and 2002, and a...

  18. Wettability of southern pine veneer by phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse


    Wettability of southern pine veneers was judged by measuring the contact angles made by 36 phenol formaldehyde resins. Formulation of the resins was by factorial design, the molar ratios of sodium hydroxide to phenol being 0.4, 0.7, and 1.0, the levels of resin solids content in the reaction mixture 37, 40, and 43 percent, and the molar ratios of formaldehyde to phenol...

  19. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As recently as 1994, the dinosaur of the pl~tki~gdom,. Wollemi pine (Wollemi nobilis) has been discovered in its site of origin, the Wollemi National Park, lSOkm:froQ1tbe city of Sydney, Australia. This giant growsto'a,l1eight of. 40m with a trunk diameter of over 1m. AU possible steps have been taken to conserve this giant in ...

  20. Destroyed virgin longleaf pine stand lives-on digitally (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow


    The Flomaton Natural Area (FNA) once stood as one of the few remnant fragments of virgin, old-growth longleaf pine stands (Pinus palustris Mill.) in the Southeast. This 80-acre stand contained trees over 200 years old. A restoration effort began in 1994 to remove off-site trees and to reintroduce fire to the site after over 40 years of fire suppression. A geographic...

  1. Comparing growth of ponderosa pine in two growing media (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese


    I compared growth of container ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings grown in a 1:1 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:coarse vermiculite medium (P:V) and a 7:3 (v:v) Sphagnum peat moss:Douglas-fir sawdust medium (P:S) at three different irrigation regimes. By using exponential fertilization techniques, I was able to supply seedlings with similar amounts...

  2. Brush reduces growth of thinned ponderosa pine in northern California (United States)

    William W. Oliver


    The effects of tree spacing and brush competition were evaluated on a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa) site of low productivity in California's North Coast Range. Eleven-year-old saplings were thinned to square spacings of 2.1, 2.4, 3.0, and 4.3 m (7, 8, 10, and 14 ft), and all, half, and none of...

  3. Slash disposal in western white pine forests in Idaho (United States)

    J. A. Larsen; W. C. Lowdermilk


    If all sizes of material produced by a forest are salable, very little logging debris of slash remains to hinder the reproduction or to increase the fire hazard. In the white-pine type of northern Idaho, however, only the larger and most valuable forest products can at present be taken out at a profit. The virgin forests of this region yield from 15,000 to 40,000, and...

  4. Silvichemicals and fuels from Paraquat: treated pine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungay, H.R.; Ward, R.W.


    Various aspects of the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical feedstocks are discussed. It is pointed out that pine trees become a more attractive biomass source, if the fast growth rate of certain species is considered. In addition a three-fold increase in oleoresin formation has been observed when the trees are treated with paraquat during cultivation, thus making the silvichemicals produced more economical. (JGB)

  5. Impacts of water and nutrient availability on loblolly pine function (United States)

    Maxwell Wightman; Timothy Martin; Eric Jokela; Carlos Gonzalez-Benecke


    The impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation patterns in the southeastern United States are likely to have important effects on southern pine systems. A 2009 summary from the U.S. Global Change Research Program indicated that the southeastern U.S. will experience an increase in average temperature of 2.5 to 5 °C by the 2080s.

  6. Semi-isostatic densification of heat-treated radiata pine


    Boonstra, Michiel J; Blomberg, J


    Semi-isostatic densification is a useful method to increase the density and to improve the mechanical properties of fast-grown softwood species like radiata pine. A major disadvantage of this method is the almost complete recovery of the original dimensions when densified wood is exposed to moisture. Heat treatment improves the dimensional stability of wood and might be a useful method to prevent this shape-recovery after densification. However, no or only a limited effect on the shape-recove...

  7. Sampling plantations to determine white-pine weevil injury (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson


    Use of 1/10-acre square plots to obtain estimates of the proportion of never-weeviled trees necessary for evaluating and scheduling white-pine weevil control is described. The optimum number of trees to observe per plot is estimated from data obtained from sample plantations in the Northeast and a table is given. Of sample size required to achieve a standard error of...

  8. Estimation and Determination of Carrying Capacity in Loblolly Pine


    Yang, Sheng-I


    Stand carrying capacity is the maximum size of population for a species under given environmental conditions. Site resources limit the maximum volume or biomass that can be sustained in forest stands. This study was aimed at estimating and determining the carrying capacity in loblolly pine. Maximum stand basal area (BA) that can be sustained over a long period of time can be regarded as a measure of carrying capacity. To quantify and project stand BA carrying capacity, one approach is to use ...

  9. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins. (United States)

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L


    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  10. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Impacted Areas (United States)

    Bogenschuetz, N. M.; Bearup, L. A.; Maxwell, R. M.; Santi, P. M.


    The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae, has caused significant tree mortality within North America. Specifically, the MPB affects ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests within the Rocky Mountains with approximately 3.4 million acres of forest impacted over the past 20 years. The full impacts of such unprecedented tree mortality on hydrology and slope stability is not well understood. This work studies the affects of MPB infestation on slope instability. A large-scale statistical analysis of MPB and slope stability is combined with a more in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to slope stability. These factors include: slope aspect, slope angle, root decay, regrowth and hydrologic properties, such as water table depth and soil moisture. Preliminary results show that MPB may affect a greater number of north- and east-facing slopes. This is in accordance with more water availability and a higher MPB impacted tree density on north-facing slopes which, in turn, could potentially increase the probability of slope failure. Root strength is predicted to decrease as the roots stop transpiring 3-4 years proceeding infestation. However, this effect on the hillslope is likely being counterbalanced by the regrowth of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees. In addition, the increase in water table height from the lack of transpiring trees is adding a driving force to the slopes. The combination of all these factors will be used in order to assess the effects of MPB tree mortality on slope stability.

  11. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna


    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  12. Assessing Pine Processionary Moth Defoliation Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil


    Full Text Available Pine processionary moth (PPM is one of the most destructive insect defoliators in the Mediterranean for many conifers, causing losses of growth, vitality and eventually the death of trees during outbreaks. There is a growing need for cost-effective monitoring of the temporal and spatial impacts of PPM in forest ecology to better assess outbreak spread patterns and provide guidance on the development of measures targeting the negative impacts of the species on forests, industry and human health. Remote sensing technology mounted on unmanned aerial systems (UASs with high-resolution image processing has been proposed to assess insect outbreak impacts at local and forest stand levels. Here, we used UAS-acquired RGB imagery in two pine sites to quantify defoliation at the tree-level and to verify the accuracy of the estimates. Our results allowed the identification of healthy, infested and completely defoliated trees and suggested that pine defoliation estimates using UASs are robust and allow high-accuracy (79% field-based infestation indexes to be derived that are comparable to those used by forest technicians. When compared to current field-based methods, our approach provides PPM impact assessments with an efficient data acquisition method in terms of time and staff, allowing the quantitative estimation of defoliation at tree-level scale. Furthermore, our method could be expanded to a number of situations and scaled up in combination with satellite remote sensing imagery or citizen science approaches.

  13. The effect of fire frequency on local cembra pine populations. (United States)

    Genries, A; Mercier, L; Lavoie, M; Muller, S D; Radakovitch, O; Carcaillet, C


    It has been predicted that global climate change will lead to increasing drought in the Alps during the 21st century, as well as an increased fire risk, fires being currently rare in these mountains. Herein we describe fire frequency reconstruction using high-resolution analyses of macroscopic sedimentary charcoal, pollen, and plant macrofossils. Sediments were sampled from a subalpine pond within the dry western French Alps. Results show that the early-Holocene expansion of Pinus cembra (7200 calibrated years BP) occurred in Acer/Alnus incana/Betula woodlands, which were affected by fires with moderate mean fire-free intervals (MFFI = 173 +/- 61 yr [mean +/- SE]). Superposed Epoch Analyses show that the abundance of P. cembra macroremains decreased significantly after burning, although they never disappeared entirely. Statistics suggest that fires spread through cembra pine communities; they were not stand-replacing fires but mainly surface fires, probably killing nonreproductive pines. An increase in fire frequency occurred 6740 years ago, when four fires appear to have occurred within 140 years. These fires may have been associated with a regional drought and could have affected the composition of the subalpine forest by depleting the local P. cembra population in the short-term. The predicted increase in drought in the future could, therefore, affect the cembra pine ecosystem in the Alps if fire frequency is reduced to intervals of less than 80 years.

  14. Three Ways of Looking at an Old Pine Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guangqian


    Full Text Available Everyone knows that each thing has many different ways of being looked at. If you say something is beautiful or ugly, these are just different ways of looking at the thing. Looked at differently, you can say it is true or false; or, to view it still differently, you can say it is good or evil. It’s still the same fact, viewed in different ways, so we say the phenomenon viewed has several different viewpoints. For example, that old pine tree in the garden, whether viewed by you or me or anyone, will still be an old pine tree. Yet you see it from a positive perspective and I see it from a negative one. Your viewpoint is that of a young person, mine is that of a middle-aged person. These differences in mood and personality influence the way we see the old pine tree itself. Although the tree is a fact, the way you see it and the way I see it are two different things. If you and I both take our impressions of the tree and try to paint them or compose a poem about them, even though our respective skills may be the same, your painting or poem will have many important differences from mine. What is the reason for this? It is simply that consciousness is not totally objective and which forms one sees has many different subjective aspects.

  15. Nanocrystalline cellulose extracted from pine wood and corncob. (United States)

    Ditzel, Fernanda I; Prestes, Eduardo; Carvalho, Benjamim M; Demiate, Ivo M; Pinheiro, Luís A


    The extraction of nanocrystalline cellulose from agro-residues is an interesting alternative to recover these materials. In the present study, nanocrystalline cellulose was extracted from pine wood and corncob. In addition, microcrystalline cellulose was used as a reference to compare results. Initially, the lignocellulosic residues were submitted to delignification pre-treatments. At the end of the process, the bleached fibre was submitted to acid hydrolysis. Additionally, microparticles were obtained from the spray-drying of the nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions. The nanocrystalline cellulose yield for the pine wood was 9.0-% of the value attained for the microcrystalline cellulose. For the corncob, the value was 23.5-%. Therefore, complementary studies are necessary to improve the yield. The spray-dried microparticles showed a crystallinity index of 67.8-% for the pine wood, 70.9-% for the corncob and 79.3-% for the microcrystalline cellulose. These microparticles have great potential for use in the production of polymer composites processed by extrusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow


    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  17. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.” (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of turpentine, shall be deemed to mean a living, growing plant of the genus Pinus, family Pinaceae, unless the...

  18. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control. (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F


    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. Estimation of Pine Forest Height and Underlying DEM Using Multi-Baseline P-Band PolInSAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiang Fu


    Full Text Available On the basis of the Gaussian vertical backscatter (GVB model, this paper proposes a new method for extracting pine forest height and forest underlying digital elevation model (FUDEM from multi-baseline (MB P-band polarimetric-interferometric radar (PolInSAR data. Considering the linear ground-to-volume relationship, the GVB is linked to the interferometric coherences of different polarizations. Subsequently, an inversion algorithm, weighted complex least squares adjustment (WCLSA, is formulated, including the mathematical model, the stochastic model and the parameter estimation method. The WCLSA method can take full advantage of the redundant observations, adjust the contributions of different observations and avoid null ground-to-volume ratio (GVR assumption. The simulated experiment demonstrates that the WCLSA method is feasible to estimate the pure ground and volume scattering contributions. Finally, the WCLSA method is applied to E-SAR P-band data acquired over Krycklan Catchment covered with mixed pine forest. It is shown that the FUDEM highly agrees with those derived by LiDAR, with a root mean square error (RMSE of 3.45 m, improved by 23.0% in comparison to the three-stage method. The difference between the extracted forest height and LiDAR forest height is assessed with a RMSE of 1.45 m, improved by 37.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for model and inversion aspects in comparison to three-stage inversion based on random volume over ground (RVoG model.

  20. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.